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Digitalphotography

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Digitalphotographyisaformofphotographythatusescameras

containingarraysofelectronicphotodetectorstocaptureimages

Untiltheadventofsuchtechnology,photographsweremadeby

exposinglightsensitivephotographicfilm,andusedchemical

photographicprocessingtodevelopandstabilizetheimage.By

contrast,digitalphotographscanbedisplayed,printed,stored,

manipulated,transmitted,andarchivedusingdigitaland

computertechniques,withoutchemicalprocessing.

Digitalphotographyisoneofseveralformsofdigitalimaging.

Digitalimagesarealsocreatedbynon­photographicequipment

Digitalimagescanalsobemadebyscanningotherphotographic

images.

Sincethe2000sdigitalphotographyhaslargelysupersededall

otherformsofphotography.

Contents

1ThedigitalcameraContents 1.1History 1.2Sensors 1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity 1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.1Pixelcounts

1.1HistoryContents 1Thedigitalcamera 1.2Sensors 1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity 1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.1Pixelcounts

1.2SensorsContents 1Thedigitalcamera 1.1History 1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity 1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.1Pixelcounts

1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity

1.4Performancemetrics1.1History 1.2Sensors 1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity 1.4.1Pixelcounts 1.4.2Dynamicrange 1.5Storage 2Marketimpact

1.4.1Pixelcounts1.3Multifunctionalityandconnectivity 1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.2Dynamicrange 1.5Storage 2Marketimpact 2.1Socialimpact

1.4.2Dynamicrange1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.1Pixelcounts 1.5Storage 2Marketimpact 2.1Socialimpact

1.5Storage1.4Performancemetrics 1.4.1Pixelcounts 1.4.2Dynamicrange 2Marketimpact 2.1Socialimpact 3Recentresearchandinnovation

2Marketimpact1.4.1Pixelcounts 1.4.2Dynamicrange 1.5Storage 2.1Socialimpact 3Recentresearchandinnovation

2.1Socialimpact1.4.1Pixelcounts 1.4.2Dynamicrange 1.5Storage 2Marketimpact 3Recentresearchandinnovation 4Comparisonwithfilmphotography

3Recentresearchandinnovation

4Comparisonwithfilmphotography

4.1Consumercameras3Recentresearchandinnovation 4Comparisonwithfilmphotography 4.2Advantagesofprofessionaldigitalcameras

4.2Advantagesofprofessionaldigitalcameras

4.3Disadvantagesofdigitalcameras

4.4Equivalentfeatures4.1Consumercameras 4.2Advantagesofprofessionaldigitalcameras 4.3Disadvantagesofdigitalcameras

Nikon D700 —a12.1­megapixel full­frameDSLR

NikonD700—a12.1­megapixel

full­frameDSLR

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4.5Frameaspectratios 5Seealso 6References 7Externallinks

4.5Frameaspectratios

5Seealso4.5Frameaspectratios 6References 7Externallinks

6References4.5Frameaspectratios 5Seealso 7Externallinks

7Externallinks4.5Frameaspectratios 5Seealso 6References

Thedigitalcamera

History

ThefirstflybyspacecraftimageofMarswastakenfromMariner4onJuly15,1965withacamera

systemdesignedbyNASA/JPL.Itusedavideocameratubefollowedbyadigitizer,ratherthanamosaic ofsolidstatesensorelements,soitwasnotwhatweusuallydefineasadigitalcamera,butitproduceda digitalimagethatwasstoredontapeforlaterslowtransmissionbacktoearth. [1][2]

Thefirstrecordedattemptatbuildingadigitalcamerawasin1975byStevenSasson,anengineerat

cassettetape,hadaresolutionof0.01megapixels(10,000pixels),andtook23secondstocaptureitsfirst

imageinDecember1975.Theprototypecamerawasatechnicalexercise,notintendedforproduction.

ThefirsttruedigitalcamerathatrecordedimagesasacomputerizedfilewaslikelytheFujiDS­1Pof

1988,whichrecordedtoa16MBinternalmemorycardthatusedabatterytokeepthedatainmemory.

Thiscamerawasnevermarketedinternationally,andhasnotbeenconfirmedtohaveshippedevenin

Japan.

