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BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

A Science Investigatory Project Presented to the Faculty / Judges / Panelists


of:
AURELIO ARAGO MEMORIAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Leido, Victoria, Oriental Mindoro

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Graduation of SECONDARY COURSE


(SPECIAL SCIENCE CURICULLUM)

by:
DARYLL INGRID I. MALAPITAN
March 2014

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

APPROVAL SHEET
This Science Investigatory Project entitled BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER
prepared and submitted by DARYLL INGRID I. MALAPITAN in partial fulfillment of the
Requirement for the Graduation of SECONDARY COURSE (SPECIAL SCIENCE
CURICULLUM) has been examined and recommended for acceptance and approval for oral
examinations.
GLECY M. ALQUIZA
Research Adviser

PANEL OF EXAMINERS
______________________
ELENITA B. AGUILA
HT III / Research Critic
Date: ____________

______________________
EDGARDO J. VILLARBA
HT IV / English Critic
Date: ____________

______________________
LOUIS B. SANTE JR.
Research Critic
Date: ____________

______________________
CECILIA P. CALDERON
T III / Research Critic
Date: ____________

______________________
JAY-R V. HERNANDEZ
Statistician
Date: ____________

Recommending approval and acceptance in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for


Graduation of SECONDARY COURSE (SPECIAL SCIENCE CURICULLUM).

Approved by:
__________________
JURY L. ROXAS
Principal IV
Date: _____________

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

II. TABLE OF CONTENTS


Title Page.....1
Table of Contents........3
Abstract........4
Methodology........5
A.
B.
C.
D.

Materials and Equipment.5


Treatment and General Procedure...6
Product Testing and Data Gathering9
Experimental Design and Statistical Tool.....12

Introduction....14
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Background of the Study.......14


Statement of the Problems/Objectives.......16
Statement of the Hypothesis..17
Significance of the Study...18
Scope and Limitations....19
Definition of Terms............19
Review of Related Literature.............20

Results and Discussion......33


Summary of Findings.....79
Conclusions....82
Recommendations..83
Bibliography..
84Acknowledgements
85
Appendix86

III. ABSTRACT

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Title: BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER


Name: DARYLL INGRID I. MALAPITAN
School: AURELIO ARAGO MEMORIAL NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Current loss is now attacking the province. People are always experiencing brownouts
that they cant use their appliances which require electricity to function. With this situation, the
researcher came up giving solution to this and making a printer functions even during brownouts.
BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER is of great help especially to those who got problems
on printing specifically during brownouts. As to the users, BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER
poses an alternative to electrical printers specifically during current loss.
Giving solution to the problem was made with the use of the batteries and inverters.
Through connection, the printer can be used during brownouts. It was showed that there is no
significant difference on printing a full-page colored document and full-page black and white
photo while there is a significant difference on printing full-page plain black document and fullpage colored photo using the product and an electrical printer. Thus, this BATTERY
OPERATED PRINTER is an effective alternative.
T-test showed that the BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER is comparable to Electrical
Printer in terms of the time it takes to print a set-up and the quality of a printed set-up.

IV. METHODOLOGY

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Materials
The materials needed were Electrical printer, 12N12-3B battery, 2 wires with battery clips
for positive and negative terminals and 500-W inverter.

Electrical Printer

Wires with battery clips for Positive & Negative Terminals


Treatments and Procedure

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

12N12-3B

500 Watts Power Inverter

The proponent prepared all the materials needed for the product First of all, make sure
that the power inverter is turned off. Use the black DC cable to connect the negative terminal of
the battery and the black post head of the inverter. Use the red DC cable to connect the positive
terminal of the battery and the red post head of the inverter. Turn the inverter on. Lastly, plug the
power plug of the equipment in the inverters output socket.
Connecting Diagram

STEP BY STEP PROCESS

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

DCinverter
cable toisconnect
the negative terminal of the battery and the bl
First of all, make sureUse
thatthe
theblack
power
turned off.

connect the anode terminal of the battery and the red post Connected
head of thewires
inverter.
into the inverter

Connecting to the battery

Turn the inverter on. Plug the power plug of the equipment in the inverters output s

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Final Connection

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Product Testing and Data Gathering


Set-up

Full page colored photoFull page black & white photo


Full page plain black document
Full page colored document

To determine the time it takes to print the following set-ups in terms of the number of the
hours the battery was used, the researcher conducted three trials and recorded the time it takes to
print the set-ups.
To determine the number of pages that can be printed in terms of hour range the battery
was used, the researcher conducted three trials and counted the number of pages that can be
printed in each set-up.
To determine how long a 12 V battery can supply a printer, the researcher conducted
three trials and recorded how long did the battery last.
To determine if there is a significant difference between the electrical printer and batteryoperated printer in printing the set-ups in terms of time and quality, the researcher conducted
the observations and recorded the time it took to print and the rate the respondents gave for the
two products.

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In rating the printed set-ups, the researcher explained to the respondents on how the
respondents will rate it using the legend.
Legend of grades:
54321-

Excellent
Very Good
Good
Fair
Poor

( the printed page has very high quality )


( the printed page has high quality )
( the printed page has a moderate high quality )
( the printed page has a low quality )
( the printed page has a very low quality )

Experimental Design
In comparing the Electrical Printer and the Battery-operated on, the researcher used twogroup design where two comparable groups were employed as experimental and control
group.

Statistical Tool
A. Mean was used to determine the average quantity of each variable taken.
x
x =
n
A.

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Where:
x

is the mean ;

x is the sum of the scores;


n is the number of respondents

B. T-test was used to determine if there a significant difference between the electrical printer
and battery-operated printer in printing the following setups:
1. Full-page plain black document
2. Full-page colored document
3. Full-page black & white photo
4. Full-page colored photo
in terms of the following:
1. Time.
2. Quality.

B.

t=

x 1x 2

SS1 +SS 2 1 1
][ + ]
n1 +n 22 n1 n 2

WHERE:
t= the t-test
X1= the mean of the group 1
X2= the mean of the group 2
SS1= the sum of squares of group 1
SS2= the sum of squares of group 2

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

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n1= the number of observations in group 1


n2= the numbers of observations in group 2

V. INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Current loss is now attacking the province. People are always experiencing brownouts
that they cant use their appliances which require electricity to function. Students as well as the
professionals cant do their paper works since they cant produce their hard copies. Current loss
is such a big hindrance for accomplishing pages works and other projects.

