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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle

(ATV)

CHAPTER N0. 1
INTRODUCTION

We approached our design by considering all possible alternatives for a


system & modeling them in CAD software like CATIA, AutoCAD etc. to obtain a
model with maximum geometric details. The models were then subjected to analysis
using Analysis Work Bench 14 software. Based on analysis results, the model was
modified and retested and a final design was frozen.
Dynamics analysis was done in Lotus suspension analysis software. The
aim was to optimize suspension variables to improve maneuverability. Theoretical
calculations of performance characteristics were also done. Extensive weight
reduction techniques were followed at every stage of the design to improve
performance without sacrificing structural integrity.

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


(ATV)

CHAPTER N0. 2
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE VEHICLE & METHODOLOGY:
NO.

CRITERION

PRIORITY

Reliability

Essential

Ease of Design

Essential

Performance

High

Serviceability

High

Manufacturability

High

Health and Safety

High

Lightweight

High

Economic/Low

Desired

Cost
9

Easy Operation

Desired

10

Aesthetically

Desired

Pleasing

REQUIRMENTS :Low Weight Vehicle.


Better Economy.
Better Comfort And Durability.

DESIGN AND CAD WORK : Collection Of Data And Calculation.


CAD And CEA Work of the
Subsystems.

REVIEW AND IMPLEMENTATION :Design Review And Project Plan.


Maintaining Quality in Fabrication.
Follow up And Project Plan.

DFMEA AND VALIDATION : Maintain DFMEA And DVP.


Validate of The Vehicle For Designed
Aspect.
TESTING : Testing The Vehicle For All the
Terrains.
Expecting Failures And Correcting
Them.

TABLE NO.- 2.1

As shown in above table, special considerations were given to safety of the


occupants, ease of manufacturing, cost, quality, weight, and overall attractiveness.
Other design factors included durability and maintainability of the frame.

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


(ATV)

CHAPTER N0. 3
ROLL CAGE :
The purpose of the Roll cage is to provide a safe environment for the
occupant while supporting other vehicle systems. Several steps were taken to ensure
this objective was met. For the frame design, we focused on a lightweight and safe
frame that still meets all of the requirements set forth by SAE. Special considerations
were given to safety of the occupants, ease of manufacturing, cost, quality, weight,
and overall attractiveness. Other design factors included durability and maintainability
of the frame.
The frame design incorporated bends instead of miters in many of the
structural members, believing that this allowed for faster construction, and increased
material strength from cold working resulting in an overall increase in product
quality. Although there was added cost associated with out-sourcing tube bending,
this cost was offset by a reduction in fabrication man hours through decreasing the
amount of mitered and welded joints and eliminating man hours and material needed
to fabricate fixtures for fit-up ,The Roll cage consists of two main criterions as
follows:

3.1 MATEARIL SELECTION:


The materials used in the cage must meet certain requirements of geometry
and minimum strength requirements found in SAE. Since the frame is being used in a
racing vehicle rather than a recreation vehicle, weight and cost is a very large factor in
the shape and size of the frame. The proper balance of strength, weight and cost is
crucial for the teams overall success.

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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(ATV)
Materia

UTS

UYS

Elongation

Youngs
modulus

1 AISI

Mpa

Mpa

Gpa

560

450

21.5

210

36.5

200

15

205

4130
2 AISI

394.7 294.7

1020
3 AISI

440

385

1018
TABLE NO
NO.- 3.1
In

GRAPH NO
NO- 3.1

addition to the above table, selection depended mainly on the cost and

availability of the material. From the above tables, we concluded that AISI 1018 was
best suitable for the roll cage with economical cost and easier availability. For
satisfying the bending stiffness criteria and bending strength the thickness of the pipe
was decided to be 2.1 mm for the O.D. of 28 mm for the primary members of the
chassis and for the secondary members, O.D. was selected as 25.4 mm with the
thickness of 2.1 mm

3.2 FINE ELEMENT ANALYSIS:


In order to optimized the strength, durability and weight of Chassis Analysis
Work Bench 14 was used to analyze the chassis for all six loading condition.
condition The
six analysis tests conditions are Front Impact, Side Impact, Rollover Impact,
I
and
Torsional ansys heave and the loading on the frame from the front and rear shocks.
After running all five analyses it was found that there is a need of additional
member. After having added these members, a second analysis using identical loading
constraints was completed and results of these tests are shown in table
table; for confirming
the safety of the roll cage, proper analysis was done in the ANSYS Workbench
which is tabulated as follows:
follows

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


(ATV)
(Assuming the total weight of the vehicle is 320 kg)
Setting up the analysis:
Ultimate
Component

Tensile

Material

Strength
(MPa)

Yield

Modulus of

Percentage

Strength

Elasticity

Elongation

(MPa)

(GPa)

(%)

Hardness
(BHN)

Roll Cage

1018 steel

450

380

265

16

130

Hub

6082 Al alloy

225

186

70

12

75

Adapter

EN8

660

530

206

120

TABLE NO.- 3.2

DETAILS

MAX

MAX

TIME OF

FORCE

FORCE

IMPACT

(kN)

(in terms of gs)

(s)

Front impact

30

10

0.2

Side Impact

0.2

Roll Over Impact

6.4

0.2

Torsional

1.88

FRONT

analysis

2.82

REAR

TABLE NO.- 3.3

RESULTS:
DETAILS

MAX STRESS

MAX

FOS

DEFORMATION
(Mpa)

(mm)

Front impact

385.49

3.67

Side Impact

303.09

1.02

1.2

Roll Over Impact

272.64

4.74

1.3

Torsional ansys

1.84(F)

3.64(R)

1.26

TABLE NO.- 3.4

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3.3.1 FRONT IMPACT


IMPACT: (8-10G)

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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3.3.2 SIDE IMPACT:(3G)


IMPACT

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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3.3.3 ROLL OVER:(2G)


(2G)

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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(ATV)

3.3.4 TORSTIONAL ANSYS:(3G


ANSYS (3G FOR FRONT AND REAR)

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


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CHAPTER N0. 4
SUSPENSIONS:
4.1 FRONT SUSPENSION:
The problem that was encountered was to design a competitive front
suspension for the ATV . To do this the operating conditions of the competition had to
be researched, and from that design considerations had to be decided
Consideration

Priority

Reason

Simplicity

Essential

Main objective

Lightweight

Essential

Lower weight means Faster car.