Thefirstcommerciallyavailabledigitalcamerawasthe1990DycamModel1;italsosoldasthe

LogitechFotoman.ItusedaCCDimagesensor,storedpicturesdigitally,andconnecteddirectlytoa computerfordownloadingimages. [6][7][8]

Sensors

Imagesensorsreadtheintensityoflight,anddigitalmemorydevicesstorethedigitalimageinformation

Thetwomaintypesofsensorsarecharge­coupleddevices(CCD),inwhichthephotochargeisshiftedto

acentralcharge­to­voltageconverter,andCMOSoractivepixelsensors.

Multifunctionalityandconnectivity

Exceptforsomelineararraytypeofcamerasatthehighest­endandsimplewebcamsatthelowest­end,

adigitalmemorydevice(usuallyamemorycard;floppydisksandCD­RWsarelesscommon)isused

forstoringimages,whichmaybetransferredtoacomputerlater.

Digitalcamerascantakepictures,andmayalsorecordsoundandvideo.Somecanbeusedaswebcams,

somecanusethePictBridgestandardtoconnecttoaprinterwithoutusingacomputer,andsomecan

displaypicturesdirectlyonatelevisionset.Similarly,manycamcorderscantakestillphotographs,and

storethemonvideotapeoronflashmemorycardswiththesamefunctionalityasdigitalcameras.

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Performancemetrics

Thequalityofadigitalimageisacompositeofvariousfactors,manyofwhicharesimilartothoseof filmcameras.Pixelcount(typicallylistedinmegapixels,millionsofpixels)isonlyoneofthemajor factors,thoughitisthemostheavilymarketedfigureofmerit.Digitalcameramanufacturersadvertise thisfigurebecauseconsumerscanuseittoeasilycomparecameracapabilities.Itisnot,however,the majorfactorinevaluatingadigitalcameraformostapplications.Theprocessingsysteminsidethe camerathatturnstherawdataintoacolor­balancedandpleasingphotographisusuallymorecritical,

whichiswhysome4+megapixelcamerasperformbetterthanhigher­endcameras.

Resolutioninpixelsisnottheonlymeasureofimage

quality.Alargersensorwiththesamenumberofpixels

generallyproducesabetterimagethanasmallerone.

Oneofthemostimportantdifferencesisan

improvementinimagenoise.Thisisoneofthe

advantagesofdigitalSLRcameras,whichhavelarger

sensorsthansimplercameras(so­calledpointandshoot

cameras)ofthesameresolution.

Imageatlefthasahigher pixelcount thanthe onetotheright,butlower spatialresolution .
Imageatlefthasahigher pixelcount thanthe onetotheright,butlower spatialresolution .

Imageatlefthasahigherpixelcountthanthe

onetotheright,butlowerspatialresolution.

Lensquality:resolution,distortion,dispersion

Capturemedium:CMOS,CCD,negativefilm,

Processing:digitaland/orchemicalprocessingof'negative'and'print'.

Pixelcounts

Thenumberofpixelsnforagivenmaximumresolution(whorizontalpixelsbyhverticalpixels)isthe

productn=w×h.Thisyieldse.g.1.92megapixels(1,920,000pixels)foranimageof1600×1200.

ThemajorityofcompactaswellassomeDSLRcamerashavea4:3aspectratio,i.e.w/h=4/3. [9]

AccordingtoDigitalPhotographyReview,the4:3ratioisbecause"computermonitorsare4:3ratio,old

CCDsalwayshada4:3ratio,andthusdigitalcamerasinheritedthisaspectratio." [9]

Thepixelcountquotedbymanufacturerscanbemisleadingasitmaynotbethenumberoffull­color pixels.Forcamerasusingsingle­chipimagesensorsthenumberclaimedisthetotalnumberofsingle­ color­sensitivephotosensors,whethertheyhavedifferentlocationsintheplane,aswiththeBayer

havedifferentnumbersofRGBpixels:Bayer­sensorcamerasproduceasmanyRGBpixelsas photosensorsviademosaicing(interpolation),whileFoveonsensorsproduceuninterpolatedimagefiles withone­thirdasmanyRGBpixelsasphotosensors.Comparisonsofmegapixelratingsofthesetwo typesofsensorsaresometimesasubjectofdispute. [10]

Therelativeincreaseindetailresultingfromanincreaseinresolutionisbettercomparedbylookingat thenumberofpixelsacross(ordown)thepicture,ratherthanthetotalnumberofpixelsinthepicture

area.Forexample,asensorof2560×1600sensorelementsisdescribedas"4megapixels"(2560×1600

=4,096,000).Increasingto3200×2048increasesthepixelsinthepictureto6,553,600(6.5

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megapixels),afactorof1.6,butthepixelspercminthepicture(atthesameimagesize)increasesby

only1.25times.Ameasureofthecomparativeincreaseinlinearresolutionisthesquarerootofthe

increaseinarearesolution,i.e.,megapixelsintheentireimage.