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A brownout is a temporary interruption of power service in which the electric power is


reduced, rather than being cut as is the case with a blackout. There are wide ranges of causes for
brownouts. Just like blackouts, overloads on the electrical system can trigger one, as the
generating facility is unable to provide enough power. It can also occur when events such as
storms disrupt the distribution grid, or when there are other problems in the system. They can last
for a few seconds or a few hours, depending on the cause and how quickly a power utility can get
full power running again.
In Oriental Mindoro, current loss is not taking its absence every day. There are times that
during the whole afternoon starting from 7:00 in the morning until 7:00 in the evening, there is a
current loss. So, the tendency is that the Mindoreos cannot finish their tasks.
Last past few months, the whole province of Oriental Mindoro was experiencing two to
three hours of daily power interruptions on a staggered basis, or local power officials here tag as
rotational brownouts, as its power requirements are still short of some 2.5 megawatts of power
supply. And this scenario somehow alarm many islanders here even as local officials here are
fast tracking the different power projects to solve or at least ease up the problem and not turn it
into a crisis.
In this day and age, inventions are being universal. These inventions include gadgets and
appliances. These gadgets and appliances are lot of use everywhere even in our own house,
school, office and even outdoors. These inventions help us in our daily lives that in fact, make
every life easier and more comfortable.
These gadgets and appliances requires cords and electric current just to be powered and
used while some are used as portable which does not require cords. Inventions that require cords

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and electric current are printers, washing machines and many more. Some that does not require
such chords are cell phones, laptops and many more. They need a battery to be operated and
powered.
These inventions that require cords and electric current cant be used when there is no
current. With this problem, why dont produce cordless inventions that can be used during
brownout especially the inventions usually needed in house, school, offices and other places that
require paper works?
Printers are peripheral which produce representations of an electronic document on
physical media such as paper or transparency film. It is used in school, houses to produce hard
copies. It is an electronic device with chords that require electric current to be operated and used.
But during brownout, printers are out of use. Research papers cant be printed as well as
the photos. Nowadays, there are different models of printers that offer good quality but all of
them are electric current-operated or used with electricity and plug. Thus, they cant still use
during electric current loss.
During brownouts, people do use lot of power source. One of these is the use of
generators. Some also use batteries as their power source just to use their appliances and gadgets
which require electricity. They use batteries to light a bulb and to provide them light. So, in
concern with the professionals problem due to brownout, let us produce a printer powered by a
battery? So although there is current loss, the professionals can finish their reports on time as
well as the students.
The researcher got very much interested in making a way of battery-operated printer. The
result of this study is to propose a solution on how to use the printer even it is out of power
especially when in rush because we all know that the main problem in printing reports during
brownouts is that they cant use printers due to power loss. Moreover, this aimed significantly
help the residents who are greatly affected by brownouts in a way that they can finish their

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reports even brownouts. This will help people in their school papers, office reports, and other
needs concerning printing.

B. Statement of the Problem


This project aimed to make use the printer during brownouts which can be powered by a
battery. The study suggests a way to solve how to use a printer even brownout. Through using
battery, it could be possible to make the printer functional even out of electricity.
Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions:
1. How long does it take to print the following set-ups in terms of the number of hours the
battery was used?
1. Full-page plain black document
2. Full-page colored document
3. Full-page black & white photo
4. Full-page colored photo
2. How many pages of the following set-up can be printed in terms of hour range the battery
was used?
3. How long does the 12 V battery can supply a printer in terms of hours?

C. Statement of the Hypothesis


1. There is no significant difference between the electrical printer and battery-operated
printer in printing the following setups:
1. Full-page plain black document

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2. Full-page colored document


3. Full-page black & white photo
4. Full-page colored photo
in terms of the following:
1. Time.
2. Quality.

D. Significance of the Study


Current loss in rural areas and even in urban areas in Philippines became more frequent
because of some problems concerning energy. So, when the power got lost, tasks must be paused
or even stopped because residents need electricity to accomplish their tasks especially those
professional even students.
By conducting this study, students, teachers and other professional can continue printing
their reports. This study will help students, teachers and other professional to fight and disregard
hindrance on printing concerns during brownout. This study will have a significant impact on
students and even to professionals performances especially who rush and found difficulty to print
because of electricity loss.
Advantage of this study can be found in its feature. Battery-operated printer can be used
anytime even brownout since it is battery-operated. Thus, it can be used during brownouts.
Moreover, it can lessen the hindrances on printing due to brownout.

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E. Scope and Limitations


This study, BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER focused on solving problems
concerning printing due to power loss. This study focused on the making use of printer using
battery which will be used even out of power. The study also concentrated on using the battery as
source of power supply of the printer.
The study was conducted and the product was tested to determine the speed of printing
documents in terms of the number of pages that can be printed, number of minutes the battery
was used and the number of minutes 12-V battery can supply the printer at the researchers
residence from June 2013 and continuously researching up to present.

F. Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for better understanding and full appreciation of the
study.
Battery-operated

refers to powered by one or more batteries

Brownout

refers to reduction or cutback in electric power especially as a result of a


shortage or a mechanical failure.

Cords

refer to electric wires or cables; plugs which let electricity flow

Inverter

a device that changes direct current into alternating current and is


commonly used on boats to operate devices such as radios from batteries

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Printer

a machine that prints books, newspapers or magazines

G. Review of Related Literature


A new a study of the production of Li-ion batteries shows that this may indeed be the
case. In the Journal of Power Sources (2013), Ralph Brodd and Carlos Helou, who work for
two big energy consultancies, modeled the cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells produced by hand
and by automated assembly. They found that automation can almost equalize the production cost:
made in an American plant at high volume, rechargeable Li-ion cells of the 18650 sort (which
are used in many consumer devices, see picture) would cost only $0,07 more than if they are
produced in a Chinese plant.
This difference, the authors argue, is smalland can quickly disappear if exchange rates
move or wages go up. And there are other reasons, for wanting to make things at home as the
recent fuss over shoddy Chinese solar panels has shown. But although America has long been on
the cutting edge of Li-ion research, it imports two billion 18650 cells annually. This is nearly a
third of the world production.
The reasons for this are largely down to history. The Japanese electronics industry, with
generous support from the government, made the first move into volume manufacturing of such

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batteries in the 1990s. Although everyone knew that they would be a critical part of a new
generation of portable electronic devices, American manufacturers decided against volume
productionbecause the new batteries offered a low return on investment compared to their
existing businesses. Moreover, the American government was not interested in supporting the
industry.
Over time, however, the rapid growth of Li-ion plants in Japan, and then Korea, created
difficulties for American manufacturers of consumer electronics because product development
requires close contact between device designers and battery makers. And in the 1990s Chinese
investors became convinced that a domestic battery industry was critical to the Chinese
electronics industry, and invested accordingly. A big part of Li-ion cell production moved to
China where much of it still based.
If this study is correct, making Li-ion batteries in America is economically viable. And
the lesson from history is that this would not just benefit battery makers, but the entire economy.
Even if one considers the recent failures of American electric-vehicle battery makers, the study
puts in perspective the $2.4 billion spent so far on establishing a domestic lithium-ion battery
supply chain for electric vehicles. Attempts to engineer clusters of battery researchers, makers
and vehicle manufacturers make a lot of sense. Foregoing such spending now can be costly
further down the line.
According to Clark, P. (2012) on her literature Power Growth: Batteries required,
growth in renewable power plants has increased the need for grid-scale batteries to store their
electricity.