10 of travel

High

To ensure ground contact always.

Durability

High

It should be durable and reliable for


any condition.

Shock Absorbing

Desired

High shocks in the front.

Adjustable

Desired

To adjust camber, toe in and out for


improving handling.

Compatibility with
Steering

Desired

It must be compatible because


suspension geometry is linked with
steering geometry.

From the above considerations to balance weight and cost savings for the
manufacturers, and comfort and handling for the customer, several options for front
suspensions were analyzed. For the best handling characteristics the front wheels must
always be in perpendicular contact with the ground. Bump steer and camber gain must
be minimized in both ride and roll changes. Two possibilities for the front suspension
were a double a-arm and a single arm McPherson Strut suspension. The double a-arm
suspension is the most feasible design according to our design, thus double A- arms
were selected for the front suspension. To design the front suspension several
software packages were utilized to ensure the best possible results. LOTUS SHARK

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(ATV)
simulation software was used to create simulations for both parallel and opposite
wheel travel.

Fig. No.4.1 :- SIMULATION OUTPUT AND ROLL CENTER

Fig. No.4.2 :- FRONT SUSPENTION ASSEMBLY EXPLODED VIEW


The front suspension arms were designed to be as easy to manufacture
as possible, while maintaining the high strength as desired. The Build quality was
maintained by welding the A arms mounting brackets at the designed hard points
within a tolerance of 1 mm
The variation of the toe angle and camber with respect to bump as
obtained from Lotus shark

GRAPH NO- 4.1

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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4.2 REAR SUSPENSION:


There were many objectives and considerations to look at during the
process of designing and building the rear suspension. The rear suspension is a full
trailing arm design with only one arm per side. The Fox Float
loat air shocks have 6
inches of travel, and are mounted near the bearing carrier, near the end of the arm, and
about half way up the rear main roll hoop. This allows for maximum suspension
travel while staying within the range of the rear axle CV joint travel. Another reason
that trailing arms were used was that the drive train design was to be modular. The
trailing arms allow for the full drive train assembly to be removed without
interference by the suspension. This enables the drive train to be pulled from the car
for maintenance, and keeps the overall design of the rear of the car simple

Consideration

Priority

Reason

Simplicity

Essential

Easier to fix, build, design, analyze.

Lightweight

Essential

Lower weight means Faster car.

8 of travel

High

To ensure ground contact always.

Durability

High

Withstand abusive driving during the endurance race.

The rear suspension geometry and modeling was done in Catia and it is as shown
below:

Fig. No.4.3 :- REAR SUSPENTION ASSEMBLY EXPLODED VIEW

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


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The car has been driving for two weeks, there has been testing done to
see if the suspension reacts the way intended by design. It turns out that the design of
the rear suspension is working as well or better than expected.
Parameter

Wheel
Travel

Values
Front

Rear

Suspension

Suspension

254 mm

206 mm

Wheel Rate

9.294 N/mm

19.90 N/mm

Jounce

117.4 mm

117.4 mm

Rebound

39.14 mm

39.14 mm

Camber
Gain

1.85

PARAMETERS

VALUES

Caster

Kingpin inclination

14

Static Camber

Set as Zero

Static Toe In

Set as Zero

Roll angle @Speed

30 km/hr

Roll Angle

172

Turning Radius

5m

Weight Transfer

90.77kg

TABLE NO.- 4.1

4.3 FOX RACING SHOCKS:


Right from the beginning we focused on reducing the weight of the
vehicle. The customized Spring and damper assembly of the vehicle was way too
bulky to be used in ATV, thus team emphasized on Fox Shocks which reduced the
weight of the vehicle to a large extent and provided easy adjustable stiffness to the
shocks.
From the market survey, the fox shocks were selected on the following criteria:

Travel of the Shocks.

Total extended Length of the shocks.

Cost and availability.

Thus, FOX FLOAT 2 air shocks were selected and procured. It provides 6 inches of
travel and 19.8 inches of extended length, which is perfect from our design point of
view.

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


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CHAPTER N0. 5
STEERING:
On the rough terrains it is very essential to have the steering must be light
and should give quick response on turns. The design considerations are as follows:
CONSIDERATION

PRIORITY

REASON

Simple Design

Essential

Easy to repair during


competition

Light Weight

Essential

Lower weight means


Faster car.

Low Steering Ratio

Essential

Quick steering response

Ackerman geometry

High

To make understeer.

Minimize Bump steer

Desired

Conserve momentum
while
Steering

Rack and Pinion steering system was selected due to its easy availability, easier
maintenance, feasibility to modifications and the cost. Most of the analysis was
focused on the steering system. The primary focus was on decreasing the steering
effort. The team also focused on decreasing the amount of steering wheel travel, and
increasing the steering responsiveness.
In the normal rack & pinion vehicle the driver had to turn the steering
wheel 540 to bring the wheels from the center to lock. The driver had to remove his
hand from the wheel at least once to complete the turn. The goal was to allow the
driver to use only 290 of steering wheel travel from the center to maximum wheel
travel. The goal was accomplished by using a REDUCTION GEARBOX after the
pinion .A new system provided a motion ratio of 6.5 to 1, or 70 mm of rack travel
per revolution of steering wheel travel. The higher ratio rack has inherently larger
steering effort, however using a longer moment arm tie rod mount offset this effect.
The Ackermann angle was selected by analyzing wheel angles from previous years.

