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New YearS revolutioN

BRIT

ISH E

DITIO

FEBRUARY
2015

JOE W
EIDE
R

8-WEEK
transformation
plan

BurN
urN
at!
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tEll YOu
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HOw

waYS to
raMP uP
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triPle h

&StePhaNie
McMahoN
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Move

378
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For
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FEBRUARY 2015 UK 4.20

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www.muscle-fitness.co.uk

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FEBRUARY 2015
VOLUME 76 | NO.2

Features

64 NEW YEARS
REVOLUTION

Get into the best shape of your life with


top physique coach Mark Coles and his
eight-week transformation programme.

84 ThE ULTImATE
pOWER cOUpLE

WWE stars Triple H and Stephanie


McMahon deftly manage home life and
the villainous characters that drew
them together.

96 gET SEAL TEAm


RIppEd

The ultra-hardcore training of SEALFIT


gives civilians a glimpse into the life of
the worlds most elite fighting force.

106 mORNINg gLORY

A fitterand fasterbreakfast.

118 bULk Up
WITh cARdIO

Sports scientist Ross Edgley


explains how cardio could help if
youre looking to pack on extra
muscle mass.

126 IRON gIANT

The punishing training regime


Eddie Hall hopes will power him
to the Worlds Strongest Man
crown this year.

134 NUTRITION Of
mOThER EARTh

Adrian Hodgson explores where


bioactive ingredients come from and
examines the top five to boost your
health and performance.

142 OUR U.S. EdITORS


WORkOUT

Shawn Perine reveals the training


philosophy and programme that have
got him into the shape of his life at 48.

152 RENAISSANcE pLAN

Steve Weatherfordthe fittest man in


the NFLhas a physique that truly
sets him apart.

162 mYTh bUSTERS


Igf-1
Mark Gilbert continues his
series tackling common fitness
misconceptions by asking:
IGF-1: legendary musclebuilder or not?

170 STRAIghT Up:


chEST

Build a shelf on your upper


pecs.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

BIG WINS
The gym taught
me everything I
needed to know to
be successful in
life, says Triple H
in our cover story.

HYDRATION &
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

FEBRUARY 2015

www.muscle-fitness.co.uk

Sections
18 EDGE

Explosive strength at the Arnold Sports


Festival; supermodel Melanie Iglesias;
and lifelong open-water swimmer Doug
McConnell.

32 TRAIN

Master the log press with Rob Orlando;


burn fat all day with the burpee box
jump-over; and chop up your gut with
the half-kneeling cable woodchop.

52 EAT

How to make your cheat meal a treat


meal; enjoy a steakhouse-quality treat
for all the family; and home-made
protein-packed fudge.

174 SUPPS

The latest in supplement and product


news.

118

183 EXPERT

UFC middleweight Norman Parke on his


unbeaten record; from skinny to strong
with Michelle Brannan; master the twohanded kettlebell swing; and are you
getting enough carbs during training?

Regulars
14

Welcome

16

Arnolds Letter

208 Hot Bod

ON THE COVER & PREVIOUS PAGE:


Triple H & Stephanie McMahon
Photographs by Per Bernal

142

106

162

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AdViSOry BOArd
riCh frONiNg

The reigning and four-time CrossFit Games champ

greg gLASSmAN

We assume no responsibility for returning unsolicited material, including but not limited to photographs, artwork, manuscripts and letters.
Membership on the Editorial Advisory Board does not imply endorsement of any product or service advertised in this magazine. Views expressed
in advertisements and editorials are not necessarily those of Muscle & Fitness or the Editorial Advisory Board. Reader discretion is advised. Please
consult your doctor before beginning any exercise or diet programme, or when making changes in an existing programme if you have any doubts
about your health status.
Every care is taken to assure the accuracy of the information in M&F, but no responsibility can be accepted for the consequences of actions
based on the advice contained herein. Weider Publishing Ltd makes every effort to ensure that the advertising contained in M&F is derived
from respectable sources. It does not, however, assume responsibility for the advertisements, nor any claims and representations made
therein, nor the quality or delivery of the products/services themselves.
Editorial articles relating to food supplementation and sports nutrition reproduced in this issue of Muscle & Fitness, are for information
purposes only and are not intended to solicit or otherwise promote any commercialised product containing the mentioned supplements.
Muscle & Fitness is distributed on an international basis. To the extent permitted by law, Weider Publications LLC and its affiliates: Weider
Publishing Ltd, Weider Publishing Italia Srl and Mediafit SARL, do not accept liability for the effects of reported supplements or products,
legal or illegal or any loss, injury or damage caused by their use. It is the responsibility of the individual to abide by the laws and dosage
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Some supplements may not work effectively outside specific dosage ranges and may potentially cause harm if taken in excess. Not all
supplements, combinations of supplements, or dose ranges of supplements may be suitable, safe or effective for everybody.

Co-founder of CrossFit, the worlds fastest-growing


fitness movement

Jim mANiON

Chairman of the IFBB pro league and president of the


US National Physique Committee

NiCK miTCheLL

One of Britains leading personal trainers who owns


the worldwide Ultimate Performance gym business
upfitness.com

miKe OheArN

Former TV gladiator who has won titles in bodybuilding, powerlifting and judo

dAVid SANdLer

One of the worlds leading strength and conditioning


coaches

Tim ZiegeNfUSS

Sports nutrition and exercise scientist who is chief


executive of the Center for Applied Health Sciences

Copyright (2015) Weider Publications, LLC. Published under license from Weider Publications, LLC. All rights reserved. Reprinted with permission.
Muscle & Fitness is a trademark of Weider Publications, Llc. and may not be used or reproduced without the permission of Weider Publications, LLC.

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Its time to show the gym whos boss.


Walk in. Tear it up. Walk away.

#BOSSIT then prove it @SCIMX

welcome

contact us

on editorial@weideruk.com

BEST OF BRITISH

This months magazine is packed with expertise from these shores


Mark Coles trains
Ryan John-Baptiste

Weve tracked down some of the


best talent in British gyms this
month to ensure your training
gets off to a flying start in 2015.
Nottingham gym owner Mark Coles,
who is rapidly making a name as
one of the countrys top physique
transformation experts, has
compiled an eight-week programme
to get you in the shape of your life.
Our staff have been road testing the
programme and giving it rave
reviews.
Ryan John-Baptiste, who is the
hottest thing in mens physique after
winning the British title and becoming
an IFBB pro, demonstrates the
exercises.
Cheshire-based sports scientist
Ross Edgley weighs up the latest

14

MUSCLE & FitnESS

research on whether cardio kills


gains and Welsh powerlifting champion
Chris Jenkins reveals how to add 10
per cent to your squat in eight weeks.
Stoke strongman Eddie Hall is a
one-off: hes big, bearded and
borderline bonkerswho else can
deadlift 435 kg and then immediately
conduct a TV interview while still
holding the bar off the ground, as he
did at Europes Strongest Man?
But Hall is also absolutely brilliant
and adored by fans. We witnessed
one of his insane four-hour training
sessions and got to know one of the
great characters.
In addition to all this, we have
Cumbrian Phil Learney on effective
glutes training, Leeds strength legend
Andy Bolton on kettlebells and

London nutrition expert Adrian


Hodgson dissecting the latest
scientific research for gym rats.
For women, Michelle Brannans
Bikini Body column evolves by looking
at how the Basingstoke beauty helps
women with different body types
overcome certain issues.
We love the American muscle
and fitness scene and as always
have plenty of that. But there is
some terrific talent in British gyms
and we will continue to tap into
their knowledge each month.

John Plummer
Editorial Director

It wont be you whos left feeling destroyed.


Walk in. Tear it up. Walk away.

#BOSSIT then prove it @SCIMX

ARNOLDS LETTER
WE ARE ThE chAMpIoNS
Arnold appeared with hulk hogan
and Joe Manganiello on Monday
Night Raw in March 2014.

WRESTLERS MANIA
arnold and sports entertainment make a good tag team.

D. Schultz

A:

Ive always had


nothIng but respect for

wrestlers and all of sports


entertainment. I think they are some
of the best showmen (and women)
on the planet.

16

MUSCLE & FitnESS

I appeared again last March


to promote my movie Sabotage,
and I got to do a vignette with
the immortal Hulk Hoganas big
a thrill for me as it was for the fans.
Im glad to see that sports
entertainers are getting the respect
they deserve as athletes and storytellers. I look forward to working
with them in the future and laying
many more smackdowns!

Yours in Iron,

Arnold Schwarzenegger

Courtesy of WWe

What do you
think of pro
wrestlers as
athletes?

In the 1970s, Superstar Billy


Graham made time to train with me
at Golds Gym. I was tremendously
impressed by his size, as well as
his strengththere are pictures of
him bench-pressing 500 pounds
while I look on; Google them. Of
course, everyone knows that Jesse
Ventura and I made Predator and
The Running Man together, and he
was unforgettable in both movies.
Im pleased to see Paul Triple H
Levesque and his wife, Stephanie
McMahon, in this issue. You may
remember when I appeared on an
episode of Smackdown in 1999 and got
to slap Triple H (as part of a story line,
of course!).

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Walk in. Tear it up. Walk away.


* Nielsen 11-10-14

#BOSSIT then prove it @SCIMX

EDGE
NEWS, INTERVIEWS aNd INSpIRaTIoN

18

MUSCLE & FitnESS

edge the

arnold

To Learn more about the 2015 Arnold Sports

Festival, which runs March 58, 2015, in Columbus, Ohio,


and to purchase tickets, go to arnoldsportsfestival.com.

WeIGhtlIFtInG
When it comes to explosive strength, the sport of
weightlifting stands head and shoulders above all
others at the Arnold Sports Festival. By Ian Cohen
powerlifTing and strongman competitions measure brute
strength; Olympic weightlifting,
meanwhile, demands strength,
explosiveness, and perfect
technique. At the Arnold Weightlifting Championships youll
see some of the worlds
strongest men complete the
most technically demanding lifts
in all of strength competition.
You might even see a new world
record set.
We are a local meet that allows
for topflight competition across
many ages and talent levels,
says Mark Cannella, director
of the Arnold Weightlifting
Championships. I know of no

competition, anywhere, where


a first-time contestant can expect
to lift next to a world or Olympic
record holder.

The SporT of weightlifting


consists of two lifts: the snatch and
the clean and jerk. Participants get
three attempts to lift the maximum

weight possible in each event, with


the heaviest snatch and heaviest
clean and jerk combined to calculate
the lifters score. Athletes are
assigned to weight classes.

To register to compete, visit


columbusweightlifting.org.

olympIc lIFtInG deFIned


SnaTCh: This move is
performed by hoisting
the bar from the floor to
arms length overhead in a single,
explosive motion.

CLean and Jerk: This


is a two-part lift in which
the bar is first hoisted to
the shoulders (the clean) and then
pressed overhead to arms length.

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

19

CLE & FITN

75
YEARS

RY

NN

ESS

MUS

edge retro

IVERSA

75 YeARS OF M&F

tHING retUrNS
Nine years after
his Fantastic cover,
Michael chiklis
talks about his role
as an old-time strongman on American
Horror Story and
staying fit after 50.
By Eric Velazquez
Did you ever imagine youd be on
an M&F cover (chiklis appeared
in 2005)?
I never imagined it, but I loved it! I worked
really hard during that time, and I was proud
of the level of fitness I achieved. I would spin for
45 minutes and do a weight-training circuit for
another 45. I ended up spending an hour and a
half a day, five to six days a week, in the gym,
while eating lean protein and green veggiesno
flour, no sugar, no dairy. Thats pretty hardcore
and not easy to sustain. But the cover of M&F?
That was an honour!