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The liquid metal battery is not due to be ready for commercial testing until the first part of
2014. But it is easy to see why people are so interested in this and the other potentially
transformative energy storage technologies that have steadily started to make their way from
laboratory to factory floor.
The idea of so-called grid-scale storage has long been a holy grail in the worlds of
technology and green energy. Wind farms are marvelous for making clean electricity, except on
still days. The same goes for a solar panel at night. That makes them hopelessly unreliable
compared with the coal power stations or gas plants that pump out so many of the carbon dioxide
emissions scientists warn are heating the planet to potentially dangerous levels. But if there was a
way of storing renewably generated power so it could be used later, that might be a key to
slowing climate change, with the added benefit of sharply boosting the efficiency of electricity
grids.
Despite many years of effort, however, storing energy on such a large scale is still
proving troublesome. The recurring theme with storage is difficulty, says analyst Albert
Cheung of the Bloomberg New Energy Finance research group. This is something of an
understatement about an industry that has been dogged by technical and financial problems. The
battery has failed to make anything like the advances seen in other technologies, such as the
telephone or personal computer. If it had, you could buy a cheap electric car that could run for
thousands of miles on a single charge and a mobile phone that recharged in an instant and did not
need to be plugged back in for a month.
Instead we have relatively inefficient devices that are still prohibitively expensive
compared with other forms of energy generation.

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The cost of building a gas-fired power plant, for example, is around 500 a kilowatt, less
than a quarter of some battery storage systems, according to the Frontier Economics consultancy.
That is one reason the grid-scale battery storage market is still very small. Cumulative global
sales have gone from around $400m in 2005 to around $1bn this year, according to Bostonheadquartered Lux Research.
This is largely thanks to the market leader, Japans NGK Insulators, whose sodium sulfur
batteries have been in commercial use for nearly a decade. But in September last year, one of
NGKs batteries caught fire, forcing the company to ask customers to temporarily suspend use of
its product. They seem to have found a fix for that and are coming back, says Anissa Dehamna
of Pike Research. But several others have not been so lucky. At least three advanced battery
technology companies have declared bankruptcy in the past 12 months, most recently the high
profile A123 Systems .
It went under last month despite having developed technology judged so promising for
the electric vehicle and energy storage markets that it was awarded a $249m US department of
energy grant.
When you look at the entire leader board of technology suppliers for this market, every
single one has encountered very significant financial distress or very significant safety and
technology hurdles, says Steve Minnihan of Lux Research. Many of them are having both of
these problems. It really is staggering. Mr Minnihan predicts it is going to be another five to 10
years before batteries are providing anything more than highly specialized or niche grid services.
The woes of the electric car market have been one reason for the industrys woes.
Many battery companies had hoped their technology would be used in a fast growing
electric car market that would drive more efficient supply chains and eventually lower prices.
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But the electric vehicle market has not grown nearly as fast as many had hoped. This is one
reason why people like Professor Sadoway of MIT repeatedly insist their batteries are going to
be affordable.
In this literature, it just proved that the batteries are of great use even there is a power
flow and thus, it also proved that batteries can be a power source of a gadget or appliances.
According to Brain, M., Bryant, C. and Pumphrey C. (2012) on their article How
Batteries Work, let us imagine a world where everything that used electricity had to be plugged
in. Flashlights, hearing aids, cell phones and other portable devices would be tethered to
electrical outlets, rendering them awkward and cumbersome. Cars couldn't be started with the
simple turn of a key; a strenuous cranking would be required to get the pistons moving. Wires
would be strung everywhere, creating a safety hazard and an unsightly mess. Thankfully,
batteries provide us with a mobile source of power that makes many modern conveniences
possible.
While there are many different types of batteries, the basic concept by which they
function remains the same. When a device is connected to a battery, a reaction occurs that
produces electrical energy. This is known as an electrochemical reaction. Italian physicist Count
Alessandro Volta first discovered this process in 1799 when he created a simple battery from
metal plates and brine-soaked cardboard or paper. Since then, scientists have greatly improved
upon Volta's original design to create batteries made from a variety of materials that come in a
multitude of sizes.

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Today, batteries are all around us. The power is our wrist watches for months at a time.
They keep our alarm clocks and telephones working, even if the electricity goes out. They run
our smoke detectors, electric razors, power drills, mp3 players, thermostats -- and the list goes
on. If you're reading this article on your laptop or smartphone, you may even be using batteries
right now! However, because these portable power packs are so prevalent, it's very easy to take
them for granted. This article will give you a greater appreciation for batteries by exploring their
history, as well as the basic parts, reactions and processes that make them work. So cut that cord
and click through our informative guide to charge up your knowledge of batteries. This is related
because these articles discussed the way the batteries work which is one of the focus of the
researchers study.
According to an article Batteries as Source of Energy retrieved from
www2.eng.cam.ac.uk, batteries can be a source of electrical power. Every year over 15 billion
batteries for household use are produced and sold worldwide. Many are alkaline or zinc-carbon
batteries which are discarded after a single use, at considerable cost both economically and to the
environment.
Ongoing advances in both rechargeable batteries and battery chargers, mean that singleuse batteries can largely be replaced with environmentally friendly, rechargeable Nickel-Metal
Hydride (NiMH) or Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that last far longer in high drain devices each time they are charged - and can be used many hundreds of times...saving a great deal of
money.

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There are a number of different types of household batteries, used for a variety of
purposes. The three main types are wet cell which is used by industry and lead acid to power
vehicles; dry cell non rechargeable which is used as household batteries and dry-cell
rechargeable batteries used in power tools, cordless appliances, mobile phones, etc.
General purpose disposable household batteries include:

Zinc carbon used in low drainage appliances such as torches, clocks, shavers and radios.

Zinc chloride used in similar applications.

Alkaline manganese used in personal stereos, radio-cassette players. Less prone to


leaking than the above two types and longer lasting.

Primary button cells:

Mercuric oxide used in batteries for hearing aids, pacemakers, photographic equipment.

Zinc air - an alternative to mercuric oxide button cells - used for hearing aids and radio
pagers.

Silver oxide used for electronic watches and calculators.

Lithium used for watches and photographic equipment.

Dry-cell rechargeable batteries for household use include:

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Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries - one of the earliest technologies, but one of the fastest
growing sectors in the battery market.

Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries - a less environmentally harmful alternative to


NiCd and tend to have a longer life.

Lithium ion (Li-Ion) batteries - greater energy storage capacity than NiCd and NiMH
batteries.
Used for cordless power tools, personal stereos, portable telephones, lap-top computers,

shavers, motorized toys etc, with a life of 4-5 years. Using rechargeable batteries reduces the
number of batteries requiring disposal, but 80% of them contain nickel cadmium, a known
human carcinogen, and therefore need to be disposed of safely. This is a related literature since it
proves that a battery can be power source. Thus, this can make a printer function which is the
researchers study.
According to an article on How Rechargeable Batteries Work retrieved from
www2.eng.cam.ac.uk a battery is made up of one or more separate cells. However, the
term battery is widely used for both batteries and single cells. All batteries convert stored
chemical energy into electrical energy. This is achieved through causing electrons to flow
whenever there is an external conductive path between the cell's electrodes. Electrons flow as a
result of an electro-chemical reaction between the cell's two electrodes that are separated by an
electrolyte. The cell becomes discharged when the active materials inside the cell are depleted
and the chemical reactions slow. The voltage provided by a cell depends on the electrode

