Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 73

Institutional and

Policy Landscapes
of Disaster Risk
Reduction and
Climate Change
Adaptation
In Asia and the
Pacific

PHILIPPI
NES

Rodel D. Lasco and Rafaela Jane P. Delfino


A Joint Project of the
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Philippines
and United Nations International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction Secretariat (UNISDR)
Asia and Pacific Regional Office

June 2010
(DRAFT)

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

PHILIPPINES
INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY LANDSCAPES OF DISASTER
RISK REDUCTION AND
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ASIA AND PACIFIC
SUMMARY
Development faces a growing threat from a changing climate particularly through
the impact of more extreme events. The Philippines has been considered as highly
vulnerable to current (i.e. natural disasters), as well as future climate-related risks.
The development goals of the country can be severely affected and a great number
of population and livelihoods can be at risk. Managing risks to development requires
the systematic integration of disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change
adaptation (CCA) in terms of project activities, coordination and financing
mechanisms. However, until now these agendas have evolved independently in
terms of institutions and policies.
Over the years, there have been several planning and development projects that
have addressed these issues. The outputs of these projects although substantial,
have not found their way into the scientific literature. As a result they have not been
cited in assessments such as those by the IPCC and thus failed to inform policy
making. This UN ISDR-ICRAF project tries to address those gaps in knowledge
transfer. This paper reviewed the initiatives of the Philippines on DRM and CCA and
assesses the progress of its integration to development planning.

30 June 2010

Significant program and strategy advances have been gained in strengthening DRM;
and pioneering steps, including key national policies and institutions for promoting
CCA. The recently approved policies on both DRM and CCA, and other adaptation
projects feature clear overlaps, including efforts to harmonize coordination
structures. From the review of the DRM and CCA institutional and policy landscapes
of the country, the study provides recommendations and immediate priorities for
the Philippines to facilitate effective integration of DRM and CCA into policies and
programs.

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

PROJECT BACKGROUND
It is being increasingly recognized that mainstreaming of an integrated approach to
CCA and DRR into key sectoral policies, such as agriculture and natural resource
management and urban development, is essential. Indeed, it is crucial for climate
change and disaster risk reduction initiatives to work in tandem and that synergies
between the two are further articulated. The need exists for a better exchange of
knowledge that will benefit of both disciplines experiences, in order to avoid
inappropriate adaptation practices and unsustainable policies.
In many Southeast Asian countries, poor and highly vulnerable sectors of the
population depend on natural resources for livelihoods. This is has given rise to
attempts to develop an ecosystems-based approach to CCA and DRR. Over the
years, there have been several planning and development projects that have
addressed these issues. The outputs of these projects although substantial, have
not found their way into the scientific literature. In many cases they have very
limited circulation. As a result they have not been cited in assessments such as
those by the IPCC and thus failed to inform policy making.
This project will address those gaps in knowledge transfer. Results will be available
to the concurrent investigations that are synthesizing national and regional CCADRR efforts and to IPCC as peer reviewed resource documents.
The project generally aims to provide research; writing and literature review to
compile a thorough review of relevant documentation, published and unpublished,
on the subject of climate change adaptation and the relationship to disaster risk
reduction in the Philippines. Specifically:

30 June 2010

Review existing documentary sources, projects and programmes on climate


change adaptation and disaster risk reduction;
Investigate all relevant projects that have been undertaken over the last two
years by key stakeholders, and prepare a list of those projects and
programmed with a means of reviewing their status, replicability, area of
focus (sector, hazard etc.).Compile and categorise such documents in a way
that they can be accessible in electronic form, with the information necessary
to access those documents from the database. And contribute to the
updating of these templates and the overall organizational approach for the
documentary review;
Prepare a shortlist of key topic areas by sector (if appropriate) that can be the
basis of the two stage reviews and lessons learned (practical examples of
where good climate change adaptation practices has reduced disaster risk in
a sustainable manner);
Undertake a documentary review through a review all collected documents of
possible relevance and prepare a brief annotation on those documents and
provide a brief review of the possible use and value of that publication; and
select key documents from which a synthesis can be derived that is topic
specific, that will contribute to two audiences: i) the IPCC review, and ii) the

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
ongoing Regional Synthesis project. The result will be either publishable
material on the selected topics or complete background documentary
evidence upon which specific publications can be derived.

30 June 2010

ACRONYMS
ADB
Asian Development Bank
ADPC
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
APSEMO
Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office
AusAid
Australia Agency for International Development
BSWM
Bureau of Soils and Management
CAS
Country Assistance Strategy
CBDRM
Community-based Disaster Risk Management
CCA
Climate Change Adaptation
CIRCA
Center for Initiatives and Research on Climate Adaptation
CLUP
Comprehensive Land Use Plane
DA
Department of Agriculture
DENR
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DepEd
Department of Education
DFID
Department for International Development
DILG
Department of Interior and Local Government
DIPECHO
European Commission Humanitarian Aid Department Disaster
Preparedness Program
DOE
Department of Energy
DOH
Department of Health
DPWH
Department of Public Works and Highways
DRR/M
Disaster Risk Reduction/Management
EC
European Commission
EU
European Union
EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment
EMB
Environmental Management Bureau
ENSO
El Nino Southern Oscillation
EWS
Early Warning System
GCM
Global Circulation Model
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GFDRR
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
GIS
Geographic Information System
GSIS
Government Service Insurance System
GTZ
German Technical Cooperation
HFA
Hyogo Framework of Action
IEC
Information, Education and Communication
IFRC
International Federation for Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
INGO
International Non-government Organization
IPCC
Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
IRA
Internal Revenue Allotment

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
ITCZ
IWRM
JICA
LCF
LGU
MDG
MGB
MO
MTPDP
NAMRIA
NCF
NDCC
NDRRMC
NEDA
NGA
NGO
NPC
NWRB
MDG
MTPDP
OCD
ODA
PAGASA
PCCA
PCIC
PDIP
PDRRMA
PGA
PHIVOLCS
PIA
PNRC
READY
SNAP
UNDP
UNESCAP

30 June 2010

UNCHR
UNFCCC
UNISDR

Inter-tropical Convergence Zone


Integrated Water Resources Management
Japan International Cooperation Agency
Local Calamity Fund
Local Government Unit
Millennium Development Goal
Mines and Geosciences Bureau
Manila Observatory
Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan
National Mapping and Resource Information Authority
National Calamity Fund
National Disaster Coordinating Council
National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council
National Economic and Development Authority
National Government Agency
Non-government Organization
National Power Corporation
National Water Resources Board
Millennium Development Goal
Medium Term Philippine Development Plan
Office of Civil Defense
Official Development Assistance
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Agency
Philippine Climate Change Act
Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation
Provincial Development Investment Plan
Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act
Provincial Government of Albay
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
Philippine Information Agency
Philippine National Red Cross
Hazards Mapping and Assessment for Effective Community-Based
Disaster Risk Management Project
Strategic National Action Plan
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Pacific
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Summary
Project Background
Acronyms
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

INTRODUCTION
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES
2.1
Policy Framework
2.2
Institutions working in DRR
2.3
Disaster management strategies
2.4
Key areas of progress and challenges
2.5
Good examples of DRR
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION INITIATIVES
3.1
Policy and Strategy Framework
3.2
Regional organizations working in CCA
3.3
Climate change adaptation activities in AP
3.4
The capacity of CCA in AP
3.5
Good examples of CCA
PROGRESS IN INTEGRATION OF CCA AND DRR
4.1
Overall gaps and needs
4.2
Current mechanisms and incentives
4.3
Current barriers to integration
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1
Conclusions
5.2
Recommendations

30 June 2010

References
Appendices
A. Disaster Risk Management Institutions
B. DRM Projects
C. Climate Change Adaptation Institutions
D. CCA Projects
E. Sectoral Initiatives and Key Issues
F. Annotated Bibliography

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

List of Boxes
Box
Box
Box
Box
Box

1
2
3
4
5

Disaster-proofing development in Albay, Philippines


Climate change-related initiatives of the Philippine government
Lessons learned: initiatives of the Provincial Government of Albay on CCA
Recommended adaptation priorities of key sectors in Southeast Asia
DRR as a key result area in the NFSCC

List of Figures
Figure 1 Overlap between Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction
Figure 2 Number of people affected by natural disasters in the Philippines, 19722009
Figure 3 Total economic damages from natural disasters in Southeast Asia, 19702008
Figure 4 National government agencies working on DRR/M based on NDCC
Framework
Figure 5 National Framework Strategy on Climate Change
List of Tables

30 June 2010

Table 1 Key stakeholders and institutions on DRR/M in the Philippines


Table 2 Internationally supported projects on DRR/M, 2007 to present
Table 3 Summary report: disaster occurrences in the Province of Albay, 1994-2004
Table 4 Key stakeholders and institutions on CCA and mitigation in the Philippines
Table 5 General characterization of DRR/M and CCA communities in the country
Table 6 Progress toward integration (incentives and barriers) of DRR/M and CCA in
the country

30 June 2010

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

1. INTRODUCTION
Climate change has been dubbed the most serious threat facing humanity and the
last four decades have witnessed increased effort to understand the scientific
processes behind it, as well as identify the most sustainable measures for reversing
trends and adjusting to their consequences (Schipper, 2006). There is now a broad
consensus in the scientific community on the reality of human-induced climate
change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded in its
fourth assessment report (AR4) that it is 90 - 99 percent likely that the rise in global
atmospheric temperature since the mid-19th century has been caused by human
activities (IPCC, 2007). Among the predicted impacts associated with these rise in
temperature is the more frequent and powerful extreme climatic events, such as
storms, heat waves and hurricanes.
The Asia Pacific region suffers the most from extreme weather events and these will
likely increase with climate change. The Philippines, being an archipelagic country,
is highly vulnerable to climate-related hazards. Farmers have to cope with an
average of 20 tropical cyclones a year as well as recurring El Nio Southern
Oscillation (ENSO) events. Especially vulnerable are upland farmers who rely on
rainfall for water supply. The country is also characterized by several mountains /
hilly lands and is dominated by problem soils characterized by steep slopes and
fertility limitations.
It is increasingly being recognized that adaptation to climate change must be
considered as an integral element of development and poverty reduction efforts
(Burton et. al., 2006). The achievement of development goals is already jeopardized
by current and still intensifying level of disaster risks while vulnerability to these
hazards is also increasing due to poverty, urbanization, environmental degradation
and population growth (Oslo Policy Forum, 2008; DFID, 2003). At the World
Conference on Disaster Reduction, held in Kobe, Japan in 2005, climate change was
acknowledged as an underlying threat in relation to disasters in its outcome
strategy: the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015 (UNISDR, 2007). The
Philippine government adopted the HFA with the goal of substantially reducing
disaster losses by 2015 in terms of lives and social, economic and environmental
costs (GFDRR, undated).

30 June 2010

Climate change and disaster risk management


In the past decade, weather-related natural hazards have been the cause of 90
percent of natural disasters and 60 percent of related deaths (IFRC, 2005).
Worldwide, the destructiveness of tropical cyclones has increased over the past 30
years, due to an increase in their intensity and extent (Emmanuel, 2005). Indeed,
the number of intense tropical cyclones has nearly doubled since 1970 (Webster,
et.al., 2005).
The growing concerns about climate change come against the backdrop of a
worrying rise in the vulnerability to natural disasters. While the past few decades
saw a reduction in the number of people killed by natural disasters, there is a
dramatic increase in the number of people affected and socio-economic losses

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
(International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2003). This rise
in losses and people affected reflects a growing vulnerability to natural hazards and
in particular to weather- and climate-related hazards. While climate change may
already be playing a role, the key origin of rising disaster losses is increasing
vulnerability. The projected trends in extreme events and additional uncertainties
associated with climate change will compound these risks and make the challenge
of reducing them more urgent yet at the same time more difficult.
Although it is acknowledged that climate change may significantly affect the
weather patterns of the earth, the extent of this influence cannot be accurately
determined because of the uncertainty about the role played by climate change in
determining extremes in climate variability (Schipper and Pelling, 2006; van Aalst,
2001). It is therefore important to promote early and cost-effective adaptation to
climate change risks using current adaptation measures to existing climate
variability and extremes as a starting point (Stern, 2006; Sperling and Szekely,
2005). Improving the capacity of local communities, regions and governments in
dealing with current climate vulnerability is likely improving also their capacity in
dealing with future climate changes, especially if such measures are dynamic and
can be adjusted to further changes in risks and vulnerabilities.
Integrating CCA and DRM in development policies

30 June 2010

Natural disasters and climate change present considerable challenges for poverty
reduction and sustainable development affecting a range of socio-economic
systems (IPCC, 2001 as cited by Thomalla, et.al., 2006). Since the late 1990s, there
has been increasing recognition of the need to mainstream disaster risk reduction
into development - that is to consider and address risks emanating from natural
hazards in medium-term strategic frameworks and institutional structures.
Increasing appreciation of the need to mainstream DRR into development was
formalized in January 2005 when the HFA 2005-2015 was adopted by the World
Conference on Disaster Reduction. Thus, a number of development organizations
have begun efforts to mainstream DRR into their work, undertaking various
institutional, policy and program changes (Benson and Twigg, 2007).
In the same line, adaptation to climate change has risen on the agendas of
researchers, practitioners, and decision-makers in a variety of fields (Mc Gray et.al.,
2007). This emerging consensus is driving the recognition that adaptation to climate
change must be considered as an integral element of development and poverty
reduction efforts (Burton et. al., 2006) and, more particularly, will need to facilitate
adaptation to the effects of climate change (Mc Gray et.al. 2007). The achievement
of development goals is already jeopardized by current and still intensifying level of
disaster risks while vulnerability to these hazards is also increasing due to poverty,
urbanization, environmental degradation and population growth (Oslo Policy Forum,
2008; DFID, 2003).
Adaptation to climate change is considered especially relevant for developing
countries, where societies are already struggling to meet the challenges posed by
existing climate variability (Yamin et al. 2005; Adger et al., 2003), and are therefore
expected to be the most adversely affected by climate change (McCarthy et al.,

10

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
2001). The recent IPCC AR4 makes clear that adaptation will be necessary to
address impacts resulting from the warming which is already unavoidable due to
past emissions (IPCC, 2007).
Among the first to react on this wake up call are the development agencies as
evidenced by efforts to mainstream adaptation into aid programs and projects.
Individually and collectively, international multilateral and bilateral organizations
have responded to the increasing challenge of climate change with an agenda for
action to integrate climate concerns into the mainstream of developmental policy
making and poverty-reduction initiatives (World Bank, 2008).
CCA and DRR have much in common. Both aim to reduce the impacts of shocks by
anticipating risks and addressing vulnerabilities. Certainly, the majority of climate
change impacts will materialize through climate variability (e.g. prolonged wet and
dry season) and extreme weather events (e.g. heavy rainfall events). Climate
change is shifting the frequency and intensity of hazards, such as heavy rainfall,
droughts, high sea levels, and possibly cyclones, with direct implications for disaster
risk.

30 June 2010

Figure 1. Overlap between CCA and DRR (Mitchell and van Aalst, 2008)
However, while reducing the risk of weather extremes is a substantial component of
managing climate risk and of the overlap between DRR and adaptation (Figure 1),
DRR does not equal adaptation, and effective disaster risk management in a
changing climate is more than business as usual (Mitchell and van Aalst, 2008).

11

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

2. DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

30 June 2010

The Philippines is considered one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world
(Bildan, 2003; World Bank, 2005). The countrys exposure to disasters is to a
significant extent due to its geographical location and physical characteristics. It lies
along the Western Pacific Basin (a generator of climatic conditions such as
monsoons, thunderstorms, inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), typhoons, among
others) making it a path of an average of 20 tropical cyclones annually, nine of
which makes a landfall. Climate risk includes exposure to super typhoons, and other
extreme weather, El Nio-related droughts, projected rainfall change and projected
temperature increase. The country is also vulnerable to the El Nio Southern
Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO-droughts have become much more frequent in the 1990s
(2-year average recurrence interval) compared to the 1970s and 1980s
(approximately 4-year interval). This year, the country is experiencing another ENSO
event. The Department of Agriculture (DA) estimates that the total agricultural
production losses under a mild El Nio scenario could reach P8.09 billion, and
P20.46 billion under a severe dry spell (Martin, 2010). Flooding is another hazard
facing the country due to rains brought about by typhoons and the monsoon.
The risk to human life from natural disasters in the Philippines has increased
dramatically over the past generation (PRB, 2006). From 1971 to 2000, natural
disasters killed about 34,000 people in the country, but from 1990 to 2000, natural
disasters killed or disrupted the lives of 35 million people (Figure 2). It is expected
that climate change will exacerbate existing stresses in the country (The Philippines
Initial National Communication, 1999). Recent studies in the Philippines showed
that water resources, natural ecosystems and local communities are vulnerable to
climate change (Lasco, et.al. 2008; Villamor and Boquiren 2008; Perez 2002a and
b).

12

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Figure 2. Number of people affected by natural disasters in the Philippines, 19722009 (Source: UN ESCAP)

30 June 2010

Along with Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand and Indonesia, the
Philippines is among the lower middle income countries (GFDRR, undated). The high
risk due to the hazards above can affect long-term economic development and
foreign investments. Figure 3 shows the total amount of economic damages of
natural disasters in Southeast Asia from 1970 to 2008. Natural hazards are part and
parcel of the Philippine environment, but disasters happen because human
settlements, infrastructure, people and their economic activities are placed where
hazards happen. Costs of disaster impacts are borne by government, communities,
and individual households, thus threatening socio-economic development gains.
Thus, consideration of natural hazards and related risks in institutional programming
and policies may be critical in securing sustainable development in the longer term
and ensuring the effectiveness of organizations individual country strategies
(Benson and Twigg, 2007).