THIS WEEKEND

BIG

Whats the key to staying fit after


turning 50?
Its less intense. I spin a couple of times a
week and work out five to six days a weekits
nonstop plyometrics, calisthenics, and cardio.
But none of my favourite exercises happen in a
gym. My favourite one occurs in my bedroom,
and I dont need to explain why!

AUGUST
2005
OVER 7,600,000
READERS
WORLDWIDE

SUPER
R

GET

a marvel-loUS cover
With the debut of Fantastic Four in 2005,
Michael Chiklis graced the cover of M&F
alongside his comic counterpart.

R
WE
PO
klis
Michael Chi
Mic
joins the
4
Fantastic

FOOD TO
GROW
Exactly
What to Eat
E!
AND TAK

ROCK
HARD

20

MUSCLE & FITNESS

h
Arnolds Hig
ining
Volume Tra

AUGUST 2005

UK 3.40

08

9 770955 138073co.uk
www.muscle-fitness.

MIKE ROSENTHAL

T H E L I C E N S I N G P R O J E C T. C O M

G
TO GETTIN
NS GUIDE
A BUSY MA

BRITISH EDITION

JOE WEIDER
S

BUILD MUSCLE

Tell us about your role on the new


season of american horror story.
Im playing a strongman in a freak show set
in the early 50s, which requires that I slip my
51-year-old butt into a leopard-skin leotard!
Daunting to be sure, but Ive been taking a
different approach to fitness this time around.
Strongmen in freak shows of the 1950s were
just naturally strong, burly guys who didnt
have all the benefits of modern training
techniques and dietary information.

edge iron

maiden

aLPHa
FemaLe
Melanie iglesias went from unknown
to YouTube sensation to one of the hottest
women in America. And shes a lot cooler
than you think. By Brittany Smith

What kind of video games?


M&F: Your flipbook videos with
I have a Super Nintendothe old one,
all the different outfits on YouTube made you famous. Whered so I play that. I like to play Donkey
Kong Country. I must have beaten that
you come up with that idea?
entire game like 1520 times already.
Mi: I was doing a photo shoot for
But then I love all the fighting games,
some clothing company, and the
too. I just love the older
photographer afterwards
systems. I still play Tekken
was like, Hey, look at this
and Mortal Kombat.
video; I did a stop-motion
video with this band and it
came out really cute. We
What do you look for
HeIgHT
just kind of pulled the
in a guy?
wardrobe rack and thats
Loyalty and honesty can
when I started trying on all
make any relationship work.
the clothing and that stuff.
I love being romanced and
age
I sent it to a friend to edit.
surprised. My boyfriend
I called up my friendsmusic
just has that extra-special
producerswho added a
thing. Ive never really
track to it. Before I knew it,
looked for it before, but
resIdence
it had three million views.
Los Angeles now that I have it, I love it.
I dont know how that
He writes me poetry, he
happened.
brings me random flowers.
WeBsITe
Hell make me brownies
melanie
are you a girly girl or
iglesias.com one night if Im not feeling
well. The romance goes
a guys girl?
a long way.
I like to believe that Im a little Follow her on
Instagram and
bit of both. I dont think Im
Twitter:
just a guys girl because I do
What do you think
@melanieiglesias
love being girly, but I also do
most separates you
love getting down and dirty. So I love
from other women?
getting dressed up and putting on a pair I dont really like to play games.
of heels and a dress, but then there are
I shoot straight from the hip. Im very
also days when I like to just play
honest, very blunt. I kind of just
video games in my sweatpants and
always say whats on my mind.
play basketball or handball for five
Im also very in charge. Im a very
hours straight.
alpha female.

THe
sTaTs

5'7"

R ENE C ERVA N T E S

27

22

MUSCLE & FitnESS

edge

INSPIRATION

NEVER GOING DOWN

SUE MccONNELL

At 57 years old, Doug Mcconnells longevity is the


envy of world-class endurance athletes, and he serves
as proof that the human body is capable of extraordinary
feats regardless of age. By Chris Giblin

lifelong swiMMer Doug


McConnell completed the Triple
Crown of Open Water Swimming
last June, swimming the waters
surrounding Manhattan and
across the English Channel and
the Catalina Channel in Southern
California. Hes one of just 102
people to finish all three swims,
and only the 15th to accomplish
this over the age of 50.
Along the way, his swimming
has raised more than $325,000
for ALS research. McConnell lost
his father to the disease in 2006,
and it has been diagnosed in

24

MUSCLE & FitnESS

other family members since. He


credits his fitness to his wife
Susans healthy cooking and his
20-mile-per-week swimming
regime.
McConnell didnt always see
himself as a long-distance
swimmer. He recalls a childhood
visit to the White Cliffs of Dover,
looking out over the English
Channel on a bleak day. My father
told me, You know, people swim
across this thing, he says.
I replied, Youre out of your mind!
But its funny that 50 years later,
I was out there myself.

M c cONNEll cOuNTS every


stroke of every swim. When he
swam around Manhattan, it took
him 29,611 strokes. He says it
helps him stay focused on the
process, not the result.

MAKE IT HAPPEN
LIFE IS SHORT.

I WANT RESULTS TODAY


AND I CANT AFFORD TO
WAIT FOR TOMORROW
- JOHN HORWELL
HENCH AMBASSADOR

BEFORE
YOUR WORKOUT

DURING
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hench

AFTER

YOUR WORKOUT

BEFORE
BED
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EDgE STAR

pOwER

A STAR
REBORN
When injury forced
ADAM EDgE CopElAnD
to leave the WWE, he found
a new career on Syfys Haven.
By Matt Tuthill

M&F: Without the neck injury, would


you still be wrestling?
AC: I dont know at this point. I always
said my drop-dead age with wrestling was
40and Im 40. I would always see a guy like
Brett Favre and be like, I get it. I get why hes
trying to go to the Vikings now, because hell
make that 60-yard pass with two seconds
left. Thats still therejust not all the time.
I never wanted to get there. But there was no
second-guessing. The decision was made by
WWEs medical team.
Thats when Syfy picked you up for
Haven, where you play a character
named Dwight Hendrickson.
Oh, man, poor Dwight. Hes a tortured
character. Hes cursed. Hes a veteran of
Afghanistan, and when the guns go off,
the bullets find him. Its a tragic character
whos been really fun to play.

HEAVY
DUTY

In his heyday,
Copeland says
he once militarypressed 315
pounds.

26

MUSCLE & FITNESS

How is your training different now?


Im much more fit now. Wrestling keeps you in
the best worst shape possible because, you
look in the mirror and youre like, OK, but
you feel horrible because your entire body
is sore. I used to lift very heavy for that. Now
I ride my mountain bike, use the rower, and
circuit train.

MICHAEL TOMPKINS

How did you handle the transition from


an arena to a single camera?
When youre doing WrestleMania in Detroit
and there are 80,000 people, you have to go
with big movements with big expressions,
bulging eyes. In one of my first episodes of
Haven, the director goes,What are you doing
with your eyes? Stop it. You have to translate
your mood to a small city.

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edge OLD-SCHOOL

ASS KICKER

ROCK GOD

Youd never guess, but Aerosmith axeman Joe Perry is


actually a fitness nut who always ate discriminately and
got sober with the help of exercise. By Ben Radding
M&F: Whats changed in your
diet over the years? Whats
remained the same?
JP: I think the one thing that hasnt
changed is diet, and thats the
most important thing. Back in the
hippie days, organic food was
such an underground thing. But
I went out of my way to eat food
that didnt have preservatives as
much as possible.
Do you have a background
in fitness or sports?
When I got sober in the early
80s, I started jogging again.
I found out that my father was
into jogging; my mother, who
was a gym teacher, mentioned
it to me. Physical fitness was
always part of the family.
Has health and fitness been
an aid to your sobriety?
At the beginning I think it was one of
those things that helped me take up
some of that time during the day.
It became kind of like replacing one
addiction with another, but even
at that young age of 33 or 34, I felt
like I was five years younger, if you
can imagine that.

28

MUSCLE & FItNESS

TELL ALL

Perrys book,
Rocks (Simon &
Schuster), details
his time with
Aerosmith.

MELISA MANONEY

Gene Simmons declared that


rock n roll is dead. Do you
agree or disagree?
I would put it a little differently. I
wouldnt say rock is dead, because
I see a lot of young fans who are
really interested in classic rock,
but the kind of rock n roll that we
like, where people sold millions of
records and looked like rock stars
(is gone). Its not the most popular
thing right now, so its kind of
the end of an era, but that kind
of excitement still exists.

TRaIn
build muscle, burn fat, perform better

PRESSED
FOR TIME

MICHAEL QUIET

The log clean and press


will build total-body
strength and a pair
of sleeve-busting
shoulders. Best of all:
This workout takes
less than five minutes.
By Rob Orlando

32

MUSCLE & FitnESS

train

HARDCORE
MASTER THE LOG PRESS

Either deadlift or bentover-row


the log into your hips. This is
called the lap position. Pull the log
tight against your chest. Tuck your chin
down, and round your back.

Raise your butt slightly to load


your hamstrings. Lean back and
roll the log up your body to the rack
position. Push your elbows up and
squeeze them in towards each other.

rOB OrLanDO owns Hybrid Athletics


in Stamford, CT: hybridathleticsapparel.com
Follow him on Twitter: @crossfitrobo

Strongman equipment
isnt just for strongman
competitors. The log press
is a fantastic way to add
variety to your routine and
give your body a brand-new
stimulus for growth.
Because it has neutral-grip
handles it reduces the often
inflammatory effect overhead
pressing has on the shoulders.
The log is also a relatively
cheap and scalable alternative
to standard gym gearand its
fun to use, too.
When using the log be careful
not to power-clean it from
the lap position to the rack.
Instead, roll the log up your
belly to the rack in a controlled
manner. Power-cleaning the
log may put unnecessary
stress on your biceps. Return
the log all the way to the
ground in between each rep.
One of my favourite CrossFit
workouts ever is named
Grace, which is 30 reps
of a clean and press with
135 pounds. Taking that set-up
and replacing the barbell with
a log press creates a whole
new animal, which well call
a modified Grace, detailed
below.

THE
WORKOUT
Modified Grace

Log clean and press*

Dip your hips and knees quickly, then explosively extend, pressing the log
overhead to a fully locked-out position.

rEps

30

*Load the log press with plates so that it


weighs 135 pounds. Perform the log
clean and press 30 times, resting as
needed to perform it safely. Record
your total time for future reference.

MUSCLE & FITnESS

33

MICHAEL QUIET

ExErcisE

train

CROSSFIT CORNER

AIRBORNE CARDIO

The burpee box jump-over takes your conditioning session into


the sky, turning up the heat on a dreaded move and
rewarding you with a full-body fat blast. By Nate Forster

TURN AND
BURN

The burpee box


jump-over gets your
heart rate jacked in
no time while
triggering reactions
that burn fat
all day.