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material, their surface area and material between the electrodes (electrolyte). Current flow stops
when the connection between the electrodes is removed. Rechargeable cells operate on the same
principle, except that the chemical reaction that occurs can be reversed if the cell is charged.
This involves causing a current to flow through the battery in the reverse direction, by applying
an external voltage between the terminals. When connected to an appropriate charger, cells
convert electrical energy back into potential chemical energy. The process is repeated every time
the cell is discharged and recharged.
Different cells use different electrode materials and have different voltage outputs (1.2,
1.5, 2 and 3.6 volts for the types discussed here). Higher voltages are possible by connecting
cells in series.
The capacity of cells is determined by the materials used in its construction, and is
expressed in amp-hours (Ah) or milliamp-hours (mAh). The approximate time that a battery will
last per charge can be found by dividing the battery capacity (often printed on the battery itself)
by the average current consumption of the device.
Thus a 600 mAh battery can be expected to power a receiver that takes 60mA for 10
hours.
Batteries can be visualized as consisting of one or more ideal cells with a resistor in series
- the internal resistance. You won't find an actual resistor should you split open a battery pack,
but the effect is the same. Certain battery types have higher values of internal resistance than
others. High internal resistance doesn't matter if powering items that draw fairly low currents (eg
a clock or small receiver). However, if you are running something like a powerful torch or audio
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amplifier, owing to Ohm's Law a battery with a high internal resistance may not deliver the
current asked of it. This is related since it tackled about how rechargeable batteries work. This
will be a great help for the further study of this when desired to use a rechargeable battery.
According to Brain, M. (2010) on his article How Lithium-Ion Battery Works, lithiumion batteries are incredibly popular these days. You can find them in laptops, PDAs, cell
phones and iPods. They're so common because, pound for pound, they're some of the most
energetic rechargeable batteries available.
Lithium-ion batteries have also been in the news lately. Thats because these batteries
have the ability to burst into flames occasionally. It's not very common -- just two or three
battery packs per million have a problem -- but when it happens, it's extreme. In some situations,
the failure rate can rise, and when happens, you end up with a worldwide battery recall that can
cost manufacturers millions of dollars.
Lithium-ion batteries are popular because they have a number of important advantages
over competing technologies:
They're generally much lighter than other types of rechargeable batteries of the same size.
The electrodes of a lithium-ion battery are made of lightweight lithium and carbon. Lithium is
also a highly reactive element, meaning that a lot of energy can be stored in its atomic bonds.
This translates into a very high energy density for lithium-ion batteries. Here is a way to get a
perspective on the energy density. A typical lithium-ion battery can store 150 watt-hours of
electricity in 1 kilogram of battery. A NiMH (nickel-metal hydride) battery pack can store
perhaps 100 watt-hours per kilogram, although 60 to 70 watt-hours might be more typical.

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A lead-acid battery can store only 25 watt-hours per kilogram. Using lead-acid technology, it
takes 6 kilograms to store the same amount of energy that a 1 kilogram lithium-ion battery can
handle. That's a huge difference.
They hold their charge. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge
per month, compared to a 20 percent loss per month for NiMH batteries. They have no memory
effect, which means that you do not have to completely discharge them before recharging, as
with some other battery chemistries.
Lithium-ion batteries can handle hundreds of charge/discharge cycles. That is not to say
that lithium-ion batteries are flawless. They have a few disadvantages as well: They start
degrading as soon as they leave the factory. They will only last two or three years from the date
of manufacture whether you use them or not.
They are extremely sensitive to high temperatures. Heat causes lithium-ion battery packs
to degrade much faster than they normally would. If you completely discharge a lithium-ion
battery, it is ruined. A lithium-ion battery pack must have an on-board computer to manage the
battery. This makes them even more expensive than they already are. There is a small chance
that, if a lithium-ion battery pack fails, it will burst into flame. Many of these characteristics can
be understood by looking at the chemistry inside a lithium-ion cell. This explains how the
batteries of laptops and cellphones work that gave idea to the researcher in converting the
electric printer to a battery-operated one.
According to Exploroz Team (2010) on their article, Inverters, an inverter is an
electronic device that converts one voltage to a higher voltage. Travellers usually want to convert
12 volts DC (Direct Current) to 240 volts AC (Alternating Current).

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

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Why take an Inverter travelling? Because we have 240 volts at home, we already have
many appliances that run off 240 volts, whether it's a very low power charger for a camera, or a
very high powered microwave oven. An Inverter allows you to use the appliances you already
have when you are away from Mains power - provided you have an Inverter that puts out enough
power to suit the loads and that it puts out a waveform good enough for the load.
Benefits of using an Inverter. Appliances. Using an Inverter saves you
the cost of replacing 240 volt appliances with 12 volt equivalents - 12 volt
versions are usually much more expensive, or possibly not available for the
appliance you wish to use.
Operation. Using an Inverter is much quieter than using a Generator to
produce 240 volts and while running off batteries, there are no concerns
about fumes or heat from the exhaust, and no flammable fuel to handle.
Versatility. An Inverter can be used whilst the vehicle is running, and
therefore not taking a drain off the auxiliary battery. This has many practical
applications; ie arrive at campsite with fully charged battery lanterns,
camera batteries, laptop, and so on. On a safety note - an Inverter can't be
switched on when you go to start the vehicle. This is due to the surge of
current required to start a vehicle can drop the voltage down below 10VDC.
After the vehicle has started, it will surge back up to 12-13.8VDC and the
combination of these 2 surges can damage the Inverter and/or appliance.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

30

Size of Inverter Needed. The following table is only a guide - there is a


lot of variation in startup surge load and continuous load for similar
appliances between makes/models.
The following are sizes of Inverter Required Type of Appliance

150 watts - Charger for cameras, laptops, and small power tools; DVD player; coffee
grinder; kitchen mixer; printer; very small television (non LCD TVs have degaussing
coils which can draw 500 watts on startup)

250 watts - Small TV, slow cooker, desktop computer, electric blanket

500 watts - Small fridge, freezer, small angle grinder, drill, large TV, washing machine
(no heat)

1000 watts - Breadmaker, microwave (600 watts - keep in mind that the input power for a
microwave oven is around twice its specified cooking power level, due to inefficiencies
in converting to the very high frequencies needed for cooking - 2 thousand million hertz!)

