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References:

1, Cyanidin 3-glucoside ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to downregulation of retinol binding protein 4 expression in diabetic mice.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Dec 3;74(11):1619-27. Epub 2007 Aug 10.
Abstract
Adipocyte dysfunction is strongly associated with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. It is accepted that the regulation of adipocytokine expression is one of
the most important targets for the prevention of obesity and improvement of insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have demonstrated that anthocyanin (cyanidin 3glucoside; C3G) which is a pigment widespread in the plant kingdom, ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity due to the reduction of retinol binding protein 4
(RBP4) expression in type 2 diabetic mice. KK-A(y) mice were fed control or control +0.2% of a C3G diet for 5 weeks. Dietary C3G significantly reduced blood glucose
concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity. The adiponectin and its receptors expression were not responsible for this amelioration. C3G significantly upregulated the
glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and downregulated RBP4 in the white adipose tissue, which is accompanied by downregulation of the inflammatory adipocytokines
(monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the white adipose tissue of the C3G group. These findings indicate that C3G has significant
potency in an anti-diabetic effect through the regulation of Glut4-RBP4 system and the related inflammatory adipocytokines.
2, Cyanidin 3-glucoside protects 3T3-L1 adipocytes against H2O2- or TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance by inhibiting c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Mar 15;75(6):1393-401. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
Abstract
Anthocyanins are naturally occurring plant pigments and exhibit an array of pharmacological properties. Our previous study showed that black rice pigment extract rich in
anthocyanin prevents and ameliorates high-fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats. In present study, cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-G), a typical anthocyanin most
abundant in black rice was used to examine its protective effect on insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to H(2)O(2) (generated by adding glucose oxidase to
the medium) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Twelve-hour exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to H(2)O(2) or TNF-alpha resulted in the increase of c-Jun NH(2)terminal kinase (JNK) activation and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine 307 phosphorylation, concomitantly with the decrease in insulin-stimulated IRS1 tyrosine
phosphorylation and cellular glucose uptake. Blocking JNK expression using RNA interference efficiently prevented the H(2)O(2)- or TNF-alpha-induced defects in insulin
action. Pretreatment of cells with Cy-3-G reduced the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, the activation of JNK, and attenuated H(2)O(2)- or TNF-alphainduced insulin resistance in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel, N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant compound, did not exhibit an attenuation of TNF-alpha-induced
insulin resistance. Taken together, these results indicated that Cy-3-G exerts a protective role against H(2)O(2)- or TNF-alpha-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1
adipocytes by inhibiting the JNK signal pathway.