Figure 3. Total economic damages from natural disasters in Southeast Asia, 1970-

13

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
2008 (Source: UN ESCAP)
2.1

Policy Framework

Being vulnerable to various hazards, the Philippines have a long history of and a
rich experience in disaster management. It has developed an extensive institutional
structure for preparing for and responding to disasters.
2.1.1 Legal Basis and Organization

30 June 2010

The National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) is the highest policy making
body and the focal organization for disaster management in the country. It was
established through the Presidential Decree (PD) 1566 in 1978. Its establishment led
to disaster coordination from the national to regional to the lowest government unit
(barangay). The basic function of NDCC is to advice the President on the status of
national disaster preparedness and management plans, and recommends the
declaration of state of calamity and the release of the national calamity fund,
together with the Regional Disaster Coordinating Councils and Local Disaster
Coordinating Council. The NDCC establishes the priorities in the allocation of funds,
services, and relief supplied and plays an advisory role to lower DCCs through the
Office of Civil Defense by issuing guidelines. The disaster coordinating councils is an
inter-institutional arrangement or collegial body consisting of 17 national
government agencies and one non-governmental organization, the Philippine
National Red Cross (PNRC). The NDCC utilizes the facilities and services of the Office
of Civil Defense (OCD) as its secretariat and executive arm. The NDCC issues
guidelines on emergency preparedness and disaster operations.
The national calamities and disaster preparedness plan, prepared by the NDCC in
1988 following the issuance of PD 1566, specifies that disaster coordinating councils
be established for national, regional, Metro Manila, provincial, city or municipal, and
barangay level. It detailed the composition and respective functions of all key
member agencies. The council is chaired by the Secretary of National Defense with
14 Department Secretaries, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
(AFP), Executive Director of the Philippine Red Cross, Chairman of the National
Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), and the Director-General of the
Philippine Information Agency (PIA) as members. All implementing plans shall be
documented and copies furnished to NDCC through the OCD. The OCD was given a
vital role in executing and monitoring the implementation of policies and programs
making its Administrator the NDCC Executive Officer, and in providing a secretariat
support to the NDCC. NDCC member agencies are responsible for carrying out
respective tasks and responsibilities, which include preparedness, mitigation,
response and rehabilitation. The NDCC is replicated at the sub-national local levels
referred to as the local DCCs with 17 regional, 80 provincial, 117 city and 1496
municipal councils. The local DCCs function substantially like their national
counterpart except that they operate and utilize their own resources at their
respective levels. Each disaster coordinating council shall maintain a disaster
operations center. However, until this time, not all local government units have a

14

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
working DCC.
2.1.2 Disaster Fund
The NDCC does not have an annual budget allocation; it operates through member
agencies, regional and local DCCs. One basic source of funding that can be utilized
in the occurrence of disasters is the National Calamity Fund (NCF). This is a lumpsum amount which consists of five percent of the annual budget of the national
government that is tied to aid, relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Releases
from the fund are made directly to the appropriate implementing departments or
agencies and/or local government units in accordance with the recommendation of
the NDCC and upon approval of the president of the Philippines. This is contained in
Republic Act No. 8185 (1996) amending Republic Act No. 474 (1974) that created
the calamity fund. The current operating expenditures of NCF is PHP2 billion (US$
42.5 million). No funds are provided by law for mitigation and preparedness per se.
This was to strengthen the capabilities of local government in disaster
management.

30 June 2010

To respond immediately to an emergency or disaster, 25 percent of the NCF is


released to lead departments such as the social welfare and development, public
works and highways and national defense departments as a Quick Response Fund.
The amount is a stand-by fund which shall be utilized in times of calamities and is
intended primarily to provide relief and rehabilitation to calamity-affected
communities and areas and to normalize as quickly as possible the situation and
living conditions of the people in such communities and areas.
Another source of funding is the local government calamity fund set aside by local
government units (LGUs) from their annual local budgets. LGUs are mandated by
R.A. 8185 since 1996 to allocate five percent (5%) of its Internal Revenue Allotment
(IRA) as Local Calamity Fund (LCF) and can only be used upon declaration of a
state of calamity is the local legislative body. In 2003, a Joint Memorandum
Circular issued by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and the
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) permits the use of the LCF for
disaster preparedness and other pre-disaster activities. A 2004 World Bank-NDCC
study reports that an estimated 50 percent of the LCF go unused each year. The
current system, however, puts LGUs in poorer and island provinces (usually hazardprone) at a disadvantage as they have lower revenues and thus less available for
LCF. LGUs faced with disaster impacts will depend on external sources for additional
funds. Rehabilitation funds promised by the national government cannot be met
occasionally as planned setting back coordination agreements reached by
stakeholders in the affected LGUs.
2.1.3 Paradigm Shift
The country, through the NDCC, is putting greater attention from reactive disaster
management to a more proactive approach in line with international frameworks on

15

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
DRM (Jose, 2006). Since the OCD and NDCCs creation, PD 1566 has been the basic
law that guides the disaster management programs, projects and strategies
implementation in the country. However, it has been observed and noted from past
experiences, combined with lessons learned and gaps examination, that the law
that creates the Council is more leaning and gives more emphasis on response
action, thus, making the implementers reactive to possible disasters rather than
taking a proactive stance in disaster risk management. DRM is used in the sense of
dealing with risks prior to a hazard event, and therefore increasingly the NDCC has
added more activities focusing on mitigation and preparedness. In 2005, the
President approved the implementation of the NDCC Four Point Plan of Action for
Preparedness (4PPAP) which aims to increase public awareness and involvement in
measures put in place by the government to minimize the impact of disasters in the
future. Since then, the government through NDCC continued improving the
forecasting capability of the warning agencies, engaging LDCCs holding the annual
disaster consciousness month in July, and formalizing partnerships with different
stakeholders through memoranda of agreement. Nationwide promotion and
institutionalization of DRR has been taking place in terms of instilling awareness,
crafting plans and policies, establishing mobilization procedures and coordination
mechanisms for response, improving skills and technical know-how; and recognizing
good practices.

30 June 2010

The government also pursues a comprehensive disaster management framework


that encompasses disaster risk reduction, mitigation and preparedness in the preevent; and disaster response, rehabilitation and recovery in the post-event. The
Philippine DRM conforms with the Hyogo Framework of Action 2005-2015 that
highlight the need to reduce disaster risks more deliberately and systematically
through their integration into policies, plans and programs for sustainable
development and poverty reduction, supported by bilateral, regional and
international cooperation (WB, 2009 ). This framework also aims to contribute to
the attainment of the United Nations (UN) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs),
such as poverty eradication and environmental sustainability.
Further to this paradigm shift is the inclusiveness of DRM that is evolving in the
country. The past two years were marked with multi-stakeholder consultations,
which were conducted as integral part of two projects that provide direction to
future DRR in the Philippines, namely the national assessment on the state of DRM
and Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) (NDCC, 2009. Aside from providing ideas
on what needs to be done, stakeholders were able to exchange information in
forums that had not existed before. This watershed in DRR also potentially leads to
actually forming a national platform that the country needs. National multistakeholders held three times during the period, among others all point to the
necessity to continue the discussion and nurture experience. This augurs well in
consolidating ideas and opinions from various sectors in formulating future
strategies and charting the direction such as formulating a DRM law and adopting
steps to set up implementing rules and regulations.
2.1.4 Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (RA 10121)

16

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
The law acknowledged that there is a need to adopt a disaster risk reduction and
management approach that is holistic, comprehensive, integrated, and proactive in
lessening the socio-economic and environmental impacts of disasters including
climate change, and promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all
stakeholders concerned, at all levels, especially the local community.
The Act provides for the development of policies and plans and the implementation
of actions and measures pertaining to all aspects of disaster risk reduction and
management, including good governance, risk assessment and early warning,
knowledge building and awareness raising, reducing underlying risk factors, and
preparedness for effective response and early recovery.
The NDCC will now be called the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Council (NDRMC), empowered with policy-making, coordination, integration,
supervision, monitoring and evaluation. Among the functions of the NDRMC are the
development of a national disaster risk reduction and management framework,
which shall provide for a comprehensive, multi-sectoral, inter-agency and
community-based approach to disaster risk reduction and management.
The framework would be reviewed every five years or whenever necessary in order
to ensure its relevance to the times. A P1-billion revolving fund will be allocated to
the OCD to support its functions. The OCD would remain, headed by an
administrator who shall also be executive director of the NDRMC.
At the local government level, the barangay disaster coordinating councils are now
abolished and its functions would be assumed by existing barangay development
councils, which shall serve as local disaster risk reduction and management councils
(LDRRMC). The LDRRMC would ensure the integration of disaster risk reduction and
climate change adaptation into local development plans, programs and budgets as
a strategy in sustainable development and poverty reduction.

30 June 2010

While the NDRMC would still be recommending the declaration and lifting of a state
of calamity, the LDRRMC may also make its own recommendation to the local
Sanggunian for immediate implementation. Once a state of calamity is declared,
various remedial measures to be undertaken by the member agencies have also
been defined by the law, such as the automatic imposition of price ceilings on basic
necessities and prime commodities by the president as provided in the Price Act.
The present calamity fund appropriated under the annual General Appropriations
Act would now be known as the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Fund and it shall be used for disaster risk reduction or mitigation, prevention and
preparedness activities such as but not limited to training of personnel,
procurement of equipment, and capital expenditures.
It can also be utilized for relief, recovery, reconstruction and other work or services
in connection with natural or human-induced calamities, which may occur during
the budget year or those that occurred in the past two years from the budget year.
Of the amount appropriated for NDRRM Fund, thirty percent shall be allocated as
Quick Response Fund or standby fund for relief and recovery programs in order that
living conditions of people in communities or areas stricken by disasters, calamities,

17

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
epidemics, or complex emergencies, may be normalized as quickly as possible. The
law also provides for the integration of disaster risk reduction education into the
school curricula and Sangguniang Kabataan program and mandatory training for
public sector employees.
2.2
Institutions working on DRM
2.2.1 National Organizations working on DRRM (Appendix A)
Table 1. Key stakeholders and institutions on DRRM in the Philippines
Key Institution/s

Roles with respect to DRRM

a. Disaster Management
Coordination
Office of the Civil Defense (OCD)

The OCD is entrusted to


ensure the protection and public welfare
during disasters or emergencies. The OCD
serves as the operating arm of NDCC,
supporting discharge of its functions.

National Disaster Coordinating


Council (NDCC); Regional Disaster
Coordinating Council (RDCC); and
Local Disaster Coordinating Council
(LDCC)

The highest policy-making body on matters


of disasters in the country. NDCC advises
the President on efforts in disaster
management undertaken by the
government and the private sector, thereby
serving as the highest policy-making body
on disaster management. The NDCC is
replicated at the regional and local levels,
and these bodies function substantially like
the NDCC, operating and utilizing resources
at their respective levels.

Sectoral Government Agencies


(e.g. DPWH, DOTC, DOST, DA, DOE,
DENR, etc.)

Responsible for carrying out their respective


tasks and responsibilities in disaster
management including preparedness,
mitigation, response
and rehabilitation.

30 June 2010

b. Research Institutions
Philippine Institute for
Development Studies; Klima/Manila
Observatory; Bicol University;
Economy and Environment
Program for Southeast Asia
(EEPSEA)

Research (basic and applied) on disaster


related issues.

18

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
c. Multilateral and bilateral
organizations and International
NGOs
World Bank, UNDP, ADB, USAID,
AusAID, GTZ, DFID, JICA

Funding various development and


conservation programs in the country,
including most of the above-mentioned
projects and institutions.

Philippine National Red Cross,


Christian Aid , DFID, DRRnet, CDP,
etc.

d. Local partners, CSOs, and


private sector

30 June 2010

LGUs (e.g. Provincial Government


of Albay, Iloilo, Marinduque, etc.);
Centre for Initiatives and Research
on Climate Change Adaptation
(CIRCA); various community
organizations, corporations and
their foundations

Implement disaster risk reduction and


management projects at the ground

Figure 4. National government agencies working on DRR/M based on NDCC Disaster


Framework
This shows that the NDCC adopted the UN cluster approach as a coordination tool to
ensure a more coherent and effective response by mobilizing groups of agencies,

19

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
organizations and NGOs to respond in a strategic manner across all key sectors or
areas of activity. In the last three years, the disaster response capabilities at the
local level and coordination through the cluster approach were given more
attention. National cluster leads (national government agencies like DENR, DEPED
and DPWH as shown above) are lending support to regional DCCs to institutionalize
the standards and dimensions of the cluster approach, which aids particularly in the
last two phases of disaster framework (response and rehabilitation).
2.2.2 Mainstreaming DRR in national and international organizations
This section provides a background on what national government agencies are
tasked to do in the current existing system, prior to the HFA. Relevant legal
instruments and planning tools are mentioned where applicable.
Development Planning
The government started a process to integrate disaster mitigation and sustainable
development issues within the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP),
under Development Sector Administration. Within this framework, local
governments are required to integrate the disaster management plan into the local
development plan. The MTPDP has integrated DRR issues and investment projects.
The MTPDP 2004-2010 has chapters devoted to the environment, infrastructure and
national defense sectors with relevant disaster preparedness and mitigation
measures. In the Philippine Agenda 21 and Philippine Millennium Development Goal
(MDG) there is a lot of emphasis on adaptation to risks associated with current
climate variability and extremes.
Local government
Among the DRR functions of the Department of Interior and Local Government
(DILG) is to oversee the organization and activation of the LDCCs in coordination
with the OCD. It organizes the Police Auxiliary Services and Auxiliary Fire Services in
the LGUs. Since 2002, the DILG chairs the NDCC committee tasked to give the
award called Gawad Kalasag to LDCCs, humanitarian organizations, NGOs,
auxiliary/volunteer groups, and international and local organizations to recognize
exemplary deeds and achievements in the field of disaster management.

30 June 2010

National agencies
Education. The DepEd has put DRR topics as part of the curricula for primary and
secondary public schools.
Science and technology. PAGASA and PHIVOLCS are the countrys warning agencies
under the DOST. Both are service institutes, as differentiated from purely research
and development institutes. PHIVOLCS operates and maintains a system of
monitoring for earthquake occurrences, tsunami detection, volcanic eruption while
PAGASA has one for weather, hydrological phenomena, and climate variability. The
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) looks after the issuance of advisories on

20

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
radioactive fallouts, contamination and radiation accidents to the public, as well as
decontamination of areas impacted by radiation.
Land Use Planning. With respect to siting and land use, the Housing and Land Use
Regulatory Board (HLURB) and National Housing Authority (NHA) provide guidelines
for LGUs and real estate developers. HLURB develops the Geographic Information
System (GIS) Cookbook, which promotes GIS as a tool in spatial planning. Diffusion
of needed tools and techniques has proven to be a challenge. Some LGUs have
been using GIS in the preparation of their respective Comprehensive Land Use
Planning (CLUP). The HLURB Resolution, Series of 1992 has a provision against
constructing buildings within 5m of an active fault.
Environment. The countrys environmental impact assessment (EIA) system has
been in place since 1970s.
The Department of Environmental and Natural
Resources (DENR) oversees its implementation to ensure that hazards and risks are
taken into account in siting development projects. These require sufficient data and
information from PHIVOLCS regarding geological risks, and land use plans from
HLURB, as well as the identification of mitigating actions in order to address risk
management issues. Through its Mines and Geosciences Bureau (MGB), technical
assistance on geohazard mapping and assessment studies of major urban areas and
critical areas is provided in order to reduce disaster risks. The DENR promulgates
rules and regulations for the control of forest fires and forest pest and diseases. It
also undertakes reforestation and establishes control measures in areas prone to
flooding, landslide, mudflows, and ground subsidence.

30 June 2010

Poverty alleviation. The countrys Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA No.
8425) counts victims of calamities and disasters among the disadvantaged sectors
of Philippine society. The implementation of the Social Reform Policy is done by the
National Anti-Poverty Commission. A coordinating body under the Office of the
President, NAPC focuses on programs on poverty alleviation and resource
mobilization for the poor.
Public works and infrastructure. The Department of Public Works and Highways
(DPWH) prepares and identifies evacuation sites during emergencies; provides
warning on impending water releases from dams within its control; provides
transportation and communication facilities for disaster operations, and heavy and
light equipment for rescue and recovery operations. It also restores destroyed
public works, offices and other buildings. The relevant instruments are: (1) R.A.
6541 National Building Code of the Philippines (1972); (2) R.A. 1185 Fire Code of the
Philippines; and (3) the National Structural Code of the Philippines. The fifth edition
of the Structural Code (2001) introduces two important improvements: the nearfault criteria which gives a higher base shear for a building near a known active
fault compared to the same building at a remote location. And [] rewards
structures with more redundancy and alternative load paths.
Social welfare. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) has
several functions that pertain mainly to relief and rehabilitation. Its pre-event
functions include the updating of the national relief and rehabilitation master plan in
coordination with other partner NGAs; technical assistance for capability building
preparedness, mitigation, relief and rehabilitation; linking and coordinating with

21

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
local, foreign and multi-donors for disaster management programs. It also charged
to provide technical guidance in the conduct of post-disaster evaluation to identify
strengths and gaps in disaster management.
Health. The Department of Health has an organized Health Emergency System
(HEMS) for more responsive and integrated health response to disasters and
emergencies. It also assists LGUs during emergencies in the areas of sanitation,
public health concerns, prevention of epidemics, and other health hazards.
Finance and budget. The Department of Finance issues rules and regulations jointly
with the Department of Budget and Management on the preparation of local
government budget and the utilization of the 5% reserve for disaster operations. In
line with the governments program of strengthening the countrys disaster control
capability the Disaster Management Assistance Fund (DMAF) was created by virtue
of Municipal Development Fund Policy Governing Board Resolution No. 06-10-212007. It aims to provide financing, support to mitigation and prevention, response
and relief, and recovery and rehabilitation initiatives of LGUs.
Agriculture. The Department of Agriculture undertakes post-event agricultural
surveys and maintains data on agricultural crops, livestock, and fisheries in disasterprone areas to facilitate damage assessment.
Trade and Industry. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) ensures that prices
of basic and prime commodities are stabilized, and that basic necessities are
affordable and complying with fair trade laws.