1500 watts - Toaster, small airconditioner, chainsaw, vacuum cleaner, iron

2000 watts - Microwave (1200 watts), hair dryer, fan heater, iron

This literature gave the researcher an idea on what size will be used for the printer as the
product of this study.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

31

According to Grabianowski, E. (2010) on his article, How DC/AC Power Inverters


Work, everyone uses some kind of electronic gadget while in their motor-home, SUV or car. You
might listen to your MP3 player, check for directions on your global positioning system (GPS) or
play a portable video game. These types of electronic devices can be recharged or powered by
plugging them into the cigarette lighter (or power port) in your vehicle.
But what if you want to use something a little more elaborate while you're on the open
road? Maybe you want to make toast, watch an LCD TV, or perhaps even write an article on your
laptop computer. These devices plug into regular wall outlets, not cigarette lighters. Making sure
your electronic gear gets the juice it needs while on the road isn't a simple matter of finding the
right adapter. You need a power inverter.
Power inverters convert direct current (DC), the power that comes from a car battery,
into alternating current (AC), the kind of power supplied to your home and the power larger
electronics need to function. What kind of power inverter is the right one for the job? How do
you install one? And how exactly does an inverter change the current from one form to another?
In this article, we'll explore all the positives and negatives of DC to AC power inverters.
This literature gave the researcher an idea, how the inverter works and converts a low
voltage to a higher one.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

32

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


1. Problem: How long does it take to print the following set-up in terms of the number
of hours the battery was used?
Table 1.1 A FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT
Trials

After 0 hours

After 2 hours

After 4 hours

12.7 s

15.6 s

18.2 s

12.8 s

15.8 s

18.1 s

12.7 s

15.7 s

18.1 s

Mean

12.7 s

15.7 s

18.1 s

Shown in the table 1.1 is the result of the observations done while printing the first set-up
--- A FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT. On the first trial, it took 12.7 s to print the
set-up, 15.6 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 18.2 after 4 hours. On the second trial, it took
12.8 s to print the set-up, 15.8 s after 2 hours and 18.1 s after 4 hours. On the third trial, 12.7 s to
print the set-up, 15.7 s after 2 hours and 18.1 s after 4 hours.
On the average, it took 12.7 s to print the set-up, 15.7 s after 2 hours of using the battery
and 18.1 s after 4 hours.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

33

Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

Figure 1.1 A FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT

20
18
16
14
12
Time in Sconds

10

After 0 hours

After 2 hours
After 4 hours

6
4
2
0
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 1.1 is the result of the observations done while printing the first setup--- A FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT. On the average, it took 12.7 s to print
the set-up, 15.7 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 18.1 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

34

Table 1.2 A FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT


Trials
1
2
3
Mean

After 0 hours
13.1 s
13.0 s
13.0 s
13.0 s

After 2 hours
16.2 s
16.2 s
16.3 s
16.2 s

After 4 hours
18.5 s
18.6 s
18.7 s
18.6 s

Shown in the table 1.2 is the result of the observations done while printing the second setup --- A FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT. On the first trial, it took 13.1 s to print the
set-up, 16.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 18.5 after 4 hours. On the second trial, it took
13.0 s to print the set-up, 16.2 s after 2 hours and 18.6 s after 4 hours. On the third trial, 13.0 s to
print the set-up, 16.3 s after 2 hours and 18.7 s after 4 hours.
On the average, it took 13.0 s to print the set-up, 16.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery
and 18.6 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

35

Figure 1.2 A FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT

20
18
16
14
12
Time in Seconds

10

After 0 hours
After 2 hours

After 4 hours

6
4
2
0
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 1.2 is the result of the observations done while printing the second
set-up---FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT. On the average, it took 13.0 s to print the
set-up, 16.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 18.6 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

36

Table 1.3 FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO


Trials
1
2
3
Mean

After 0 hours
15.2 s
15.3 s
15.2 s
15.2 s

After 2 hours
17.2 s
17.2 s
17.3 s
17.2 s

After 4 hours
19.5 s
19.6 s
19.5 s
19.5 s

Shown in the table 1.3 is the result of the observations done while printing the third setup --- FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO. On the first trial, it took 15.2 s to print
the set-up, 17.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 19.5 s after 4 hours. On the second trial, it
took 15.3 s to print the set-up, 17.2 s after 2 hours and 19.6 s after 4 hours. On the third trial,
15.2 s to print the set-up, 17.2 s after 2 hours and 19.5 s after 4 hours.
On the average, it took 15.2 s to print the set-up, 17.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery
and 19.5 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

Figure 1.3 FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

37

20
18
16
14
12
Time in Seconds

10

After 0 hours

After 2 hours

After 4 hours

4
2
0
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 1.3 is the result of the observations done while printing the third setup---FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO. On the average, it took 15.2 s to print the
set-up, 17.2 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 19.5 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.
Table 1.4 FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO
Trials
1
2
3
Mean

After 0 hours
18.6 s
18.6 s
18.5 s
18.6 s

After 2 hours
20.1 s
19.9 s
20.0 s
20.0 s

After 4 hours
23.2 s
23.1 s
23.2 s
23.2 s

Shown in the table 1.4 is the result of the observations done while printing the fourth setup --- FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO. On the first trial, it took 18.6 s to print the set-up,
20.1 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 23.2 s after 4 hours. On the second trial, it took 18.6

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

38

s to print the set-up, 19.9 s after 2 hours and 23.1 s after 4 hours. On the third trial, 18.5 s to print
the set-up, 20.0 s after 2 hours and 23.2 s after 4 hours.
On the average, it took 18.6 s to print the set-up, 20.0 s after 2 hours of using the battery
and 23.2 s after 4 hours.
Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

Figure 1.4 FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO

25
20
15
After 0 hours

Time in seconds
10

After 2 hours
After 4 Hours

5
0
Trial 1

Trial2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 1.4 is the result of the observations done while printing the fourth
set-up---FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO. On the average, it took 18.6 s to print the set-up,
20.0 s after 2 hours of using the battery and 23.2 s after 4 hours.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

39

Thus, the time takes longer to print the set-up as the battery was used continuously.

2. Problem: How many pages of each set-up can be printed in terms of hours range the
battery was used?
Table 2.1 FULL-PAGE BLACK DOCUMENT
Trials

After 0-2 hours

After 2-4 hours

508 pages

426 pages

507 pages

424 pages

507 pages

426 pages

Mean

507 pages

425 pages

Shown in the table 2.1 is the result of the observation done while testing the number of
pages of set-up A that can be printed as the battery was used continuously. On the first trial, 508
pages were printed after 2 hours while 426 pages after another 2 hours. On the second trial, 507
pages after 2 hours and 424 pages after another 2 hours. On the third trial, 507 pages were
printed after 2 hours while 426 pages after another 2 hours.
On the average, 507 pages can be printed after 2 hours of using the battery continuously
while 425 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.
Figure 2.1 FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

40

520
500
480
460
Number of Pages

440

After 0-2 Hours

420

After 2-4 Hours

400
380
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 2.1 is the result of the observations done while printing the first setup---FULL-PAGE PLAIN BLACK DOCUMENT. On the average, 507 pages can be printed
after 2 hours of using the battery continuously while 425 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Table 2.2 FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT


Trials

After 0-2 hours

After 2-4 hours

491 pages

414 pages

493 pages

413 pages

490 pages

411 pages

Mean

491 pages

412 pages

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

41

Shown in the table 2.2 is the result of the observation done while testing the number of
pages of set-up B that can be printed as the battery was used continuously. On the first trial, 491
pages were printed after 2 hours while 414 pages after another 2 hours. On the second trial, 493
pages after 2 hours and 413 pages after another 2 hours. On the third trial, 490 pages were
printed after 2 hours while 411 pages after another 2 hours.
On the average, 491 pages can be printed after 2 hours of using the battery continuously
while 412 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Figure 2.2 FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