Dynamicrange

Practicalimagingsystemsbothdigitalandfilm,havealimited"dynamicrange":therangeofluminosity

thatcanbereproducedaccurately.Highlightsofthesubjectthataretoobrightarerenderedaswhite,

withnodetail;shadowsthataretoodarkarerenderedasblack.Thelossofdetailisnotabruptwithfilm,

orindarkshadowswithdigitalsensors:somedetailisretainedasbrightnessmovesoutofthedynamic

range."Highlightburn­out"ofdigitalsensors,however,canbeabrupt,andhighlightdetailmaybelost.

Andasthesensorelementsfordifferentcolorssaturateinturn,therecanbegrosshueorsaturationshift

inburnt­outhighlights.

Somedigitalcamerascanshowtheseblownhighlightsintheimagereview,allowingthephotographer tore­shootthepicturewithamodifiedexposure.Otherscompensateforthetotalcontrastofasceneby

selectivelyexposingdarkerpixelslonger.AthirdtechniqueisusedbyFujifilminitsFinePixS3Pro

digitalSLR.Theimagesensorcontainsadditionalphotodiodesoflowersensitivitythanthemainones;

theseretaindetailinpartsoftheimagetoobrightforthemainsensor.

Highdynamicrangeimaging(HDR)addressesthisproblembyincreasingthedynamicrangeofimages

byeither

increasingthedynamicrangeoftheimagesensoror

byusingexposurebracketingandpost­processingtheseparateimagestocreateasingleimage

withahigherdynamicrange.

HDRimagescurtailburn­outsandblack­outs.

Storage

Manycameraphonesandmostdigitalcamerasusememorycardshavingflashmemorytostoreimage

data.ThemajorityofcardsforseparatecamerasareSDformat;manyareCompactFlashandtheother

formatsarerare.XQDcardformatwasthelastnewformofcard.Mostmoderndigitalcamerasalsouse

internalmemoryforalimitedcapacityforpicturesthatcanbetransferredtoorfromthecardorthrough

thecamera'sconnections;evenwithoutamemorycardinsertedintothecamera.

Memorycardscanholdvastnumbersofphotos,requiringattentiononlywhenthememorycardisfull.

Formostusers,thismeanshundredsofqualityphotosstoredonthesamememorycard.Imagesmaybe

transferredtoothermediaforarchivalorpersonaluse.Cardswithhighspeedandcapacityaresuitedto

videoandburstmode.

Marketimpact

Inlate2002,2­megapixelcameraswereavailableintheUnitedStatesforlessthan$100,withsome1­

megapixelcamerasforunder$60.Atthesametime,manydiscountstoreswithphotolabsintroduceda

"digitalfrontend",allowingconsumerstoobtaintruechemicalprints(asopposedtoink­jetprints)inan

hour.Thesepricesweresimilartothoseofprintsmadefromfilmnegatives.However,becausedigital

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imageshaveadifferentaspectratiothan35mmfilmimages,peoplehavestartedtorealizethat4x6inch

printscropsomeoftheimageofftheprint.Somephotofinishershavestartedofferingprintswiththe

sameaspectratioasthedigitalcamerasrecord.

thefamiliarsingle­useconceptlonginusewithfilmcameras,RitzintendedtheDakotaDigitalforsingle

use.Whenthepre­programmed25­picturelimitisreached,thecameraisreturnedtothestore,andthe

consumerreceivesbackprintsandaCD­ROMwiththeirphotos.Thecameraisthenrefurbishedand

resold.

SincetheintroductionoftheDakotaDigital,anumberofsimilarsingle­usedigitalcamerashave appeared.Mostsingle­usedigitalcamerasarenearlyidenticaltotheoriginalDakotaDigitalin specificationsandfunction,thoughafewincludesuperiorspecificationsandmoreadvancedfunctions (suchashigherimageresolutionsandLCDscreens).Most,ifnotallthesesingle­usedigitalcameras

costlessthan$20(USD),notincludingprocessing.However,thehugedemandforcomplexdigital

camerasatcompetitivepriceshasoftencausedmanufacturingshortcuts,evidencedbyalargeincreasein customercomplaintsovercameramalfunctions,highpartsprices,andshortservicelife.Somedigital

camerasofferonlya90­daywarranty.