30 June 2010

Transportation and communication.


The Department of Transportation and
Communication (DOTC) coordinates the deployment of transport services during
and after disaster occurrence from the national to the local DCC, mobilizes staff,
transport and communication facilities of the DOTC Action Center in the disaster
area, and initiates immediate restoration of destroyed infrastructure facilities for
transportation and communication.
Through its offices, the DOTC mobilizes
transport means to facilitate evaluation of people, undertakes aerial for search and
rescue operations in coordination with the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and
mobilizes regional telecommunication facilities in coordination with the National
Telecommunications Center and private providers.
National defense. The Department of National Defense (DND) provides the budget
for activities to be undertaken by the NDCC Technical Working Group. The Armed
Forces of the Philippines (AFP) organizes reaction teams in all military installations
and establishes communication linkages and makes these available in disaster
operations. The AFP also provides assistance to Philippine National Police in
providing security coverage, in reconstructing public infrastructure, and providing
transportation for movement of relief supplies and evacuation of disaster victims.
Tourism. The Department of Tourism (DoT) is obliged to organize and train disaster
coordinating groups and reaction teams in hotels, restaurants and other facilities.
International Organizations

22

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
Consideration of natural hazards and related risks in country programming of
international organizations is critical in securing sustainable long-term development
and ensuring the effectiveness of organizations individual country strategies. The
importance of DRR has been increasingly recognized in development organization
policies since the late 1990s. This shift has been driven by increasing understanding
of disasters as unresolved problems to development and by increasing losses from
disasters. Attention is now turning to the integration of disaster risk concerns into
country programming and mainstreaming disaster risk management within
development initiatives.
The scope, level and emphasis of country strategies differ between development
organizations depending on their areas of specialism, their developmental approach
and the scale of assistance provided. To assess how far DRM has been integrated in
the portfolio of development organizations in the country, we assessed whether and
in what way disaster risk reduction and management has been considered in their
country programming through Country Strategy Papers, Country Assistance
Programmes or Country Assistance strategies in the last or next two to five years.
The documents reviewed includes: World Banks Country Assistance Strategy (FY
2010-12), AusAIDs Australia-Philippines Development Assistance Strategy (200711), European Commissions Philippine Strategy Paper (2007-13), USAIDs Country
Assistance Strategy (2009-13), United Nations Development Assistance Framework
(2005-09), and JICA and ADBs Annual Report (2009).

30 June 2010

First, we reviewed whether disaster risk was included as a fundamental component


in describing and analyzing the countrys current situation and medium- and longterm development outlook. AusAID, JICA, UN, ADB and the WB considered disaster
risk and related hazards and vulnerabilities as major development challenges. For
instance, the Australian government recognizes that the poor are particularly
vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, among others. Natural disasters are
considered as one of the major risks to the implementation and effectiveness of
AusAIDs country strategies. JICA also emphasized that frequent disasters, such as
recent spell of floods and earthquakes, are critical impediments to sustained
economic growth. In addition, the UN believes that improving the environment and
strengthening the national response to natural disasters will contribute to better
health, education and social protection as well as lessen vulnerabilities. This shows
that most of the development organizations consider natural disasters and related
hazards and vulnerability are themselves a major development challenge and are a
contributory factor underlying other development challenges such as poverty and
weak governance.
Next, we tried to identify whether the country programme objectives and strategies
include DRR/M. Our review revealed that most of the country programmes, as
outlined below, have direct and prominent treatment to weather-related hazards,
disasters and vulnerabilities. Most development organizations considered disaster
risk management as a key area of cooperation and a cross-cutting theme.
AusAID
One of AusAIDs objectives is to help the population better prepared for and
protected from natural disasters and avian influenza pandemic. This is in response
to the governments goal on effective emergency and disaster management. The

23

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
strategies include: providing technical advice, equipment and training for disaster
management agencies, local governments and communities; supplying early
warning equipments and initiatives to improve avian influenza preparedness.
JICA
Under the ODA loan-supported environmental development project which begun in
2008 and executed through the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), JICA
provided mid- to long-term financing to both the private sector and LGUs to help in
preserving and improving the nations fragile environment.
ADB
ADB continued to align its strategies and programs in 2009 through providing a US
$ 3 million grant under the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund to assist people
affected by Typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana) and participated with partner agencies in a
post-disaster needs assessment to determine the extent of losses caused by
Typhoon Ondoy and Pepeng (Parma) and to identify recovery and reconstruction
measures. The loan program expanded significantly due to ADBs support to assist
the government in dealing with difficult economic situation and natural disasters.

30 June 2010

UN
The UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) is focused on the achievement
of MDGs and provides for a common strategic framework for the operational
activities of the UN system, setting out collective priorities and linking these outputs
and outcomes to individual UN agency country programs. One of the major
outcomes included in the current UNDAF is that by 2009, the capacity of
stakeholders shall be increased in order to protect and enhance the quality of the
environment and sustainably manage natural resources. Under this outcomes are
outputs to be delivered by UNICEF, UNDP, UNFDA, FAO, and WTTO such that the
environmental disaster management framework and disaster preparedness and
response plans, and natural disaster management team is better able to provide
emergency response services.
World Bank
The WB CAS provides the most comprehensive framework for disaster management
assistance for the country. Over the CAS period (2010-2012), the WB group will aim
to contribute to achieving more inclusive growth by supporting the Philippines to
reduce vulnerabilities by expanding and rationalizing the countrys social safety net,
improving DRM, piloting CCA measures and expanding mitigation programs, among
others. In addition to current commitments for development policy loans, the bank
will use development policy operations in support of DRM and in the context of a
strong reform program in government financial management. Under the strategic
objectives is the reduction of vulnerabilities which aims to support government
efforts top reduce vulnerabilities for a large part of the population.
In our review, it was apparent that development organization country programmes
are mostly aligned with national development and poverty reduction strategies
(MTPDP) and set out how they intend to contribute to the achievement of national
goals, it is essential that the next administration prioritize disaster risk reduction as
a critical development challenge. In addition, more participation from CSOs and
NGOs and the vulnerable communities to ensure that their interests are adequately

24

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
addressed.
2.3 Disaster Management Strategies
With the adoption of HFA in 2005, the Philippine Government (mainly members of
NDCC, the countrys focal point for DRM took steps to shift from the focus on relief
and response; various stakeholder groups are supporting this anticipatory move.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) international and national saw an ally in
government as it took on projects with a comprehensive approach to disasters.
Foreign-assisted projects provided opportunities where government could take a
proactive role in identifying hazards, assessing risks, mapping, informing, and
communicating with community residents, working with LGUs and LDCCs devising
early warning systems (EWS), and mainstreaming operations. Below is a list of
internationally supported projects on DRR/M in the Philippines for the past three
years.
Table 2: Internationally supported projects on DRR/M 2007 to present (Appendix B)
Past and current projects with donor and
international financial institutions
Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and
Climate Change Adaptation in Local
Development Planning and Decision-making
processes

UNDP, AusAID

Strategic National Action Plan Project

EU, UNISDR, UNDP

Learning from Good Practices: Case Study


on the Institutionalization of Albay
Provincial Safety and Emergency
Management Office

OXFAM-GB,
Development
Academy of the
Philippines (DAP) and
PDCC-Albay

1,3

ASEAN

ADPC/UNDP/ECHO

1,3

AusAID; UNDP;
PHILVOLCS, PAGASA;
MGB-DENR, NAMRIA
and the OCD

ASEAN Agreement on Disaster and


Emergency Response (AADMER)
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into
the Education Sector and Development in
the Philippines

30 June 2010

Funding Agency/ Local


and International
Partners

HFA
Activit
y
Area(s
)

Hazard Mapping and Assessment for


Effective Community-Based Disaster Risk
Management (READY)
Hazard Mapping and Assessment for
Community-Based Disaster Risk
Management (READY II)
Multi Hazard Mapping, Community Based
Disaster Preparedness, Mainstreaming DRR

OCD-NDCC

25

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
National Assessment of the State of DRM in
the Philippines
Improvement of Methodologies for
Assessing the Socio-economic Impact of
Hydro-meteorological Disasters

ADB, UNDP

UN-ESCAP; UN-ECLAC;
UNDP

Emergency Response Network (ERN)

IBM International
Foundation (ERN
Sahana Philippines)

Web-based Event Database (CALAMIDAT.PH)

ADRC

Simultaneous Nationwide Earthquake Drills


and the Nationwide Water Search and
Rescue (WASAR) Training and the Program
for Enhancement of Emergency Response
(PEER)

Miami Dade Fire


Rescue Department;
USAID, ADPC

Online Natural Disaster Risk Management


Program

World Bank Institute


(WBI); Hazard
Management Unit and
ProVention Consortium

WB

NEDA; DEPED

DENR; PHILVOLCS,
PAGASA

DepED

Disaster Risk Reduction City-to-city Sharing


Initiative for developing countries
Mainstreaming DRR in Development Plans
particularly on Land Use and Physical
Framework Plans
National Geohazards Mapping and
Assessment
Construction of Hazard Resilient school
Buildings
Construction of Innovative Buildings

30 June 2010

Community-based Disaster Preparedness:


Development of Information and Education
Campaign Materials (2nd Component of the
READY Project)
Partnership for Disaster Reduction in
Southeast Asia (PRDSEA) Phase 4 Project

United Architects
Philippines; Private
Sector Disaster
Management Network
AUSAID; UNDP;
PHILVOLCS, PAGASA:
MGB-DENR, NARMRIA
and the OCD

ECHO/ADPC

NDCC

UNDP

Upgrading the forecasting capability of


PAGASA and PHILVOLCS

Japanese Grant Aid


Program, JICA, MMDA

Disaster Preparedness and Emergency


Response Facility

AusAID

Search for Excellence in Disaster


Management (Gawad KALASAG) 2007
Strengthening the Disaster Preparedness
Capacities of REINA Municipalities to
Geologic and Meteorological Hazards
(REINA Project)

26

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines


Enhancing the capabilities of local chief
executives and their DCCs
Housing and Livelihood Support to Disaster
Victims
Programme on Sustainable Management of
Natural Resources (Environmental sector
programme) Component: Disaster
Preparedness in the Eastern Visayas

European Commission
Humanitarian Aid

LGUs

DSWD

EC, BMZ

5
5

The following discussion focuses on key cases from strategies, actions, programs (as
enumerated above) and policies at the national, regional and provincial level to
highlight the areas of progress in accordance with the five priorities of the Hyogo
framework of Action (UN ISDR, 2007).
HFA Priority No. 1: Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local
priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation
National institutional and legislative frameworks

30 June 2010

The NDCC has been working towards decentralization of DRR in different levels of
government. The current legislation on DRR, PD 1566, has been under review since
amendments were proposed to the Philippine Congress ten years ago. PD 1566 does
not reflect a comprehensive approach to DRM being more response-oriented. As
DRM covers cross-cutting issues related to land use planning, gender, conflict,
multi-hazard approach, indigenous practices, regional differences, poverty
reduction, it is essential that coverage is comprehensive and specific articles in the
draft bill are harmonized with existing laws. Interestingly, the recently signed
PDRRMA adopts a DRR/M approach that is holistic, comprehensive, integrative and
proactive in lessening the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of disasters
including climate change, and promotes the involvement and participation of all
sectors and all stakeholders concerned from the national to the local level.
Since the HFA, various stakeholders have been actively pursuing DRR activities.
There is institutional commitment from various stakeholders towards recharging the
legal basis of DRR actions. This is shown by active advocacy undertaken by NDCC
and NGOs and the consensus is built as opportunities to dialogue increase. Related
laws and regulations pertaining to safety, mining, the building code, land
management, forestry, etc. are poorly enforced. These legal instruments have
conventionally been dealt with without due attention to their function and
contribution to reducing disaster risk and hazard vulnerability (Appendix E).
This countrys main instrument for socio-economic development, MTPDP 2004-2010
incorporates DRR issues and investment projects in different sectors dealing with

27

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
environment and natural resources, responding to the needs of the poor (disaster
relief), peace and order, science and technology, defense against threat to national
security. However, the plan has no specific policy statement about DRR and its role
in sustainable development and attainment of the MDGs. It is essential that not only
does the MTPDP acknowledge damage from natural resources but that vulnerability
jeopardizes development gains due to socio-economic, environmental, and
information losses. As a national planning document, the next MTPDP should
explicitly and formally adopt DRM, with a section dedicated to it. A review of three
major development plans and programs by Lasco and others (2009) revealed the
MTPDP have direct and prominent treatment of adaptation to natural disasters,
which in turn may be seen as an indirect manner of addressing climate change,
climate-related vulnerabilities and extremes. In the same study, the review of two
other major plans and programs of the Philippine government indicated the same
results. In the MTPDP 2004-2010, at least four chapters discussed the government
aim of addressing the needs of victims of disasters and calamities which at least
four chapters discussed the government aim of addressing the needs of victims of
disasters and calamities which mainly refer to climate extremes. The Philippine MDG
progress report has a one-sentence reference on adapting to climate extremes by
improving flood control and drainage facilities to help urban settlements cope with
damages caused by flooding and typhoons. While climate change impact
assessment was highlighted in the PA 21, the context implies the need to adapt to
it.
DRR is integrated into the National Physical Framework Plan (NPFP). To mainstream
DRR into local development plans such as the provincial physical framework plan,
comprehensive land use plan (CLUP), and comprehensive development plan, the
national planning body, NEDA, is developing guidelines for regions and provinces.

30 June 2010

Disaster risk reduction is also being integrated in national and local policy
development and planning processes. This commitment resulted towards the
drafting of "Strengthening Disaster Risk Reduction in the Philippines: Strategic
National Action Plan (SNAP) 2009-2019" as well as the "Strategic Plan on
Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (SP-CBDRM) 2007-2011." A series of
dialogues and consultations among stakeholders INGOs, NGOs, academe, and
government facilitated the planning process. Field experience of NGOs
complements the scientific knowledge of the science and technology institutions
and academe, and the practical skills and knowledge on post-disaster activities of
NDCC. The DRM field has grown to be inclusive of several other players from
development planning, housing, environment and disaster fields and thus
broadened the work of NDCC.
Just recently, the SNAP and its 18 priority programs and projects were adopted as
the government policy for DRR/M. The same Executive Order (888, approved 7 June
2010) enjoins the systematic institutionalization of DRR in all government agencies
and government owned and controlled corporations through: (1) integrating DRR
into policies and plans; (2) incorporation of DRR programs, projects and activities
into their budgets through the explicit recognition of budget lines for these projects
and activities that are appropriate for disaster mitigation and preparedness; (3)
participation in the 18 priority projects and programs of the SNAP; and (4)
cooperation with national/international NGOs and the private sector towards safer

28

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
and more resilient communities. LGUs are likewise encouraged to integrate DRR in
their day-to-day operations and planning.
Community Participation and Resource Mobilization
Prior to 2007, there has been minimal exchange of information and coordination
among stakeholders. New fora for government and other stakeholders (private and
civil society) were initiated. Only the NDCC has a Technical Working Group which
offers a regular forum which is limited only to its members. However, the First
National Conference in Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction (NCDRR) in Local
Governance was convened in 2007 by DILG in cooperation with donor organizations
and academic institutions. Two consecutive National Multi-stakeholder Dialogues
were held in 2007 and 2008 which provided for a platform for local, regional,
national and international players in DRR to exchange information and experiences
and move forward. There has been organized networks and federations formed to
facilitate better communication and dialogue such as the Corporate Disaster
Response Network (CDRN), and the Disaster Risk Reduction Network Philippines
(DRR NetPhils).
The NDCC has adopted community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) as a
model to engage communities in DRR undertaking. The evidence for this is crafting
of the Strategic Plan to Integrate Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (SPCBDRM) for 2007-2011 as part of the Partnerships for Disaster Reduction in
Southeast Asia (PDRSEA) Phase 4 Project supported by the Asian Disaster
Preparedness Center (ADPC) and the European Commission. Projects after HFA
adoption have championed community participation. While many NGOs possess the
skills and resources to mobilize people, many LGUs do not have such capacity.
Mobilizing resources also led to linking non-governmental/private volunteer
organizations, the government apparatus and communities altogether. Partnerships
at national and local levels facilitated actions that were directed at all phases of the
disaster cycle, and not just response or relief.
HFA Priority No. 2: Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early
warning

30 June 2010

Risk assessments and early warning systems


There has been increasing institutional commitment among research and academic
institutions as well as national agencies on science and technology towards
developing practices to streamline risk assessment in the country and it is being
attained through projects funded by international donors. The evolving practices
come from experiences built on a previous post-disaster project, scientists, local
government leaders, NGOs and community members are increasingly finding ways
to collaborate in science-based monitoring and early warning in prioritized towns
and cities.
The NDCC is undertaking a multi-hazard mapping and assessment project in

29

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
partnership with key government agencies such as PHILVOLCS, PAGASA, MGB,
NAMRIA, and other government agencies. The project, which is considered
significant in terms of DRR assistance which set a trend, is the READY project or
Hazards Mapping and Assessment for Effective Community Based Disaster Risk
Management (dubbed as such to connote disaster preparedness). It is built on
existing structures and it provides the environment for stakeholders to work
together with clear roles and responsibilities to perform. For instance, it utilized the
multi-agency group called Collective Strengthening of Community Awareness for
Natural Disasters (CSAND) that existed previously and supported by the UNDP. It
also works with the PNRC project on Strengthening the Disaster Capacities of
Communities in the Philippines (supported by AusAID). Risk assessment is
supported by science-based information, technological know-how, tools and multihazard maps.
READY project focuses on high risk areas which were selected based on the size of
the population and the number of hazards to which they are vulnerable. It marks
the first attempt to approach disasters in a multi-hazard fashion. The goal of
strengthening capacity of key stakeholders sits well in terms of creating an enabling
environment in communities. The project encompasses the DRM process (including
community-based early warning system and information, education, and
communication (IEC) activities and provides invaluable input to creating a standard
methodology that can be replicated to the rest of the country (Fernandez and Javier,
2010). The data and information generated are used for disaster risk management
and planning by sectoral agencies and LGUs.
The government is also strengthening on early warning systems for all major
hazards. PHIVOLCS and PAGASA are expanding facilities and equipment and training
of personnel to enhance monitoring and forecasting capabilities. The early warning
system had improved with the acquisition of new Doppler radars of PAGASA which
enable it to give more accurate local weather forecasts in five regional centres in
the country (WB, 2009).