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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The steering calculations are tabulated
t
as:
PARAMETERS
Rack travel(mm)

VALUES
Fig. Steering
assembly

57

Steering Wheel lock


from centre
Turning circle
Radius(m)
Scrub Radius (mm)

36.57

Steering Ratio

6.59

Steering Effort (N)

108

109
2.48

Percentage Ackermann
Tie rod Length (mm)
TABLE NO.- 5.1

98.99
400
Fig. No. 5.1 :- STEERING ASSEMBLY

Fig. Ackermann geometry

Fig. No.
No 5.2 :- ACKERMANN GEOMETRY

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5.1 STEERING RATIO REDUCTION GEAR BOX:


In the normally vehicle the driver had to turn the steering wheel 540 to bring
the wheels from the center to lock. The driver had to remove his hand from the wheel
at least once to complete the turn. The goal for 2014 was to allow the driver to use
only 290 of steering wheel travel from the center to maximum wheel travel. The goal
was accomplished by using a REDUCTION GEARBOX after the pinion.
This gearbox consists of two gears: One bigger gear with diameter of 68 mm
and the other smaller gear with the diameter of 35.5 mm. The bigger gear is attached
to the column of the steering wheel and the smaller gear is attached to the pinion side
by the Universal joint.
It is as shown below:
below

Part

Without

Without

Reduction

Reduction

gearbox

gearbox

13:1

6.5:1

35 mm

70 mm

70 mm

57 mm

540

290

68 N

108 N

Steering Ratio
Rack travel per revolution
of steering wheel
Required Rack travel
(Centre to lock)
Rotation of steering wheel
(Centre to lock)
Steering Effort

Fig. No. 5.3 :- REDUCTION

TABLE NO.- 5.2

GEARBOX EXPLODED VIEW

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


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CHAPTER N0. 6
BRAKES:
The braking system for the vehicle is responsible for stopping the vehicle at all
times and is integral for the drivers safety. That why the brake must be capable of
locking all the four wheels when applied so we incorporated disc brakes in the front
and rear.
CONSIDERATION

PRIORITY

REASON

Simplicity

High

Overall goal of vehicle.

Light Weight

High

Lightweight parts to
minimize total weight.

Performance

High

Capable of decelerating a
320 kg vehicle.

Reliability

Essential

Reliable to provide hard


braking always.

Ergonomics

Essential

Optimal pedal assembly


fitment to suit every
driver.

According to the rim size and the braking calculations we chose to use Bajaj
Discover ST discs that will be mounted on the hub in the front. Disc brakes were
chosen because of the ace of compatibility, the availability of the replacement parts
and the overall effectiveness that the system provides.
For the rear design, rear disc brakes of Bajaj Pulsar 220 were used. It provided
the required diameter of the disc and the required braking torque could be achieved.
The design calculations are tabulated as follows:

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PARAMETERS

FRONT

REAR

Outer diameter(Custom)
Effective Rolling
Radius(mm)
Thickness(mm)
Material
Radius Of Gyration(mm)
Moment of Inertia(kg/m^2)
Calliper
Calliper Piston
Diameter(mm)
Coefficient of friction
Tandem Master Cylinder
TMC diameter(mm)

190
81

218
95

3.47

3.47
Perlite Grey Cast Iron

170
280
0.289
1.176
BAJAJ DISCOVER 125 ST
28
0.45
Maruti 800
19.05
TABLE NO.- 6.1

PARAMETERS

VALUES

Braking distance(m)

17.66
(Deceleration 0.8kg )

Pedal Force(N)

130

Pedal Ratio

1:4

Inline Fluid Pressure

0.5bar

Dynamic load Transfer(kg)

83.63

Single Stop Temp. Rise(c)

22.5

TABLE NO.- 6.2

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CHAPTER N0. 7
POWERTRAIN:
The goal of the drive train is to transfer power from the engine of the vehicle
to the wheels. The power transferred must be able to move the vehicle up steep grades
and propel it at high speeds on level terrain. Acceleration is also an important
characteristic controlled by the drive train. Calculations were done according to the
considerations, looking at gear ratios, engine power and wheel size. After the
calculations were re verified no reduction is to be given was decided. Hence direct
line was given. Also during design, the angle of the propeller shafts was taken care.
The drive train for the car has been radically overhauled to improve overall
car performance and correct vulnerabilities. The Drive Train Based of Mahindra GIO
was used based on the traction and speed calculations. The system benefited with
simplicity and low cost.
GIO transmission was used in forward configuration, this year to enhance
torque the transmission is used in Reverse configuration. It can be tabulated below :
GEAR RATIOS
GEARBOX

Initial

MULTIPLATE
CLUTCH

Tractive
G1

G2

G3

G4

Effort
(N)

PIAGGIO APE

Acceler
ation
(m/s)

YES

25.52

15.16

9.25

5.96 30.62

1702.8

2.80

YES

31.48

18.7

11.4

7.35 55.08

2100

3.76

YES

25.52

15.16

9.25

5.96 30.62

1702.08

2.80

TATA NANO

NO

27.6

15.6

10.08 6.64 31.42

1841.58

3.14

MAHINDRA GIO

YES

27.66

14.86

8.48

5.55 33.66

1845.58

3.15

YES

33.66

18.08 10.32 6.76 27.66

2245.93

4.11

NO

24.42

14.58

1629.40

2.63

PASSENGER
MAHINDRA
ALFA CHAMPION
MAHINDRA
ALFA
PASSENGER

MAHINDRA GIO
IN REVERSE
FORCE MINIDOR
PICK UP

8.22

4.8

23.4

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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AUTORICKSHAW
MAHINDRA
CHAMPION

YES

23.55

18.8

8.66

NO

25.081

15.12

9.33

5.27 27.98

23.54

1571.35

2.49

1673.50

2.73

TABLE NO.- 7.1


The transmission was coupled directly to the engine with a adapter. This assembly
is explained below.

Specification
Gear ratio

4.979

Overall gear

4.925

ratio
Max.