Since2003,digitalcamerashaveoutsoldfilmcameras. [11] Pricesof35mmcompactcamerashave droppedwithmanufacturersfurtheroutsourcingtocountriessuchasChina.Kodakannouncedin January2004thattheywouldnolongersellKodak­brandedfilmcamerasinthedevelopedworld. [12] In

January2006,Nikonfollowedsuitandannouncedtheywouldstopproductionofallbuttwomodelsof

theirfilmcameras.Theywillcontinuetoproducethelow­endNikonFM10,andthehigh­endNikonF6.

Inthesamemonth,KonicaMinoltaannounceditwaspullingoutofthecamerabusinessaltogether.The

priceof35mmandAPScompactcamerashavedropped,probablyduetodirectcompetitionfromdigital

andtheresultinggrowthoftheofferofsecond­handfilmcameras. [13] Pentaxhavereducedproductionof filmcamerasbutnothaltedit. [14] ThetechnologyhasimprovedsorapidlythatoneofKodak'sfilm cameraswasdiscontinuedbeforeitwasawardeda"cameraoftheyear"awardlaterintheyear.The declineinfilmcamerasaleshasalsoledtoadeclineinpurchasesoffilmforsuchcameras.InNovember

2004,aGermandivisionofAgfa­Gevaert,AgfaPhoto,splitoff.Withinsixmonthsitfiledfor

bankruptcy.KonicaMinoltaPhotoImaging,Inc.endedproductionofColorfilmandpaperworldwide

byMarch31,2007.Inaddition,by2005,Kodakemployedlessthanathirdoftheemployeesithad

twentyyearsearlier.Itisnotknownifthesejoblossesinthefilmindustryhavebeenoffsetinthedigital imageindustry.Digitalcamerashavedecimatedthefilmphotographyindustrythroughdeclininguseof theexpensivefilmrollsanddevelopmentchemicalspreviouslyrequiredtodevelopthephotos.Thishas hadadramaticeffectoncompaniessuchasFuji,Kodak,andAgfa.Manystoresthatformerlyoffered

photofinishingservicesorsoldfilmnolongerdo,orhaveseenatremendousdecline.In2012,Kodak

filedforbankruptcyafterstrugglingtoadapttothechangingindustry. [15]

Inaddition,digitalphotographyhasresultedinsomepositivemarketimpactsaswell.Theincreasing

popularityofproductssuchasdigitalphotoframesandcanvasprintsisadirectresultoftheincreasing

popularityofdigitalphotography.

DigitalcamerassoldpeakatMarch2012about11millionpermonth,buteveryyeardeclined

significantlyandatMarch2014onlysoldmorethan3millionoronlyabout30percentfromthepeak

sold.Seemsthedeclinetrendhasreachedthebottomwithsalesaverageover3millionamonth.The

maincompetitorissmartphoneshavinginbuiltdigitalcamerawhichdaybydayhavebetterquality camerasandalsovideos. [16]

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Socialimpact

Untiltheadventofthedigitalcamera,amateurphotographerscouldeitherbuyprintorslidefilmfor

theircameras.Slidescouldbedevelopedandshowntoanaudienceusingaslideprojector.Digital

photographyrevolutionizedtheindustrybyeliminatingthedelayandcost.Theeaseofviewing,

Cameraphones,beingthemajorityofcameras,havearguablythelargestimpact.Theusercansettheir

SmartphonestouploadtheirproductstotheInternet,preservingthemevenifthecameraisdestroyedor

theimagesdeleted.Somehighstreetphotographyshopshaveself­servicekiosksthatallowimagestobe

printeddirectlyfromsmartphonesviaBluetoothtechnology.

Archivistsandhistorianshavenoticedthetransitorynatureofdigitalmedia.Unlikefilmandprint, whicharetangibleandimmediatelyaccessibletoaperson,digitalimagestorageisever­changing,with oldmediaanddecodingsoftwarebecomingobsoleteorinaccessiblebynewtechnologies.Historiansare concernedthatwearecreatingahistoricalvoidwhereinformationanddetailsaboutanerawouldhave beenlostwithineitherfailedorinaccessibledigitalmedia.Theyrecommendthatprofessionaland amateurusersdevelopstrategiesfordigitalpreservationbymigratingstoreddigitalimagesfromold technologiestonew. [17] Scrapbookerswhomayhaveusedfilmforcreatingartisticandpersonal memoirsmayneedtomodifytheirapproachtodigitalphotobookstopersonalizethemandretainthe specialqualitiesoftraditionalphotoalbums.