DO IT RIGHT
THE MOVE

IAN SPANIER

If theres anythIng people lIke more


than burpees, Its burpees made more
dIffIcult, rIght? Depends on who you ask,
but we know burpees are a gut punch to the athletic
egothats why theyre used as punishment in many team
settings. When a WOD orders you to perform them, you
have no choice but to muster a steely resolve. But would
you go so far as to say you hate the exercise? No, because
you realise burpees help you build a better, more efficient
enginethe defining characteristic of a CrossFitter. By
adding box jumps at the end of the move, you put yourself
through an athletic grinder that further enhances your
horsepower.

34

MUSCLE & FITnESS

You perform a burpee facing


a box, then jump onto the box,
to the other side, and repeat for
reps. When jumping onto the
box, maintain soft knees to
ease into the landing. As you
dismount, keep knees bent and
rotate in the air so that when
you land youre facing the right
direction for the next burpee.
Carefully eye your landings,
both on the box and on the
ground. Theres also incentive
to bring your feet all the way
to your hands on the burpees:
If youre short, youll have a
longer jump to the box.

tHE WOrKOUt

Burpee box jump


overs are just one
component of this
physique-shredding
challenge.
Complete as many
rounds as possible
in 12 minutes.
5 chest-to-bar
pull-ups
10 power snatches
(95 pounds)
15 burpee
box jump-overs

James Ellis
Fitness Cover Model
WBFF World Champion
Team Scitec

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train

phYsiqUE
YsiqUE

DOUBLE DUTY

billys
stats
AGe 35

HeIGHt 6' 1"


WeIGHt 195 lbs
tWItter

@p28foods
WeB p28foods.com

billy Sullivan, IFBB physique pro and


part owner of P28 Foods, excels in the gym
and in business. By Andrew Gutman

billy Sullivan doesnt fit the stereotypical physique competitor mould. He


doesnt diet down for a show, doesnt follow
a five-day split, and doesnt spend all his time
in the gym. In fact, he runs a global business,
P28 Foods.
With round-the-clock schedule, Sullivan
has no time to waste. So when he does get
to the gym, he needs every last rep to
count.
I keep a fast-paced workout, incorporate
more body parts, and maintain a high intensity
throughout, he says. Then I let my food
dictate where Im going to get in terms of size.
Sullivans care of his brand is just as
meticulous. At first, he would go from show
to show promoting P28, a food company
whose name is derived from the fact that
its chief productsbread, nut butters,
and pancakeshave 28 grams of protein
per serving. Now, the 34-year-old has an
international business that is growing at
the same rate as his body.

Chest and arms

ExErcisE
Incline Bench

sEts rEps
4

15-30

Incline Seated Alternating Curl

15-30

Incline Flye

12-20

Hammer Curls

12-20

Flat Dumbbell Bench Press

15-8

15-8

Dips (weighted & body weight) 4

20-30

SUPERSET WITH

SUPERSET WITH

SUPERSET WITH

Standing Biceps Curl


SUPERSET WITH

Preacher Curl

20-30

Push-ups

Failure

Failure

SUPERSET WITH

High Cable Curl

36

MUSCLE & FitnESS

BUILD
THIS BODY

Intense workouts
with short rest periods
help Sullivan stay in
shape to compete in
several IFBB physique
shows every year.

2NyCe PHotoGrAPHy

ThE WORKOUT

ANTH The FREAK


BAILES
IFBB PRO &
PHARMAFREAK Athlete

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@Pharmafreak
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Use PharmaFreak products in conjunction with exercise and sensible diet to achieve optimal results.
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PHARMAFREAK.COM

train

abs and core

cHoP UP YoUr GUT


Youve probably tried the cable woodchop in the past, but doing
it in a half-kneeling position challenges your stability that
much more, working your core in order to resist both rotation
and lateral movement. By Sean Hyson

How
To
do IT
Kneel on one
Knee and grasp a

QUIcK TIPs

Dont twist your body


or crunch forwards to
complete the rep.
Perform three sets of
810 reps either at the
beginning of your workout
(if your core is a big weak
point) or at the end.

38

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Training
your core

to stabilise your
trunk while your
limbs are in motion
has more carry-over
to sports than
crunches do.

ian SPaniEr

rope handle attached


to a pulley over your
opposite shoulder.
Brace your abs. Slowly
draw the cable diagonally down and across
your body to the
outside of your left hip.

train

body weight

CAN yoU
do it?

Test your full-body


stamina with 100 reps
each of three essential
moves: push-ups,
pull-ups, and squats.
By Joe Wuebben

BIRD DOG

From a push-up
position, lift one
hand and the
opposing leg off
the floor and hold
for time.

WhY it WOrKs

a high-volume total-body routine


that personal trainer andy
McDermott calls his Bodyweight 300 Workout. its a
simple premise: 100 pull-ups (or
scaled-down pull-up variation of
your choice), 100 body-weight
squats, and 100 push-ups, with
bird dogs, a core strength/
stabilisation move, in between.
simple? Yes. Easy? no. i love
this workout because its a great
test of total-body fitness, says
McDermott.

this is a fantastic challenge


for people of all levels because
its scalable, McDermott says.
Beginners can take their time
or choose assisted movements.
More advanced athletes can
challenge themselves with
progressed movements, trying
to do quality repetitions at a
faster tempo, or even going
for a second or third round. the
bird dogs give your big muscles
a break in between the rounds
of 100.

40

MUSCLE & FitnESS

ExErcisE
Pull-up

Bird Dog
Squat
Bird Dog
Push-up

rEps
100

1 minute
100
1 minute
100

n For

pull-ups, squats, and push-ups,


perform 100 reps each, broken up into
as many sets as you need to hit the
total number.

n For

bird dogs, go back and forth for


one minute, holding for five seconds
at a time.

G r E G F i n E L LY

What it is

body-weight
300 workoUt

train

RATE My WORKOUT

20-MINUTE
ARMS
Bill T. asked us
to streamline
his arm workout. Heres how
we fixed it.
By Sean Hyson

ThE
WORKOUT
Bills Old WOrkOut

ExErciSE

SETS

Barbell Curl

rEpS
12, 10, 8, 6, 6

Dumbbell Curl

5 15, 12, 10, 8, 8

Dip

Triceps
Pressdown

5 15, 12, 10, 8, 8

12, 10, 8, 6, 6

M&F rating: B
Bills neW WOrkOut

ExErciSE

SETS

Barbell Curl

rEpS
*

Dip

*Set a timer for 20 min. Choose a load


for the curl that allows you to do 1012
reps. Alternate sets of the curl and dip
until time runs out. Do more reps over
time.

DENSITY
TRAINING,

as prescribed here,
makes workouts
more challenging
and easier to
progress on.

The pyramid system in Bills


current routine makes for a
slow, plodding workout, while
supersetting just two arm
moves is enough. Set a timer for
whatever time you have to train
and race the clock, trying to get
in as many reps as possible.
The old workout took about
25 minutes. Our edit is
five minutes shorter and will
leave your guns just as pumped.

MUSCLE & FiTnESS

41

dustin sniPes

Our advice

trAin

bOrN FiT
Does doing
cardio on
an empty
stomach help
you lose
more fat?

RUN
AWAY

Any time is a
good time for
cardionot
just before
breakfast.

NOT SO FASTED
Your training questions answered
By Adam Bornstein

42

MUSCLE & FItNESS

IAN LOGAN

A:

Thats been the prevailing


theory for a while, and it
looks good on paper: food
provides fuel for energy, so if theres
nothing available in your stomach,
it makes sense that your body will tap
into its stored energymainly fatto
power exercise.
The trouble is, the store it seems to
go for first is protein, in the form of
your hard-earned muscle mass.
According to research published in
Strength and Conditioning Journal in
2012, protein breakdown can actually
double when you do cardio on an
empty stomach.
Furthermore, studies have shown
that fasted cardio does not burn
fat more effectively than cardio
performed after a meal. And since
workout intensity directly affects
how many calories you burn, not
eating before a long and intense
session could reduce the energy
you have to train with and lead to
a subpar workout.
But what about high-intensity
interval training (HIIT)? Thats
supposed to burn fat and spare
muscle, right? The truth is, performing
it on an empty stomach causes you
to break down fat faster than your
body can use it for energy, which
resultssadlyin the fat being shuttled
back into your fat cells!
The bottom line: do fasted cardio if
it makes you feel bettermany dont
like to eat and then work out with
food still sloshing around in their gut.
But dont think not eating is going to
speed up the time till you see your
abs. Eating less overall (i.e., adjusting
your diet) is the best strategy for that.

i want more size


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IFBB PRO
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For retail enquiries please contact us on: 0127 987 4631

TrAIN

AsK THE doCTor

KNOW THE
PROBLEM

Neck pain is most


often caused by
poor posture,
stress, or overly
rigorous exercise.

ProTECT
your NECK

These movements can


help prevent neck pain.

Neck pain doesnt have to ruin your


day. A few exercises can have you
feeling better. By John Gallucci
Neck paiN caN be caused
by injury to any of the structures
in the neck: the muscles, nerves,
vertebrae, and the discs in
between the vertebrae. Many
people describe it as having a
stiff neck. If neck pain involves
nerves, you may feel numbness,
tingling, or weakness in your
arm, hand, or elsewhere.
The most common cause of

44

MuScLe & FITneSS

neck pain is muscle strain or


tension. Usually daily activities
and behaviour are to blame, such
as bending over your computer
or just being stressed.
Simple neck discomfort from
a strain or stress can easily
be remedied with certain
exercises (described at right), the
application of cold packs, or by
decreasing strenuous activity.

CErVICAL fLExIoN
In a slow motion, bend
your head forwards and
return it to rest.
rETrACTIoN/
proTrACTIoN
Move your shoulders
forwards and back.
DESK ErgoNomICS
Sit up straight, then
adjust your monitor
so you look straight ahead.
abouT The docTor
John Gallucci Jr., M.S., A.T.C.,
P.T., D.P.T., is president of JAG
Physical Therapy and JAG
Pediatric Therapy and the
medical coordinator for
Major League Soccer.

DAVID YELLEN

PAIN IN
THE NECK

CErVICAL roTATIoN
Turn your head side
to side in a slow,
controlled motion.

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train

expert advice
rippetOeS
tOp 3
LiFtiNG tipS
use these cues to
maximise training.

use your HiPs

When squatting,
point your toes
out at 30 degrees
and push your knees
out so they track
over your toes the
whole time.

PuLL strong

When deadlifting, roll the bar


up to where its over
your foot, about an
inch away from your
shins. Tighten your
lats.

Shrug your
traps at the top of an
overhead press. This
makes impingement
impossible.

StreNGtH
BaSicS

Mark rippetoe advocates


strength training with one tool:
a barbell. As told to Mark Barroso

46

MUSCLE & FITnESS

Recovery from heavier weights and


more volume now takes five to seven
days. An advanced athlete will likely
be a competitive weightlifter, and
it may take a month or more to
accumulate and recover from the
stress of an overload.

the greatest effective range of


motioncompound lifts like squats,
presses, deadlifts, cleans, rows, and
so on.
Functional training iSnt

as effective as barbell training


because the loads are too light.
Its not being done heavy enough to
constitute training but its not similar
enough to be practice. It places the
balance problem ahead of the
force-production problem.
although a novice imProveS

his conditioning by getting stronger,


theres also a role for conditioning in
the post-novice athlete. The Prowler
(a weighted pushing sled) is the most
useful conditioning tool since it
doesnt have an eccentric component
PeoPle trying to increaSe
(your legs dont need to work to
their strength need to use only a few absorb force as they do when you
exercises. We recommend exercises run), so you avoid an inflammatory
that use the most muscle mass over soreness response.

