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Introduction

Cementing materials
These are Materials with additive and cohesive properties
They have capable of uniting and bonding solid particles
together
These are: Lime, gypsum, and Portland cement

Cement
Is additive substance
Which when mixed with water form paste

The paste
Is temporarily plastic and be molded or deformed
And later it sets and harden to rigid mass
Cement of this kind are known as calcareous cement

Calcareous cement
Non hydraulic cement
Are cement which are not able to set and harden (e.g.,
Non hydraulic lime) or stable (e.g. gypsum plaster) in
water.

Hydraulic cement
Are cement which are able to set and harden in water
And give a solid mass that dose not disintegrated.
Remain stable in water (e.g. Portland cement)

Lime
It is found in its natural form as rock of varying degree
of hardness
Mainly composed of calcium oxide(CaO)
Lime deposits are generally found mixed with
impurities (CO2, FeO3 and MgCO3 ), this acquire
different colors
Production of lime
It involves burning of the row materials and then
Slaking
Depending on the amount of heat and the method of
slaking, the product is hydraulic or non-hydraulic lime

A. Quick lime/ commercial lime


Burning the natural stone in some of vertical kilns
to a temperature of 1000 oC.
The CO2 is driven off, leaving the CaO i.e., quick
lime or caustic lime
White in color and having a specific gravity of
about 3.40

Fig 1.

B. Hydrated/ slaked lime


Quick lime can never be used for construction
purposes, but must mixed with water. The
processes is called slaking or hydration of lime.
The resulting product is calcium hydroxide
(Ca (OH)2) Slacked or Hydrated lime
It is ready to be made into plaster or mortar by
adding water and sand to form a temporary
plastic mass.

Type of slacking (depending on the amount of water added)


Wet-slacking
Dry-slacking

Wet-slacking
At the building site by mixing quick lime with an excess
of water
Passed through a fine sieve to remove slow slaking
particle
Left to mature for several days
Stirred by shovel or stick this - reduce all anhydrated
particles (causes popping, pitting and disintegration)

Dry-slacking
It is manufactured in a factory under controlled
condition.
Sufficient water is used to hydrate the quick lime
then the lumps break in to a dry powder known as
dry hydrate or hydrate lime
Depending on the impurities present the specific
gravity of hydrated lime varies from 2.08 - 2.4

Preserving quicklime
Is has much affinity for water and quickly absorb
moisture from atmosphere and air slacked and
loses its cementing qualities
Therefore kept in dry storage and carefully
protected from dampness

Setting and hardening of lime


Slaked lime hardens or sets by gradually losing its
water through evaporation and absorbing CO2
from the air, thus changing back from Ca(OH)2 to

CaCO3 or limestone

The cycle is completed through


Burning
CaCO3 + heat
CaO +CO2 (quick lime)
Slaking
CaO + H2O
Ca(OH)2 + heat (slaked lime or Hydrated lime)
Setting
Ca(OH)2 + CO2
CaCO3 + H2O (dehydrated lime)

Two type of lime


1.High calcium lime
Pure, white, reach
High degree of plasticity(workability)

2. Manganese lime(lean)
poor ,gray,

Fig 2. Completed cycle in lime used as a cementing material

The Use of lime


It is used mortar for building brick
Stone masonry
Plastering walls of buildings

Gypsum plasters
It is used in arts and in building construction
A combination of sulphate of lime with water of
crystallization
It occurs as
Hydrous sulphate of lime (CaSO4.2H2O)
75% and 24%
Unhydrous sulphate of lime little or no water of
crystallization

Gypsum rock contain


Silica, alumina, lime carbonate, carbonate of
magnesia, iron oxide and other impurities
At least 65% by weight must be Hydrous sulphate of

lime (CaSO4.2H2O)

Pure gypsum is known as alabstor and


It is a white translucent crystalline mineral

Generally gypsum is
Soft that it can be scratched with the fingernail.
Fire sensitive
Sets quickly
Light in weight
Never used in places exposed to the weather,
moisture, underground moist

Manufacture of plaster
Gypsum plasters are manufactured by heating the
row materials gypsum at either moderate or high
temperature, the result being plaster of paris or
hardfinish plaster
A. plaster of paris (stucco)-calcined gypsum
gypsum a good deal of water of
crystallization(24% by wt.)
If some of H2O is driven off at a temperature just
above the boiling point of water 100 0C, a semihydrated plaster is obtained which is known as
plaster of Paris.

CaSO4.2H2O (moderate heat)

CaSO4.1/2H2O +1/2H2O

Plaster of paris:
is white powder having a specific gravity of
2.57
known as low-temperature gypsum
derivative or semi-hydrated plaster.

Fig 3. completed cycle in gypsum used as plaster

Sets rapidly (5-10 minuets)


No chemical change but recombination of the semi
hydrous sulphat with H2O take place
Solid mass of fine interlocking crystal is formed
It attain ultimate or final strength on drying
Disadvantages:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Shrinkage
Rapid setting
Difficult to work
Used for ornamental works due to A & B

B. Hard-finish plaster
By burning gypsum to a considerably higher
temperature
Unhydrous sulphate or unhydrous plaster or hightemperature gypsum derivative is produced
CaSO4.2H2O (High heat)
CaSO4. + 2H2O
When mixed with water, plaster of paris sets very
rapidly whereas hard-finished plaster sets too slowly
It is reluctant to reabsorb water
Less soluble in water

Setting retardant s
a. Flour, glue
b. Borax or Alum is added to finely ground
calcinated gypsum to further improve
warkability and accelerate the eventual
setting
Calcination- the process of drying of water of
crystallization by heat.