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Imagesensor­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Imagesensor

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Animagesensorisadevicethatconvertsanopticalimageinto

videocameratubes;currentlyusedtypesaresemiconductor

complementarymetal–oxide–semiconductor(CMOS)orN­type

metal­oxide­semiconductor(NMOS,LiveMOS)technologies.

Amicrographofthecornerofthe photosensorarrayofa‘webcam’ digitalcamera

Amicrographofthecornerofthe

photosensorarrayofa‘webcam’

digitalcamera

Imagesensoronthemotherboardofa NikonCoolpixL26MP

Imagesensoronthemotherboardofa

NikonCoolpixL26MP

Contents

1CCDvsCMOSContents 2Performance 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 8References

2PerformanceContents 1CCDvsCMOS 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 8References

3ColorseparationContents 1CCDvsCMOS 2Performance 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 8References

4SpecialtysensorsContents 1CCDvsCMOS 2Performance 3Colorseparation 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 8References

5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras

6Companies2Performance 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 7Seealso 8References 9Externallinks

7Seealso2Performance 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 8References 9Externallinks

8References1CCDvsCMOS 2Performance 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 9Externallinks

9Externallinks1CCDvsCMOS 2Performance 3Colorseparation 4Specialtysensors 5Sensorsusedindigitalcameras 6Companies 7Seealso 8References

CCDvsCMOS

Today,mostdigitalstillcamerasuseeitheraCCDimagesensor

oraCMOSsensor.Bothtypesofsensoraccomplishthesame

taskofcapturinglightandconvertingitintoelectricalsignals.

EachcellofaCCDimagesensorisananalogdevice.Whenlight

strikesthechipitisheldasasmallelectricalchargeineach

photosensor.Thechargesareconvertedtovoltageonepixelata

timeastheyarereadfromthechip.Additionalcircuitryinthe

cameraconvertsthevoltageintodigitalinformation.

ACMOSimagingchipisatypeofactivepixelsensormade

usingtheCMOSsemiconductorprocess.Extracircuitrynextto

eachphotosensorconvertsthelightenergytoavoltage.

Additionalcircuitryonthechipmaybeincludedtoconvertthe

voltagetodigitaldata.

Neithertechnologyhasaclearadvantageinimagequality.On

onehand,CCDsensorsaremoresusceptibletoverticalsmear

frombrightlightsourceswhenthesensorisoverloaded;high­endCMOSsensorsinturndonotsuffer

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fromthisproblem.Ontheotherhand,cheaperCMOSsensorsaresusceptibletoundesiredeffectsthat

comeasaresultofrollingshutter.

CMOSsensorscanpotentiallybeimplementedwithfewercomponents,uselesspower,and/orprovide fasterreadoutthanCCDsensors.CCDisamorematuretechnologyandisinmostrespectstheequalof CMOS. [1][2] CMOSsensorsarelessexpensivetomanufacturethanCCDsensors.

AnotherhybridCCD/CMOSarchitecture,soldunderthename"sCMOS,"consistsofCMOSreadout integratedcircuits(ROICs)thatarebumpbondedtoaCCDimagingsubstrate–atechnologythatwas developedforinfraredstaringarraysandnowadaptedtosilicon­baseddetectortechnology. [3] Another approachistoutilizetheveryfinedimensionsavailableinmodernCMOStechnologytoimplementa CCDlikestructureentirelyinCMOStechnology.Thiscanbeachievedbyseparatingindividualpoly­ silicongatesbyaverysmallgap.Thesehybridsensorsarestillintheresearchphaseandcanpotentially harnessthebenefitsofbothCCDandCMOSimagers. [4]

ThenewersensortechnologyisBack­sideilluminatedCMOS(BSI­CMOS)whichuseslesselectricity

thantraditionalCMOSwithbetterperformancethanCCD,solowerendcamerasstilluseCCDsensors

suchasthoseimplementedbyFujifilminitsBridgecameras.CCDsensorsarerarelyusedinnew

models,exceptforveryhighpixelcount,bigsensorcameraswhichstilluseCCDs.