THOMAS CAMPITELLI

Back tO BaSicS
rippetoe is the
author of Starting
Strength: Basic
Barbell Training.

Someone thatS really strong


cant get much stronger easily, but
someone whos never trained before
can get stronger quickly. A novice
hasnt progressed far towards his
physical potential and can recover
from the stress of a workout in 48 to
72 hours. Youre only a novice for six
to eight months, then youre an
intermediate. Strong and adapted to
stress, it takes heavier weight and
more volume for you to overload.

a saFer
Press

training systems

PUsHPULL

Train your muscles every


third day with a push-pull
3-On, 1-Off training Split
workout split
Day 1 PUSH
By Greg Merritt
Chest, front and medial delts, triceps

PUsH-PULL

Split DeciSionS
In the 70s, bodybuilders like
Arnold Schwarzenegger
worked out twice daily and hit
body parts three times a week
(not counting calves and abs,
which he trained daily). Not
everyone had time for that and
by the late 70s this started to
change. Splits that stressed
muscles twice a week became
the norm. In the 80s, this was
often stretched to twice every
eight days via a popular threeon, one-off split (three training
days, followed by one rest day).
In any split in which your
workouts are spread over

48

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Day 2 LEGS
Quads, hamstrings, claves, abs
Day 3 PULL
Back, rear delts, traps, biceps,
forearms
Day 4 OFF

three consecutive days, typically one day is devoted to legs.


The question then becomes
how to organise your upperbody work over the other two
days to maximise rest for each
muscle. If you hit chest and
back one day and shoulders
and arms the next, youre going
to stress delts, biceps and
triceps on both days. Thats
because front delts and triceps

C O P y R i G H T W E i D E R H E A LT H & F i T n E S S

train

PULL
WorkoUt
sEts

rEps

Back
Front pulldown

10-12

Barbell row

12-8

One-arm dumbbell row

10-12

High-cable row

10-15

rear DeLts
Machine rear lateral

10-15

traPs
Dumbbell shrug

10-12

BicePs
EZ-bar curl

10-12

Preacher curl

10-12

Alternating dumbbell curl 4

10-12

ExErcisE

Forearms
Reverse wrist curl

12-15

Wrist curl

12-15

train

training systems

push
WOrKOut
sEts rEps

Chest
Barbell bench press

Dumbbell incline press

12-8

Flat-bench flye

10-12

Dip

10-12

FrOnt and medial delts


Shoulder press
4

12-8

12-8

Dumbbell front raise

10-12

Side lateral

10-15

triCeps
Lying triceps extension

10-12

One-arm triceps extension

10-12

Pushdown

10-12

assist on chest presses and


dips and rear delts and biceps
assist on almost every back
exercise. Any split resulting in
this double-stress for shoulders and arms is going to
severely reduce your growthinducing rest for those areas.
The best solution to this
quandary is the push-pull
system. Exercises in which
your elbow joints are straight at
contractions (bench presses,
shoulder presses, pushdowns,
etc.) are pushers. Exercises in
which your elbow joints are
bent at contractions (T-bar
rows, pulldowns, barbell curls,
etc.) or in which you lift vertically (deadlifts, shrugs, etc.)
are pullers.
Pushers and pullers are
divided into separate workouts. So, you work chest,
front delts and triceps in a
push workout, and back, rear
delts, traps and biceps in a pull
workout. This lets you train
body parts twice weekly or
twice every eight days with
sufficient time to recuperate
between sessions.

push-pull
BasiCs

push-pull
tip sheet

This system is ideal for splits in


which your body is divided into
three workouts over three days.
Schedule pushing muscles
(chest, front delts, triceps) for
one workout and pulling muscles
(back, rear delts, traps, biceps)
for another.
Each workout should progress
in this order: chest or back,
shoulder muscle(s), triceps or
biceps.
Medial delts, which assist on
overhead presses, should be hit
in the push workout.

Many people like to train legs after


an off-day. However, to maximise the
rest of your upper-body muscles,
schedule leg day between the push
and pull days.
If you train your body over four
consecutive days instead of three, you
can still do a push-pull split. Do push
(without triceps) and pull (without
biceps and forearms) on the first two
days, legs on Day 3, and arms on Day 4.
Take at least one day off, then repeat.
Legs can also be divided into push
(quads) and pull (hamstrings)
workouts.
Calves and abs can be trained on
any of the three days.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

49

MICHaEL NEvEux

ExErcisE

train

instant muscle

KilleR
BODY
Blast

The Killer is an exercise


designed to hit your whole
body. It is as tough as the
name suggests, combining
four different moves in one.

By Ben Kenyon
Photography by Christopher Bailey
It comprises a burpee followed by a power
clean, front squat and shoulder press.
The Killer will hit your core, your back, your legs and
your shoulders, while also getting your heart pumping, your muscles growing and shredding fat.

HOW tO
DO it

Grip a bar (or, as


shown here, a log
press), crouch down
and perform a burpee
kicking your feet out
behind into a press-up
position and back up.

Still holdinG

the bar, perform


a power clean,
bringing the bar up into
a front rack position on
the shoulders.

3
4

From here

perform a full-depth
front squat with
the bar.

aS you come up

out of the squat,


transition straight
into an overhead push press
to lockout before returning
the bar to the floor.

50

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Theunis

Bester

IFBB SA Mens Physique


Champion & Supashape
Athlete

fuel your body

TREAT YOURSELF

stockphoto

Enjoy the foods you crave without scuppering gains.


By ken Roscoe

Crank your
metabolism
Rather than going for
trans-fat-laden junk
food, opt for more
sensible choices

Q
eat

diet remedy

can I have a cheat meal


when shredding down?

mental
process
Rather than
thinking of it as a
cheat meal,
have a treat
meal.
The refeed theory of having additional
calories every now and then is a great
idea. More food can crank up the
metabolism and stop it getting sluggish.
But rather than going for trans-fat-laden
junk food, opt for more sensible choices.
Maybe choose a shish kebab with pitta
and salad, or tandoori chicken with rice

and salad. Or what about a large steak


with pineapple, loads of veg and some
sweet potato chips?
You get the idea if youre going
to have the occasional treat meal
on a cutting diet, it should taste great
and pack extra calories but still be
nutritious.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

stockphoto

With any good cutting diet


you should be varying your
food every day to make
sure youre getting all the nutrients
you need. But even then, sticking to
the same style of food day in, day out,
can become boring so a cheat meal
every so often can be rewarding and
really give you something to look
forward to.
The idea behind a cheat meal is
simple: it keeps you sane and focused
on your diet by allowing the odd craving
to be satisfied. But cheat meals also
give your metabolism a kick start by
preventing it from getting too accustomed to a low-calorie diet.
But is it really a cheat meal? Thats
not the term Id use. One of the issues
with Western eating habits is that we
encourage our children to eat your
greens, or you wont get dessert.
This leads to kids thinking of veg as a
bad thing that is merely tolerated in
order to get a good thingin this case,
the dessert.
In terms of a cutting diet, this means
we view our diet plan as an unsavoury
thing to follow, with your cheat meal
being the good thing youre allowed to
have to compensate for all the suffering.
But you shouldnt see your diet as
a bad thing. Every day, you should
aim to enjoy your meals as much as
possible. Liven them up with a mixture
of colours and the use of condiments
wherever possible.
Sticking to a diet is very much a
mental process. Rather than thinking
of it as a cheat meal, have a treat
meal.

53

eat

chEF roBErt irvinE

Chef irviNe

Visit chefirvine.com for


recipes, fitness tips and more.

steak au
poivre with
mushrooms
SERVES 6

50 ml + 2 tbsp grapeseed oil


2 shallots, thin julienned
450 g crimini or chestnut
mushrooms, quartered
450 g shiitake mushrooms,
stemmed and quartered
85 ml brandy
1 tsp fresh thyme, chopped
85 ml double cream
6 strip steaks (225 g)
4 tbsp cracked black pepper
Sea salt

Theres no more satisfying way of getting


your protein fix than with a thick hunk of
juicy red meat. Add a side of savoury sauted
mushrooms and shallots and you have a
steakhouse-quality treat for your whole
family, or enough for you for a whole week.
54

MUSCLE & FitnESS

the maCros
(per serviNG)

Calories: 686,
Protein: 72 g,
Carbs: 15 g, Fat: 33 g

ANDREW PURCELL

BEEFED UP

1. Heat a large saut pan over


medium-high heat. Add 2
tbsp of grapeseed oil, then
add the shallots and all the
mushrooms. Cook for 3 to 4
minutes, until mushrooms
are slightly caramelised.
Deglaze carefully with the
brandy (it can catch fire).
2. Add the thyme and double
cream. Continue to cook the
mushroom-shallot mixture
and allow the cream to
reduce in the pan for 3 to 4
minutes. Season with salt
and pepper. Set aside.
3. Heat 2 large pans on high
heat and split the 50 ml of oil
between the pans. Crust the
beef with cracked black
pepper on one side only.
Season with salt. Place the
steaks in the hot pans,
crust-side down, and sear
for 3 minutes.
4. Flip the steaks and sear for
another 3 minutes. Reduce
heat to medium and continue
to cook to desired temperature. Tent loosely with foil
and let rest for 3 minutes
before serving with
mushrooms.

WORTH

9.75

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eat

food of the month

GARLIC
Bad for your breath,
great for your heart,
heres what garlic
can do for you.
By Chris Giblin

the research on garlic


is resoundingly positive. Eating
a clove a day has been shown to
dissolve blood clots that could
increase risk of heart attack,
and the bulbs sulphur-containing
compounds have been found to
lower cholesterol and blood pressure. To get the most out of garlic,
chop, slice, or crush it five minutes
before adding to dishesyoull end up
with more allicin, a sulphur compound
that gives garlic its powerful punch.

Garlic
chicken With
asparaGus
ServeS 4
Recipe courtesy of the cookbook 5 in 5
by chef Michael Symon

did you
know?

Garlic
consumption may
also prevent
certain cancers:
oesophageal,
pancreatic, and
prostate.

1. Place a large saut pan over


medium-high heat. Add olive oil.
Season both sides of the chicken
with salt and black pepper. Put the
chicken skin-side down in the pan
and cook until golden brown. Flip
the chicken. Add the garlic, and
cook for 30 seconds.
2. Add 250 ml water and deglaze the
pan, scraping with a wooden spoon
to loosen the browned bits on the
bottom. Add the asparagus, red
chilli flakes, and a pinch of salt.
Cover and cook until the asparagus
is crisp-tender and chicken is no
longer pink, about 2 minutes.
3. Remove from the heat and stir in the
parsley, lemon zest and juice, and
extra-virgin olive oil.

the MacrOs
(per serVinG)

Calories: 434, Protein: 18 g,


Fat: 40 g, Carbs: 3 g

56

MUSCLE & FitnESS

PA U L TAY L O R / G E T T Y I M A G E S

50 ml olive oil
4 (115 g) boneless, skin-on chicken
thighs, pounded to -inch thickness
Sea salt
Black pepper, freshly ground
4 garlic cloves, minced
1 bunch asparagus, cut crosswise
into 1-inch pieces
Pinch of crushed red chilli flakes
1 tbsp chopped flat-leaf parsley leaves
Grated zest and juice of 2 lemons
2 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil

EAT

15-minute feast

POWeR PiZZa
Heres how you transform pizza from a greasy
diet nightmare into a meal that actually helps
you reach your goals: swap the dough for highfibre wholemeal naan, trade regular pepperoni
for a lean turkey alternative, and choose a
fat-free cheese. We call it power pizza, and its
ready in 15 minutes. By Andrew Gutman

GrillEd
NAAN PizzA
SERVES 1

1 round wholemeal naan


60 g tomato passata
55 g fat-free mozzarella
cheese
50 g turkey pepperoni
Garlic salt, to taste
Salt and black pepper,
to taste
Red chilli flakes, to taste
Fresh basil (optional)
40 g onions, chopped
4 0 g red/green pepper,
chopped
1. Preheat griddle and mist
with cooking spray. When
griddle is hot, place naan
on it.
2. Cook naan until crisp, flip
and cook the other side.
Remove from griddle.
3. Dress naan with passata,
cheese, pepperoni,
seasonings, and
vegetables. Place pizza
on the griddle.
4. Cook for 68 minutes
and serve hot.