30 June 2010

Regional cooperation
Dialogue among NGOs and international donor agencies takes place through round
table discussions. Recently, the Philippines' Senate ratified the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Agreement on Disaster Management and
Emergency Response (AADMER), and with that the agreement is expected to enter
into force by the end of 2009. The ratification marks a significant highlight in
ASEAN's collective efforts to build a disaster-resilient community by the year 2015.
The agreement binds ASEAN member states into legal responsibilities to promote
regional cooperation and collaboration in reducing disaster losses and intensifying
joint emergency response to disasters in the ASEAN region. The Philippines actively
participates in ASEAN regional cooperation on risk reduction. This is mainly through
the joint disaster drill called ASEAN Regional Emergency Response Simulation
Exercise (ARDEX) held annually in a host ASEAN country and each with a different
disaster scenario. The exercise tests regional capacity to respond and render
humanitarian assistance using a different disaster scenario every year. In 2009,
ARDEX will be hosted by the Philippine Government. Also, the Philippines is a part
of the Partnerships for Disaster Reduction South East Asia. Now in its fourth phase,

30

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
the project aimed to enhance leadership, national capacity and regional knowledge
in the institutionalisation of community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM)
into the socio-economic development process in four countries (Cambodia,
Indonesia, Philippines, and Viet Nam).

HFA Priority No. 3: Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of
safety and resilience at all levels

In early 2005, the NDCC implemented the Four Point Plan of Action on Disaster
Preparedness (4PPAP) which strengthens the DRM stance of the country and
enhances its disaster prevention strategies. This aims to increase public awareness
and involvement in measures put in place by the government to minimize the
impact of disasters in the future. This plan of action also provides direction to all
NDCC member-agencies in terms of the allocation of capacities, capabilities and
resources. Among the activities contained in NDCCs 4PPAP, notable is the
designation of July as the National Disaster Consciousness Month in order to
heighten public awareness on the importance of disaster prevention, mitigation and
preparedness through simultaneous nationwide earthquake drills, search and rescue
exercise, seminars, and the Gawad Kalasag award.

30 June 2010

Public awareness and information campaigns on disaster risks are being conducted
by NGOs, private and civic organizations and national and local government
agencies. For example, a component of the READY project is the IEC campaign in
which maps are disseminated to vulnerable communities. The Science and
Technology Information Institute (STII) under DOST produces articles and press
releases to the media. Film showings are also utilized by PHIVOLCS regularly and
PAGASA also conducts annual seminars on themes like disasters, ENSO and climate
change. The cyber world is starting to be utilized. Website such as CALAMIDAT.PH
and online learning programs such as the Online Natural Disaster Risk Management
program of the World Bank Institute and partners.
Schools are integrating DRR concepts in their curricula. The Department of
Education (DepEd) is working on including DRR in elementary and secondary
curricula. The teachers are also informed in DRR by including the concepts in
Teachers Education Curriculum. At present, education in DRR is still limited in scope
and education materials are still inadequate. NDCC and DepEd, in partnership with
ADPC, undertook a project to develop DRM modules for integration into the
secondary school curriculum. The module includes information on disaster
preparedness, prevention and mitigation of hazards and risks of natural events to
vulnerable communities and areas. Disaster awareness has formed part of the
learning core competencies under the Science and Social studies subjects in public
elementary and high schools.
Programs such as Hospital Preparedness for Emergencies (HOPE) under the Program
of Emergency Response (PEER) has been organized by NDCC, along with concerned
government agencies and supported by USAID.

31

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

HFA Priority No. 4: Reduction of the underlying risk factors

While environmental laws in mining, forestry, protected areas, agriculture and


fisheries, wildlife resources, toxic substances, hazardous and nuclear wastes and
pollution control exist, most of these do not explicitly include disaster risks plan and
response. Furthermore, the enforcement of these laws is weak causing further
decline and degradation of the natural resource base of the country. The degraded
condition of forest, mangroves, river systems from which most of the communities
depend on leads to severe disaster impacts.
NEDA is trying to sensitize local planning capacities with DRR. NEDA is actively
building awareness and capacity to mainstream DRR in land use and physical
framework plans. The National Land Use Committee prepared the National
Framework for Physical Planning which indicated hazard prone areas for future land
use and physical plans. Some progress is foreseen as capacities of the regional
development councils and development councils of provinces, municipalities and
cities built to implement risk-sensitive planning.

30 June 2010

The government has implemented social development policies and plans such as
housing for informal settlers, livelihood projects and health care to reduce the
vulnerability of populations at risk. It is also currently working on the establishment
of a conditional cash transfer system that will help to cushion shocks experienced
by poor households. In the rural sector, crop insurance for palay and high value
crops and livestock insurance through the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation
(PCIC) are available but many farmers do not subscribe or are not aware that such
insurance exist. In accordance with RA 656 which mandates all heads of
government office to secure from the General Insurance Fund all insurance covering
propertied and other insurable risks of natural and manmade disasters, Government
Service Insurance System (GSIS) called on all government agencies to insure
government properties.
Since the NDCC institutionalized the cluster approach through a circular issued in
2007, some significant DRR actions have been initiated. The cluster approach is
providing a forum for stakeholders sharing a specific concern called cluster (for
example, education) to be proactive in terms of all phases of DRM. Regular
meetings of a few clusters have thus created a continuum, increasing prospects for
DRR integration in the disaster cycle, including rehabilitation and recovery. The
Building Safe Learning Environments (BSLE) Project (June 2007-June 2008)
implemented by DepEd with funding support from UNICEF, Swedish and Dutch
governments, covers both structural and non-structural mitigation measures in
disaster-affected schools and daycare centers in four provinces.
Mainstreaming DRR in the infrastructure sector is being addressed by an ADPCNDCC project that incorporates risk impact assessment procedures before
construction of new roads and bridges. The DPWH has provided a venue for other
government agencies, professional organizations of civil engineers, and other
interest groups through a national workshop on MDRR in the infrastructure sector.
The DepEd also started a program on school building resistant to hazards, for

32

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
learning and public use, serving as evacuation centers in post-disaster situations.
NDCC has also partnered with My Shelter Foundation, United Architects of the
Philippines, and the Private Sector Disaster Management Network in planning and
organizing for the construction of innovative school buildings. Under a partnership
with other civic and media organizations, the Millennium School Design
Competition, an international search for a durable and environmentally-friendly
design was held.
HFA Priority # 5: Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all
levels

30 June 2010

The government is intensifying efforts to institutionalize DRR at the national,


regional and local levels through memoranda of agreement (MOAs) and programs
for institutional capacity building. Steps had been undertaken in the form of
preparation and contingency plans crafted by DCC. OCD has assisted more than 50
priority provinces (total: 81 provinces) in preparing contingency plans. Other
provinces will be assisted as funds become available. Based on insights from LGUs
experiences, the manual on Contingency Planning for Emergencies for LGUs has
gone through its 3rd edition in 2007. UN Commissioner for Refugees (UNCHR)
continues its support to the manuals production, and the conduct of contingency
planning and training activities. A few communities though showed outstanding
performance in many areas of DRR. It is also noteworthy that in September 2008,
the DILG through its regional offices is conducting an audit to assess the disaster
preparedness of LGUs and to generate benchmark information on whether
provinces, cities and municipalities are prepared or not. In relation to disaster
preparedness training, the OCD has initiated the crafting of a DRM Capability Plan of
the DND. Towards this end, key officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and
DND are invited to participate in the Strategic Planning Workshop on September
2008.
During hazard events, relevant information is exchanged among the key
stakeholders on response and relief. The OCD operates and maintains the NDCC
Operations Center (NDCC OPCEN), a 24/7 facility with continuously trained staff
backed up by equipment, stable systems, and sound procedures. The NDCC OPCEN
is activated into an Emergency Operations Center in the event of a disaster. All
NDCC member agencies with disaster response mandate are required to send focal
persons to the facility during the activation period to speed up coordination and
information management. The facility is linked with international response systems
like the UNDAC, INSARAG, the virtual onsite operations and coordination center, and
those within the ASEAN region. Post-event reviews that involve various stakeholders
are starting to be regularly conducted. For example, a significant post-event review
of the December 2006 typhoon disaster in Bicol region was undertaken through a
lessons learned workshop five months later. This workshop was organized by the
NDCC and the UNDP.

33

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Box 1. Disaster-proofing development in Albay, Philippines


The Province of Albay, under the leadership of its governor, recognizes disaster and
climate change as major threats to social and economic development and to the
attainment of the MDGs and to the improvement of Human Development Index and
that it will make difficult to alleviate poverty in the developing world like the
Philippines.

30 June 2010

Albay along with the rest of Bicol Region is highly vulnerable to natural disasters
because of its geographical location. Located at the eastern Pacific seaboard, Albay
is especially vulnerable to tropical storms and cyclones, which bring destructive
winds, heavy rainfall and storm surges several times a year. Typhoons affecting the
province and the Philippines as a whole, form in the Pacific Ocean, and move in a
west-northwest direction, many times the wind intensifying to speeds of 200 kph.
Table 3 shows the affected population and damages caused by tropical cyclones
from 1994 to 2006 in Albay Province. Although there is no clear temporal trend on
the number of people affected and cost of damages, it is important to recognize the
high vulnerability of the province to typhoons. Human settlements living along the
coastlines are vulnerable to storm surges.
Similarly, houses located at
mountainsides with steep and unstable slopes are prone to landslides and
mudslides.

34

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Table 3. Summary Report: Disaster Occurrences in the Province of Albay (1994


2006)
Typhoon
Occurences
1

Typhoon Akang

Typhoon Gading

Typhoon Mameng

Typhoon Rosing

Typhoon Pining

Typhoon Loleng

Typhoon Sendang

Typhoon Reming

Typhoon Senyang

1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6

Typhoon Dindo
Typhoon Unding
Typhoon Yoyong
Active Low Pressure
ITCZ
Tropical Storm Caloy
Typhoon Milenyo
Typhoon Reming
TOTAL

Yea
r
199
4
199
4
199
5
199
5
199
7
199
8
199
9
200
0
200
0
200
4
200
4
200
4
200
5
200
6
200
6
200
6

Affected Population
Person Dea Injure Missin
s
d
d
g
18,036
47
112
1

Total
Damages
(US$)
2,211,904

6,799

1,546,644

10,126

1,588,884

440,372

44

20

11,991,106

1,800

836,956

201,834

6,754,448

1,122

2,444

27,547

12

7,188,989

22,882

91,111

33,892

5,038,046

1,744

942,094

18,372

10

1,124,229

19,062

3,099,983

47,065

2,207,708

698,460

14

176

1,060,87
5

604

1465

37,007,025
419

71,787,460
153,419,031

30 June 2010

Source: APSEMO [2007]

Box 1. continued
Albay is the only province in Bicol that has an operational management office that
provides effective coordination of the various stakeholders towards promoting
efficient intervention on disaster preparedness and emergency response. The

35

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
successful implementation of sustainable disaster management programs is due to
the presence of a permanent office overseeing disaster-management-related
activities in the local level (Arguelles, 2007). The Provincial Disaster Operation
Center (PDOC) was established in 1992 and was tasked to provide technical and
administrative functions of emergency-related services. In July 1994, the Albay
Public Safety and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO) was institutionalized by
virtue of Sanguniang Panlalawigan Resolution (SPR) No. 155-94. It is an independent
department that serves as the technical secretariat and administrative arm of the
Provincial Government of Albay (PGA) in terms of DRM. It was created to empower
the management of the PGA along public safety and disaster risk management.
It supports the Albay Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council (PDCC) in the
implementation of organizations objectives as mandated by the Presidential Decree
No. 1566 and other related laws. It is tasked to administer effective and efficient
interventions into distress areas in coordination with the different PDCC organic and
regular members in the Province of Albay. APSEMO administers and supervises the
systematic delivery of services to the public in terms of Disaster Risk Management
and Public Safety coordination with the Local Disaster Coordinating Councils
(LDCCs), PHIVOLCS, PAGASA, GAs and NGOs due to the effects of natural and man
made calamities. It also facilitates the restoration and rehabilitation of disasterstricken communities. Specifically it is tasked to: (1) delineate the functions of
Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council members and volunteers before, during and
after the calamity impact; (2) enhance communication linkages within the
organization and between sectors involved in public safety anchored on disaster
preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery; and (3)
maintain active
coordination between and among the LGUs, GOs, NGOs and PDCC member agencies
to ensure timely and appropriate action on disaster-related activities.

30 June 2010

Various indigenous local response mechanisms to landslides, floods, strong winds


and heavy rainfall are apparent in some communities in the province. However, the
APSEMO is still on the process of documenting and verifying the effectiveness of
these mechanisms (Daep, 2007).
The institutionalization of the Provincial Disaster Management Office into APSEMO
as one independent department has strengthened the disaster management
capability of the provincial government of Albay. The establishment of this
independent body has ensured the continuity of the provinces programs on disaster
management and strengthened the effective coordination of the various institutions
for more efficient management. It has also been chosen as a venue of disaster
management seminars and trainings, and conduct of drills and exercise due to the
availability of facilities and resources and competent staff. According to Salceda
(2010), among the key features of Albays disaster risk management are outlined
below:
Mitigation
Since 1994, the provincial government allocates 2% of its annual budget to the
APSEMO aside from the 5% calamity fund. Another specialized unit has been
created in 2009, the Albay Millenium Development Goals Office (AMDGO) so as to
ensure that the current and future plans and programs are aligned with the MDGs.

36

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

37

Risk assessments are also conducted with the help from national research
institutions and
Box 1. continued
foreign funders. Activities include risks and resource mapping, geostrategic
(relocation) and engineering (flood control and alternative routes) interventions; and
updating of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) with climate-related hazards
and vulnerabilities. Another feature that the government has pioneered is that all
provincial facilities and school buildings in the province are insured with the GSIS
and provides for universal health coverage which provides all households with
access even to private medical services during emergency situations.
Disaster Preparedness
The PGA maintains close coordination with warning agencies (e.g. PAGASA and
PHIVOLCS) and some DRR NGOs. Community-based warning and evacuation
planning is continuously being conducted. Institutional unit such as Albay Heath
Emergency Management (AHEM) is being organized and strengthened. Safe
Schools, Safe Hospitals and permanent safe evacuation centres are being built and
prepared. Validation survey of all school buildings for structural safety (design),
safety from hazards (location) and safety for health are conducted and watersanitation facilities to 700 school building are being provided. Rescue equipments
are being acquired and deployed as well as communication facilities. Education and
training are continuously conducted.
Response and Relief
Information boards (infoboards) for alerts and announcements are being installed in
areas most accessible to the public. Evacuation protocols are well-established
encouraging village-initiated evacuation. The provincial government also provides
funds for maintenance of evacuation centers and needs of evacuees. Pre-emptive
evacuation is considered as key response mechanism to achieve zero-casualty goal.
The province is declared as an open-city once a disaster strikes so as to facilitate
the flow of disaster relief. Demand-side relief was introduced in the premise that
cash is most flexible relief support and has pump priming effect.

30 June 2010

Rehabilitation
Damage and Disaster Assessment System (DDAS) is well-established process
refined over many cases of disasters. It is coordinated by APSEMO that leads an
interdepartmental team who coordinates with their national counterparts. Damage
assessment process uses Risk Mapping as its starting point, preparedness activities
and the pre-disaster warning phase and the emergency phase. Data gathering is
spread out and information analysis and dissemination is centralized.
Albays DRM initiatives essentially integrate risk reduction to its entire development
goals- MDG. Thus, as part of the overall development strategy, DRM becomes an
investment with huge economic returns in the long run. Like the PGA, local
governments assume primary mandate in the DRM effort as they are in the frontline

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
in confronting the escalating impacts of climate change on their constituents on the
ground (Salceda, 2010). The PGA considers funding for risk reduction and its
sustainability as one of the barriers to their DRM programs since internal revenues
has remained to be limited.

