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Chemical bond Combination of atoms in a stable association

4.1 Ionic bonding
Ions form when electrons are transferred
o All atoms are electrically neutral
o Transfer of electrons causes an ion
o Ion charged particle
Ionic compounds form when oppositely charged ions attract
o Ionic bond the electrostatic forces between two oppositely charged ions
o Ionic compounds compounds by ionic bonding
Must be electrically neutral
Ionic character can be predicted from the electron configurations of a compounds
o Position of the element in the Periodic Table
o Electronegativity
>1.8, mostly ionic
Ionic compounds have a lattice structure
o Ionic lattice a predictable three-dimensional crystalline structure
o Lattice enthalpy strength of force between ions
Affected by size and charge of ions
o Coordination number number of ions that surround a given ion
4.2 Covalent bonding
Covalent bond forms by electron sharing
o Covalent bond the electrostatic attraction between a pair of electrons and
positively charged nuclei
o Molecule group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
o Octet Rule - Tendency to form an octet in outer shell
o Non-bonding pairs (lone pairs) electron pairs that are not involved in
Atoms can share more than one pair of electrons
o Double bonds
o Triple bonds
Lewis Structure to denote outer electrons
o Place brackets for ions with charge outside
Octet rule is not always followed
o Some molecules form stability with less than eight electrons (incomplete
octet) or more than eight electrons (expanded octet)
In Dative Bonds, both shared electrons come from one atom
o Shown by an arrow
o Important for some reactions in acid-base
Strong bonds are short bonds

o Bond length measure of the distance between two bonded nuclei

o Bond strength (Bond enthalpy) measure of energy required to break
o Multiple bonds = stronger electrostatic attractions = closer distance =
shorter bond length
Polar bonds result from unequal sharing of electrons
o Polar unsymmetrical electron distribution
o Dipole two different poles
o More electronegativity, more negative
o More polar if difference in electronegativity is greater
o Bonding continuum bond types can be considered as a continuous range
Non-polar covalent
Electronegativity difference little or not
Polar covalent
Electronegativity difference <1.8
Electronegativity difference > 1.8 m
VSEPR theory: shape of a molecule determined by repulsion between electrons
o Electrons repulse each other
o Bond and triple bonds are oriented the same thus are a single unit
(negative charge centre)
o Number of charge centre determines geometrical arrangement
o Shape determined by angles between bonded atoms
o Non-bonding pairs of electrons have a greater charge than bonded pairs
o Repulsion strength: lone-pair to lone-pair; lone-pair to bonding pair;
bonding pair to bonding pair
Number of centre
Planar triangular
3 + lone pair
4 + lone pair
Trigonal Pyramidal
4 + 2 lone pair
Molecules with polar bonds not always polar
o Polarity of molecule depends on
The polar bonds it contains
Orientation of polar bonds (shape)
Some covalent substances form crystalline solids
o Macromolecule crystal of a single molecule with a repeating pattern
o Allotropes different forms of an element in the same physical state

Silicon and Silicon Dioxide
Covalently bonded in a tetrahedral arrangement
Insoluble in water
High melting point
Not a conductor