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Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Mohammed Imran Ahmed


Supervisor:
Prof. Marek Idzik (AGH)
Dr. Piotr Kapusta (IFJ)
Prof. Michal Turala (IFJ)

March 16, 2012

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

1 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

2 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

3 / 29

CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p


DIPIX is a Dual mode Integration type PIXel with reduced pixel size
of 14 m.
Each pixel is also provided with and without CDS (Correlated Double
Sampling).
Three detectors are designed in this Family of DIPIX2 (CZ-n, FZ-n
and FZ-p).
FZ-p sensor : Miss-handling of wafer (p-substrate is changed to n
instead of p) result wrong implantation.
Total number of pixels 256x256 divided into two regions, each with a
size of 128x256 pixels.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

4 / 29

CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p


DIPIX is a Dual mode Integration type PIXel with reduced pixel size
of 14 m.
Each pixel is also provided with and without CDS (Correlated Double
Sampling).
Three detectors are designed in this Family of DIPIX2 (CZ-n, FZ-n
and FZ-p).
FZ-p sensor : Miss-handling of wafer (p-substrate is changed to n
instead of p) result wrong implantation.
Total number of pixels 256x256 divided into two regions, each with a
size of 128x256 pixels.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

4 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

5 / 29

Saturation Test
Saturation Test
Saturation test is to check whether the detector is capable of operating in
long run measurements (INTPIX3 was saturating).

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

6 / 29

Saturation Test
Saturation Test
Saturation test is to check whether the detector is capable of operating in
long run measurements (INTPIX3 was saturating).
Test Setup :
Parameters
Environment
Signal
No. of Frames
Integration Time
Scan Time (pixel readout time)
RST time without cds and with cds
RSTV for N and P (wafer)

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

DIPIX2
Dark
No
60000
500s
640 ns/pixel
2040 ns and 2160 ns
750mV and 1300mV

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

6 / 29

Saturation Test
Saturation Test
Saturation test is to check whether the detector is capable of operating in
long run measurements (INTPIX3 was saturating).
Test Setup :
Parameters
Environment
Signal
No. of Frames
Integration Time
Scan Time (pixel readout time)
RST time without cds and with cds
RSTV for N and P (wafer)

DIPIX2
Dark
No
60000
500s
640 ns/pixel
2040 ns and 2160 ns
750mV and 1300mV

The back voltage for CZ-n = 100 V, FZ-n= 70 V.


Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

6 / 29

Saturation Test of CZ-n

Figure: Saturation test of CZ-n with CDS. (3 graphs each with 20000 frames
measured subsequently.)

Figure: Saturation test of CZ-n without CDS.


Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

7 / 29

Saturation Test CZ-N Zoom

Figure: Left fig: with CDS, Right fig: without CDS

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

8 / 29

Saturation Test of FZ-n

Figure: Saturation test of FZ-n with CDS. (3 graphs each with 20000 frames
measured subsequently.)

Figure: Saturation test of FZ-n without CDS.


Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

9 / 29

Saturation Test FZ-n Zoom

Figure: Left fig: with CDS, Right fig: without CDS

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

10 / 29

Saturation Test

Summary
DIPIX is not saturating (contrary to INTPIX3) and so it may work for
long time run.
Small initial changes in number of counts may probably be reduced by
maintaining a constant temperature.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

11 / 29

Saturation Test

Summary
DIPIX is not saturating (contrary to INTPIX3) and so it may work for
long time run.
Small initial changes in number of counts may probably be reduced by
maintaining a constant temperature.

FZ-n:
Strange oscillations using CDS. More study of CDS readout is needed.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

11 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

12 / 29

Laser Setup
Laser Details
Laser Driver
Frequency
Modes of operation
Laser Head wavelength
3D setup

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

PDL 800-D
80 MHz
Pulse
1060 nm
X,Y and Z

March 16, 2012

13 / 29

Laser Setup
Laser Details
Laser Driver
Frequency
Modes of operation
Laser Head wavelength
3D setup

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

PDL 800-D
80 MHz
Pulse
1060 nm
X,Y and Z

March 16, 2012

13 / 29

Halo in FZ-n

Figure: Back voltage was set to a) Left fig. 10V, b) Right fig. 70V

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

14 / 29

Halo in FZ-n

Figure: Back voltage was set to a) Left fig. 10V, b) Right fig. 70V

Halo Issue
A bunch of pixels around the hit pixel(halo) having 12 to 15 % of hit
pixel count is seen.
This problem is seen in all sensors. The worse is FZ-n.
Halo depends mostly on Laser Intensity (increase with intensity).
Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

14 / 29

Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Parameters
Back Voltage
Integration Time

CZ-n Type
80V
100s

FZ-n Type
70V
100s

Table: Optimized Back Voltage and Integration Time

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

15 / 29

Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Parameters
Back Voltage
Integration Time

CZ-n Type
80V
100s

FZ-n Type
70V
100s

Table: Optimized Back Voltage and Integration Time

Optimization
The presence of halo, force us to do the scan of back voltage and
Integration time to optimize them in order to reduce halo.
Optimization is used to reduce the halo and spot size.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

15 / 29

CZ-n before and after optimization

Figure: a) Left fig. Before optimization , b)Right fig. After optimization

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

16 / 29

FZ-n before and after optimization

Figure: a) Left fig. Before optimization , b)Right fig. After optimization

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

17 / 29

Laser Measurements

Summary
Halo is seen in all sensors and depends mostly on Intensity. Is it
possible that halo is caused by large charge generation disturbing the
electric field?
Optimized Back voltage and Integration time result in smaller spot
size.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