2.4 Challenges and recommendations to mainstreaming DRR


Governance
PD 1566 does not reflect a comprehensive approach to DRM. The new DRM bill
proposed at the congress provides a more comprehensive coverage. However, it
should also cover cross-cutting issues related to land-use planning, gender, multihazard approach, poverty reduction, among others. It should also be anchored on
existing environmental laws and regulations, which are mostly poorly enforced. And
environmental laws and regulations shall be dealt with due attention to the possible
functions and contribution to reducing disaster risk and vulnerabilities.
Prior to 2007, there was minimal exchange of information and experiences among
stakeholders. Since the HFA, various stakeholders have been actively pursuing DRR
activities; however, multi-stakeholder fora should be intensified and needs more
funding. The representation of other stakeholders should be more sufficient.
The capabilities of local government in disaster preparedness and response need to
be strengthened. All LGUs, particularly the most vulnerable ones, should have a
dedicated office to handle disaster management. This, however, entails cost. The
coordination between municipal, provincial, regional, and national preparedness and
response mechanisms should also be strengthened.
The use of the LCF is not known and often misunderstood by local officials,
particularly; they are unaware that the LCF can be used for pre-disaster activities.
There is a need to inform them about how to strategically make use of the fund for
DRR activities.

30 June 2010

Risk identification and early warning


Availability of data and information and a more coherent strategy towards putting
up an information system (e.g. database). Information exchange and knowledge
sharing should also be encouraged and promoted among and between LGUs.
Technical equipment and facilities also needs constant updating and maintenance.
Knowledge management and education
IEC should be progressive so there is a need to measure the degree of awareness
and knowledge enhancement. Information dissemination programs should involve
local communities, NGOs and other civil society orgs to promote ownership to
ensure sustainability.

38

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Local officials can be champions in raising public awareness about DRR. They have
an important role to play in raising public awareness for DRR. Learning opportunities
through seminars, workshops, fora, field trips, among others, can be utilized. Good
practices on DRR can be shared so as to motivate and provide knowledge to make
DRM a priority in the local governments. DRR training courses, seminars, and
workshops (such as those that are organized by PAGASA and PHIVOLCS) should be
conducted for specific target groups and localities based on the hazards and
vulnerabilities. Training needs assessment for prioritized groups can also be
conducted.
Reducing underlying risk factors
Integrating DRR into natural and social support systems should be institutionalized.
Coping with disasters should be an important part of poverty alleviation programs
and environmental protection and conservation activities.
Although there have been actions on mainstreaming DRR in the construction of
roads and bridges, it should be highlighted that the key for a more successful
integration of DRR in construction is to include risk reduction measures in the
planning phase. Also, in building safety of schools, it is important to make sure that
the school building are resistant to hazards, particularly those that are serving as
evacuation centers.
Insurance and risk transfer options (and incentives) should be put in place . There
are very few financial institutions that provide emergency loans for poor and
affected families. The key players in the insurance industry and government
agencies should work on exploring risk transfer options. Micro-financing should be
explored wherein savings and insurance instruments could protect poor community
members who are most vulnerable to disasters through life insurance benefits, loan
redemption fund, and burial benefits.
Disaster preparedness

30 June 2010

More contingency planning and training activities should be conducted. Updating


plans, particularly CLUPs and contingency plans, pose a challenge to most LGUs.
Disaster and other climate-related hazards should be included in CLUPs.
As institutionalized by NDCC, the cluster approach has worked well in terms of
coordinating stakeholders in rehabilitation and response process. This approach
could also be used for preparedness and contingency planning.

39

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

3.

CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

3.1 Policy and Institutional Framework

30 June 2010

The Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729) was signed into law on 23
October 2009. The main content of RA 9729 is the creation of Climate Change
Commission (see Appendix C) which will incorporate climate change concepts in
policy and development plans, as well as receive funds and endowments to address
this problem. The law also provides for the formulation of the Framework Program
on Climate Change and National Climate Change Action Plan, aims that have
already been mentioned in previous legislations. Three commissioners assumed
office for a span of six years. A total of 23 government agencies, local government
units and representatives from the academe, business sector, and non-government
organizations (NGOs) will compose the bodys Advisory Board to ensure
accountability. The final Implementing Rules and Regulation (IRR) of the Climate
Change Act was signed by the President, and the new commissioners last January
18, 2010.
Since 2007, there is a significant rise in interest on climate change issues among
policy makers and government agencies. However, the countrys attempt to
address climate change begun in the early 1990s with the creation of the InterAgency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). The IACCC is tasked to coordinate
various climate change-related activities, propose climate change policies and
prepare the Philippine position to the UNFCCC negotiations. Prior to that was the
formulation of the Philippine Strategy for Sustainable Development (PSSD) which led
to the official adoption of the Agenda 21 by formulating the Philippine Agenda 21
and the creation of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development in 1992. The
country signed in June 1992 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) and ratified it on August 2, 1994. It also signed the Kyoto Protocol
on April 15, 1998 and ratified it on November 20, 2003 in order to participate in the
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
Prior to the creation of the PCCCA was the creation of the Presidential Task Force on
Climate Change (PTFCC) on February 20, 2007. PTFCC is tasked to address the issue
of climate change, mitigate its impact, and lead in adapting to these impacts. It is
composed of the DENR Secretary as chair, with the secretaries of Department of
Energy (DoE), DOST, DA and Department of Interiors and Local Government (DILG),

40

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
with two representatives from the private sector/civil society, as members. Among
its functions are: a) conducting rapid assessments on the impact of climate change,
particularly on the most vulnerable sectors of water resources, agriculture, coastal
areas, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, among others; b) ensure strict compliance
to air emission standards and urgently combat deforestation and environmental
degradation; c) undertake/initiate strategic approaches and measures to prevent or
reduce GHG emissions, including fuel efficiency, energy conservation, use of
renewable energy, waste management, etc.; d) conduct nationwide massive and
comprehensive public information and awareness campaigns; e) design concrete
risk reduction and mitigation measures and adaptation responses, especially to
address short-term vulnerabilities on sectors/areas where climate change will have
the greatest impact; and f) collaborate with international partners to support
stabilizing GHG emissions, and institute mitigating and adaptive measures; and g)
integrate and mainstream climate risk management into development policies,
plans and programs of the government.

30 June 2010

Box 2. Climate change-related initiatives of the Philippine Government


The national government has in the last 20 years undertaken a number of
milestones critical to addressing climate change in the Philippines:
Creation of the Philippine Climate Change Commission by virtue of the
Republic Act 9729: Climate Change Act of 2009
Creation of the Presidential Task Force on Climate Change (PTFCC) on
February 20, 2007
Designated the DENR as the National Authority for CDM by virtue of
Executive Order No. 320 signed on June 25, 2004, and issued the
Implementing Rules and Regulations last August 2005 through DENR
Administrative Order 2005-17.
Signed the Kyoto Protocol on April 15, 1998 and ratified it on November 20,
2003 in order to participate in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
CDM is a flexibility mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol that
allows governments or private entities in developed countries to implement
cost-effective emission reduction projects in developing countries as a
supplement to domestic actions, and for which the developed countries
receive carbon credit in the form of "certified emission reductions" (CERs). It
in turn allows developing countries to achieve sustainable development by
directing private sector investment into emission reduction projects.
Philippine Clear Air Act (1999) provides that the DENR together with
concerned agencies and LGUs prepare and implement national plans that are
in accordance with UNFCCC and other international agreements, conventions
and protocols on reducing greenhouse emissions. In addition it establishes
that meteorological factors affecting ozone depletion and GHGs should be
monitored and standards set
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (1997) establishes that the
Department of Agriculture together with other appropriate agencies, should
into account climate change, weather disturbances and annual productivity

41

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

cycles in order to forecast and formulate appropriate agricultural and


fisheries programs.
Signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC) on June 1992 and ratified it on August 2, 1994
Creation of the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC) on May 8,
1991 by virtue of Presidential Administrative Order 220. Chaired by the DENR
Secretary, co-chaired by the DOST Secretary and composed of 15
government agencies and NGOs, the IACCC is tasked to coordinate various
climate change-related activities, propose climate change policies and
prepare the Philippine position to the UNFCCC negotiations.

National Framework Strategy on Climate Change


One of the mandates of the CCC is to formulate a National Framework Strategy on
Climate Change (NFSCC). With the vision of creating a climate risk-resilient
Philippines with health, safe, prosperous and self-reliant communities, and thriving
and productive ecosystems, the President signed the National Framework Strategy
on Climate Change last April 28, 2010.

30 June 2010

The NFSCC is committed towards ensuring and strengthening the adaptation of our
natural ecosystems and human communities to climate change. In the process, the
Framework aspires to chart a cleaner development path for the Philippines,
highlighting the mutually beneficial relationship between climate change mitigation
and adaptation. As a matter of principle, the Framework aggressively highlights the
critical aspect of adaptation meant to be translated to all levels of governance
alongside coordinating national efforts towards integrated ecosystem-based
management which shall ultimately render sectors climate-resilient.

42

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Figure 5: National Framework Strategy on Climate Change

30 June 2010

The national framework is formulated within the context of the countrys


sustainable development goals and governance/institutional factors that affect the
countrys ability to respond to climate change. This Framework Strategy provides a
basis for the national program on climate change. It identifies Key Result Areas to
be pursued in key climate-sensitive sectors in addressing the adverse effects of
climate change both under adaptation and mitigation. In order to achieve the key
result areas, it is important to ensure that cross-cutting strategies are likewise given
attention. As means of implementation, the framework puts forward multistakeholder partnerships, financing, valuation, and policy planning and
mainstreaming.
Among the sectors which have taken climate change issues into their programs is
the water resource sector. The National Water Resources Board (NWRB) formulated
the Water Sector Adaptation Strategy on Climate Change (NWRB, 2009). It was
developed to reduce the vulnerability of the water sector and increase the resilience
of communities and ecosystems to climate change utilizing a broad based
participatory process of key stakeholders of the sector. Four strategic outcomes to
be achieved by 2050 are identified supported by 12 strategic objectives and several
key actions for 2010 to 2022. The strategic outcomes for the sector include:
effective, climate change response, and participative water governance; reduced
water sector vulnerability and resilient communities and natural ecosystems;
improved knowledge on water sector adaptation and climate change; and
sustainable and reliable financing and investment for climate change adaptation in
the water sector.

43

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

3.2 Organizations working in CCA


Climate change measures require coordinated efforts among the different sectors of
society. This is recognized and demonstrated in current institutions created to
oversee climate change measures in the country. Other key stakeholders and
institutions are also identified and described in this section following Table 4.
Table 4. Key stakeholders and institutions on CC adaptation and mitigation in the
Philippines
Key Institution/s
a. Climate Change Coordination and
Advisory Bodies

Roles with respect to CC

Philippine Climate Change Commission


(PCCC)

Primary agency for the formulation


and implementation of plans for the
country to better prepare for and
respond to climate change and
natural disasters

[IACCC; PTFCC; Advisory Council on


Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation
and Communication; Presidential
Adviser on Climate Change]

Coordinating bodies (created prior to


PCCC) in charge for all climate
change activities by the government

b. National Agencies
NEDA

Preparation of blueprint of
government programs (i.e. MTPDP)

NDCC and its local version (regional,


provincial, and municipal DCC)

Coordination of disaster
management measures during
emergency

Sectoral National Government Agencies


(e.g. DENR, DOE, DA, DOST, DND, etc.)

Implementation of CC Adaptation
projects based on their sectoral
mandate, as stated in their names

30 June 2010

PAGASA, NAMRIA
Provision of weather information
c. Academic/ Research Institutions
UPLB; ICRAF; Klima/Manila Observatory
(ADMU); Bicol University; Economy and
Environment Program for Southeast

Research (basic and applied) on CC


Adaptation related issues.

44

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
Asia (EEPSEA); CI; UP-MSI and NIGS;
Silliman University
e. Multilateral and bilateral
organizations and International/national
NGOs
World Bank, UNDP, ADB, British
Embasssy-Manila, USAID, AusAID, GTZ,
DFID, JICA, WWF, CI, Oxfam, PLAN
International, NTFP-EP, Christian Aid,
Earth Savers Movement, CARE
Netherlands, Philippine Network on
Climate Change; Greenpeace; PRRM,
EDC

Funding various development and


conservation programs in the
country, including most of the abovementioned projects and institutions.

f. Local partners, CSOs, and private


sector
LGUs (e.g. Provincial Government of
Albay- CIRCA, Iloilo, and Palawan);
various community organizations,
corporations and their foundations

Implement CC adaptation projects at


the ground

3.3 Climate Change Adaptation activities in the Philippines

30 June 2010

Development Planning
A review of major development plans and policies (i.e the 2004-2010 Medium Term
Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP), the Philippines Millennium Development Goal
(MDG), and the Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21) showed that (a) climate change
adaptation has not been mainstreamed in the Philippines; (b) whenever climate
change is recognized, the focus has been more of mitigation especially now with
rising interest in the CDM; and (c) because of the geographical location, there is
more emphasis on adaptation to risks associated with current climate-related
variability and extremes (e.g., tropical cyclones, floods, and landslides) (Lasco et al.,
2009). This showed that clearly, national decision makers do not yet see climate
change (adaptation) as a high priority issue in the context of national development
plans. This is primarily because national priorities are biased towards more pressing
concerns and the pervasive lack of awareness on the impacts of climate change to
sustainable development. However, there are massive investments on
infrastructure projects designed to adapt to climate-related hazards such as floods.
These projects could provide an entry point in integrating climate change
adaptation.
The recent MTPDP, 2004-2010 mid-term updating exercise shows additional
progress in the mainstreaming of climate change in decision-making. The latest

45

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
draft shows more mention of climate change in the updated document. Climate
change was mentioned in the Green Philippines chapter but also in the same
manner as stated above. However, climate change was, for the first time,
mentioned in the Agribusiness chapter; firstly, in the context of S&T-based
innovations in the sector, especially for mitigation, and, secondly, in the call for the
adoption of climate change adaptation models/technologies for agriculture.
In the energy sector, the major programs focus on energy efficiency as well as
promotion and use of new and renewable energy (NRE) sources. Under the
Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) 2004 to 2013, the NRE sources are envisioned to
contribute significantly to the countrys electricity requirements. The primary
energy supply from NRE by 2013 is projected to increase to 53 percent of the total
supply (400.91 MMBFOE ) from 51 percent of total supply (273.98 MMBFOE) in
2004. Furthermore, the Biofuels Act (2007), which was designed to pursue energy
sufficiency and security, in a way helps reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
Meanwhile, in the Philippines Midterm Progress Report on the Millennium
Development Goals, it is suggested that climate change creates an opportunity for
the Philippines to channel large-scale debit-for-equity programs to reforestation,
clean water, irrigation and food production programs. In other words, climate
change is seen to have a devastating impact on the attainment of the MDGs mostly
through a series of natural disasters, and, therefore, the report highlights the
importance of climate change adaptation and long-term disaster risk management
(NEDA, 2007).

30 June 2010

The national government through the Department of Interior and Local Government
(DILG) has issued Memorandum Circulars (MCs) to alert LGUs about the need for
awareness-raising and capacity-building and to empower LGUs in autonomously
responding to climate change and preparing their adaptation plans. Among the
national government issuances are:
DILG-MC 2008-69 (Encouraging LCEs and Sanggunians to Implement
Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Measures);
DILG-MC 2008-123 (Mobilizing Local Actions to Address the Impacts of
Climate Change);
DILG-MC No. 2008-161 (November 3, 2008) (Trainers Training on Mobilizing
Actions to Address the Impacts of Climate Change);
DILG-MC No. 2009-21 amending MC No. 2008-123 to include the National
Movement of Young Legislators as one of the institutional partners in
Mobilizing Local Actions to Address the Impacts of Climate Change; and
DILG-MC 2009-73 (National Conference on Empowering LGUs to Clean the
Air and Address Climate Change Through Partnership).
Compliance with these memorandum circulars had been slow and limited. For
instance, as of April 2009, only four out of 17 regions have complied with these
circulars (APN-GCR, 2009).
In December 2009, the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and
three University of the Philippines (UP) units recently signed memoranda of
agreement (MOA) to conduct programs and projects amounting to some P11 million
for climate change adaptation. Through the agreement, NEDA will tap the academic

46

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
expertise of various UP units to deliver three outputs sectoral climate change
vulnerability and impact assessments, a climate change monitoring and evaluation
system, and a compendium of good and innovative climate change adaptation
practices. The sectors that will be covered for climate change adaptation are
agriculture, forestry (including biodiversity), health and water. There are other
initiatives by government agencies on climate change, including those funded by
international donors.
As a signatory to the UNFCCC, the Philippines is committed to submit the National
Communication. The Initial National Communication that was submitted in 1999
outlined the plans and options for mitigating GHG emissions and climate change
adaptation options (Philippines Initial National Communication, 1999).
In
preparation for the Second National Communication (SNC), technical studies on
climate change vulnerability and adaptation and greenhouse gas inventory of the
five sectors: agriculture, waste, energy, transportation and LULUCF are being
undertaken. The SNC is expected to be completed soon.
Vulnerability and risk mapping
It is only recently that climate change adaptation interventions have been initiated.
The focus of these interventions is the agriculture sector. This includes the
Provention Consortium grant-funded Agriculture Climate Risk Assessment Project
which focuses on crop modeling, insurance, and agricultural assets. The Coral
Triangle Initiative, which is a new multilateral partnership to help safeguard the
marine and coastal resources of the Eastern Pacific that has also been launched.