THE MACrOS
(PEr SErViNG)

Fit Fact

A full round of
wholemeal naan has
49 grams of carbs
and 11 grams
of protein at only
250 calories.

58

MUSCLE & FitnESS

sAm kAPlAn

Calories: 495,
Protein: 39 g,
Carbs: 55 g Fat: 14 g

NEW SUPER

EXTREME
FORMULA
TRY NEW HYDROXYCUT SX-7

FOR AN ADVANCED CLEAN


SENSORY EXPERIENCE
Nutmeg seed extract (Myristica fragrans):
A rare seed that contains a powerful premium
compound called myristicin, which works synergistically
with Salvia for a one-of-a-kind experience.
Sage leaf extract (Salvia officinalis): A premium
compound that has been studied for years for its
unique properties.
Caffeine: Scientifically researched ingredient
shown to increase alertness and attention, and
enhance focus.
Green coffee: Contains 200mg of green coffee,
standardised to 45% chlorogenic acids.
Green tea: Green tea is a good source of
polyphenols, such as EGCG, and antioxidants.
Theobroma cacao: A cocoa seed extract that
works with caffeine and other ingredients in SX-7
for a truly unique experience.
ALA (alpha lipoic acid): Found in vegetables,
alpha lipoic acid is a popular nutrient that has been
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Key ingredient tested in


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EAT

PROTEIN POW!

PROTEIN
FUDGE

Forget a finger of fudge; this


protein-packed equivalent really
is just enough to give you a treat.
By Anna Sward

ANNA
SWARD

is a recipe writer and creator


of proteinpow.com

PROTEIN FUDGE
Makes 10 squares

YOUll NEED
27 g vanilla whey
64 g cashew nut butter
25 g agave
4 g coconut flour
PREPARATION
1. Using a spoon or spatula, mix all

ingredients together in a bowl.

non-stick baking tin/tray (ideally


a silicone brownie tin).
3. Place in the fridge for eight
hours or overnight.
4. Slice into squares.

THE MACROS
per square (out of 10):
Calories
ProTeiN

60

CarBs

4G
FaT

3G 4G

ANNA SWARD

To make proTein
fudge, you donT
need To do anyThing
oTher Than blend a
few ingredienTs
TogeTher, press
the ensuing mixture
down onto a baking
tray, and slice it into
squares. It couldnt be
any simpler! And its a
great snack to take with
you to work, school or on
a day tripdelicious,
nutritious, and a great
source of protein.

2. Press the mixture down onto a

60

MUSCLE & FitNESS

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TREAT, CURE, OR PREVENT ANY DISEASE.
1995 - 2014 Beast Sports Nutrition. All Rights Reserved

AVAILABLE AT

PART 1

E
Y
A
W
R

LU T

O
I

Start 2015 by getting into the shape


of your life with top physique coach
Mark Coles dynamite eight-week
transformation programme

64

MUSCLE & FitnESS

By MaRk COLEs
PhotograPhy By
ChRIsTOphER BaILEy
MUSCLE & FitnESS

65

New Year is a time for


chaNge. iN JaNuarY You
caN draw a liNe iN the
saNd, forget the old You
aNd start oN a fresh path.
For many people this means being fitter
and healthier than ever. But some want more
than the same old worn-out training plan.
If your New Years resolution is to get into
the best shape of your life, you need a solid
programme thatll help you shed fat while also
sculpting your own masterpiece in muscle.
With that in mind, leading physique coach and
bodybuilder Mark Coles, owner of M10 Gym,
has created an eight-week programme to
totally revolutionise your body.

66

MUSCLE & FitnESS

To achieve
a high quality
result you have
to be prepared
to commit
100%.

TRANSFORM YOUR MIND


Too many people start transformation
programmes only to fail in the early
stages. The reason for this is they didnt
prepare themselves mentally before
getting started.
The psychology behind quality results
is an area that I focus on a lot with my
clients. I can tell if someone is going to
do well within a few minutes of meeting
them. Some of the clues I look out for
are all the limitations they place in front
of themlimited time, poor cooking
knowledge, family life, social life, cost
and so on. These are all things people
mention without knowing theyre
talking themselves out of results before
theyve even started.
So, before you go through the details
of this routine, let me get your brain
ticking over a little.
Do you want to be just the same as every
one else? Do you want to have an average
physique? Or do you want to be the person
who turns heads when youre training in
the gym, or walking down the street?
This plan is useless to you if you arent
prepared to commit yourself fully from
day one. If you do commit yourself, however, you will achieve results like youve
never seen before. There are many
average transformations, but there are
few exceptional transformations. The
mindset you start with will determine
which you achieve.
In my experience, those who completely submerge themselves in the
journey of their transformation are

Dont expect an easy ride just because


youre fresh back in the gym after the festive
breakthis is a hardcore plan designed to get
serious results. This month and next month,
we will bring you a gruelling, two-stage training programme to pack on muscle, plus
everything you need to know to create a diet
plan to get you ripped.
Anyone can succeed at this, says Coles,
whose own physique was rewarded with a
silver medal at the UKBFF British Championships in 2014. All you have to do is follow
the training programme and diet to the
letter. Put in the hard graft and you will get
amazing results.
Ready to get serious? Jump right in.

the ones who do best. They block out


everything thats going on around them,
and they lift their training and nutrition
to number one on their priority list. To
achieve a high quality result you have to
be prepared to commit 100%.
TRAINING: WEEKS 14
The first four-week training block is
tough, whether youre a novice or have
years of experience. But stick with it,
follow the plan exactly, measure every
rep and set and you will make impressive gains.
TEMpO
Tempo is a vital aspect of training, so
follow the tempo instructions in the
training programme. The first number
refers to the lowering phase of a

movement (eccentric). The second


number shows whether there is a pause
in the stretched position. The third
refers to the speed of the lift in the
concentric portion and the fourth shows
if there is a pause and contraction in the
top portion of the lift.
Take the barbell curl as an example.
If you see the tempo written as 3211,
you will lower the bar for 3 seconds then
pause for 2 seconds in the stretched
position at the bottom of the curl, take
1 second in the lifting phase from the
waist to the shoulder and another
1 second to pause and contract the
biceps at the top of the lift. If you see
32X1, the X means that you lift the bar
as fast as you can (explosive). Make
sure you get the tempo spot on to get the
most out of every single set and rep.

Weeks 1-4
BarBeLL
spLit squat
Allow your knee to
travel over your toes,
and also ensure that
you sit down into
your glutes.

MOndaY

Legs and caLves

Order
A
B
c
d
e

exercise
Lying leg curl
Barbell split squat
Leg press
Dumbbell Romanian deadlift
Leg extension

reps
8 10
10 12
12 15
15 20

sets
3
4
4
3

tempO
4011
31X0
40X0
3010

rest
60
60*
60
60

(contract for one second at the top)

Standing calf raise machine

30
10 - 12

2
5

2011
2211

60
40

A Work up to a heavy 8 reps with 2 warm-up sets


(contract hard)
B Hold at the bottom and explode out,
chest up and elbows under the bar
c Feet high and wide maintain tension on hamstrings
at all times, no lockout

d Push your hips back and use straps to hold the


dumbbells
e Really squeeze at the top of the lift. There must be
no partials
F 2-second pause in stretched position
* after both legs

MUSCLE & FitnESS

67

mark Coles coaches


Ryan John-baptiste at
m10 in nottingham

Dumbbell
Romanian
DeaDlift
Keep the dumbbells close to your
legs at all times
and dont allow
your back to round.

68

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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wide-grip
upright
row
Keep the bar close
to your body.
If you find that
youre leaning
back, the load
you are using is
too heavy.

tuesday

Chest and shoulders

Order
A
B
c
d

exercise
Incline chest press machine
Pec deck (palms facing each other)
Flat barbell bench press
Cable crossover

reps
8 10
10 - 12
10 12

sets
3
3
4

tempO
3210
31X0
3010

rest
60
60
60

(high to lowmost muscular pose)

12 - 15

3112

60

AMRAP

32X1

60

20 25
8 -10

3
3

2112
2112

60
-

15-20

2011

60

Stretcher press-up

Rear delt machine

G1

Wide-grip upright row (flare elbows)


Superset
Standing dumbbell lateral raise (light)

(hands elevated on boxes)


(lean forwards to hit rear delts more)

G2

A Keep chest up and contract your chest hard.


No lockout
B Push chest up and contract hard
c Elevate chest and focus on contraction and not load
d 2-second contraction at the bottom but keep
chest high

e AMRAP = as many reps as possible


F Maintain continuous tension
G1/2 Perform as a superset. Elbows in line with
shoulders; pause at the top

wednesday rest day


70

MUSCLE & FItnESS

IN YOUR FACE ENERGY,


ENDURANCE & RECOVERY

All-out sensory assault that combines one of the worlds


strongest pre-workout on the market with an ultra highperformance BCAA-SAA product.*

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Standing
dumbbell
lateral
raiSe
Keep your little
fingers higher than
your thumbs
imagine emptying
a jug of water.

about the model


name:

Ryan John-Baptiste
age: 30
HeigHt: 6 ft
WeigHt 90 kg
Lives: London
Career HigHLigHt: Winning the
overall men's physique at
the British Championships
and getting IFBB pro card
ContaCt: www.ironmuscle.tv
Twitter: @rjbaptiste
Instagram: ryanjohnbaptiste
Facebook:
Official Ryan John Baptiste
sponsor: Optimum Nutrition

72

MUSCLE & FitnESS

bench lower
ab raIse
Keep your knees at a 90
degree angle and ensure
that you crunch your abs
rather than just pushing
your hips up.

thursday

Order
A
B
c
d
e
F
G

back, traps and abs

exercise
Wide-grip lat pulldown (contraction)
Heavy single-arm dumbell row
Bentover wide-grip barbell row

reps
10 12
8 -10

(from a dead stop position on the Smith machine)

10 12
15 20
20 25
10 12
10 - 12

Dumbbell heavy shrug


Cable rope face pull (elbows high)
Bench lower ab raise (Garhammer leg raise)
Barbell roll-out

A 2-second hold in contracted position


B Work up to a heavy 8 reps. Pull into lower lat
c Use the Smith machine and ensure you stop at
the bottom of each rep
d 2-second hold at the top

sets tempO
3
3112
4
30X0

MUSCLE & FitnESS

30X1
20X2
2010
2112
31X1

60
60
60
45
45

e Elbows high; pump reps


F Knees to above chest
G Place small plates on barbell to be able to roll out
*after both arms

FrIday rest day


74

3
3
3
2
2

rest
60
60*

BarBell
roll-out
Push your hips
out at the same
time as you
extend your arms.