54 km/hr @Top gear

Velocity
Max. Torque

586.18 Nm @ First gear

Clutch type

Multiplate wet type clutch

Gearbox type

Trans-axle
axle Constant mesh gearbox

Shifter type

sequencial single wire shifter


2 CVJ Connection Stock maruti 800

DRIVELINE

Sleeves on drive shaft for length correction

Fig. No. 7.1


.1 :- ADPATER ASSEMBLY EXPLODED VIEW

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7.1 ANALYSIS OF THE ADAPTER:


ADAPTER

PARAMETERS

VALUES

Max. Equivalent
Stress
Max. Shear Stress

193.46 mpa

Max. Deformation

0.13mm

104.46 mpa

Factor of safety

2.74

TABLE NO.- 7.2

GRAPH NO.- 7.1

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CHAPTER N0. 8
WHEEL ASSEMBLIES AND BODY PANELS:
In an all-terrain
terrain vehicle, traction is one of the most important aspects of both
steering and getting the power to the ground. Tire configuration, tread depth, weight,
and rotational of inertia are critical factors when choosing proper tires. The ideal tire
has low weight and low internal forces. In addition, it must have strong traction on
various surfaces and be capable of displacing water to provide power while in mud.
For the front, smaller
maller diameter tires were used to allow better maneuver
control. Therefore, tires with specifications of 21x7x10 were selected. The 10
10-inch
diameter of the rim will allow the brake components to fit inside the wheel.
For the rear, requirements are better traction and larger diameter, thus, tires
with specifications of 25x10x12 were selected.
The Front wheel hub was made from Aluminum this year to reduce the weight.
Bearings were selected according to required design, thus, Maruti Alt
Alto
o bearings were
used. The Rear wheel hub is the OEM part and modifications were made to assemble
disc onto the hub.

Fig. No. 8.1 :- FRONT AND REAR WHEEL ASSEMBLY EXPLODED VIEW

8.1 BODY PANELS:


To reduce the weight of the vehicle, aluminum sheets were used instead of
Mild steel sheets. These sheets were bolted to the chassis. For the firewall aluminum
sheet of 0.7 mm thickness was used. This provided the required strength with lower
weight. For the side panels, aluminum sheet of 0.5 mm were used.

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CHAPTER N0. 9
ERGONOMICS AND SAFETY:
Ergonomics is the science of equipment design intended to maximize
productivity by reducing driver fatigue and discomfort. The ergonomics aspect of the
SAE Baja vehicle is crucial in ensuring that the car will both meet all of the rules
stated in the SAE rule book as well ensuring that all of the components of the car will
function properly when assembled together. It is essential that each member of the
team is able to safely and comfortably operate the vehicle.
Std.

Design

Value

Value

110-130

110

120-150

130

Parameter
Angle at
elbows
Angle at knees

Parameter
Steering Wheel
Dia. (mm)
Angle of Steering
Wheel

Std. Value

Design
Value

320

20-45

20

6.5

Clearance from
vehicle

Head Clearance

(inches)
TABLE NO.- 9.1
Drivers should be able to experience fast pace, exciting racing without
risking major injury. Car 80 meets or exceeds all of the minimum safety requirements
composed by the Society of Automotive Engineers and the event coordinators. In
addition, a number of safety features have been added to further reduce the possibility
of personal injury.

An LED brake light warns other drivers of deceleration.

A safety helmet and neck support protects the driver.

A Six-point safety harness keeps the driver adequately restrained.

Roll cage padding protects drivers head from impact.


The remaining standard safety equipment, including arm restraints, fire

extinguisher, and two kill switches were all placed for easy access and use, as well as
maximum optimization of their functions during an emergency.

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CHAPTER N0. 10
ELECTRICALS:
The electrical system was proposed to work on many road vehicles. The
electrical circuitry is to be done mainly for the brake light, horn, reverse light and kill
switch.
The electrical circuit for the vehicle is as shown below:

Fig. No.
No 10.1 :- ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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CHAPTER N0. 11
CONCLUSIONS:
The Team used extensive physical testing, hours of simulation and analysis,
and prototype construction to create a vehicle that is fast, maneuverable, and reliable.
Several team members attended the time to time workshops arranged by BAJA to
gather
her ideas and information about what design choices were successful and how they
could be incorporated into our design.
After initial testing it can be seen that our design should be a strong competitor
in this years competition. There will be extensive testing done to prove the design
and durability of all the systems on the car and make any necessary changes up until
the leaves for the competition.

Fig. No. 11.1 ::ERGONOMICS


CONSIDERATION

Fig. No. 11.2 :- PVC MOCKUP

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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CHAPTER N0. 12
CAD MODELS:

FRONT VIEW

SIDE VIEW

REAR VIEW
TOP VIEW

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain


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CHAPTER N0. 13
DESIGN FAILURE MODE EFFECTIVE (DFME) ANALYSIS:
SYSTEM

COMPONE
NT

POTENT
IAL
FAILUR
E MODE

Trailing
Arm

Torsion

Knuckle

R
P
N

Drive Shaft

Steering

Pinion

Brake

Tandem
Master
Cylinder

Engine

Engine Air
Intake
Pedal

Optimum design
consideration
to
reduce tensional&
bending force; colinear line of action
of wheel& spring
centerline.
Soldering
of
Knuckle

O D

R
P
N

4 2

56

2 2

28

147

Knuckle
Dislocati
on
Detachm
ent from
different
ial

210

192

Perfect
length

Shaft

2 3

48

Muff
weld
failure

10

320

3 3

72

Pinion
Failure
Failure
of Push
rod

90

2 2

36

144

Align using V
block& Drill hole
in Muff coupling
for excess weld
material
Penetration .
Replacement
of
Pinion
Push rod should
have
adequate
D.O.F; co-linear of
line of action the
pedal & pushrod.

2 4

64

Leakage
of oil
from
fluid line
Cloggin
g of Air
filter

108

Refill of brake oil

2 2

36

9
7
8

252
196
224

10
7
8

2 3

60
42
48

Failure
of
linkage

10

120

Rerouting of Air
intake above the
driver seat through
the firewall
Replacement
of
linkage

10

2 2

40

Bending

Suspension

Power
Train

ACTION TAKEN

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Design Analysis And Optimization Of All-terrain Vehicle


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CHAPTER N0. 14
DESIGN VALIDATION PLAN
System

Parameter Method Of Checking

Design
Value

Vehicle is to be taken to a surface

Steering

Minimum

with loose soil and a circle with

Turning

steering wheel locked at full travel

Circle

is to be negotiated. The distance

Diameter

between the two diametrically

4.9 m

opposite points is to be measured.