30 June 2010

The Manila Observatory implemented a project entitled, Mapping Philippine


Vulnerability to Environmental Disasters, which identified areas in the country that
are at high vulnerability and risk to environmental disasters. It involved downscaling
global climate models to sub-regional levels and an atlas which mapped and
analyzed hazards and disasters via geographic information systems (GIS) and
environmental modeling tools was produced. These national-scale vulnerability and
risk maps point to where hotspots are likely to occur as well as their possible forms.
Disaster preparedness strategies and plans may, thus, be pursued on the initiative
of the concerned sectoral representatives as well as stakeholders within localities.
The projections were based on shorter time frames to improve forecast changes and
provide information on their agricultural implications at the local levels
(Resurrrecion et al, 2008). In terms of access to information, MOs Klima Climate
Change Center serves as the national body to disseminate information on climate
change, raise awareness and conduct relevant research, and support national
capacity building.
The DENR with funding support from the World Bank is currently identifying and
mapping vulnerable and hazard prone areas (Resurrecion et al, 2008). This project
aims to guide policy makers in their decisions. For instance, vulnerability and
hazard maps will help planners to appropriately identify the land use for such
vulnerable areas.
The Adaptation on Climate Change and Conservation of Biodiversity (ACCBio) in the
Philippines is a three year project (2009-2011) being implemented by the DENR with

47

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
support from the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). The project aims to develop
and implement relevant adaptation strategies to compensate the impacts of climate
change and loss of biodiversity in the country. The project is composed of four
components: (1) institutional strengthening and capacity development; (2)
adaptation of policies and strategies; (3) showcasing of best practices through
provision of funding for climate change adaptation strategies and biodiversity
conservation projects; and (4) awareness creation.
Aside from research organizations, the private sectors are also taking their share in
the climate change adaptation efforts of the country. For instance, Smart, a
telecommunication company, is working with MO on telemetric rain gauges in
disaster-prone areas. Also, Unilever, a private company is working with Yes2Life
Foundation to restore dead coral reefs (Resurrecion et al, 2008).
There are also a number of projects-based adaptation initiatives implemented and
funded by bilateral and multilateral agencies. One such project is implemented by
the International Labor Organization (ILO) in Jabonga, Agusan del Norte to build the
adaptive capacity of the farming communities affected by severe flooding due to
climate change (ILO, 2009).

30 June 2010

The World Banks Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Program (PHILCCAP)


provides a window for sectoral initiatives to reduce climate change vulnerability of
key productive sectors. The project aims to reduce the negative impacts of the
increasing risks due to climate change on poverty alleviation and economic
development, particularly in agriculture and natural resources management, and
through enhanced interagency coordination with respect to climate change
adaptation and natural hazard risk management. The project, which is envisaged as
the first phase of a long-term adaptation program by the Government of the
Philippines, is expected to have the following four building blocks: (i) improve
coordination of adaptation policy by DENR; (ii) implement climate risk reduction in
key productive sectors; (iii) strengthen proactive disaster management within the
NDCC; and (iv) enhance provision of scientific information for climate risk
management. The first phase, costing about $5 million, will focus on establishing
the institutional set-up best suited for guiding country and sector responsive
adaptation activities to reduce the countrys vulnerability to associated risks;
develop country specific solutions to adaptation risk management; and develop
reliable climate risk information. The second phase will focus on scaling up best
practices and lessons learned in the first phase; and more generally cause climate
change and disaster risk assessment and awareness in the key development sectors
of the country; while expanding investments to all major sectors of the Philippines.
The joint UN programme on Strengthening the Philippines Institutional Capacity to
Adapt to Climate Change seeks to assist the Philippines address the above key
strategic issues directly affecting the achievement of the MDGs by pursuing the
following three (3) outcomes: climate risk reduction (CRR) mainstreamed into key
national & selected local development plans & processes; enhanced national and
local capacity to develop, manage and administer plans, programmes & projects
addressing climate change risks; and coping mechanisms improved through pilot
demonstration adaptation projects.

48

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Mainstreaming climate change adaptation


One of the first initiatives to integrate climate CCA and DRM in the country was the
project by the Manila Observatory in 2006. The project was a pilot project for
community-based, inter-disciplinary work which aimed to integrate existing disaster
risk management concerns with long-term climate change response and overall
sustainable development through capacity building and technical assistance. The
community of the project was the Mag-asawang Tubig Watershed, which is
composed of Calapan City and the municipalities of Naujan , Victoria , Baco, San
Teodoro, and Puerto Galera. This area is particularly vulnerable to flooding,
landslides and heavy siltation brought about by the frequent episodes of extreme
rainfall, as well as to earthquakes and tsunamis.
The First National Conference on Climate Change Adaptation in Albay last October
2007 brought the concern of climate change and adaptation into the publics
consciousness. The First Conference aimed at exploring concrete adaptation options
to address the potential impacts of climate change and discuss the policy
implications for local government units. Graced by no less than Her Excellency
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and Vice President Noli De Castro and the
secretaries of key executive agencies and public intellectuals, climate change
adaptation soon gained momentum and has become a priority agenda in the
national policy arena.

30 June 2010

The Albay Declaration on Climate Change Adaptation (Albay Declaration 2007) is


the embodiment of a convergence of interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary efforts
to arrest the imminent threats and dangers posed by radical ecological shifts
occurring to our beloved planet earth. Both Congressional houses recognized the
Albay Declaration as the national framework for the mainstreaming of global
warming leading to climate change adaptation.
Following the initiative of the Provincial Government of Albay, other local
governments are looking into mainstreaming climate change adaptation into their
local policy and developmental planning process. A Policy Dialogue with main actors
convened by the DENR Secretary and the Presidential Advisor on Climate Change in
May 2009, has paved the way towards developing a National Strategic Framework
on Climate Change Adaptation with Technical Working Groups from various sectors
now developing the key inputs for a Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Strategy.
However, there is a need to examine the current initiatives on adaptation at the
national, regional and local level to ensure harmonized and concerted efforts in line
with local requirements and taking into account recent scientific knowledge and the
actual discussion in the international policy dialogue on climate protection under
the UNFCCC.
Among the pioneering initiatives to mainstream climate change adaptation in the
country is the project implemented by the NEDA with support from UNDP and
AusAID in 2009. The project was entitled Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction and
Climate Change Adaptation in Local Development Planning and Decision-making
processes which aimed to mainstream the integrated concerns of DRR and CCA into
local decision making and planning processes. DRR is conceived as a defense

49

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
against the hazardous impacts of climate change and variability such as extended
droughts and floods. The project aimed to bring awareness and understanding of
DRR/CCA to the community level, incorporating it into local level land-use and
development plans. The project also included the enhancement of multi-stakeholder
cooperation by creating mechanisms for their participation. The project is very
timely as it will promote a medium- to long-term strategy to rebuild the disaster
affected areas into stronger and more resilient communities, while frontline
agencies and local government units currently focus on the quick recovery of these
areas.
The project built on the DRR methodologies and tools developed under the recently
concluded NEDA-EC-UNDP Project on Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management into
Subnational Planning which are embodied in the Guidelines on Mainstreaming DRR
in Subnational Development and Land Use/Physical Planning.
The National Conference on Climate Change Adaptation + 2 (NCCCA+2) was
conducted two years after the first conference. It looked back at the gains of the
First Conference after two years of concerted efforts and how national and local
policies have been translated into actions in the light of international developments.
Participants from national agencies, local governments, academe, NGOs and other
interest groups was informed of the developments in international policy
discussions on climate change, particularly adaptation as it relates to disaster risk
reduction and mitigation. Discussions in plenary was structured around the
Philippine climate scenario (from the Second National Communication to UNFCCC)
and the advances made in national and local policies as in the National Strategic
Framework on Climate Change Adaptation. The participants discussed further issues
and actions towards adaptation. The Second Conference served as a venue to
validate the relevance of the National Strategic Framework on Climate Change
Adaptation to local governance.

30 June 2010

Box 3. Lessons learned: Initiatives of the Provincial Government of Albay


on Climate Change Adaptation
The Province of Albay was among the hardest hit during the 2006 typhoon season,
with deadly mudslides that descended the slopes of Mt. Mayon volcano, which
looms high over Legazpi City, burying homes and farmland, killing almost a
thousand people and displacing almost half a million. During typhoon Reming alone,
according to the NDCC, more than a thousand people lost their lives, three thousand
were
injured,
891
missing
and
300,000
displaced,
countrywide.
The devastation brought by the string of typhoons in 2006 and the pressure being
put on the province by the unpredictability generated by climate change served as
wake-up call to local authorities. The PGA immediately came up with activities and
measures that would increase the resilience of the community to existing risks and

50

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
events at the same time develop sufficient room to allow for uncertain future
climate events.
From a local government perspective, the extent to which an issue such as climate
change becomes successfully institutionalized in its day-to-day operations, planning
and decision-making can be evaluated, the PGA follows a four-step-principle in its
initiatives:
1. Making it a goal
At the initiative of the Governor, the province has a strong drive to address climate
change. Also, several of his staff has an understanding on climate change and the
vulnerability of the province to present and future climate risks.
The interest of decision makers in climate change has been enhanced in Albay as
the result of a series of extreme weather events in 2006 (i.e. a series of storms and
high tides), which resulted in loss of thousand of lives and extensive infrastructural
and agricultural damage. Although not directly attributable to climate change, these
events have raised general awareness of the kind of impacts that may be
experienced in a climatically changed future. As a result, there has been increased
political and administrative support for climate change-related work in the province.
The creation of these actions is reflective that the present political leadership
considers disaster management and climate change adaptation as top priorities of
the province. One should not, however, be nave and imagine that the integration of
climate proofing considerations into political and administrative decision-making is
likely to be a smooth process. Based on past experience, anything that affects
budget lines and the provinces current desired development path is likely to result
in contestation between the various parties involved.
It is also important to note that climate change is ostensibly a global concern, the
implications of which are focused on global levels, and that very little has been
done to fully understand its local impacts. It requires a move to the understanding
and communicating the impacts of climate change that is locally applicable.
Also, it is a difficult challenge convincing policy makers to integrate climate change
adaptation to development policies since climate change impacts are based on
long-term projections. Given the significant development pressures that exist at the
local level (i.e. poverty, hunger, unemployment,

30 June 2010

Box 3. Continued.
among others) local government planners and decision makers in many cases do
not have the luxury of being concerned about global change. It is important to find
ways to integrate climate change adaptation into sustainable development planning
in such a way that the policy makers will see climate change as an issue needing
immediate action. Therefore, key to any attempt to embed the climate change issue
at the local government level is the ability to answer the question: What does it
mean for my province, city, or town?

51

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
The need to answer this question in Albay resulted in the creation of the Center for
Initiatives in Research on Climate Change Adaptation (CIRCA) and strengthening of
its APSEMO. The governor and some of his staff are actively participating on local
and international climate-related conferences to further strengthen their knowledge
and understanding on the issue.
2. Ordaining Policies and budget lines
As a result of the first NCCCA and followed by the creation of CIRCA, climate change
concerns are gradually influencing the development planning of the province. The
province has passed a number of legislations with regards to climate change
adaptation. Also, there have been several memoranda promoting awareness DRM
and CCA.
Currently, the province is on the process of updating and reviewing its CLUP for DRR
and CCA. In the 2008 Plan Objectives and context of the province, it is recognized
in the settlement and land use issues that the province is host to active volcano and
is situated in the typhoon belt.
Likewise, the existence of communities or
settlements in volcanic hazard areas and other areas prone to severe flooding and
landslide, necessitates that disaster management awareness among populace and
the disaster management operations of LGUs should be strengthened to effectively
respond to natural and man-made calamities occurring in the province.
The provincial government of Albay has allocated 9 percent of its total regular
budget for climate change and disaster risk management activities. The CIRCA and
A2C2 program, APSEMO and calamity fund receives 2, 2 and 5 percent respectively.
The A2C2 program is under the Environmental Management category which also
include solid waste management and environmental enhancement program;
rehabilitation and protection of mangrove and micro-watershed areas; enforcement
of forest laws in CBFM project areas; conduct of tree planting activities; quarrying
regulation program; and maintenance of soil, water and conservation station (PAIP
Albay, 2007).

30 June 2010

3. Executing Programs
In August 2007, the provincial government resolved that environment (i.e. the
importance of environmental protection, conservation and management) should be
included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities in the province. A
series of capacity-building activities was conducted starting off with the Training of
Trainors to facilitate the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation in the
curricula of education. In partnership with DepEd, Commission on Higher Education
(CHED), Bicol University (BU) and private universities in the province, Albay initiated
various activities such as the
Box 3. Continued.
conduct of essay writing and poster making contests, viewing of documentaries and
conduct of seminars to propagate global warming awareness.

52

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
Also, the provinces agricultural rehabilitation program (AIARP) indicates its short
term and long term goals: disaster preparedness and rehabilitation, and climate
change adaptation, respectively. Currently, the program is focusing its activities to
organized farmer clusters for typhoon preparedness and rehabilitation. Adaptation
strategies in the agriculture sector i.e. resilient varieties and water conservation
practices are currently being explored.
Following are some initiatives in line with its aim to promote environmentally
sustainable practices, most in partnership with private corporations and
government agencies:
The Barangay Level Composting project aimed to reduce the volume of
garbage dumped at landfills by processing compost into organic fertilizer,
thus reducing methane emissions form agricultural lands;
The Linis Kalog (Clean up of rivers and creeks) is constantly done to reduce
the occurrence of floods and the damage it may cost;
The conduct of mangrove reforestation in several areas (e.g. the
establishment of 10ha of mangrove plantations in the coastal areas of
Manito, Albay;
The implementation of watershed management seeks to adapt to the impact
of heavy rain on soils.
4. Building institutions
A further outcome of the 1st NCCCA was the realization that successful development
and roll-out of the Albay Declaration would require that the task be appropriately
resourced, both from a human and financial perspective. This required institutional
change, as no formal climate change mandate existed anywhere within the
prevailing provincial structures. Thus, the creation of CIRCA. This change to the
provincial institutional structure was approved in 2007 and funds have now been
committed, placing a full time staff to CIRCA and supporting its activities, as a first
step towards realizing its functions.

30 June 2010

Since the institutionalization of the APSEMO in 1994 and CIRCA in 2007, both have
staff that are dedicated and committed to disaster management and climate
change adaptation, respectively. However, there are limited interactions between
the staff of the two organizations (Daep, 2008) although some of the activities of
CIRCA are more on disaster risk management particularly with regards to
information dissemination and conduct of training and workshops on disaster
preparedness and risk reduction.
It is, however, important to note that mainstreaming climate change adaptation in
the day-to-day decision-making in LGUs may require considerable additional work
and wider responsibility thus, may require additional staff and time. Also, there is a
need to clarify and strengthen the links between climate change adaptation,
disaster risk management, and development. In addition, the activities, programs
and projects to be launched by new institutions like CIRCA should be made relevant
to or integrated with existing institutions like APSEMO, structures, procedures and
activities.

53

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

3.4 Key Areas of Progress and Challenges


It is noteworthy that the province of Albay, through its governor is taking a strong
initiative to promote climate change adaptation not only in the province, but
nationwide as well. This drive is embedded in the fact that the province is among
the most vulnerable in terms of climate-related and geologic hazards. It is the first
local government to work on climate-proofing development.
Aside from Albay, a number of provinces such as Iloilo - province most ravaged by
Typhoon Frank (Fengshen) in 2008, and Palawan an island province, are starting to
implement activities on addressing climate change specific to the needs of their
areas. The province of Palawan undertook some action planning and initiatives to
address climate change concerns (Perez, undated). They provided some
recommendations for National Government (NG) action which include the creation,
enhancement or strict implementation of coastal laws (Fisheries Code of 1998,
mining laws, etc), regulations (on land use, zoning, etc) or programs (Disaster
Management Program, Coastal Environment Program, Coastal Zone Management);
and the formulation of guidelines and legislation for the implementation of an
integrated coastal zone management for all coastal zones in the Philippines. While
Iloilo started a project aimed to establish sustainable end-to-end institutional
systems for the generation and application of locally tailored climate information; to
build capacity to apply these in real-time in selected locations in the Philippines;
and to scale up applications nationally in order to mitigate the impacts of droughts
and floods. The Bangkok-based ADPC, PAGASA, IPG, LGU-Dumangas implemented a
program entitled Climate Forecast Applications (CFA) for Disaster Mitigation with
support from USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance. It aims to strengthen
national capacity to manage impacts of climate variability on climate-sensitive
sectors, such as agriculture. Climate Field School (CFS) was established as a flagship
activity under Climate Forecast Applications (CFA) piloted in Dumangas, Iloilo in July
to September 2007. It hopes to enhance the capacity of extension workers and
farmers to understand and apply climate information in order to reduce flood and
drought risks in agriculture (Toledo, 2009).