42

500
480
460
440
Number of Pages

After 0-2 hours

420

After 2-4 Hourd

400
380
360
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 2.2 is the result of the observations done while printing the second
set-up---FULL-PAGE COLORED DOCUMENT. On the average, 491 pages can be printed
after 2 hours of using the battery continuously while 412 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Table 2.3 FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

43

Trials

After 0-2 hours

After 2-4 hours

444 pages

392 pages

443 pages

391 pages

443 pages

391 pages

Mean

443 pages

391 pages

Shown in the table 2.2 is the result of the observation done while testing the number of
pages of set-up B that can be printed as the battery was used continuously. On the first trial, 491
pages were printed after 2 hours while 414 pages after another 2 hours. On the second trial, 493
pages after 2 hours and 413 pages after another 2 hours. On the third trial, 490 pages were
printed after 2 hours while 411 pages after another 2 hours.
On the average, 491 pages can be printed after 2 hours of using the battery continuously
while 412 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Figure 2.3 FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

44

450
440
430
420
410
Number of Pages

400

After 0-2 hours


After 2-4 Hourd

390
380
370
360
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 2.3 is the result of the observations done while printing the third setup---FULL-PAGE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTO. On the average, 443 pages can be printed
after 2 hours of using the battery continuously while 391pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Table 2.4 FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO


Trials

After 0-2 hours

After 2-4 hours

372 pages

332 pages

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

45

374 pages

334 pages

374 pages

333 pages

Mean

373 pages

333 pages

Shown in the table 2.4 is the result of the observation done while testing the number of
pages of set-up D that can be printed as the battery was used continuously. On the first trial, 491
pages were printed after 2 hours while 414 pages after another 2 hours. On the second trial, 493
pages after 2 hours and 413 pages after another 2 hours. On the third trial, 490 pages were
printed after 2 hours while 411 pages after another 2 hours.
On the average, 491 pages can be printed after 2 hours of using the battery continuously
while 412 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

Figure 2.4 FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

46

380
370
360
350
Number of Pages

After 0-2 hours

340

After 2-4 Hourd

330
320
310
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 2.4 is the result of the observations done while printing the fourth
set-up---FULL-PAGE COLORED PHOTO. On the average, 373 pages can be printed after 2
hours of using the battery continuously while 333 pages after another 2 hours.
Thus, the number of pages can be printed decreased after another 2 hours of using the
battery.

3. Problem: How long can a 12 V battery can supply the printer in terms of hours?
BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

47

Table 3. Number of Hours the 12 V Battery supplied the Printer


Trials

Number of Hours

5.0 hours

5.6 hours

5.3 hours

Mean

5.3 hours

Shown in the table 3 is the result of the observation done while testing the length of time
a 12 V battery can supply the printer.
On the first trial, it can supply the printer within 5.0 hours. On the second trial, it can
supply the printer within 5.6 hours. On the third trial, it can supply the printer within 5.3 hours.
Thus, the printer can be supplied by a 12 V battery for about 5.3 hours or 5 hours and 18
minutes.

Figure 3. Number of Hours the 12 V Battery supplied the Printer

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

48

5.6
5.5
5.4
5.3
Number of Hours

5.2
5.1
5
4.9
4.8
4.7
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 3 is the result of the observation done while testing the length of time
a 12 V battery can supply the printer.
Thus, the printer can be supplied by a 12 V battery for about 5.3 hours or 5 hours and 18
minutes.

HYPOTHESIS: Is there a significant difference between the electric printer and


battery operated in printing the following set-ups:
Table 4.1.1 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in
printing a full-page black document in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

49

Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

12.7 s

12.5 s

12.8 s

12.6 s

12.7 s

12.6 s

Mean

12.7 s

12.6 s

Shown in the table 4.1.1 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up A.
Using Battery-operated Printer, it took 12.7 s, 12.8 s and 12.7 s in three consecutive trials
while using the Electrical Printer, it took 12.5 s, 12.6 s and 12.6 s in the observations made. On
the average, it took 12.7 s using Battery-operated Printer while 12.6 s using the Electrical
Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer takes longer time to print set-up A than Electrical Printer.

Figure 4.1.1. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer


in printing a full-page black document in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

50

12.8
12.75
12.7
12.65
12.6
Number of Seconds

12.55
Battery-Operated Printer

12.5

Electrical Printer

12.45
12.4
12.35
12.3
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Trials

Shown in the figure 4.1.1 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up A.
On the average, it took 12.7 s using Battery-operated Printer while 12.6 s using the
Electrical Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer takes longer time to print set-up A than Electrical Printer.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing


a full-page black document in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

51

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

Battery-Operated
Printer

4.30

RESULT
SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is 5 which is greater than t-critical value (4.30), it was on the
rejection region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 4 degrees of freedom.
This means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Result shows that there is a significant
difference between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up A in terms of
time.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can still be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.1.2 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored document in terms of time
Trials

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

52

13.1 s

13.0 s

13.0 s

13.1 s

13.0 s

13.0 s

Mean

13.0 s

13.0 s

Shown in the table 4.1.2 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up B.
Using Battery-operated Printer, it took 13.1 s, 13.0 s and 13.0 s in three consecutive trials
while using the Electrical Printer, it took 13.0 s, 13.1 s and 13.0 s in the observations made. On
the average, it took 13.0 s using Battery-operated Printer while 13.0 s using the Electrical
Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer takes same length of time to print
set-up B.

Figure 4.1.2. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer


in printing a full-page colored document in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

53

13.1
13.08
13.06
13.04
Number of Seconds

13.02
Battery-Operated Printer
13

Electrical Printer

12.98
12.96
12.94
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Trials

Shown in the figure 4.1.2 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up B.
On the average, it took 13.0 s using Battery-operated Printer while 13.0 s using the
Electrical Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer takes same length of time to print
set-up B.
Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in
printing a full-page colored document in terms of time

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

54

Battery-Operated
Printer

NOT
SIGNIFICANT

4.30

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is 0 which is less than t-critical value (4.30), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 4 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is no significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up B in terms of time.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.
Table 4.1.3 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in
printing a full-page black and white photo in terms of time
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

15.2 s

15.3 s

15.3 s

15.2 s

15.2 s

15.1 s

Mean

15.2 s

15.2 s

Shown in the table 4.1.3 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up C.
Using Battery-operated Printer, it took 15.2 s, 15.3 s and 15.2 s in three consecutive trials
while using the Electrical Printer, it took 15.3 s, 15.2 s and 15.1 s in the observations made. On

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

55

the average, it took 15.2 s using Battery-operated Printer while 15.2 s using the Electrical
Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer take the same length of time to print
set-up C.
Figure 4.1.3 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer
in printing a full-page black and white photo in terms of time
15.3

15.25

15.2

Number of Seconds

15.15
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer

15.1

15.05

15
Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3
Trials

Shown in the figure 4.1.3 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up C.
On the average, it took 15.2 s using Battery-operated Printer while 15.2 s using the
Electrical Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer take the same length of time to print
set-up C.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

56

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black and white photo in terms of time

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

Battery-Operated
Printer

0.5

4.30

RESULT
NOT
SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is 0.5 which is less than t-critical value (4.30), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 4 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is no significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up C in terms of time.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.1.4 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored photo in terms of time
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

18.6 s

18.3 s

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

57

18.6 s

18.2 s

18.5 s

18.3 s

Mean

18.6 s

18.3 s

Shown in the table 4.1.4 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up D.
Using Battery-operated Printer, it took 18.6 s, 18.6 s and 18.5 s in three consecutive trials
while using the Electrical Printer, it took 18.3 s, 18.2 s and 18.3 s in the observations made. On
the average, it took 18.6 s using Battery-operated Printer while 18.3 s using the Electrical
Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer takes longer time to print set-up D than Electrical Printer.