DumBBell
heavy
shrug
Aim to lift your
traps as high as
you can, most of
you wont require a
lot of weight. Keep
the dumbbells close
to your legs.

BAnd
pUll-ApART
Keep the band in line
with your sternum.
Pull the band away
from you whilst
keeping your thumbs
and little fingers level.

BEnToVER
REAR dElT
dUmBEll flyE
Ensure you lift the
dumbbells as opposed
to swinging them.
Keep your thumbs
facing you all the way
through each set.

SATURdAy

ExTRA ShoUldERS & CAlVES

Order
A
B

exercise
Leaning cable lateral raise
Smith machine shoulder press

c1
c2
c3
d
e

Bentover rear delt dumbell flye


Seated lateral raise
Standing plate front raise
Band pull-apart
Seated calf raise

reps
10 12
8 -10

sets
3
4

tempO
2012
31X0

rest
60
90

C1, C2, C3 is a triset (do not rest until all exercises are completed)

A 2-second pause at the top


B No lockout; power
c1 2-second pause at the top
c2 Pump

10 -12
20
10 -12
50
15 20

3
3
3
1
5

2012
2010
2012
1010
2210

90
Finish
45 secs

c3 2-second pause at the top


d Pump rear delts
e 2-second pause in the stretch position

SUndAy REST dAy


MUSCLE & FitnESS

77

Standing
plate front
raiSe
Keep upright by maintaining tight abs all the
way through each set
and lift the plate to eye
level. If you lean back at
all, the weight youre
using is too heavy.

Follow the
plan exactly,
measure every
rep and set and
you will make
impressive
gains

78

MUSCLE & FItnESS

NUTRITION
When it comes to
losing body fat or
scale weight, the most
basic diet can work well
for a time. But youre looking
for outstanding results. With that
in mind, these are some of the
techniques I use to help my clients
get in the shape of their lives.
1. The fluctuating calorie method,
which switches between higher
calories on training days and then
lower calories on non-training days.
2. The carb cycling method whereby
on training days you eat carbs, and
on non-training days you follow a
zero carb/high fat plan.
These work because fat loss is very
much about keeping your body guessing. You also dont want to run into a
brick wall where your metabolism gets
comfortable and slows down (this often
happens when people stick to one set
diet seven days a week). Here, we not

only keep your body guessing by


fluctuating your calories, we also
stimulate your metabolism by creating
a wave-like structure of higher carbs
to low carbs throughout the week.

Below youll find a chart containing


your calorie requirements and
macronutrients (proteins, fats and
carbs) for your training days and
non-training days.

Calories For training days: MultiPly your bodyweight (in lbs) by 14


Calories For non-training days: MultiPly your bodyweight (in lbs) by 11.5

pROTeIN, caRbOhydRaTe
aNd faT INTake

traiNiNg day maCronutrient sPlit: Protein 40%/Carbs 35%/Fats 25%

Weight (kg) Weight (lbs)


70
154
75
165
80
176
85
187
90
198
95
209
100
220

Calories
2156
2310
2464
2618
2772
2926
3080

Protein*
215
231
246
261
277
292
308

Carbs**
188
202
215
229
242
256
269

Fats
59
64
68
72
77
81
85

*Allow for 40 g in post-workout **Allow for 20 g post-workout


NoN-traiNiNg day maCronutrient sPlit: Protein 40%/Fat 60%

Weight (kg) Weight (lbs)


70
154
75
165
80
176
85
187
90
198
95
209
100
220

Calories
1771
1897
2024
2150
2277
2403
2530

Protein
177
189
202
215
227
240
253

Fats
118
126
134
143
151
160
168

Now you have your protein, carbohydrate and fat intake set out for each
day, youre ready to spread your macronutrients across five meals each
day. This is very simple and will take just a few minutes.
Below is an example for an 85 kg male:

TRaININg day
85 kg male
Meal 1
Meal 2
Meal 3
Meal 4
Meal 5
Post-training drink

Protein
44 g
44 g
44 g
44 g
44 g
40 g whey*

Carbs
none
69 g
69 g
69 g
none
20 g carbs*

Fats
36 g
none
none
none
36 g

Veg
Veg
Veg
Veg
Veg

* throughout the programme

NON-TRaININg day
85 kg male
Meal 1
Meal 2
Meal 3
Meal 4
Meal 5

Protein
43 g
43 g
43 g
43 g
43 g

Fats
28 g
28 g
28 g
28 g
28 g

Veg
Veg
Veg
Veg
Veg

stockphotot

Now fill in your own plan according to your weight on a blank chart, which
you can get here: www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/nydiet
Follow this set diet for the first two weeks, without changing or adding
anything. At the start of week three you will follow the schedule in the
Tweak Sheet (overleaf).

80

MUSCLE & FitnESS

TWEAK SHEET
Changes to be made
on training days

Weeks 1 & 2

Changes to be made
on non-training day

No chaNges. Focus oN workiNg harder every traiNiNg sessioN. stick to the rest times
aNd tempos, aNd iNcrease your weights. always record progress oN a traiNiNg log

Week 3

take out 45 grams oF carbs: 15 grams From


each oF meals 2,3 aNd 4

Week 4

No chaNges. begiNNers aNd iNtermediates with higher body Fat will make a lot oF
progress iN two weeks

FOOD CHOICES
PrOTEIn SOurCES
ChiCken
turkey
grass-fed beef
buffalo
omega 3-riCh eggs
Cod
haddoCk
Wild salmon

CArbOHyDrATE
SOurCES
sWeet potato
gluten-free oats
broWn riCe
basmati riCe (post-training)
fruit (post-training)
honey (post-training)

FOODS TO AVOID

VEgETAblES

(can be steamed or roasted)


Cabbage
broCColi
spinaCh
kale
asparagus
mixed salad
(peppers, cucumber, lettuce)
Visit www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/
nyfood for a full chart detailing the
protein, carb and fat content of your
diet foods.

TIPS

Always keep a log of your workouts


so you can see your progression on
each exercise.
Remember to take your photo at the
start, halfway through and at the
end of your eight weeks. Photos are a
great motivational tool and proof of
all your hard work.
Cook your meals the night before so
you are always prepared. Have your
weighing scales at the ready.
Drink at least three litres of water a
day. This boosts your bodys ability
to burn fat.
Tweet your before and after photos
to @musclefitnessuk with the
hashtag #MFbody2015. The most
impressive transformation, as
judged by Mark Coles, will win three
months worth of online coaching
from Mark Coles so you can continue
your body transformation.
Mark Coles is the owner and founder
of M10 Fitness in Nottingham, an
exclusive personal training gym. He is a
respected writer, educator, competitive
UKBFF bodybuilder and leading
physique coach specialising in body
transformations. Find him on Twitter
@m10fitness, on Facebook or
www.m10fitness.co.uk

Foodcollection / StockFood

dairy
alCohol
Cakes and pastries
Wheat
gluten
proCessed foods
sWeets and ChoColate
bread

FAT SOurCES
nuts and nut butter
(almond, cashew, macadamia, hazelnut)
avoCado
extra virgin olive oil
organiC CoConut oil
fish oil (capsules or liquid)

take out 20 grams oF Fat: 5 grams From


each oF meals 2,3 4 aNd 5

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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Redefining the term power couple,


WWEs Paul Triple H Levesque
and Stephanie McMahon deftly
manage the tug of war between
home life and the villainous
characters that united them.

Powe

84

MUSCLE & FitnESS

r
rCoUPLe
By eric Velazquez
PhotograPhs by Per Bernal

Its just after 10 p.m. in the Levesque household.

The kidsthree of them, all under the age of 9are finally tucked up in their
beds and an eerie silence has descended. But this pause gives way to a new
racket in the home gym, which builds to a crescendo. Trainer Joe DeFranco
helps to coordinate the business of manoeuvring sleds into place, getting weight
plates loaded onto barbells, and strategically scattering dumbbells across the floor.
On the schedule for the evening is about 45 to 60 minutes of circuit trainingwhich
usually pushes well beyond midnight. The day may be winding down for the rest of
the world, but the workouts that construct the physiques and fuel the personae of

MUsCLE & FitnEss

85

Paul Triple H Levesque and


Stephanie McMahon are just getting
started. Power couples, after all, have
to keep power hours.
For much of the day, they each
played their role. Stephanie, the
daughter of WWE chairman and
CEO Vince McMahon, serves as
the companys chief brand officer
and is charged with leading the
WWEs efforts to enhance its
brand reputation among media,
business partners, and investors.
Her husband, Paul, is not only one
of the most iconic WWE Superstars
of all time, he also sports a suit for
WWE headquarters as executive
vice president of talent, live events,
and creative, and is intimately
involved with show production
and story-line development.

But dont expect the crunch of


corporate life to impede the training
routines of these entertainer/execs.
While many couples like to sit down
to a bottle of red and some DVDs
once the little ones are off to bed,
Triple H and Stephanie use this
time to reconnect with each other
in the gym.
Sure, there are lots of nights
when if Joe werent coming Id just
like to sit down and do nothing,
Triple H says. But I actually look
forward to that part of my day.
Instead of sitting on the couch, we
are in the gym, talking and catching
up like any other coupleonly
between sets of squats and sled
pushes.
Bonding over benches is also

Its helpful for


every relationship
in your life that you
get that workout in
and refocus.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

86

cathartic for the two, who have been


married since 2003.
We encourage each other,
Stephanie says. Its fun. I just think
that training is so important mentally
to relieve the stress of the day. You
have to be able to focus on training
and not have all that noise in your
head that can build up. Its helpful
for every relationship in your life
that you get that workout in and
refocus.
Triple H says the two also find
inspiration and motivation in each
others training goals, leaving no true
off-season for either of them.
Steph inspires me when shes
got something coming up and has
something to get in shape for, he
says. When I was getting ready
for WrestleMania and dieting, she
dieted with me. Its all about
supporting each other and using
each others goals to stay fit. Im in
better shape right now because
Steph had to get ready for SummerSlam. So I stepped it up, too.
Though the kids lie snug in their
beds for tonights session, they also
frequent the gym.
The kids come down on the
weekends and train a lot with the
both of us, he says. Thats fun.
We want to instil in them the value
of a healthy lifestyle. Were not
saying they need to be, or train like,
professional athletes. Its just
about being active, functional, and
confident in yourself. Those are
all valuable lessons.
We know it may seem strange
to hear about what caring, involved
parents Triple H and Stephanie
are, especially considering the
villainous, power-hungry characters they play on TV today and the
tumultuous relationship between
their characters in the late 90s.
Off camera, though, Stephanie
recalls there was an immediate
chemistry.
It was an unbelievable physical
reaction, she says. We had these
awkward hugs where Id go one way,
hed go another. It was just awkward.

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steph stands
by her man
I was always more
attracted to personality
and humour, Stephanie
says. His physique
ended up being a
wonderful bonus!

He was a tremendous flirt. Hell say


I flirted with him.
If anyone was awkward, it was
her, Triple H says, laughing. We
had chemistry right away and
everyone could see it. My mum
saw us on TV and asked me
what was going on. I told her,
Nothing? She said I wasnt
fooling her.
Yeah, our mums saw the chemistry between us before either of us
did, says Stephanie.
But in real life, the two endured
far more drama and had much
greater challenges to overcome.
They both knew that their fraternisation was strictly forbidden by
company policy.