Performance

Therearemanyparametersthatcanbeusedtoevaluatetheperformanceofanimagesensor,including

dynamicrange,signal­to­noiseratio,andlow­lightsensitivity.Forsensorsofcomparabletypes,the

signal­to­noiseratioanddynamicrangeimproveasthesizeincreases.

Colorseparation

Thereareseveralmaintypesofcolorimagesensors,differingbythe

typeofcolor­separationmechanism:

Bayerpatternonsensor

Bayerpatternonsensor

Foveon'sschemeofvertical filteringforcolorsensing

Foveon'sschemeofvertical

filteringforcolorsensing

Bayerfiltersensor,low­costandmostcommon,usinga

colorfilterarraythatpassesred,green,orbluelightto

selectedpixelsensors,forminginterlacedgridssensitiveto

red,green,andblue–themissingcolorsamplesare

interpolatedusingademosaicingalgorithm.Inordertoavoid

fromtheoppositesideofwherethetransistorsandmetal

wiresare,suchthatthemetalconnectionsonthedevicesside

arenotanobstacleforthelight,andtheefficiencyis

higher. [5][6]

FoveonX3sensor,usinganarrayoflayeredpixelsensors,separatinglightviatheinherent

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wavelength­dependentabsorptionpropertyofsilicon,suchthateverylocationsensesallthree

colorchannels.

3CCD,usingthreediscreteimagesensors,withthecolorseparationdonebyadichroicprism.

Specialtysensors

Specialsensorsareusedinvariousapplicationssuchasthermography,creationofmulti­spectralimages,

videolaryngoscopes,gammacameras,sensorarraysforx­rays,andotherhighlysensitivearraysfor

Untilnowalldigitalcamerasuseaflatsensor,butin2014Sonyhasaprototypeofacurvedsensor

whichwillreduce/eliminatePetzvalfieldcurvaturethatoccurswithaflatsensor.Althoughitisa prototypedesign,itispossiblethecurvedsensorwillbeimplementedinSony'snewfixedlenscameraat

theendof2014.Useofacurvedsensorallowsashorterandsmallerdiameterofthelenswithreduced

elementsandcomponentswithgreaterapertureandreducedfalllight­offattheedgeofthephoto. [7]

Sensorsusedindigitalcameras

     

Actual

   

Width

Height

(px)

(px)

pixel

Cameraexamples

count

         

100

100

1:1

10,000

0.01

Prototype(1975)

640

480

640 480 307,200 0.3 AppleQuickTake100 (1994)

307,200

0.3

832

608

832 608 505,856 0.5 CanonPowershot600(1996)

505,856

0.5

CanonPowershot600(1996)

1,024

768

1,024 768 786,432 0.8 OlympusD­300L(1996)

786,432

0.8

OlympusD­300L(1996)

1024

1024

1:1

1,048,576

1.0

NikonNASAF4(1991)

1,280

960

1,280 960 1,228,800 1.3 FujifilmDS­300(1997)

1,228,800

1.3

FujifilmDS­300(1997)

         

FujifilmMX­700,FujifilmMX­

1700(1999),LeicaDigilux

1,280

1,024

5:4

1,310,720

1.3

(1998),LeicaDigiluxZoom

(2000)

   

1,920,000        NikonCoolpix950 ,Samsung

   

NikonCoolpix950,Samsung

1,600

1,200

2

GT­S3500

2,012

1,324

2,663,8882,012 1,324   2.74 NikonD1

 

2.74

   

3,145,728        CanonPowerShotA75,Nikon

   

2,048

1,536

3

         

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2,272

1,704

3,871,4882,272 1,704   4 i4R(althoughCCDisactuall y

 

4

square2,272×2,272)

2,464

1,648

4,060,6722,464 1,648   4.1 Canon1D

 

4.1

         

OlympusE­1,SonyCyber­shot

2,560

1,920

4,915,2002,560 1,920 5 DSC­F707,SonyCyber­shot

5

2,816

2,112

5,947,3922,816 2,112   5.9 OlympusStylus600Digital

 

5.9

OlympusStylus600Digital

         

3,008

2,000

6,016,0003,008 2,000 6 MinoltaMaxxum7D,Konica

6

D1

         