Load is to be added to the spring

Front-

Spring

while holding it in a vertical block. 26.73N/mm

Stiffness

Load required to cause unit

Rear-

deflection is to be noted.

40.10N/mm

The vehicle is to be loaded on a jack


and front wheels and spring are
removed. Damper is mounted in the

Suspension

Travel

designated position and point of

Jounce-

maximum designed travel is

117.4mm

marked. Hub is moved upwards

Rebound-

manually till the point of maximum 39.14mm


travel. Difference between the
initial and final position of hub is to
be noted.
Maximum
Transmission

Gradient
Climbing

Move the vehicle over surface


having inclination of 100 .

33

Transmission to be set on first gear,


then allow the vehicle to climb the

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Capacity

slope. Then subsequently increase


the slope by 50 .until vehicle would
not climb the slope. Previous angle
is measured.
Vehicle is to be loaded on a jack.
Transmission is shifted to final gear
and full throttle is given for 20

Top speed

seconds. Tachometer is to be held at 54 km/hr


the wheels and maximum reading is
noted. Speed is calculated by using
noted rpm.
A reference line is to made, from
which the driver is to start braking.
The vehicle is to be at a
predetermined speed while crossing

Brakes

Stopping

that line. Maximum force is to be

Distance

applied on brake pedal when front

17.5 m

wheels cross the line. Distance is to


be measured from the line to the
front once the vehicle is brought to
a complete halt.
The welded joint is to be taken and
tested on a Universal Testing
Machine. The failure is to be
Roll Cage

Weld Test

observSZed. Another method is to

Weld is seen

take the welded joint and impact

to fail.

with multiple hammer blows until


failure. Failure of weld or material
is noted.

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CHAPTER N0. 15
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINE
Type

Displacement, cc
Max. Torque,
Nm @ rpm
Max Power,
kW @ rpm

Briggs &
Stratton 10HP
OHV
305
19 @ 2500
7.5 @ 3600

Transmission
Mahindra Gio
Gearbox
4 forward 4 reverse
speed
Steering
Front
Rear
Brakes
Hydraulic Disc Brakes
Dimensions
Length (mm)
Width (mm)
Height (mm)
Weight
Kerb Weight (Kg)
Gross Weight (Kg)
Wheel size
Front (inches)
Rear (inches)
Centre of Gravity
Position w.r.t.
center of base of
firewall (mm)

Double
Wishbone
Trailing Arm
Overall Performance Targets

2286
1600
1400
240
320
21x7x10
25x10x12
X :109.33
Y:
Y:-45.82
Z:165.26

Light Weight Buggy


Best Driver Safety and Ergonomics

20%

Front

20%

Left

Weight Distribution

Right

30%

Rear

30%

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CHAPTER N0. 16
TESTING:

BRAKE TEST

JUMP TEST

FINAL VEHICLE

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CHAPTER N0. 17
References:
1 Vehicle Dynamics By Thomas D. Gillespie
2 Windsor
3 Mille ken & Millikenh
4 Automobile Engineering volume 1-volume 2 By Kirpal Singh
5 Google Search
6ARAI India

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APPENDIX A
SUSPENSION DESIGN

KINEMATIC ANALYSIS
Sample calculation front suspensionA arm suspension:
The weight of the vehicle is 200 kg but because of 40:60 ratio of weight distribution
between front and rear suspension, the front weight is 80 kg.
F = 8049.81
=3139.2 N
?

K=?
=

(? =allowable travel=117.4 mm)

3139.2
117.4

= 26.73 N/mm

Wheel rate/ wheel travel = (kw)


Wheel rate is the actual rate of a spring acting at the tire contact patch
kw = ks (M.R)2 sin(s).for trailing arm(from internet reference)
kw = ks (M.R)2.for A-arm ( from Windsor as reference)
for an offroad vehicle ideal value is 8 to 12 inch
unit-N/m or lbs/inch

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CALCULATIONS:A) Front suspensionA-arm double wishboneMotion ratio= 0.6


Shock travel = 152.4 mm

?? ? ?? ?? ? ? ? ?

Motion ratio = ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?
wheel travel =

152.4
0.6

wheel travel = 254 mm = 10 inch

Wheel rate (kw) = ks M.R2


= 26.73 0.62
= 9622.6 N/m

B) Rear suspension:Trailing arm suspensionMotion ratio


d1= 369 mm
d2= 497 mm

M.R = d1/d2 = 369


= 0.74
497

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?? ? ?? ?? ? ? ? ?

Motion ratio =

? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ?

152.4

Wheel travel

Wheel travel

= 205.94 mm

0.74

Wheel rate (kw) = ks(M.R)2sin(s)


= 40.10 (0.74)2 sin650
= 19.90 N/mm
= 19901.39 N/m

Roll stiffness (k)


Amount of roll moment needed to roll the suspension by one unit of
rotation guidelines.
Roll stiffness (k) =

?? ? ?

? ? ? .?

(from internet)

Unit Nm/deg or lbs/inch

Front suspension
A-arm double wishbone
k =
=

?? ? ?

? ? ? .?

0.482 9622.8
2 57.3

= 19.34 Nm/deg

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Rear suspension
Trailing arm suspension

k =

?? ? ?

? ? ? .?

t = 885 mm = 0.88 m
kw = 19901.39 N/m
0.882 19901.39

k=

2 57.3

= 134.48 Nm/deg

Jounce
It is the upward movement or compression of suspension component.
?

? = .from internet
?

Rebound
it is the downward movement or extension of suspension component.
Rebound : jounce = 3:1

Calculation:A) Front suspensionA-arm double wishbone-

Jounce(at 4g load) ? =

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=

49.8180
26.73

= 117.44 mm

Rebound (at 4g load) ? = =


?