88

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Originally, we talked to my dad


and said we wanted to date and he
said it was OK, Steph recalls. Then,
due to what I believe to be pressure
from my mum, my brother, and other
key advisers to him at work, my dad
went back on that. This was a big,
potential problem. What happens if
things dont work out? If things go
bad, does he get fired? So my dad put
it to me and told me to think about
the position I was putting Paul in. So
as a result, we were apart for quite
some time.
Triple H had a great relationship
with Vince McMahon before
Stephanie was ever an issue.
Still, he felt the jitters of a 15-yearold asking permission to date the

daughter of an overprotective father


when it was finally time to discuss
things.
I thought about it a lot then, but
I was taking a hell of a gamble. If it
didnt work out, it wasnt going to
work out well for my career, he
says. It was kind of all-in. He was
thinking this could be bad, businesswise. But he liked me and thought
I could be good for his daughter.
For a time, everyone decided it
was best not to pursue things, but
eventually, the two proved that their
relationship was legitimate and,
fortuitously, good for business. This
gave Vince a chance to do what any
dad wants to do: properly torment
his daughters suitor.

Being Vince, he would try to make


it difficult for me, Triple H says.
Im a grown man, but going to
dinner at his house, he was so aware
of the awkwardness of it, he was
playing it to the hiltnot talking,
calling me out on stuff. Anything
he could think of to make me
uncomfortable.
He had actually seen this coming, Stephanie says of her dad.
He always says that he loved my
husband before I did. They had a
really wonderful working relationship. I think he sort of wanted us
to be together.
Today, Triple H and Stephanie are
a two-person conglomeratea brand
unto themselves that boasts power,
influence, and muscle.
An athlete in softball, basketball,

and dancing growing up, Stephanie


would spend lots of time in the gym
with her dad.
It was a way for me to spend more
time with him when I was 12 or 13,
she says. He was very busy and
not around as much as I would have
liked him to have been. But training
in the gym was a way for us to bond.
I would find myself training by
myself as my passion began to grow.
I was primarily a dancer, and I saw
a dramatic improvement in what
I was able to do from working out.
I could hold poses longer and my
balance improved. Dancing requires
a tremendous level of strength and
conditioning. Theres such a feeling
of accomplishment that makes
you feel so good. It becomes
addictive.

Triple H took to serious training


around the same age and found
success early on, steadily adding
slabs of new muscle to his slight
frame before pursuing competitive
bodybuilding to keep him motivated.
I fell in love with the weight, the
workouts, and the discipline of it.
The gym taught me everything
I needed to know to be successful in
life. You get out of it what you put
into it. You push harder, you train
harder, your diet is better, the more
meticulous, the harder you plan
the better the results. Thats the
secretto all of it.
So it should come as no surprise
that the couple is set to release
a pair of fitness DVDsWWE Fit
Series: Stephanie McMahon and
WWE Power Series: Triple H

COURTESY OF W WE

StephS pedigree
Stephanie McMahon borrows
her husbands finishing move
to use on Brie Bella at
SummerSlam 2014. It was
Stephanies first match in
more than 10 years.

90

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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(Lionsgate, 2014), developed with


the help of DeFranco.
A lot of our NXT Divas are in the
video with me and are the elite of the
elite in terms of fitness, and they
were blown away at how intense
these workouts were, Stephanie
says. You can vary them to your
skill level. In working with Joe
DeFranco, my husband and I have
been able to transform our bodies
and the way that we function in
everyday life in addition to our core
strength and conditioning in the
gym. We wanted to be able to share
some of those techniques with
women of any fitness level and any
shape or size. You can combine
workouts or do them individually
with very minimal equipment and
you can do them in a hotel room or
your living room at your house.
This isnt your average celebrity
workout DVD thats all fluff without
any substance, says DeFranco.
Viewers will quickly realise that
Steph really does perform these
workouts, and she knows how to
teach them, as well. Unfortunately,
strength training has got a bad rap
with women; they fear they will
get too big and bulky if they lift
weights. Nothing could be further

92

MUSCLE & FitnESS

from the truth. Muscle, coupled


with low body-fat levels, are what
give women that sexy shape, and
Stephanies DVD provides the
blueprint for that.
Triple H leads the cast on Power
Series but dont expect to see him
spewing the contents of his water
bottle in the air while he deadlifts.

I felt like there was a need for a


legitimate, real, functional, make
changes workout where youre not
risking injury, says Triple H, now
45. This is the right mix. It doesnt
take a long time to do. You can do it
at home, you can do it by yourself,
you can do it with a couple of
dumbbells. Trust me, its a hard
workout. We did it at the WWE
Performance Centre with some of
the best athletes in the world, and
we were all dying. If youre willing to
do the work on this, you will see the
results.
This focus on athleticism over raw
muscle has served Triple H well in
recent years. On his 45th birthday, he
did a 45-inch box jump, which aint
too shabby when you consider his
dimensions.
When I started working with
Joe, I realised that you dont have to
just look good, you should be able to
function well. Your body shouldnt
ache, your knees shouldnt kill you.
Ive had two torn quads, and my
knees dont hurt now.
As is often the case, long after
DeFranco has gone home and
Stephanie has hit the sheets, Triple
H is still in the gym. Its this overtime that keeps him prepped for the

COURTESY OF W WE

OVER THE TOP


Triple H makes quite an
entrance at WrestleMania,
but leaves the fantasy at
work when he comes home
each night.

Power and
fit series
workouts
These workout segments from WWE
Power Series: Triple H and WWE Fit
Series: Stephanie McMahon are likely
to leave you pinned to the canvas, and
for different reasons.
Upper-Body WorkoUt (from paUls dvd)

ExErcisE

rEps/TimE

Y-W-T Blackburns

15 sec. each

DeFrancos 3-way
Shoulder Shocker

8 (each
exercise)

Push-up with
Shoulder Touch

demands of a career with no


peak in sight.
Im a very hands-on dad. The
most valuable thing I have is time.
You cant get more of it. You only
get those 24 hours. You have to
be able to shut it down and go
spend time with your kids. You
constantly work on not looking
at your phone when youre
with your kids. On a really great
night I get maybe five hours of
sleep. Sometimes Tuesday and

do it
right

all of the unique


moves in the
two WWe dvd
workouts shown
above are
explained here.
pUsh-Up With
shoUlder toUCh

Perform push-ups as
normal, but on each
rep lift one arm and
touch that hand to
the opposite
shoulder. Return that
hand to the floor and
descend into the next
rep. Alternate arms
each time.

Wednesday are one long day. Itd


be easy to just bag it and get some
sleep, but then I dont get to train.
We do what we gotta do.
Its all worth it because he
knows that once morning rolls
around, these two power players
are just mum and dadPaul
and Stephsitting down to a
breakfast table where the
pajama-clad crowd creates a
welcome, if drastically different,
brand of chaos.

8-10

Iso-hold Dumbbell Curl

8 (each arm)

RKC Plank

5 (5 sec.
iso-holds
on each rep)

fat-BUrning Cardio (from stephs dvd)

ExErcisE

Plank to Push-up

rEps
6

Burpee with Jump

Mountain Climber

10 (each leg)

Jumping Jack Plank

12

NOTE: For both of these circuits,


perform the exercises back-to-back
without resting. Rest 60 seconds at
the end of the round. Repeat again for
a total of 3-5 rounds.

plank to pUsh-Up

BUrpee With JUmp

moUntain ClimBer

JUmping JaCk plank

Get into a plank


position, then put
your right hand on the
floor, followed by your
left so youre in the top
of a push-up
position. Return
to the plank. Use a
weight vest to make
it harder.

From a standing
position, squat
down and then shoot
your legs back so
youre in a push-up
position. Reverse the
motion to come up,
then jump up in the
air as high as
you can.

Get into a push-up


position. Raise one
foot off the floor and
drive your knee up
to your elbow.
Reverse the motion
while driving the
other knee up to
that sides elbow.
Move quickly.

Get into a plank


position with your
forearms on the floor,
then perform jumping
jacks with your legs,
kicking your feet out
wide, then kicking
them back together.
Repeat for reps.

y-W-t BlaCkBUrns

defranCos 3-Way
shoUlder shoCker

iso-hold
dUmBBell CUrl

This is a giant set


combining front
raises, lateral raises,
and a dumbbell clean
into a half press.
Perform the required
number of reps for
each move in the
shocker before
moving on to the next.

Hold one dumbbell


with your elbow fixed
at 90 degrees (the
iso-hold) while
performing complete
reps with the other,
then switch. Each time
through, alternate
which side you hold
with first.

Lie facedown on a
bench with your back
arched. Extend your
arms so your body
makes a Y, then bring
your elbows down to
make a W, then
extend your arms to
form a T. Hold each
position for 15
seconds.

rkC plank

Get in position for a


standard plank,
squeeze your quads
and glutes hard, then
attempt to draw your
feet and elbows
towards one another
through the floor,
but without shifting
position at all.

MUSCLE & FitnESS

93

BEACH LANDING
SEALFIT aims to
offer civilians an
authentic U.S.
Navy SEAL training
experience.

96

MUSCLE & FitnESS

GET

SEAL TEAM

RIPPED
the ultra-hardcore training of
sealfit gives civilians a glimpse
into the life of the worlds
most elite fighting force.
By eric

Velazquez

PHOTOGRAPHS By ian spanier


MUSCLE & FiTnESS

97

By the time a U.S.


navy SeaL makeS it
into comBat, he iS
a finely honed instrument of war.
Hes a ruggedly built, deadly
practitioner of combat who is
unflinching in the face of danger.
His archetypal superhero physique
speaks of the tremendous physical
strength, stamina, and durability
that are emblematic of these elite
operators. Before a SEAL is made,
however, he must be unmade
deconstructed, one humbling
training exercise at a time.
Yet it is not the sets and reps alone
that test a SEALs constitution and
reveal his mettle. It is also those
moments of fatigue when perseverance fights with capitulation, when
the realities of human limitation
must be consciously and repeatedly
dismissed for the sake of mission.
And here, in the quiet, well-to-do
enclave of Encinitas, California,
civilians and aspiring SEALs alike

98

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Breaking point An instructor


takes a hose to struggling trainees
in a test of mental toughness.