3,072

2,048

6,291,4563,072 2,048 6.3 300D

6.3

   

7,077,888        OlympusFE­210,Canon

   

3,072

2,304

7

3,456

2,304

7,962,6243,456 2,304   8 CanonEOS350D

 

8

         

7,990,272350, CanonPowerShotA720IS ,

3,264

2,448

8

   
         

3,504

2,336

8,185,3443,504 2,336 8.2 1DMarkII,CanonEOS­1D

8.2

3,520

2,344

8,250,8803,520 2,344   8.25 CanonEOS20D

 

8.25

         

9,980,928PowerShotS95,NikonCoolPix

3,648

2,736

10

   
         

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3,872

2,592

 

10,036,2243,872 2,592   10 D3000,NikonD200,Nikon

10

     

10,077,696        CanonEOS40D,CanonEOS

 

3,888

2,592

10.1

4,064

2,704

 

10,989,0564,064 2,704   11 CanonEOS­1Ds

11

         

12,000,000FinePixS200EXR,Nikon

4,000

3,000

12

   
     

12,052,992        NikonD3 , NikonD3S, Nikon

 

4,256

2,832

12.1

4,272

2,848

 

12,166,6564,272 2,848   12.2 CanonEOS450D

12.2

4,032

3,024

 

12,192,7684,032 3,024   12.2 OlympusPENE­P1

12.2

         

4,288

2,848

12,212,2244,288 2,848 12.2 NikonD300S , NikonD90,

12.2

4,900

2,580

4,900 2,580 12,642,000 12.6 REDONE Mysterium

12,642,000

12.6

REDONEMysterium

4,368

2,912

4,368 2,912 12,719,616 12.7 CanonEOS5D

12,719,616

12.7

5,120

2,700

5,120 2,700 13,824,000 13.8 RED Mysterium­X

13,824,000

13.8

REDMysterium­X

7,920

       

(2,640×

1,760

(2,640× 1,760 13,939,200 13.9 layersofpixels,4.7MPper

13,939,200

13.9

layersofpixels,4.7MPper

3)

layer,inFoveonX3sensor)

4,672

3,104

4,672 3,104 14,501,888 14.5 PentaxK20D , PentaxK­7

14,501,888

14.5

   
        CanonEOS50D,CanonEOS
   

4,752

3,168

15,054,336

15.1

         

4,896

3,264

4,896 3,264 15,980,544 16.0 (X­Transsensorhasadifferent

15,980,544

16.0

(X­Transsensorhasadifferent

patterntoaBayersensor)

   
        NikonD7000 , NikonD5100,
   

4,928

3,262

16,075,136

16.1

   
        CanonEOS­1DsMarkII ,
   

4,992

3,328

16,613,376

16.6

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5,184

3,456

17,915,9045,184 3,456 17.9 60D, CanonEOS600D, Can on

17.9

       

4,928

3,696

 

18,200,0004,928 3,696   18.2 SonyHX20

18.2

5,270

3,516

 

18,529,3205,270 3,516   18.5 LeicaM9 , RED Dragon

18.5

LeicaM9,REDDragon

     

21,026,304        CanonEOS­1DsMarkIII ,

 

5,616

3,744

21.0

         

6,048

4,032

24,385,5366,048 4,032 24.4 Alpha99,NikonD3Xand

24.4

5,140

5,140

1:1

26,419,600

26.4

LeicaS1(linescanner,1997) [8]

7,360

4,912

7,360 4,912 36,152,320 36.2 NikonD800 , SonyAlpha7R

36,152,320

36.2

7,500

5,000

7,500 5,000 37,500,000 37.5 LeicaS2

37,500,000

37.5

7,212

5,142

7,212 5,142 39,031,344 39.0 HasselbladH3DII­39

39,031,344

39.0

7,216

5,412

7,216 5,412 39,052,992 39.1 LeicaRCD100

39,052,992

39.1

7,264

5,440

7,264 5,440 39,516,160 39.5 Pentax645D

39,516,160

39.5

7,320

5,484

7,320 5,484 40,142,880 40.1 PhaseOneIQ140

40,142,880

40.1

7,728

5,368

~10:7

41,483,904

41.5

   
        HasselbladH3DII­50 ,
   

8,176

6,132

50,135,232

50.1

         