Figure 4.1.4. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer


in printing a full-page colored photo in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

58

18.6

18.5

18.4

Number of Seconds

18.3
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer

18.2

18.1

18
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trials

Shown in the figure 4.1.4 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print set-up D.
On the average, it took 18.6 s using Battery-operated Printer while 18.3 s using the
Electrical Printer.
Thus, Battery-Operated Printer takes longer time to print set-up D than Electrical Printer.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored photo in terms of time

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

59

Battery-Operated
Printer

5.2

4.30

SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is 5.2 which is greater than t-critical value (4.30), it was on
the rejection region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 4 degrees of freedom.
This means that the null hypothesis was rejected. Result shows that there is a significant
difference between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up D in terms of
time.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can still be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.1.5 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing in terms of time
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

Full-page Black document

12.7 s

12.6 s

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

60

Full-page Colored document

13.0 s

13.0 s

Full-page Black and White


photo
Full-page Colored Photo

15.2 s

15.2 s

18.6 s

18.3 s

Shown in the table 4.1.5 is the summary of the results of the observation done while
comparing Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print.
Using the Battery-operated Printer, it took 12.7 s, 13.0 s, 15.2 s and 18.6 s to print the
following set-ups respectively. On the other hand, Electrical Printer took 12.6 s, 13.0 s, 15.2 s
and 18.3 s to print the same set-ups.
Thus, in set-up A and D, Battery-Operated Printer takes longer time to print while in setup B and C, it take the same length of time.

Figure 4.1.5. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

61

20
18
16
14
12
Battery-Operated Printer

10

Number of Seconds

Electrical Printer
8
6
4
2
0
Full-page Black document

Shown in the figure 4.1.5 is the summary of the results of the observation done while
comparing Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print.
Using the Battery-operated Printer, it took 12.7 s, 13.0 s, 15.2 s and 18.6 s to print the
following set-ups respectively. On the other hand, Electrical Printer took 12.6 s, 13.0 s, 15.2 s
and 18.3 s to print the same set-ups.

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of

RESULT

62

significance
Battery-Operated
Printer

1.41

NOT
SIGNIFICANT

3.18

Electrical Printer
Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing
in terms of time

Since the computed t-value is 1.41 which is less than t-critical value (3.18), it was on the
critical region. This means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is no
significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of time.
Thus, the Battery-operated printer can be used as an alternative printer especially during
brownouts when it comes to the time it takes to print a document or a photo.

Table 4.2.1 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black document in terms of quality
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

63

Mean

4.6 (EXCELLENT)

5 (EXCELLENT)

Shown in the table 4.2.1 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.6 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Figure 4.2.1 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black document in terms of time

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

64

Respondent 5

Respondent 4

Respondent 3
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer
Repondent 2

Respondent 1

Rate

Shown in the figure 4.2.1 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.6 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black document in terms of quality

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

65

Battery-Operated
Printer

-1.63

2.78

NOT
SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is -1.63 which is less than t-critical value (2.78), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 8 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is no significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up A in terms of quality.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.2.2 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored document in terms of quality
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

66

Mean

4.6 (EXCELLENT)

5 (EXCELLENT)

Shown in the table 4.2.2 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.6 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Figure 4.2.2. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored document in terms of quality

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

67

Respondent 5

Respondent 4

Respondent 3
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer
Repondent 2

Respondent 1

Rate

Shown in the figure 4.2.2 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.6 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored document in terms of quality

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

68

Battery-Operated
Printer

-1.63

2.78

NOT
SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is -1.63 which is less than t-critical value (2.78), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 8 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is no significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up B in terms of quality.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.2.3 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black and white photo in terms of quality
Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

69

Mean

4.8 (EXCELLENT)

5 (EXCELLENT)

Shown in the table 4.2.3 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.8 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Figure 4.2.3 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer


in printing a full-page black and white in terms of quality

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

70

Respondent 5

Respondent 4

Respondent 3
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer
Repondent 2

Respondent 1

Rate

Shown in the figure 4.2.3 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.8 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

Battery-Operated
Printer

-1

2.78

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

RESULT
NOT
SIGNIFICANT

71

Electrical Printer

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black and white photo in terms of quality

Since the computed t-value is -1 which is less than t-critical value (2.78), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 8 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is a significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up C in terms of quality.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

Table 4.2.4 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored photo in terms of quality
Trials

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

72

Mean

4.8 (EXCELLENT)

5 (EXCELLENT)

Shown in the table 4.2.4 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.8 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Figure 4.2.4 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer


in printing a full-page colored photo in terms of quality

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

73

Respondent 5

Respondent 4

Respondent 3
Battery-Operated Printer
Electrical Printer
Repondent 2

Respondent 1

Rate

Shown in the figure 4.2.4 is the result of the observation done while comparing Batteryoperated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up.
Using Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated it 4.8 which corresponds to
EXCELLENT QUALITY while using the Electrical Printer, respondents rated it 5 which also
corresponds to EXCELLENT QUALITY.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page colored photo in terms of quality

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

74

Battery-Operated
Printer

-1

2.78

NOT
SIGNIFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is -1 which is less than t-critical value (2.78), it was on the
critical region which was significant at 5% level of significance with 8 degrees of freedom. This
means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is a significant difference
between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in printing set-up C in terms of quality.
Thus, when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

Table 4.2.5 Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing in terms of quality

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

75

Trials

BOP After 0 hours

Electrical Printer

Full-page Black document

4.6

Full-page Colored document

4.6

Full-page Black and White


photo
Full-page Colored Photo

4.8

4.8

Shown in the table 4.2.5 is the summary of the results of the observation done while
comparing Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed
set-up.
Using the Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated 4.6, 4.6, 4.8 and 4.8 the following
printed set-up. On the other hand, respondents rated 5 all the printed set-ups.
Thus, in the four set-up, both printers have the same quality.

Figure 4.2.5. Comparison between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing in terms quality

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

76

Full-page Colored Photo

Full-page Black and White Photo

Battery-Operated Printer
Full-page Colored Document

Electrical Printer

Full-page Black document

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

5.1

Rate

Shown in the figure 4.2.5 is the summary of the results of the observation done while
comparing Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed
set-up.
Using the Battery-operated Printer, respondents rated 4.6, 4.6, 4.8 and 4.8 the following
printed set-up. On the other hand, respondents rated 5 all the printed set-ups.
Thus, in the four set-up, both printers have the same quality.