? ? .? ? ? ?
? ? .? ? ?

= 39.14 mm

B) Rear suspension:Trailing arm suspension?

Jounce(at 4g load) ? = ? =

49.81120
40.10

= 117.42 mm

Rebound (at 4g load) ? =

Natural frequency:-

= 39.14 mm

The natural frequency is rate at which an object vibrates when it is


not disturbed by an outside force.
N.F =

???

? ??? ??? ? ? ? ?? ???? ?

..(from internet)

Ideal value = 1 to 1.5 Hz


N.F =

??

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??

?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??

A) Front suspensionA-arm double wishbone suspension

N.F =

???

? ??? ??? ? ? ? ?? ???? ?

= 1.45 Hz

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B)Rear suspensionTrailing arm suspension

N.F =

??

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??

?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??

= 1.6 Hz

Ride rate
The change of wheel load at thecentre of tire contact, per unit vertical
displacement of the sprung mass relative to the ground at a specific load.

Calculation:A). Front suspensionA-arm double wishbone suspension? ?.? ?

Ride rate = ?
=

? +??

26.73 0.421
26.73+0.421

= 0.414

B). rear suspension :Trailing arm suspension


? ?.? ?

Ride rate = ?
=

? +??

40.10 0.51
40.10+0.51

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= 0.503

Camber gain:The amount of angle change in front spindles as suspension travels inward or outward
from the centre of car

A. Front suspension:
suspension:Camber gain = 1 inch = 0.30 for front suspension

Camber gain = jounce + rebound


= 117.44 + 39.14
= 156.58 mm
= 6.16
= 2.460

Roll centre analysis

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APPENDIX B
STEERING DESIGN
CALCULATIONS:A) STEERING TYPE : RACK & PINION
1. Rack Travel: 57mm
2. Steering Wheel Centre to lock Angle 290
3. Rack Used :- MARUTI 800

B.TURNING RADIUS
(R) 2 = (R1) 2 + (C)
R = 2.48m

C. STEERING RATIO
S.R. = Steering Wheel Lock Angle / Road Wheel Angle
S.R = 6.59

D. STEERING EFFORT
S.E. = Weight On Front Wheel/ Moment Ratio

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S.E. = 108 N

E .TIE ROD LENGTH 400mm


F. PERCENTAGE ACKERMAN
% Ackerman = (Angle Of Inner Wheel Angle Of Outer Wheel) / Angle
Inside

Wheel For 100% Ackerman


% Ackerman = 98.99

Fig. Ackerman Geometry

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G. Bump Steer Consideration

To minimize bump steer, keeping tie rod parallel to Upper A-Arm


A Arm shown in
geometry.

Fig. Bump Steer Correction

H. steering reduction gear box concept implemented in vehicle.

Fig. Reduction box Exploded view

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Part

Implementation in vehicle

Steering Ratio

6.5:1

Rack travel per revolution

70 mm

of steering wheel
Required Rack travel

57 mm

(Centre to lock)
Rotation of steering wheel

290

(Centre to lock)
Steering Effort

108 N

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APPENDIX C
BRAKE
CALCULATIONS:A. TMC
1.
2.
3.
4.

TMC- Maruti 800


Piston dia.- 19.05mm
Pedal ratio- 4:1
Pedal Force- 130N

B. Stopping Distance= V/2


= 17.63.

C. Pedal braking force=Total input to each TMC


=Pedal force*No.of TMC
=130*4
=520

D. Coefficient of friction
= = 0.45

E. Dynamic Load TransferW =(/g)*w*(H/L)


=(0.8)*3500*(0.445/1.52)
=819.73N
=83.56kg

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F. Inline PressureP = F/A


= 520/((/4)(19.05))
= 18.25bar

G. Calliper/Brake forceF =P*A


=(18.25*10^)*(1.23*10^-)
=2244.75N

H. Rolling radiusT = F*R


But,
Actual torque = Ideal torque * Brake Force
=39 * 1.25
=48.75kg.m
Torque is divided by 2 wheels,
48.75/2
=24.375kg.m
R= T/F
= 24.375/2.44
Pitch dia. =10.86
Actual dia =217.2+28

. (28=calliper dia)

=245mm

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I. Temperature Rise=22.5c

J. Front wheel speci.1.


2.
3.
4.
5.

Type-Disc brake(custom)
Size -21*7*10
Disc dia.=190mm
Front Pistriction-220mm
Disc thikness-3.4=4mm

K. Front wheel speci.1.


2.
3.
4.
5.

Type-Disc brake(custom)
Size -25*10*12
Disc dia.=21.83
Front Ristriction-260mm
Disc thickness-4mm

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APPENDIX D
POWERTRAIN DESIGN
CALCULATIONS: Calculations for Gear Box Selection
Taking following Assumptions:
IE = 1
= 1.3
tot = 1
rdyn = 0.29 m
All calculations for 1st gear , taking available gear ratios in
consideration.

1. Piaggio Ape Passenger


FzA = Total Available Traction
Fzex = Excessive Traction =(FzA-FzB)
FzB = Total Driving Resistance=534
FzA = (Engine Torque Gear Ratio)(1000 rdyn)
= (19.3525.52)(10000.29)
= 1702.8 N
FzEX = (FzA-FzB)
= 1702.8-534

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= 1168.8 N

Acceleration =FzEX =mF a


=a = ( FzEX) (mF )
= 1168.8(3201.3)
=a = 2.80 m/s2
Gradient Angle on 1st gear
FzEX = mF gsin(ast)
=1168.8=3209.81 sin(ast)
= (ast )= 22.9

2.Gio In Reverse Calculations


FzA=(19.3533.66)(10000.29)
=2245.93 N
FzEX =FzA FzB =1711.93 N
Acceleration =FzEX = mF a
=a = 4.11 m/s2
Gradient Angle
1711.93= mF gsin(ast)
= (ast) =33.04