30 June 2010

With more than half of the total area of the Philippines at risk of natural disasters
making 81% of its population at risk, more local governments are likely to draw
lessons from the Albay initiatives and eventually from Iloilo and Palawan.
At the national level, climate change is slowly being integrated in different plans
and programs. However, the progress is slow. Although climate change has been
mentioned more frequently in the updated MTPDP, it continues to be narrowly
directed, being mentioned in only two chapters. Climate change proves to be a low
priority in terms of public resource allocation. Similarly, in terms of national laws,
Lasco et. al. (2007) found that few environmental laws address climate change
mitigation (i.e. Clean Air Act) and/or prescribe adaptation strategies to potential
impacts of climate change. In a study conducted by Lasco et. al. (2009), there was a
consensus (95 percent of the respondents) that mainstreaming climate change in
policies and programs is important and about 59 percent concurred that it has not
been mainstreamed in the country. The study concluded that climate change is still
seen as peripheral when compared to more pressing social issues such as poverty

54

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
and economic growth. However, there is a great opportunity to improve the linkage
between climate change adaptation and development particularly in terms of
disasters and weather-related hazards.
There has been a little progress in terms of mainstreaming of climate change in the
decision-making processes of LGUs, however, this will still take some more efforts
due to lack of information as well as the short planning horizon of local government
executives. The former challenge can be handled through a more extensive and
intensive IEC campaign through trainings, seminars and dialogues. Getting local
executives to consider climate change in their decisions is, however, more of a
challenge. Thus, the need to further instill ownership in local government staff.
At the national level, the newly crafted National Framework on Climate Change has
put greater emphasis on adaptation. The document was formulated within the
context of the countrys sustainable development goals and governance and
institutional factors that affect the countrys ability to respond to climate change.
However, the document does not detail specific steps but sets the strategic
direction the government, the private sector and the general public would follow to
come up with their precise programs to address the effects of climate change.
It is important to note that agriculture and water resources should be the priority
sectors, which are inter-linked, and food security issues should be looked at in
parallel in the context of climate change. The water resource and agriculture sectors
are starting its initiatives on including climate change in its major strategies
(Appendix E). There is the need to mainstream climate change adaptation in other
sectors besides water and agriculture. Appendix E also summarizes the main
features of selected Philippine policies on environment and natural resource
management, and their respective possible impacts relating to climate change in
the country. It is noticeable that only very few of these government policies directly
address the mitigation of climate change, and/or prescribe adaptation strategies to
the potential impacts of climate change. Most of the policies appear to prescribe
merely reactive not proactive strategies to mitigate the impacts of and/or adapt
to climate change (Lasco et.al., 2008).
Box 4. Recommended adaptation priorities of key sectors in Southeast
Asia (ADB, 2010)

30 June 2010

Key sectors (i.e. water, agriculture, forestry, coastal and marine, and health) of
Southeast Asian countries have made encouraging initiatives for climate change
adaptation. Below are the recommended priorities for these sectors.
In the water resources sector, the priority is to scale-up existing good practices of
water conservation and management, and apply more widely integrated water
management, including flood control and prevention schemes, irrigation
improvement, and demand-side management.
In the agriculture sector, the priority is to strengthen local adaptive capacity by
providing public goods and services, such as better information, research and
development on heat-resistant crop varieties and risk-sharing instruments such as

55

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
index-based insurance schemes.
In the forestry sector, the priority is to enhance early warning systems and
awareness-raising programs to better prepare for potentially more frequent forest
fires as a result of climate change; and implement aggressive public-private
partnerships for reforestation and afforestation.
In the coastal and marine resources sector, the priority is to implement integrated
coastal zone management plans, including mangrove conservation and plantation.
In the health sector, the priority is to expand or establish early warning systems for
disease outbreaks, health surveillance, awareness raising campaigns, and
infectious disease control programs.
In the infrastructure sector, the priority is to introduce climate-proofing of
transport-related investments and infrastructure.
There is a need to further mobilize greater and more diverse sustainable sources of
financing that are nationally appropriate for climate change, especially in the
private sector. In terms of mainstreaming, among the first to react are the
development agencies as evidenced by efforts to mainstream adaptation into aid
programs and projects. Individually and collectively, international multilateral and
bilateral organizations have responded to the increasing challenge of climate
change with an agenda for action to integrate climate concerns into the mainstream
of developmental policy making and poverty-reduction initiatives (World Bank,
2008). This is proven by the increasing number of programs supported by these
organizations in the country particularly on climate change adaptation. The national
government should makes sure that climate change is one of its priority since most
of the country strategies (as the argument been proven in the disaster section) are
reflective of the governments development agenda.
Although several organizations like Manila Observatory, ICRAF, CI, and EEPSEA and
some NGOs started efforts to find solutions to address climate change, there still
remains a huge information gap in terms of vulnerabilities, risk, and adaptation
strategies. There is a need for more research support from the government and
other funding organizations. The science and research wings of the government
particularly the agencies of DOST, DENR, and DA should further widen their
research thrust to include climate change issues.

30 June 2010

Finally, there is also a need to nationally promote climate change issues, problems
and solutions to be translated into local context and with a language that people
can understand.

56

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

4.

PROGRESS IN INTEGRATION OF CCA AND DRR

4.1

Overall gaps and needs

Natural disasters and climate change affect various natural, economic, social, and
political activities and processes. Hence, these challenges need to be addresses in a
more holistic, integrative and participatory manner at all scales, on all political
levels and all sectors of society.
Historically, there are two separate communities of policy makers, practitioners, and
researchers working on DRR/M and CCA evident in the limited overlap in approach
and strategies, organizations and institutions, funding mechanisms (see Table 5)
and even in meetings and conferences, research methods and tools, and language.
Table 5. General characterization of the CCA and DRR/M communities in the country
Disaster Risk Management

Climate Change Adaptation

30 June 2010

Approach
- Risk management
- Engineering and national sciencebased events and exposure
- Shift from reactive to proactive
approach
- Local scale
- Community-based
- Short-term (but increasingly longterm)

Risk management
Strong scientific basis
Vulnerability perspective
Multi-disciplinary approach
Global scale
Top-down
Long-term perspective

57

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
Organizations and Institutions
- United Nations
- Provention Consortium (The World
Bank)
- IFRC
- International, national and local civil
society groups and NGOs
National Council for DRR/M
- National Defense (DND) as lead
- Interior and Local Government,
Social Welfare and Development,
Science and Technology and
National Economic Development

UNFCCC
IPCC
Academe and research
National and local NGOs

Climate Change Commission


- Environment and Natural Resources,
Agriculture, Energy, and National
Economic Development

Strategies
-

UN ISDR
Hyogo Framework of Action
Disaster Framework
National DRR/M Framework (to be
adopted)
- SNAP

- National Communication to the


UNFCCC
- National Framework Strategy on
Climate Change

Major Policies
- Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction
and Management Act of 2010 (RA
10121), 27 May 2010
- Adopting SNAP and institutionalizing
DRR (EO 888), 7 June 2010

- Philippine Climate Change Act of


2009 (RA 9729), 23 October 2009

30 June 2010

Funding
- National Defense/ emergency
response (National Calamity Fund,
now the National DRR/M Fund)
- International Humanitarian Funding
- Multilateral Bank
- Bilateral Aid

- Special Climate Change Fund


- Adaptation Fund

Modified from Thomalla, et.al., 2006

The increasing political momentum due to the number of typhoons that ravaged the
country in the past four years, the overlapping objectives of DRM and CCA in

58

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
general are increasingly being reflected in international agreements, government
policies, as well as in some projects and programs in the country. There has indeed
been an increase in mutual interest evidenced by the recent policies and programs,
growing number of major conferences and policy dialogues, knowledge sharing and
multi-stakeholder coordination, but there is still some way to go.
Disaster risk management
Based on the last two to four years of experience, multi-stakeholder participation
and consultation have increased. The changes in policy framework and
management strategies on DRR are adequate to show that the country has shifted
from a reactive disaster response to a more proactive disaster management. Among
others, the issue that needs to be resolved is how to efficiently and effectively
ensure the implementation of a more proactive DRM in the country. The newly
signed PDRRM Law, though provides for a more holistic, comprehensive, integrative
and proactive approach in lessening the socioeconomic and environmental impacts
of disasters including climate change, and promotes the involvement and
participation of all sectors and all stakeholders concerned from the national to the
local level,
should be harmonized with existing environmental laws. More
importantly, institutional coordination is needed between and among national,
regional and local agencies. While more stakeholders from the NGOs and private
sector are getting involved, the inclusiveness of DRM in terms of actors should be
enhanced by conducting more stakeholder consultations to provide for future
direction of DRR in the country (i.e. in the preparation of the Philippine DRRM
Framework and Action Plan).

30 June 2010

The LGUs seem to be in the best position to implement DRM effectively. Local
champions are necessary to instill DRR and ensure DRM ownership particularly in
raising public awareness and instilling knowledge and capacity specific to the needs
of their constituents. Capacity building is deemed necessary particularly to LGUs. It
is also important to discover how existing capacities can be used to the full
advantage of the entire DRM community. However, financing mechanisms need to
be explored. Local internal resources are insufficient, thus resource mobilization is
needed.
Progress in terms of mainstreaming DRR in the country has been encouraging but
rather slow. There have been significant steps taken from both the national
government through its agencies, more particularly in the education and
infrastructure sector. Development organizations programming shows promise in
terms of mainstreaming DRR into their development work in hazard-prone countries
like the Philippines. Thus, it is necessary that the government makes DRR a priority
in its development agenda. It is also essential to put in place mechanisms and
processes through which stakeholders can contribute and participate within
appropriate legal mandates and institutional arrangements.
The newly signed PDRRM Law encourages the National DRRM Council, to be led by
the OCD, to coordinate with the Climate Change Commission in the development of
assessment tools on the existing and potential hazards and risks brought by climate
change to vulnerable areas and ecosystems as well as the formulation and

59

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
implementation of a framework for DRRM and CCA in all policies, programs and
projects.
Climate change adaptation
Though there have been a number of significant steps the national government
have taken, there is still a need to design national policies, programs and
development interventions so that adaptation to current and future climate-related
changes is enabled and not hindered.
The government has created the PCSD in response to its 1992 Earth Summit
commitments. The IACCC was established a year earlier in 1991. More recently, the
PTFCC and the Advisory Council on Climate Change (ACCC) were also formed after
the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in 2003. Additionally, President Arroyo has
made Green Philippines, which is also a chapter in the Updated 2004-2010
Medium Term Philippine Development Plan, as one of the 8 in 8 priorities (NEDA,
2008). And most recently, the country has signed into law its Climate Change Act of
2009 and established the Climate Change Commission, a first in the region.
Increasingly the Philippines, both at the national and local levels, have begun to pay
attention to the adaptation-side of climate change, by promoting climate change
risk management initiatives.
It is interesting to note, however, that the newly crafted NFSCC considers disasters
i.e. natural meteorological and meteorologically-influenced hazards of primary
relevance to the overall resilience of the country to climate change. The NFSCC
suggests cross-cutting strategies, multi-stakeholder partnerships, financing
valuation and policy planning and mainstreaming. It also considers DRR in its crosscutting strategies i.e. in capacity development, knowledge management and
information, education campaigns.

30 June 2010

Box 5. Disaster Risk Reduction as a key result area in the NFSCC


In the overall effort of combating the effects of climate change, disaster risk
reduction (DRR) shall be the first line of defense. Thus, beyond normal relief
operations, the Framework Strategy shall expand and upgrade the countrys
capacity to address and anticipate disasters such as typhoons, floods, and
landslides. This would bring a renewed focus on science-based early warning
systems and capacity-building for local government units and organizations for
disaster preparedness and risk management. This would also entail vulnerability
assessment of communities as well as prioritized disaster planning and
management for areas in the typhoon-path and flood-prone areas.
Objective: Reduce disaster risks from climate change-induced natural hazards.
Strategic Priorities

60

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
a. Adoption of a responsive policy framework to serve as an enabling environment
for reducing losses from natural disasters, including climate change-related risks.
b. Use of the best available and practicable tools and technologies from the social
and natural sciences as decision aids and support systems to stakeholders in
preventing, reducing and managing disaster risks.
c. Enhancement of institutional and technical capacity to facilitate the paradigm
shift from disaster response to disaster preparedness and mitigation.
d. Enhancement of national monitoring, forecasting and hazard warning systems;
and improve effectiveness of early warning systems available to communities.
e. Mainstreaming of climate and disaster risk-based planning in national and local
development and land use planning thru the application of disaster risk
assessment and by further supporting capacity development, including the
preparation/ gathering and dissemination of appropriate data and maps
necessary for national, regional, provincial and city/municipal planning.

4.2

Current mechanisms and incentives, and barriers to integration

This study assessed current efforts to address disaster risks and climate change in
the Philippines, focusing particularly on aspects that can help build the interlinkage/s between DRM and CCA. In this context, we tried to explore several key
components of climate proofing development including knowledge on climate risk
and vulnerability (i.e. information and communication), institutional capacity and
coordination, local government and community initiatives, and financing DRM and
CCA. Drawing from the review of institutional and policy initiatives on DRM and CCA,
Table 6 summarizes the principal mechanisms and incentives, and barriers that
shaped how integration progressed to date. These key points are expanded in the
sections that follow.
Table 6. Progress toward integration (incentives and barriers) of DRR/M and CCA in
the country
Existing Mechanisms/Incentives

Existing barriers to integration

30 June 2010

Knowledge on climate risk and


vulnerability:
Updating of forecasting capabilities
Increasing IEC campaigns
Schools are integrating DRR
concepts in their curriculum
(primary and secondary schools)
Starting to incorporate risk and
impact assessment procedures
before construction of new roads
and bridges
Increasing institutional

Limited forecasting capability


Unutilized existing data sources
Difficult access to data and
information
Past and current adaptation
strategies to disaster-related events
are largely not documented
Lack of/limited analysis of potential
climate change impacts and
vulnerabilities;

61

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
commitments towards developing
practices to streamline risk
assessment
Involvement in regional discussions,
agreements, and dialogues

Education in DRM and CCA is still


limited in scope and education
materials are still inadequate
Gaps in awareness and
understanding of risk

Institutional capacity and coordination:


Existing coordination structures for
DRM i.e. cluster approach
Strategic and policy advances in
strengthening disaster risk
management
Key policy initiative and coordination
mechanism for CCA
Institutional commitment from
various stakeholders towards
recharging the legal basis for DRR
actions

Relatively weak coordination


mechanisms regarding DRM and CCA
Impacts of and contribution to DRM
and CCA not anchored on existing
legal instruments

Local government and community


initiatives:
Political momentum from major
disaster events to consider future
risks
National government is actively
building awareness and capacity to
mainstream DRM and CCA in land
use and physical framework plans
Adopted a community-driven and
engaged approach to DRM
Local government initiatives (e.g.
Albay, Iloilo and Palawan) to
institutionalizing DRM and CCA

Threat of discontinuity in policies,


structures, programmes, plans due
to short planning horizon
DRR and CCA a low priority for
national and local leaders
Limited capacity, skills and resources

30 June 2010

Financing DRM and CCA:


Increasing funding for DRM and CCA
SCCF pay special attention to DRR in
guidance
Few bilateral and multilateral donors
have integrated their support for
DRR and CCA
Several donors are investing directly
on capacity building for DRM and

Use of LCFs are unknown and often


misunderstood by local officials
Absence of insurance and risk
transfer options
Projects that address climate change
in disaster management are
fragmented and tend to be donordriven

62

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
CCA

Disaster emergency response


continues to divert funds
Barriers to investment in risk
reduction and adaptation

Knowledge on climate risk and vulnerability


The generation and provision of reliable and appropriate information on present and
future climate risks is a key component of adaptation. Improvement of data sources
and modeling capacity is both an adaptation in itself and a resource on which to
base adaptive decisions and action. Both communities, DRR and CCA, have
developed a wide range of analytical and assessment tools to assess risk and
vulnerability and identify appropriate strategies. There is an improving science base
with respect to climatic extremes and climate change, including recent studies on
climate
risk
and
vulnerability
mapping
in
both
government
meteorological/hydrological agencies and academe. Forecasting capability of
relevant government agencies i.e. PAGASA and PHIVOLCS are regarded as limited.
Existing data sources i.e. climate/weather date are often not fully utilized and data
from national and/or other external agencies can be difficult to access, especially for
local researchers and local stakeholders. Past and current adaptation strategies to
disaster-related events are largely not documented.
Information dissemination is another issue. There has been an increase in
awareness campaigns in the form of seminars, trainings, film showing and
participation of media mostly through partnerships of national agencies, NGOs and
the academe. However, more intensive and targeted IEC is needed particularly to
LGUs and their constituents.

30 June 2010

Institutional capacity and coordination


The recently approved policies on both DRR and CCA, and other adaptation projects
feature clear overlaps, including efforts to harmonize coordination structures. The
effective reduction of vulnerabilities to current natural hazards and to climate
change requires coordination across different levels and sectors of governance and
the involvement of a broad range of stakeholders. The DRM community, having the
newly signed PDRRM Law, is expected to increasingly adopt a more anticipatory and
proactive approach, bringing it closer to the longer-term perspective of the CCA
community. To strengthen the link between disaster risk management and
adaptation to climate change, it is also important to understand when, and at what
level, coordination is required, and who should take the lead. Adaptation to climate
change is not simply an extension of disaster risk management. Adaptation to
climate change not only means addressing changes in the intensity and frequency
of extreme events, but also more subtle changes in climatic conditions as well as
new emerging risks, which have not been experienced in a region before. Shifts in
the timing of and magnitude of rainfall, rising temperatures and changes climate
variability will in many ways affect natural resources and the quality of ecosystem
services and hence impact on livelihoods and economic sectors that depend on
them.