BetterLight4000E­HS

11,250

5,000

9:4

56,250,000

56.3

(scanned)

8,956

6,708

8,956 6,708 60,076,848 60.1 HasselbladH4D­60

60,076,848

60.1

   
        PhaseOneIQ160,PhaseOne
   

8,984

6,732

60,480,288

60.5

   
        LeafAptus­II12,LeafAptus­II
   

10,320

7,752

80,000,640

80

12R

10,328

7,760

10,328 7,760 80,145,280 80.1 PhaseOneIQ180

80,145,280

80.1

9,372

9,372

1:1

87,834,384

87.8

LeicaRC30(pointscanner)

         

12,600

10,500

6:5

132,300,000

132.3

(linescanner)

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18,000

8,000

9:4

144,000,000

144

BetterLight6000­HS/6000E­

HS(linescanner)

21,250

7,500

17:6

159,375,000

159.4

Seitz6x17Digital(linescanner)

         

16,352*

12,264*

200,540,92816,352* 12,264* 200.5 (*actuatedmulti(6x)shot)

200.5

(*actuatedmulti(6x)shot)

     

216,000,000        BetterLight Super6K­HS(line

 

BetterLightSuper6K­HS(line

18,000

12,000

216

scanner)

     
          BetterLight Super8K­HS(line
   

BetterLightSuper8K­HS(line

24,000

15,990

~

383,760,000

383.8

scanner)

         

BetterLightSuper10K­HS(line

30,600

13,600

9:4

416,160,000

416.2

scanner)

         

SeitzRoundshotD3(80mm

62,830

7,500

~25:3

471,225,000

471.2

lens)(scanned)

         

SeitzRoundshotD3(110mm

62,830

13,500

~5:1

848,205,000

848.2

lens)(linescanner)

38,000

38,000

1:1

1,444,000,000

1,444

         

BetterLight300mmlens

157,000

18,000

~26:3

2,826,000,000

2,826

Digital(linescanner)

Companies

Thelargestcompaniesthatmanufactureimagingsensorsincludethefollowing:

Aptina(formerlydivisionofMicronTechnology)­NowpartofONSemiconductor [9]

Caeleste­Nowpartof ONSemiconductor [ 9 ] Canesta Canon CMOSIS Dalsa EastmanKodak ESSTechnology Fujifilm MagnaChip

MagnaChipCaeleste CMOSIS Dalsa EastmanKodak ESSTechnology Fujifilm Matsushita MAZeTGmbH

MAZeTGmbHCMOSIS Dalsa EastmanKodak ESSTechnology Fujifilm MagnaChip Matsushita http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_sensor 7/9

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PixArtImagingONSemiconductor (formerly CypressSemiconductor ) Pixim Samsung Sharp Sony STMicroelectronics Toshiba

Pixim(formerly CypressSemiconductor ) PixArtImaging Samsung Sharp Sony STMicroelectronics Toshiba TowerJazz

TownLineTechnologiesSamsung Sharp Sony STMicroelectronics Toshiba TowerJazz TransChip Trusight Trusenseimaging­Nowpartof

TransChipSTMicroelectronics Toshiba TowerJazz TownLineTechnologies Trusight Trusenseimaging­Nowpartof ONSemiconductor [ 1

TrusightToshiba TowerJazz TownLineTechnologies TransChip Trusenseimaging­Nowpartof ONSemiconductor [ 1 0 ]

Trusenseimaging­NowpartofONSemiconductor [10]

Seealso

Full­framedigitalSLR Imagesensorformat ,thesizesandshapesofcommonimagesensors Colorfilterarray Full­framedigitalSLR Imagesensorformat,thesizesandshapesofcommonimagesensors Colorfilterarray,mosaicoftinycolorfiltersovercolorimagesensors Sensitometry,thescientificstudyoflight­sensitivematerials

Historyoftelevision,thedevelopmentofelectronicimagingtechnologysincethe1880s.

References

2001

VincentBockaert

Raoetal.,"CCDstructuresimplementedinstandard0.18µmCMOStechnology"