According to above calculations same procedure for following


vehicles.
1. Mahindra Alfa Champion
FzA= (19.3531.48)(10000.29)
= 2100 N

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FzEX = 1566.47 N
Acceleration (a)= 3.76 m/s2
(ast)= 29.93

2. Mahindra Alfa Passenger


FzA=1702.8 N
FzEX =1168.8 N
Acceleration(a)=2.80 m/s2
(ast)=22.90

3. TATA NANO
FzA=184.58 N
FzEX =1307.58 N
Acceleration(a)=3.14 m/s2
(ast)=24.60

4. Mahindra Gio
FzA=1845.58N
FzEX =1311.58 N
Acceleration(a)=3.14 m/s2
(ast)=24.69

5. Force Minidor Pick Up


FzA=1629.40 N
FzEX =1095.40 N
Acceleration(a)=2.63 m/s2
(ast)=20.42

6. Auto Rikshaw
FzA=1571.35 N

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FzEX =1037.35 N
Acceleration(a)=

m/s2

(ast)=19.29

7. Mahindra Champion Passenger


FzA=1673.50 N
FzEX =1139.50 N
Acceleration(a)=2.73 m/s2
(ast)=29.28

FINAL VALUE FOR TRANSMISSION SURVEY CHART


Sr.

Vehicle Name

No.

Initial

Acceleration

Tractive

Gradient
Angle

Effort
1)

Piaggio Ape Passenger

1702.8

2.80

22.9

2)

Mahindra Alfa Champion

2100

3.76

29.93

3)

Mahindra Alfa Passenger

1702.8

2.80

22.9

4)

TATA NANO

1841.58

3.14

24.60

5)

Mahindra Gio

1845.58

3.14

24.60

6)

Mahindra Gio in Reverse

2245.93

4.11

33.04

7)

Force Minidor Pick Up

1629.40

2.63

20.42

8)

Auto Rickshaw

1571.35

2.49

19.29

9)

Mahindra Champion

1673.50

2.73

21.80

Passenger

Transmission used in the vehicle on the basis of Acceleration


and Traction
Mahindra Gio in Reverse Configuration

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Traction available on each gear of Mahindra Gio in

Reverse Configuration .
1st Gear = FzA1 = (19.3532.66)(10000.29)
=2245.93 N

2nd Gear = FzA2 = (19.3518.08)(10000.29)


=1206.37 N
3rd Gear = 688.59 N
4rt Gear = 451.055 N

Gradient on each gear when used in reverse configuration


1st Gear = (ast) = 33
2nd Gear= (ast) = 12.38
2nd Gear= (ast) = 3
3rd Gear= (ast) = 2.82 -1.51
Reverse Gear = 24.69

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Speed Calculations On Each GearV4 (kmph)= [(3.6/30max)rdyn]iA iE


= [3.6 /3037000.283]3.761.1
V4 = 53.08 kmph
(n4 = 885 rpm)
V3 (kmph) = [3.6 /3037000.283] 10.321.1
V3 = 34.77 kmph
( n3 = 580 rpm)

V2 (kmph)= 19.84 kmph


(n2 = 331 rpm)

V1 (kmph)= 10.66 kmph


( n1 =176.66 rpm= Roadwheel rpm)

Torque Available on 1st Gear =G1 Max Torque of Engine


T1 =33 19.35
T1 =638.55 N.m

Using 2 CVJ joints at Gear Box side Maruti 800

Sleeve arrangement for drive shaft length correction is made.

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Adapter ansys:

PARAMETER

VALUE

Max Equivalent

193.46 Mpa

Stress
Max Shear Stress

104.46 Mpa

Max Deformation

0.13 mm

Factor of Safety

2.74

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APPENDIX E

STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE


CHASSIS:THEORY, SET UP, DESIGN
Marco Cavazzuti and Luca Splendi
(joint with Luca D'Agostino, Enrico Torricelli, Dario Costi and Andrea
Baldini)
MilleChili Lab, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Civile,
Modena, Italy
Universit_a degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia
millechililab@unimore.it
ABSTRACT
Improvements in structural components design are often achieved on a trialand-error basis guided by the designer know-how. Despite the designer experience
must remain a fundamental aspect in design, such an approach is likely to allow only
marginal product enhancements. A different turn of mind that could boost structural
design is needed and could be given by structural optimization methods linked with
niter elements analyses. These methods are here brief introduced ,and some
applications are presented and discussed with the aim of showing their potential. A
particular focuses given to weight reduction in automotive chassis design applications
following the experience matured at Mille Chili Lab.

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1. INTRODUCTION
Optimization techniques are very promising means for systematic design
improvement in mechanics, yet they are not always well known and applied in
industry. Despite this, the literature over the topic is quite rich and is addressing both
theory and applications. To cite a few applications in the automotive _eld the works
of Chiandussi et al. [1], Pedersen [2], and Duddeck [3] are of interest. They address
the optimization of automotive suspensions, crushed structures, and car bodies
respectively .Structural optimization methods are rather peculiar ways of applying
more traditional optimization algorithms to structural problems solved by means of
_nite elements analyses. These techniques are an effective approach through which
large structural optimization problems can be solved rather easily. In particular, with
the term structural optimization methods we refer to: (i) topology optimization,
(ii)topometry optimization, (iii) topography optimization, (iv) size optimization, (v)
shape optimization. In the following some of these techniques will be introduced and
their application to chosen automotive structura ldesign problems discussed.