Thewebhasbeenapopularmediumforstoringandsharingphotoseversincethefirstphotographwas

sites,areusedbymillionsofpeopletosharetheirpictures.

Recentresearchandinnovation

Researchanddevelopmentcontinuestorefinethelighting,optics,sensors,processing,storage,display,

andsoftwareusedindigitalphotography.Hereareafewexamples.

3Dmodelscanbecreatedfromcollectionsofnormalimages.Theresultingscenecanbeviewed

fromnovelviewpoints,butcreatingthemodelisverycomputationallyintensive.Anexampleis

Microsoft'sPhotosynth,whichprovidessomemodelsoffamousplacesasexamples. [18]

Panoramicphotographycanbecreatedeasilydirectlyincamerawithoutsoftwareprocessing

outsideofthecameraandeventherealso3DPanoramausesasinglelens

Highdynamicrangecamerasanddisplaysarecommerciallyavailable.Sensorswithdynamic

rangeinexcessof1,000,000:1areindevelopment,andsoftwareisalsoavailabletocombine

multiplenon­HDRimages(shotwithdifferentexposures)intoanHDRimage.

Motionblurcanbedramaticallyremovedbyafluttershutter(aflickeringshutterthataddsa

signaturetotheblur,whichpostprocessingrecognizes). [19] Itisnotyetcommerciallyavailable.

BokehcanbemadeincamerawithinLCDdisplaywithbokeharea(s)wewanttoshow.Itislikes

HDRwithdifferentexposuremultishoots,butcannotdirectlymadebythecameraitselfwith

advantagewecanmakefromoneimagetomanyimageswithdifferentbokehareasand

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magnitude

Neutraldensityfilterisavailablenotone,but2ormoreinacamera/camcorderbymanipulating

thesensitivityofthesensor

Anobject'sspecularreflectioncanbecapturedusingcomputercontrolledlightsandsensors.This

isneededtocreateattractiveimagesofoilpaintings,forinstance.Itisnotyetcommercially

available,butsomemuseumsarestartingtouseit.

Dustreductionsystemshelpkeepdustoffofimagesensors,originallyintroducedonlybyafew

cameraslikeOlympusDSLRs,havenowbecomestandardinmostmodelsandbrandsof

detachablelenscamerawithexceptionnodustreductionsysteminlow/cheapcameras

Otherareasofprogressincludeimprovedsensors,morepowerfulsoftware,advancedcameraprocessors

(sometimesusingmorethanoneprocessore.g.Canon7dhas2Digic4processors),enlarged­gamut

displays,builtinGPS&WiFi,andcomputercontrolledlighting.

Comparisonwithfilmphotography

Consumercameras

Theprimaryadvantageofconsumer­leveldigitalcamerasisthelowrecurringcost,asusersneednot

purchasephotographicfilm.Processingcostsmaybereducedoreveneliminated.Digicamstendalsoto

beeasiertocarryandtouse,thancomparablefilmcameras.Theymoreeasilyadapttomodernuseof

Advantagesofprofessionaldigitalcameras

Immediateimagereviewanddeletionispossible;lighting

andcompositioncanbeassessedimmediately,which

ultimatelyconservesstoragespace.

Highvolumeofimagestomediumratio;allowingfor

extensivephotographysessionswithoutchangingfilm

rolls.Tomostusersasinglememorycardissufficientfor

thelifetimeofthecamerawhereasfilmrollsareare­

incurringcostoffilmcameras.

Fasterworkflow:Management(colourandfile),

manipulationandprintingtoolsaremoreversatilethanconventionalfilmprocesses.However,

batchprocessingofRAWfilescanbetimeconsuming,evenonafastcomputer.

Digitalmanipulation:Adigitalimagecanbemodifiedandmanipulatedmucheasierandfaster

thanwithtraditionalnegativeandprintmethods.Thedigitalimagetotherightwascapturedin

Rawimageformat,processedandoutputin3differentwaysfromthesourceRAWfile,then

mergedandfurtherprocessedforcolorsaturationandotherspecialeffectstoproduceamore

dramaticresultthanwasoriginallycapturedwiththeRAWimage.