Significant Difference between Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer in


printing a full-page black document in terms of quality

VARIABLES

Computed t-value

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

Critical t-value of
0.05 level of
significance

RESULT

77

Battery-Operated
Printer

5.2

3.18

NOT
SIGNICFICANT

Electrical Printer

Since the computed t-value is 5.2 which is greater than t-critical value (3.18), it was on
the rejection region. This means that the null hypothesis was accepted. Result shows that there is
a significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and Electrical Printer in terms of
quality.
Thus, Battery-operated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Battery-Operated Printer was compared to Electrical Printer. Time, Quality and number
of pages were recorded in each set-up. Based on the observation using Battery-operated and
Electrical Printer, the following were drawn:
1.
a. It took 12.7 s to print a full-page plain black document, 15.7 s after 2 hours
and 18.1 s after 4 hours of using the battery.
b. It took 13.0 s to print a full-page colored document, 16.2 s after 2 hours and
18.6 after 4 hours of using the battery.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

78

c. It took 15.2 s to print a full-page black and white photo, 17.2 s after 2 hours
and 19.5 s after 4 hours of using the battery.
d. It took 18.6 s to print a full-page colored photo, 20.s after 2 hours and 23.2 s
after 4 hours of using the battery.
2.
a. Battery-Operated printer can print 507 pages of full-page black document
after 0-2 hours of using the battery while 425 pages after 2-4 hours.
b. Battery-Operated printer can print 491 pages of full-page colored document
after 0-2 hours of using the battery while 412 pages after 2-4 hours.
c. Battery-Operated printer can print 443 pages of full-page black and white
photo after 0-2 hours of using the battery while 391 pages after 2-4 hours.
d. Battery-Operated printer can print 373 pages of full-page colored photo after
0-2 hours of using the battery while 333 pages after 2-4 hours.
3. 12-V Battery can supply the printer for about 5.3 hours or 5 hours and 18 minutes.
HYPOTHESIS:
TIME
a. There is a significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in printing set-up A in terms of time. Thus, BatteryOperated Printer takes longer time to print set-up A than Electrical Printer.
b. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in printing set-up B in terms of time. Thus, BatteryOperated Printer and Electrical Printer take the same length of time to
print set-up B.
c. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in printing set-up C in terms of time. Thus, Battery-

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

79

Operated Printer and Electrical Printer take the same length of time to
print set-up C.
d. There is a significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in printing set-up D in terms of time. Thus, BatteryOperated Printer takes longer time to print set-up D than Electrical Printer.
e. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in terms of time it takes to print a set-up. Thus, BatteryOperated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

QUALITY
a. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up A. Thus,
when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.
b. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up B. Thus,
when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.
c. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up C. Thus,
when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.
d. There is no significant difference between Battery-operated Printer and
Electrical Printer in terms of the quality of the printed set-up D. Thus,
when it comes to quality, both set-up have the same quality.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

80

e. There is a significant difference between Battery-Operated Printer and


Electrical Printer in terms of quality of the printed set-ups. Thus, BatteryOperated Printer can be an alternative to an Electrical Printer especially
during brownout because of its feature.

VII. CONCLUSIONS
Observations and testing showed that the Battery-Operated Printer can be an alternative
to an Electrical Printer. The experimental design showed that the Battery-Operated Printer can
help those students and professionals who got problems concerning printing especially during
brownout. Thus, Battery-Operated Printer with the use of battery and inverter is comparable to
Electrical Printer which cannot be used during brownout.
Battery-Operated Printer using battery and power inverter is an effective way to make a
printer functions even out of power. In comparing Battery-Operated Printer and Electrical Printer
in terms of time, T-Test shows that there is no significant difference in printing the set-ups.
Apparently, when it comes to quality, there is a significant difference between the BatteryOperated Printer and Electrical Printer but still, since they both rated EXCELLENT in quality in
four set-ups, it can still be considered as an alternative printer especially during brownout.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

81

VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS
The researcher would like to recommend this Battery-Operated Printer as a
substitute printer which can be used even brownouts. The feasibility of producing a batteryoperated printer as substitute would help to reduce the hindrances being encountered during
brownouts in printing.
In using the product, you can use the higher voltage of battery for longer time of
supplying the printer. For the inverter, you can use the higher voltage of it but make sure that the
wattage of the inverter will not be too high for the wattage of the printer. Be careful in
connecting the battery into the inverter to eliminate the possibility of fault in the inverter that will
lead to the malfunctioning of the inverter.
Further line of this study is required for this system to help upgrade it.

IX. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Batteries as Source of Energy. Retrieved from: http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/ptialcd/battery/
Brain, M. (2010). How Lithium-ion Battery Works Retrieved from:
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/lithium-ion-battery.htm

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

82

Brain, M., Bryant, C., Pumphrey C. (2012). How Batteries Work Retrieved from:
http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/everyday-tech/battery.htm

Brodd, R., Helou, C. (2013). Journal of Power Sources Retrieved from:


http://www.economist.com/blogs/schumpeter/2013/06/lithium-ion-batteries

Clark,
P.
(2012).
Power
Growth:
Batteries
required
Retrieved
from:
http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/53f85a66-29cc-11e2-a5ca-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2gFYvgnrv

Exploroz Team, (2010). Inverters Retrieved from:


http://www.exploroz.com/Vehicle/Electrics/Inverters.aspx

Grabianowski, E. (2010). How Inverters Work Retrieved from:


http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/automotive/dc-ac-power-inverter.htm

Mahusay J. (2013). Power-Deficit; Oriental Mindoro undergoes rotational brownouts


Retrieved from: http://islandsentinel.com/2011/05/22/%E2%80%98power-deficit
%E2%80%99-oriental-mindoro-undergoes-%E2%80%98rotational-brownouts%E2%80%99/

IX. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The researcher wish to express her gratitude to the following:
Mrs. Glecy M. Alquiza for her assistance in the analysis and interpretation of the
results of this experiment and for her valuable suggestions and encouragement;
To Mr. Virgilio Inciong for the assistance in making a solution to the problem;
The researchers classmates and friends for their constructive criticisms,
comments and suggestions to further improve this work;
The researchers mother, Mrs. Teresita I. Malapitan and brother, Erwin Malapitan
for encouragement, financial and moral support;

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

83

Those who serve as respondents that contributed a big help to the success of the
study and;
Those in one way or another helped in the conduct of this experiment but the
researcher failed to remember.

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER

84

Project Data Book


Objectives

Date Started

Date Ended

August 19, 2013

August 30, 2013

September 2, 2013

September 13, 2013

September 16, 2013

September 30, 2013

October 1, 2013

October 18, 2013

October 21, 2013

November 22, 2013

November 25, 2013

December 6, 2013

7. Submission of your drafts

December 9, 2013

December 20, 2013

8. Finalization of the manuscript

December 23, 2013

December 27, 2013

1. Select/finalize your research project


2. Formulate your problem and hypotheses
3. Write your background, significance, scope and
limitation of your study
4. Gather your RRL and prepare your methodology
5. Prepare your product and conduct your
experiment
6. Make your statistical analysis

9. S.I.P submitted

BATTERY-OPERATED PRINTER