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2. STRUCTURAL OPTIMIZATION
In the de_nition of any optimization problem a few elements are necessary,
these are: (i) design space or space of the possible solutions (e.g. in structural
optimization this is often given by the mesh) (ii) variables, (iii)objective(s) (e.g. mass
minimization), (iv) optimization constraints (e.g. stiffness and/or displacement
stargets), (v) the mean through which, for a given set of variables, targets and
objectives are evaluated (e.g.,in our case, _nite elements analyses), (vi) the
optimization algorithm (e.g. in structural optimization this is commonly a gradientbased algorithm, such as MMA).Trying to simplify in a few words a rather complex
and large topic, it could be said that the various structural optimization methods
essentially differ from each other in the choice of the variables of the optimization
problem as follows.
2.1. Topology Optimization
In topology optimization it is supposed that the elements density can vary
between 0 (void) and 1 (presence of the material). The variables are then given by the
element-wise densities. Topology optimization was _rstly introduced by Bends_e and
Sigmund and is extensively treated in [4]; it has developed in several directions giving
birth to rather different approaches, the
most simple and known of which is the SIMP (Single Isotropic Material with
Penalization).(a) reference model, top view (b) reference model, bottom view (c)
optimum layout Figure 1: Ferrari F458 Italia front hood: reference model and new
layout from the optimization results. The optimization was performed in three stages:
topology, optometry, and size.

(a) reference model, top view

(b) reference model, bottom view

c) optimum layout

Figure 1: Ferrari F458 Italia front hood: reference model and new layout from the
optimization results. The optimization was performed in three stages: topology,
topometry, and size.
2.2. Topometry Optimization
The idea behind topometry optimization is very similar to that of topology
optimization, the variables being the element-wise thicknesses. Of course, this method
does not apply to 3D elements where the concept of thickness could not be de_ned.

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2.3. Topography Optimization
Again topography optimization can be applied only to 2D or shell elements
and aims at _nding the optimum beads pattern in a component. The concept is yet
similar to the previous cases and, simply speaking, the variables are given by the set
of the elements o_sets from the component mid-plane.
2.4. Size Optimization
Size optimization is the same as topometry optimization, but in this case the
number of variables is greatly reduced in that the shell thicknesses of components are
considered in place of the single elements of the domain.

3. APPLICATION EXAMPLES
3.1. Automotive Hood
The internal frame of the Ferrari F458 front hood has been studied aiming at
reducing the weight while keeping the same performance target and manufacturability
of the reference model. The targets relate to bending and torsion static load cases,
compliance when closing the hood, deformations under aerodynamic loads. A suitable
preliminary architecture has been de-_ned by means of topology optimization. The
results have been re-interpreted into more performing thin-walled cross-sections. A
series of topometry optimizations followed to _nd the optimal thickness distribution
and identify the most critical areas. The solution was re_ned through size
optimization. In the end, the weight was reduced by 12 %, yet in the respect of all the
performance requirements (Fig. 1).
3.2. Rear Bench
The rear bench of a car is fundamental to isolate acoustically the passengers
compartment from the engine. The bench of Ferrari F430 has been analyzed with the
objective of reducing the weight while maintaining the
same vibrational performance of the reference panel. Generally, the damping material
distribution is not known during the numerical veri_cation stage, but is decided later
during the experimental analysis, where the material is added iteratively to counteract
the _rst normal modes. In this study vibration-damping material distribution and panel
design, in terms of beads and thickness, have been optimized through size and
topography optimizations at the same time. Size optimization is applied to control the
thickness of the aluminum plate and of the vibrational-damping material. The
presence of damping material should be limited to essential parts due to its relatively
high weight. Thus, just one thickness variable was created for the aluminum layer
because its value should be uniform along the plate, whereas several thickness
variables were created locally for the damping layer. Topography optimization was
used to improve the beads disposition in the panel. The objective of the optimizations
was mass minimization, while the _rst normal mode frequency was constrained to be
outside the range of interest (Fig. 2).

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3.3. Automotive Chassis
Topology optimization has been applied to the design of an automotive
chassis. The objective of the optimization is still the weight reduction while the
performance requirements regard handling and safety standards, in detail: (i) global
bending and torsional stiffnesss, (ii) crashworthiness in the case of front crash

(a) Size optimization variables


subdivision

(b) Optimum con_guration (c) Damping material optimum thickness


deformed shape
distribution

Figure 2:
Rear bench coupled optimization. In the results, blue stands for low
deformation/thickness, red for high.(a) domain, or design space (b) optimum chassis
con_guration (c) optimum roof con_guration

(a) domain, or design space (b) optimum chassis con_guration

(c) optimum roof con_guration

Figure 3:
Automotive chassis topology optimization. In the results, the density range
from 0.1 (blue) to 1.0 (red). (iii) modal analysis, (iv) local sti_ness of the suspension,
engine, and gearbox joints. The initial design space is given by the provisional vehicle
overall dimensions of Ferrari F430 including the roof
(Fig. 3(a)).
The results for the chassis and the roof are shown in
Figs. 3(b) and 3(c).
A more detailed discussion on a combined methodology for chassis design
including topology, topography and size optimizations was presented in [5] by the
authors.

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4. CONCLUSIONS
A quick overview on structural optimization methods has been given including
various application examples. Their potential has been shown to be large and it is
believed that their spreading in mechanical design could boost innovation in industry
considerably. Examples in the automotive _eld have been provided. To be noted that
the different methods have different characteristics and in a design process it is
recommended to rely on more than just one technique. For instance, topology and
topometry optimizations are more suitable for an early development stage, whose
outcome could be further re_ned through size and shape optimizations. On a general
basis these techniques do not deliver the shape of the _nal product, but they give
useful hints to the designer in view of the product development and engineering.

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5. REFERENCES
1] G. Chiandussi, I. Gaviglio, and A. Ibba, Topology optimization of an automotive
component without _nal volume constraint speci_cation, Advances in Engineering
Software, 35:609-617, 2004.
[2] C. B. W. Pedersen, Crashworthiness design of transient frame structures using
topology optimization,Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 193:653-678.
3] F. Duddeck, Multidisciplinary optimization of carbodies, Structural and Multi
disciplinary Optimization, 35:375-389, 2008.
[4] M. P. Bends_e and O. Sigmund, Topology optimization: theory, methods and
applications, Springer,2004.
5] M. Cavazzuti, A. Baldini, E. Bertocchi, D. Costi, E.Torricelli, and P. Moruzzi,
High performance automotive chassis design: a topology optimization based
approach, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 44:45-56, 2011.

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