63

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

The cluster approach to DRM has further strengthened coordination across sectors
for disasters in the country. Disaster coordination is achieved largely through a
nested network of coordinating councils from national, provincial to municipal
levels. Coordination in relation to CCA is generally less well developed at present.
The creation of the Climate Change Commission is expected to clarify the roles and
responsibilities of the concerned government agencies; encourage participation
from different sectors i.e. private, NGOs, and research; and enhance coordination
among all stakeholders.
The capabilities of local government in DRM and CCA need to be strengthened. All
LGUs, particularly the most vulnerable ones, should have a dedicated office to
handle disaster management. This, however, entails cost. The coordination between
municipal, provincial, regional, and national preparedness and response
mechanisms should also be strengthened.
Progress toward climate change adaptation in government agencies depends on
political commitment and institutional capacity, reflected in robust policies and
strategies geared toward consideration of disaster risk reduction and long-term
changes in risk. Significant policy advances have been gained in strengthening
disaster risk management, including key national policies/strategies in the country.
However, having two separate institutional homes while sharing the same
objectives and same challenges, they fail to coordinate themselves. Thus, it is
crucial to emphasize the importance of integrating both DRR and CCA efforts
towards the common objective of reducing risk to development. This is to avoid
duplication of efforts, governance inefficiencies and even misunderstanding and
competition among various stakeholders.
Local government and community initiatives

30 June 2010

Efforts to forge greater capacity at the national scale have to be reflected by work
at the local scale to increase the ability of local institutions and communities to
cope with present and future risks from climatic hazards. Initiatives targeted at local
and community level in DRM are evident in the projects and programs supported by
donor organizations. More importantly, the LGUs, like that of the Province of Albay,
possess a unique role of bridging local and national scale activities in terms of
disaster coordination and CCA policies. These practices may also be used as vehicle
to raise awareness and spread the strategies to other LGUs.
Financing DRM and CCA
Financing for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation can come from
national budgets, international donors and private sector sources. Funding for DRM
is growing, as reflected by the increasing number of projects by several bilateral
donor organizations that have specific funding for DRR. CCA, on the other hand, is
slowly getting attention and more funding. Few bilateral organizations have
integrated their support for DRR and CCA. Many DRR/M projects are funded from
humanitarian aids, CCA on the other hand is typically funded out of environmental

64

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
departments from bilateral donor organizations.

30 June 2010

There is a need to further mobilize greater and more diverse sustainable sources of
financing that are nationally appropriate for climate change, especially in the
private sector. A number of bilateral and multilateral donor organizations have
integrated their support for DRM and CCA. Most CCA funding are typically contained
in environment-related projects. Several donors are also investing directly in
capacity building through NGOs and research networks.

65

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

5.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1

Conclusions

66

The Philippines has been considered as highly vulnerable to current (i.e. natural
disasters), as well as future climate-related risks. The country experiences an
average of eight to nine tropical cyclones making a landfall plus recurring floods and
landslides, periodic ENSO phenomenon, among others. Climate change is expected
to exacerbate existing stresses, thus the development goals of the country can be
severely affected by climate change and a great number of population and
livelihoods can be at risk.
Managing such risks to development requires the systematic integration of DRM and
CCA in terms of project activities, coordination and financing mechanisms. Progress
toward DRM and CCA in government agencies depends on political will and
institutional capacity, reflected in robust policies and strategies geared toward
consideration of short- and long- term climate risk to development. Significant
program and strategy advances have been gained in strengthening DRM; and
pioneering steps, including key national policies and institutions, for promoting CCA.
The recently approved policies on both DRM and CCA, and other adaptation projects
feature clear overlaps, including efforts to harmonize coordination structures.
However, progress in terms of integration of DRM and CCA in political agendas and
institutional priorities remains slow. Though significant policy advances have been
recently gained, the continuing perception that DRM and CCA are of less priority
hinders moves towards mainstreaming.
It is also important to point the significance of linking DRM and CCA activities and
integrate with poverty reduction activities and development objectives. Being both
a condition and determinant of vulnerability, poverty reduction should be an
essential component of reducing vulnerability to natural disasters and climate
change.

30 June 2010

The political momentum and leadership brought by several disasters for the last two
years tends to suffer from coordination conflicts, political instability, and short-term
political cycles. Long-term issues such as CCA may suffer from the threat of
unsustainable program and discontinuity of policies, therefore strengthening the
need for ownership. The promising role of local champions and units should be
emphasized and further supported by the national government.
5.2

Recommendations

Given the above realities on DRR and CCA policy and institutional landscapes in the
country, the following recommendations and immediate priorities for the Philippines
to integrating DRM and CCA into policies and programs are forwarded:
On knowledge on climate risk and vulnerability

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Aggressive systematic knowledge generation and IEC campaign about DRM and
CCA is needed. More research to better understand the local and sectoral impacts of
climate change, climate variability and extreme, and disasters should be
undertaken. This needs documentation and organization of all climate chang,
variability and risk-related data and information in the country to properly identify
hazards and risks. Useful action may include steping up efforts in documenting
existing strategies and knowledge on adaptation to disasters, more research on
technical solutions and capacities to enhance adaptive capacity of vulnerable
communities and provide for sustainable livelihoods; and step up efforts to raise
public awareness and IEC campaigns. Such campaigns ought to be targeted to a
wider range of stakeholders such as the research and academe communities, policy
makers and civil society.
On institutional capacity and coordination
The cross-sectoral nature of natural disasters and climate change warrants a similar
approach to addressing the issue. A more integrative, participatory, and multistakeholder approach, as been highlighted in both Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Act and Climate Change Act, should be implemented. This entails not
only increased policy dialogues but a more concerted and coordinated partnership
arrangements and stronger operational links for research and policy.
On local government and community initiatives
The local leaders can be champions, and LGUs seem to be in the best position to
implement DRM and CCA effectively. Local champions are necessary to instill DRR
and CCA and ensure ownership particularly in raising public awareness and instilling
knowledge and capacity specific to the needs of their constituents. Capacity
building is deemed necessary particularly to LGUs. It is also important to discover
how existing capacities can be used to the full advantage of the entire DRM
community. However, financing mechanisms need to be explored. Local internal
resources are insufficient, thus resource mobilization is needed.

30 June 2010

On financing
The implementation of the above recommendations and of other development plans
related to DRR and CCA may be hampered by inadequacy of funds and other
(human and material) resources. As such, more concerted efforts, together with the
all-important political will, ought to be devoted to establishing regular sources of
funds at local, national and even international levels, to finance climate changerelated initiatives
Finally, there is no one-size-fits-all solution to improving risk management strategies
of the country i.e. integration of DRR agenda into CCA structures, or vice versa. This
calls for the government to build and strengthen existing capacities. This will require
further dialogues between the DRM and CCA communities to identify existing

67

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
mechanisms and potential entry points to foster broader integration and facilitate
stronger connections. Needless to say, the response of the Philippines should go
beyond having institutions and policies put in place.

References
Adger, W.N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D., and M. Hulme. 2003. Adaptation to
climate change in the developing world. Progress in Development Studies 3,3 pp
179-195.
Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office (APSEMO), 2007. Summary
Report: Disaster Occurrences in the province of Albay, as of December 2006.
Provincial Disaster Operation Center, Legazpi City, Albay, Philippines.
Arguelles M. 2007. Albay inks MOU on disaster risk reduction with UK group.
Available from http://www.bicolmail.com/issue/2007august9/albay-inks.html
(Accessed on January 2008).
Benson, C. and J. Twigg. 2007. Tools for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction:
Guidance Notes for Development Organisations. The Provention Consortium.
Geneva, Switzerland.
Bildan, L., 2003. Disaster management in Southeast Asia: an overview. Asian
Disaster Preparedness Center. Bangkok, Thailand. Available from
http://www.adpc.net/pdr-sea/publications/11-DMSEA.pdf
Britton, N. 2009. The Links Between Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change
Adaptation. Asian Development Bank.

30 June 2010

Burton I, Diringer E, Smith J. 2006. Adaptation to climate change: international


policy options. Pew Center on Global climate Change. Available from
http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-indepth/all_reports/adaptation_to_climate_chang
Cruz, N. 1997. Adaptation and Mitigation Measures for Climate Change: Impacts on
the Water Resources. In: Proceedings of the Consultation Meeting for the
International Conference on Tropical Forests and Climate Change. Environmental
Forestry Programme (ENFOR), College of Forestry and Natural Resources (CFNR),
University of the Philippines-Los Banos, College, Lagua, Philippines.
Daep C. 2002. Albay Province, Philippines: Coexisting with Mayon Volcano and
countermeasures for disaster preparedness. Asian Disaster Management News Vol.
8, No. 4. Available from http://www.adpc.net/v2007/IKM/Country
%20Profiles/Philippiens/Default-Philippiens.asp

68

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

Daep, C., 2008. Personal Communication. Albay Public Safety and Emergency
Management Office, Provincial Disaster Operation Center, Legazpi City, Albay,
Philippines. March 25, 2008.
DFID (Department for International Development), 2003. Adaptation to climate
change: making development disaster proof. Global and Local Environment Team,
Policy Division, DFID. Available from
http://www.climatevarg.org/essd/env/varg.nsf/42ec25f6537f5eff85256dab0048d8e9
/b603b3c185bee77485256dab0059aca8/$FILE/DFIDinfo_06.pdf (Accessed on
February 2008)
Ebi, K.L., N.D. Lewis and C. Corvalan. 2006. Climate Variability and Change and
Their Potential Health Effects in Small Island States: Information for Adaptation
Planning in the Health Sector. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, No. 12,
pp. 1957-1963
Elvira, J., 2007. Personal Communication. Albay Public Safety and Emergency
Management Office, Provincial Disaster Operation Center, Legazpi City, Albay,
Philippines. March 25, 2008.
Emmanuel, K., 2005: Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past
30 years. Nature,
436, 686-688.
Fernandez, A.L. and A.C. Javier. 2010. Midterm Review of the READY II Project.
United Nations Development Programme. Available at:
erc.undp.org/evaluationadmin/downloaddocument.html?docid=3575
Fortes and Jose, 2006. Report on Survey Results. Workshop on Financial Strategies
Managing
Economic Impact of Natural Disaster at the Macro-Meso-, Micro-Level. Manila,
Philippines. May 22-24, 2006.
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), undated. Disaster Risk
Management Programs for Priority Countries: East Asia and the Pacific. Accessed
online on 30 March 2010. Available at http://gfdrr.org/ctrydrmnotes/Philippines.pdf

30 June 2010

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). 2005.
World Disasters
Report 2005: Focus on information in disasters. IFRC, Geneva.
International Labor Organization (ILO). 2009. Climate change in Jabonga, Philippines
- the water is already rising. Accessed on 14 May 2009. Available from:
http://www.ilo.org/asia/info/public/features/lang--en/WCMS_114135/index.htm
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2007: Summary for
Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parrt, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof,

69

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
UK, 7-22.
IPCC Working Group 1. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis.
Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. J.T. Houghton, Y.Ding, D.J. Griggs, M.
Noguer, P.J. van der Linden, X.Dai, K. Maskell and C.A. Johnson (eds). Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UnitedKingdom and New York, NY, USA, 944 pp.
Jose, SR. 2006. Comprehensive disaster risk management framework of the
Philippines: end of course
project. Accessed at http://info.worldbank.org/ on February 2008. [PDF, 48 Kb]
Jose, A.M. and N.A. Cruz. 1999. Climate Change Impacts and Responses in the
Philippines: Water Resources. Climate Research, Volume 12, pp. 77-84 (August 27).
Lasco, R.D., J.M. Pulhin, R.V.O. Cruz, F.B. Pulhin and K.B. Garcia. 2006. An Integrated
Assessment of Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability in Watershed
Areas and Communities in the Philippines Final Technical Report (AIACC-AS21).
Lasco RD, Gerpacio R, Sanchez PAJ, and Delfino RJP. 2008. Philippine Policies in
Response to a changing climate: A review of natural resource policies. Policy
Brief.SEARCA. 8p.
Lasco RD, Pulhin FB, Sanchez PAJ, Delfino RJP, and Garcia K. 2009. Mainstreaming
Climate Change in Developing Countries: The case of the Philippines. Climate and
Development Journal; 1 (2009) 130-146.
Magturo, T.C.G., Rosete, J. and N. Relox. ---. Philippine Country Report on Climate
Change and Health Effects. Accessed online on 9 June 2010. Available from:
www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/...7787.../CCpptPhilippines.pdf
Martin, S., 201O. DA ready to combat El Nino phenomenon. The Manila Times. 06
February 2010. http://www.manilatimes.net/index.php/news/nation/10962-da-readyto-combat-el-nino-phenomenon

30 June 2010

McGray, H., A. Hammill and R. Bradley, 2007: Weathering the Storm: Options for
Framing Adaptation and Development. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC,
USA, vi+57 pp. http://www.ccchina.gov.cn/WebSite/CCChina/UpFile/File239.pdf
Mitchell, T., and M. van Aalst. 2008. Convergence of Disaster Risk Reduction and
Climate Change Adaptation. Online. Accessed 4 June 2010. Available from:
http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7853_ConvergenceofDRRandCCA1.pdf
National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC). 2009. Strengthening Disaster Risk
Reduction in the Philippines: Strategic National Action Plan 2009-2019.
http://ndcc.gov.ph/
National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). 2007. Philippines Midterm
Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals.

70

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

OBrien, G., OKeefe, P., Rose, J., and B. Wisner, 2006. Climate Change and Disaster
Management. Disasters, 2006, 30(1): 6480.
Oslo Policy Forum, 2008. Changing the Way We Develop: Dealing with Disasters and
Climate Change: report on the findings of the conference. Available from
http://www.oslopolicyforum.no/front.cfm (Accessed on April 2008)
Perez, R.T. 2002a. Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in
the Philippine Coastal Resources Sectors. Presentation made at the Meeting on
Climate Change and National Development in the Philippines, held on November 8,
2002 at the Justitia Room, Ateneo Professional Schools, Rockwell Center, Makati
City, Philippines.
Perez, R.T. 2002b. Assessment of Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in
the Philippine Water Resources Sectors. Presentation made at the Meeting on
Climate Change and National Development in the Philippines, held on November 8,
2002 at the Justitia Room, Ateneo Professional Schools, Rockwell Center, Makati
City, Philippines.
Perez, R. T. undated. "Assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change
in the Philippines coastal resources sector". Online. Accessed 5 May 2010. Available
at: http://www.survas.mdx.ac.uk/pdfs/3perez.pdf.
Population Reference Bureau (PRB), 2006. Making the Link in the Philippines:
Population, Health, and the Environment. Available from
http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2006/MakingtheLinkinthePhilippinesANe
wPRBDatasheet.aspx (Accessed on 26 February 2008)
Provincial Planning and Development Office, 2007. Annual Investment Plan,
Provincial Government
of Albay, Philippines.
Provincial Planning and Development Office, 2007. Provincial Development
Investment Plan, Provincial Government of Albay, Philippines.

30 June 2010

Rangasa, M., 2008. Personal Communication. Albay Public Safety and Emergency
Management Office, Provincial Disaster Operation Center, Legazpi City, Albay,
Philippines. March 25, 2008.
Salceda, J. 2010. Albay: Zero Casualty in the Midst of Escalating Disasters. A
presentation on the First World Congress on Cities and Adaptation to Climate
Change. 28 May 2010, Bonn, Germany.
Schipper, L. and M. Pelling, 2006. Disaster risk, climate change and international
development: scope for, and challenges to, integration. Disasters 30(1): 19-38.
Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118596602/issue
Serrano, S.R., 2009. Challenges and Opportunities for Philippine Agriculture in the
time of Climate Change, Looming Water Scarcity and Increasing Energy Costs.

71

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES
Speech during the Annual Conference of Crop Scientists. 19 May 2009. Accessed
online on 17 June 2010. Available from http://www.su.edu.ph/general_info/keynote
%20speeches/Challenges%20and%20Opportunities%20for%20Philippine
%20Agriculture.pdf
Sperling, F. and F. Szekely, 2005. Disaster Risk Management ina Changing Climate.
Informal Discussion Paper presented at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction
on behalf of the Vulnerability and Adaptation Resource Group (VARG). Washington,
D.C. Available from http://www.unisdr.org/eng/risk-reduction/climatechange/docs/DRM-in-a-changing-climate.pdf
Stern, N., 2006. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review (Cambridge
Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007). Available at
http://www.isn.ethz.ch/pubs/ph/details.cfm?lng=en&id=25513
The Philippines Initial National Communication on Climate Change, 1999.
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines.
Toledo, I., 2009. Climate Change Adaptation: the Iloilo Experience. Paper presented
at the National Conference on Climate Change Adaptation Practices in Natural
Resources Management. 29-30 June 2009, Traders Hotel Manila, Philippines.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN
ESCAP). Disaster Database.
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). 2007. Hyogo
Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and
Communities to Disasters. Extract from the final report of the World Conference on
Disaster Reduction. United Nations, Geneva.

30 June 2010

Valeroso, I. 2002. Survey of Climate Variability / Change Impacts in the Forestry


Sector. A presentation made at the Meeting on Climate Change and National
Development in the Philippines, held on November 8, 2002 at the Justitia Room,
Ateneo Professional Schools, Rockwell Center, Makati City, Philippines.
Van Aalst, M., 2006. The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters.
Disasters 30(1): 5-18 Available from
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118596602/issue
World Bank, 2005. Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines Reducing
Vulnerability Follow-on study: Final Report. Available from http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/11/29/00031
0607_20061129102102/Rendered/PDF/380630PH0Natur1ver0P08487001PUBLIC1.p
df
World Bank, 2008. Policy and Institutional Reforms to support Climate Change
Adaptation and Mitigation in Development Programs: A Practical Guide. The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.
Washington, DC, USA.
http://albay.gov.ph/

72

Institutional and Policy Landscapes of Disaster Risk Reduction and


Climate Change Adaptation
PHILIPPINES

http://albaycirca.org/
http://www.emb.gov.ph/
http://ndcc.gov.ph/
http://neda.gov.ph/
http://www.philippines.embassy.gov.au/mnla/Ausaid.html
http://senate.gov.ph/
http://www.undp.org/
http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia/countries/philippines/

30 June 2010

http://www.worldbank.org.ph/

73