The GoldenGateBridge retouchedfor painterlylighteffects

TheGoldenGateBridgeretouchedfor

painterlylighteffects

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qualityforsmallimagesinnewspaperormagazinereproduction.Eight­to24­megapixelimages,found

inmoderndigitalSLRs,whencombinedwithhigh­endlenses,canapproximatethedetailoffilmprints from35mmfilmbasedSLRs. [20]

Disadvantagesofdigitalcameras

HighISOimagenoisemaymanifestasmulticoloredspecklesindigitalimages,ratherthanthe

less­objectionable"grain"ofhigh­ISOfilm.Whilethisspecklingcanberemovedbynoise­

reductionsoftware,eitherin­cameraoronacomputer,thiscanhaveadetrimentaleffectonimage

qualityasfinedetailmaybelostintheprocess.

Aliasingmayaddpatternstoimagesthatdonotexistandwouldnotappearinfilm.

Formanyconsumers,theadvantagesofdigitalcamerasoutweighthedisadvantages.Someprofessional

photographersstillpreferfilm.Concernsthathavebeenraisedbyprofessionalphotographersinclude:

editingandpost­processingofRAWfilescantakelongerthan35mmfilm,downloadingalargenumber

ofimagestoacomputercanbetime­consuming,shootinginremotesitesrequiresthephotographerto carryanumberofbatteries,equipmentfailure—whileallcamerasmayfail,somefilmcameraproblems (e.g.,meterorrangefinderproblems,failureofonlysomeshutterspeeds)canbeworkedaround.Astime passes,itisexpectedthatmoreprofessionalphotographerswillswitchtodigital. [21]

Equivalentfeatures

Imagenoise/grain

Noiseinadigitalcamera'simageisremarkablysimilartofilmgraininafilmcamera.AthighISOlevels (filmspeed)thegrain/noisebecomesmoreapparentinthefinalimage.AlthoughfilmISOlevelscanbe

lowerthandigitalISOlevels(25and50respectively),digitalsettingscanbechangedquicklyaccording

torequirements,whilefilmmustbephysicallyreplacedandprotectedfromalllightduringsuch

replacement.Additionally,imagenoisereductiontechniquescanbeusedtoremovenoisefromdigital

imagesandfilmgrainisfixed.Fromanartisticpointofview,filmgrainandimagenoisemaybe

desirablewhencreatingaspecificmoodforanimage.Moderndigitalcamerashavecomparable

noise/grainatthesameISOasfilmcameras.Somedigitalcamerasthough,doexhibitapatterninthe

digitalnoisethatisnotfoundonfilm.

Speedofuse

Turnofthecenturydigitalcamerashadalongstart­updelaycomparedtofilmcameras,i.e.,thedelay fromwhentheyareturnedonuntiltheyarereadytotakethefirstshot,butthisisnolongerthecasefor moderndigitalcameraswithstart­uptimesunder1/4seconds. [22] Similarly,theamountoftimeneeded towritethedataforadigitalpicturetothememorycardisnowcomparabletotheamountoftimeit takestowindthefilmonafilmcamera,withmoderndigitalcamerasandmodernfastmemorycards. Bothdigitalcamerasandfilmcamerashaveasmalldelaybetweenwhentheshutterbuttonispressed andwhenthepictureistaken–thisisthetimenecessarytoautofocusthelensandcomputeandsetthe exposure.(ThisshutterdelayispracticallyzeroforSLRandthebestDSLRcameras.)

Framerate

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Whilesomefilmcamerascouldreachupto10fps,liketheCanonEOS­1VHS, [23] professionaldigital SLRcamerascantakestillphotographsathighestframerates.WhiletheSonySLTtechnologyallows

ratesofupto12fps,theCanonEOS­1Dxcantakestillsata14fpsrate.TheNikonF5islimitedto36

continuousframes(thelengthofthefilm)whiletheCanonEOS­1DMarkIIIisabletotakeabout110

PanasonicLumixDMC­FZ100has11frame/s. [24][25] MoreoverFinePixHS10cantakemoviesat1000 frame/sat224x64pixelswithnosound. [26]

Imagelongevity

Filmandprintscanfade,butdigitalimagescanpotentiallylastunchangedforever.However,themedia

onwhichthedigitalimagesarestoredcandecayorbecomecorrupt,leadingtoalossofimageintegrity.