18 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

19 / 29

Americium Radiation Data and Setup


Am-241 source is used with the activity of 10mCi(=370MBq).
The rate of incident photon is low.
Setup is placed in black box.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

20 / 29

Americium Radiation Data and Setup


Am-241 source is used with the activity of 10mCi(=370MBq).
The rate of incident photon is low.
Setup is placed in black box.
Radiation Data
Type
Energy
Gamma
59.5KeV
Gamma
26.3KeV
Gamma
13.9KeV
Cu L x-ray 8.01KeV
Np L-x-ray 17.7KeV
Np L-x-ray 20.7KeV

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

20 / 29

Americium Radiation Data and Setup


Am-241 source is used with the activity of 10mCi(=370MBq).
The rate of incident photon is low.
Setup is placed in black box.
Radiation Data
Type
Energy
Gamma
59.5KeV
Gamma
26.3KeV
Gamma
13.9KeV
Cu L x-ray 8.01KeV
Np L-x-ray 17.7KeV
Np L-x-ray 20.7KeV

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

20 / 29

Data Cleaning using CZ-n


Integration Time and Scan Time
Back Voltage
RSTV and RST time
Run Mode
Calib run (dark, no source)
Am-241 run (dark)

100 s, 640 ns/pixel


80 V
750 mV, 2040 ns
calib data and signal data
500 events
20000 events

Table: Parameter setting of sensor CZ-n Type

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

21 / 29

Data Cleaning using CZ-n


Integration Time and Scan Time
Back Voltage
RSTV and RST time
Run Mode
Calib run (dark, no source)
Am-241 run (dark)

100 s, 640 ns/pixel


80 V
750 mV, 2040 ns
calib data and signal data
500 events
20000 events

Table: Parameter setting of sensor CZ-n Type

Noise cleaning
Calib data is used to remove bad pixels.
Bad frames and common mode noise are removed from both calib
and Am-241 run.
Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

21 / 29

Data Cleaning
Sensor = CZ-n, CDS = no, No. of frames = 20000 Am-241 and 500
calib runs.
Back voltage = 80 V, IT = 100 s, Pixel scan time = 640 ns.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

22 / 29

Clustering
Number of pixels in a cluster depends on deposited energy.
Total 4 threshold is use to get hit pixels and these pixels are used to
find the cluster.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

23 / 29

Clustering
Number of pixels in a cluster depends on deposited energy.
Total 4 threshold is use to get hit pixels and these pixels are used to
find the cluster.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

23 / 29

CZ-n signal Clusters and Energy plots

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

24 / 29

ENC and SNR Results

Region
1
Region
1

IT(s)
100
500

Noise (ADC)
4.32
-

IT
100
500

Noise
4.53
-

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

CZ N-Type Without CDS


Signal Noise(ADC)
ENC(e )
4.38
86
'107
CZ N-Type With CDS
Signal Noise(ADC)
ENC(e )
4.59
90
'117

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

SNR
189
'153

59.5KeV (ADC)
815
812

SNR
180
'139

59.5KeV (ADC)
817
810

March 16, 2012

25 / 29

ENC and SNR Results

Region
1
Region
1

Region
1
2

IT(s)
100
500

Noise (ADC)
4.32
-

IT
100
500

Noise
4.53
-

CZ N-Type Without CDS


Signal Noise(ADC)
ENC(e )
4.38
86
'107
CZ N-Type With CDS
Signal Noise(ADC)
ENC(e )
4.59
90
'117

IT(s)
100
500

Noise (ADC)
-

FZ N-Type Without CDS


Signal Noise(ADC)
ENC(e )
'99
'109

100
500

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

'129
'144

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

SNR
189
'153

59.5KeV (ADC)
815
812

SNR
180
'139

59.5KeV (ADC)
817
810

SNR
'164
'150

59.5KeV (ADC)
657
645

'126
'113

543
535

March 16, 2012

25 / 29

Am-241 Measurements summary

CZ-n:
1st region is the best of all sensor (ENC=86e and SNR=189 using
Am-241 source 59.6keV), 2nd region is having lot of bad and hot
pixels.
Readout with CDS give similar results.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

26 / 29

Am-241 Measurements summary

CZ-n:
1st region is the best of all sensor (ENC=86e and SNR=189 using
Am-241 source 59.6keV), 2nd region is having lot of bad and hot
pixels.
Readout with CDS give similar results.

FZ-n:
CDS is not working for this sensor.
SNR is worse than CZ-n, may be due to halo.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

26 / 29

Outline
1

Introduction
CZ-n, FZ-n and FZ-p

Study of Pixel Behaviour


Saturation Test

Laser Measurements
Halo Issue
Optimization of Back Voltage and Integration time

Measurements with Americium source


Data Cleaning
Signal Clusters and Energy plots
Comparison of ENC and SNR for CZ-n and FZ-n

Conclusion

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

27 / 29

Conclusion

Conclusion
No saturation is found in dipix2 sensors and may work for long time
run.
With laser Halo problem can be reduced using small intensity and
optimized back voltage. Halo is not seen with americium.

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

28 / 29

Conclusion

Conclusion
No saturation is found in dipix2 sensors and may work for long time
run.
With laser Halo problem can be reduced using small intensity and
optimized back voltage. Halo is not seen with americium.
CZ-n is having good SNR and ENC (86e-), whereas FZ-n is worse.
Various readout issues need to be studied (e.g. CDS and pixel scan
time).

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

28 / 29

Thanks

Thank you for your attention!

Imran (AGH and IFJ, Krakow Poland)

Measurements of DIPIX2 Sensors

March 16, 2012

29 / 29