Filmanddigitalmediashouldbestoredunderarchivalconditionsformaximumlongevity.Without

backupitiseasiertolosehugeamountsofdigitaldata,forexamplebyaccidentaldeletionoffolders,or

byfailureofamassstoragedevice.Incomparison,eachgenerationofcopiesoffilmnegativesand

transparenciesisdegradedcomparedtoitsparent.Filmimagescaneasilybeconvertedtodigital(by

usingadigitalfilmscannerforexample)withsomepossiblelossofquality.

Colourreproduction

Colourreproduction(gamut)isdependentonthetypeandqualityoffilmorsensorusedandthequality

oftheopticalsystemandfilmprocessing.Differentfilmsandsensorshavedifferentcolorsensitivity;the

photographerneedstounderstandhisequipment,thelightconditions,andthemediausedtoensure

accuratecolourreproduction.ManydigitalcamerasofferRAWformat(sensordata),whichmakesit

possibletochoosecolorspaceinthedevelopmentstageregardlessofcamerasettings.Ineffect,the

sceneisstoredasfarasthesensorallows,andcantosomeextentbe"rephotographed"withdifferent

colorbalance,exposure,etc.

EveninRAWformat,however,thesensorandthecamera'sdynamicscanonlycaptureinthegamutthat

thesystemsupports.Whenthatimageistransferredforreproductiononanydevice,thebestpossible

gamutisthegamutthattheenddevicesupports.Foramonitor,itisthescreen'sgamut—fora

photographicprint,itisthegamutofthedevicethatprintstheimageonthepaper.ColorgamutorColor

spaceisanabstracttermthatdescribesanareawherepointsofcolorfitinathree­dimensionalspace.

Picturethisasdifferentshapedboxes,whereoneboxmaynotfitintoanother—sowhatdoesnotfitgets

clippedoff.

Professionalphotographersoftenusehigh­endmonitorsthatareregularlycalibratedtoreproduce

color/highlights/shadowsetc.consistently.

Frameaspectratios

Mostdigitalpoint&shootcamerashaveanaspectratioof1.33(4:3),thesameasanalogtelevisionor

earlymovies.However,a35mmpicture'saspectratiois1.5(3:2).Severaldigitalcamerastakephotosin

eitherratio,andnearlyalldigitalSLRstakepicturesina3:2ratio,asmostcanuselensesdesignedfor

35mmfilm.Somephotolabsprintphotoson4:3ratiopaper,aswellastheexisting3:2.In2005

Panasoniclaunchedthefirstconsumercamerawithanativeaspectratioof16:9,matchingHDTV.This

issimilartoa7:4aspectratio,whichwasacommonsizeforAPSfilm.Differentaspectratiosisoneof

thereasonsconsumershaveissueswhencroppingphotos.Anaspectratioof4:3translatestoasizeof

4.5"x6.0".Thisloseshalfaninchwhenprintingonthe"standard"sizeof4"x6",anaspectratioof3:2.

Similarcroppingoccurswhenprintingonothersizes,i.e.,5"x7",8"x10",or11"x14".

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Seealso

Onlineproofing Rawimageformat 3Dcamcorder References 1. ^

References

1. ^FredC.Billingsley,"ProcessingRangerandMarinerPhotography,"inComputerizedImagingTechniques,

ProceedingsofSPIE,Vol.0010,pp.XV­1–19,Jan.1967(Aug.1965,SanFrancisco)."Marinerisuniquein

thatthepictureswereconvertedto6­bitdigitalforminthespacecraft.Thedigitalsignalsweretransmittedata

veryslowrate(81/3bits/sec)anddecodedandreformattedinthe7094computerbeforebeingpresentedtothe

film­recordingequipmentoncomputertape.Thus,therearenodigitizingandsynchronizingproblems,andthe operationconsistsmerelyofproducingthedigitallyrecordedfilm."

Facts.Retrieved2Aug2012.

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5.

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^"1990"(http://www.digicamhistory.com/1990.html).DigiCamHistoryDotCom.Retrieved17September

2007.

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^CarolynSaid,"DYCAMModel1:ThefirstportableDigitalStillCamera",MacWeek,vol.4,No.35,16

Oct.1990,p.34.

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DigitalPhotographyReview.Jul11,2000.RetrievedAug22,2014.

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