residential Special Ops Immersion


Academy, that serenity is replaced
with the shuffling of boots, the
dropping of barbells, and the musical
get to fight those battles every day.
stylings of Rob Zombie.
Welcome to SEALFIT.
The man running the show is
retired Navy SEAL Mark Divine,
author of 8 Weeks to SEALFIT,
MORE THAN TRAINING
which landed on the New York
SEALFITs 20,000-square-foot
Times best-seller list earlier this
training complex lies just a block
away from the Pacific Ocean and
year. He spent 20 years as a SEAL,
is a short drive from Naval Base
retiring as a commander in 2011,
Coronado, whose shores are the
but is now fully entrenched in
first stop for SEALs-in-the-making. the business of helping others
The complex features housing for
realise their full human potential.
clients, a yoga studio, an expansive
Divine, 51, is tall and lean but more
concrete area flanked by pull-up
approachable than you might
towers for outdoor training
expect from such a tested warrior.
(the Grinder) and a 1,000-squareThe physical component, he assures
foot box for CrossFit and TRXnone us, is just a small part of it.
SEALFIT training is really
of which will be wasted today. Its
about developing five mountains,
0630 in this sleepy suburb, the
says Divine, who spent time as a
humid, salty air carrying the faint
certified public accountant before
sound of waves kissing the beach.
But as a small white-T-shirted army answering his calling as a SEAL at
of participants (read: willing victims) age 25. Physical, mental, emotional,
intuitional, and spiritual. We integrate
prepares for Day 3 of its 16-day

strength, stamina, and functional


mobility. Its the training that weeds
out those who cant adapt. It is no
different here at SEALFIT.
Yes, this multifaceted approach
is aesthetically and evidentially
productive for most athletes, but it
just plain makes for a more durable
athlete: Durability increases
survivability in the world of the
SEAL and therefore cannot be
overlooked, Divine says.
Beau Burgener was one of the first
ON THE GRINDER
men to go through SEALFIT and
After some initial breathing drills,
yoga, and mobility work, the Grinder then go on to become a SEAL. Hes
still heavily involved in developing
rumbles to life with the prescribed
the schools programming.
warm-up of 30 sandbag get-ups
On the physical side of things, it
and step-ups using a 70-pound
sandbag and a 24-inch box, which is teaches you to deal with it and get
comfortable being uncomfortable,
about as awkward as it sounds. But
Burgener says. It teaches you to
SEAL training, by design, is expanpush the boundaries and shows
sive and covers multiple physical
domains. Its not enough to be able to you what your body is capable of
handling.
swim farther and faster than the
But this academy isnt full of
other guy. You have to be exceptional
aspiring SEALs like Burgener.
at everything to be of any use to a
Participants range in age from 17 to 42,
SEAL team.
SEALs operate in very small units, with most having taken time off work
(and life) to be here. Those breaking
deep behind enemy lines, in all
a sweat this morning include, among
terrains in rough environments,
says Divine. You have to have a very others, an avionics technician, a
student, a software engineer, an
broad athletic skill set. If you come
into SEALs as a bodybuilder or an
endurance runner, you wont
MARK DIVINE is a real-deal SEAL,
succeed until you morph into a
having worked his way up to
commander before retiring in 2011.
more hybrid athlete. You need the
aspects of these five into the workout.
Youre not just working out. Youre
not just developing physically. Youre
developing as a whole person.
Still, the physical results are
quickly apparent. Depending on the
programme, Divine says, participants
tend to walk away from SEALFIT
carrying five to 10 pounds more muscle
and looking leaner than everin days
or weeks.

STRONG
STANDARDS
Relative strength is important
for enhancing the survivability
of SEALs. Do you meet these
minimums in the SEALFIT
curriculum?
Lift

Standard

(x body weight)

Squat
Deadlift
Push Press
Bench Press
Squat Clean
Clean and Jerk

1.5
2.0
1.0
1.5
1.25
1.0

Muscular endurance is also


critical. SEALFIT founder
Divine sets the high standard
of 100 push-ups, 100 bodyweight squats or 20 pull-ups,
each in two minutes or less.
industrial engineer and a greens
maintenance tech. Two participants
are current military, including a
female soldier and a Marine hoping
to make the jump to SEAL. All have
joined here for some of the most
gruelling training known to man,
electing to suffer physical and even
verbal beatdowns from Divines
cadre of instructors.
Coach Derek Price, a chiropractic
doctor and former Detroit Lions
tight end, lays into one athlete for
having his hands on his hips after a
set of heavy barbell overhead presses,
penalising the entire class with
30 burpees at days end.
We want them to stay present in
each moment, he says, as the group
continues through its 10 sets of three.
Putting their hands on their hips or
knees is a sign that theyre checking
out and thats not acceptable.
Minutes later, Price jabs another
participant for using his legs to get
through a rep. Try to be stronger.
If you were stronger, you wouldnt
have to do that.
Divine states that SEALFIT training
allows you to work near peak output

I want more energy


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a half DaY iN hell

Got a few hours to kill? Try cultivating your own warrior


spirit with this abridged SEALFIT session, pulled straight from
their advanced Special Operations Immersion Academy. This
four-phase workout, which represents only a portion of the
morning session for SEALFITs Spec Ops Immersion Academy,
should be followed immediately by a gradual cooldown and at
least 20 minutes of dedicated stretching or yoga.

PHASE 1: WARM-UP
EXERCISE/ACTIVITY

REPS

Sandbag
Get-up + Step-up

30

Use a 70-pound sandbag and a


24-inch box. Alternate legs on
each rep.

PHASE 2: STRENGTH
EXERCISE/ACTIVITY

REPS

Standing Barbell
Overhead
10 sets of 3
Press

Choose a weight that you can handle


safely for 56 strict presses. Rest no
longer than two minutes between sets.

PHASE 3: WORK CAPACITY


As many rounds as possible
(AMRAP) in 20 minutes:
5 Curtis Ps* (pictured at left)
10 Dips
15 Wall Ball Shots**

Curtis Ps The namesake for this exercise mustve been a beast: one rep
consists of a power clean to an alternating lunge to a push press.

for extended periods of time for


unknown rest periods. This comes
in pretty handy for a Special Forces
operator engaged in a firefight and not
knowing when reinforcements might
arrive. For the rest of us, it serves as a
brutal gut check. The next phase, or
evolution, called for the class to
perform 20 minutes worth of work,
circuit-style.
The first move alonethe Curtis
Pcarried a heavy demand. This
barbell-based manoeuvre calls for
participants to do a power clean
followed by a lunge on each leg from
the rack position and is capped off
with a push press. Thats one rep.
Five of those at 95 pounds, followed
by 10 body-weight dips, and 15 wall
ball throwsrepeat this as many
times as possible for 20 minutes.
Instructors shout out motivational
phrases for the class to repeat:

102

MUSCLE & FITnESS

Easy day!
Love this!
Looking good. Feeling good.
Ought to be in Hollywood!
And with each hooyah, the class
digs deeper. The 20-minute mark
passes, but Divine urges them to
continue. And they do.

*Power-clean a 95-pound bar from


the floor and, with the bar in the rack
position, perform a lunge with each
leg, then push press the weight
overhead. That equals one rep.
**Use a 20-pound ball.
Your score: the total number of
rounds you can complete in 20
minutes.

PHASE 4: MAX EFFORT


10 x 100 m Sprint
Work your way up to top speed on
each sprint as quickly as possible
and sustain it through 100 metres.
Rest 23 minutes between sprints.

UNMAKING MEN

The class gets something of a break


after work-capacity training. Grabbing some free space on the Grinder,
they partake in a little yoga with
Divine. But each man (and woman) is
wrecked, and even the most basic of
poses prove to be a labour.
Will yourself to recover, Divine
says. Then, after hearing a few
groans he adds, But suffer in
silence. Enter the water hose.
Coach Price takes to blasting
participants in the face, one at a

time, with a steady stream of H2O.


Some of the participants look
relieved, others irritated. But its
all part of the experience. As during
BUD/Sthe initial 24-week phase
of SEAL trainingcandidates must
be separated from their sense of self
for the sake of the team. They must
be broken and rebuilt, something
that Divine says is both necessary
and incredibly valuable.
We want to see if they have the
ability to sustain well under that

BUDDY SYSTEM SEALFIT trainees


run to the beach alternating buddy
carries the whole way.

BREAKing POinT
SEalFiT TakES YoU To ThE

anD ThEn givES YoU ThE ToolS


To STEp ovEr ThaT chaSM.
MARK DiViNE, SEALFiT FOUNDER

pressure, Divine says. My instructors are masterful at taking you


to the breaking point and pointing
out to you why youre breaking,
and then giving you the tools to
step over that chasm. Any time they
face that again, they understand
how to dig deep inside and do it
on their own. For a civilian who
doesnt have the chance to go to
SEAL training, thats incredibly
hard, but I get calls from people
years later saying how its helped
them, not just physically but in life,
in relationships, and in business
because theyve gone through these
crucible experiences with us where,
afterwards, nothing seems difficult
any more.

GOING PRIMITIVE

The sanitised trappings of


commercial gyms have produced
plenty of great physiques over the
years. But there is a trend afoot
to downgrade common training
methods in favour of grittier, more
primal techniques. And at 0950,
after 20 minutes of group sprints
in an adjacent alley, the class
gets to work with battling ropes,
tractor tyres, sledgehammers,
and logs.
In another homage to BUD/S,
students gather in teams of four
with a 350-pound log and await
commands. Retired Navy SEAL and
master training specialist Lance
Cummings coaches groups through

various team exercises with the log


including alternating overhead
presses, squats, and team log burpees.
If one man falls out of sync, someone
is catching timber on their boot.
This teaches them to stay focused
and draw energy from one another,
says Divine.
That concept of mutual reliance
is further tested a half-hour later
when the entire class embarks on
a pilgrimage to the beachvia the
buddy carry. Alternating who does
the carrying every hundred yards or
so, the class makes it down to the
Pacific for surf torture.
In what is maybe the most familiar
component of known Navy SEAL
training, instructors order the class
out into the breaking waves, then back
onto the sand, where they must roll
around and actively try to get as much
sand on their bodies as possible before
performing more calisthenics,
causing what one instructor calls an
ungodly amount of chafing in places
you dont even want to know about.
Then its a bear crawl back to the surf
and onto their backs, face up, arms
interlocked, head to the water as the
tide rolls in. More than a little
seawater makes its way into mouths
and noses, but the class is unshaken.
Surf torture finally comes to an end.
Participants line up in formation for a
jog back to the compound, where they
must now keep pace with their freshlegged instructors.
This closes the book on the first
half of Day 3. Just 13 more to go.
You may not have the ambition of
joining the worlds most fearsome
fighting force, but you can still train
like it and, in the process, cultivate a
warrior spirit. Muscle failure equals
mission success, and that holds true
whether youre grinding it out in
your garage gym or undertaking a
mission behind enemy lines.

To geT more SeALFIT workouTS or to schedule your own visit to Mark Divines Southern California academy, visit sealfit.com.

muSCLe & FITneSS

103

Morning

glory

start your day off right

WIth theSe muScle-buIldIng

breakfasts
that dont requIre any cookIng.
BY MATTHEW KADEY PHOTOGRAPHS BY TRAVIS RATHBONE
You dont alwaYs have time
to cook up a batch of scrambled eggs
when the clock is ticking down the
minutes before you have to bolt out
the door, and busy mornings can make
it all too tempting to simply slather
sugary jam on a slice of toast and call it
breakfast. If this sounds like you, youre
putting your training and physique goals
at risk. Following an overnight fast, your
body needs a more substantial meal to
put the brakes on muscular breakdown

106

MUSCLE & FitnESS

and kick-start a day of building it back


up. Said meal should provide a good
mix of protein, healthy fats, and carbs
from nutritious sources like whole
grains and fruitswhich rules out a
blueberry muffin from the corner
coffee shop. Surprisingly, it doesnt
take much to get it done. Weve given
the cooker the morning off and put
together a handful of breakfast recipes
that will make your mornings easier
and healthier.

Turn
The page
for This
greaT
recipe

MUSCLE & FitnESS

107

Its not just for lasagne. Creamy


ricotta cheese upgrades toaster waffles with
a healthy dose of muscle-friendly whey
protein. Blueberries are packed with potent
antioxidants, while almond butter is full of
heart-healthy monounsaturated fat.

BLUEBERRY
Ricotta
WaFFLE
SaNDWicH
SERVES 2
245 g reduced-fat ricotta
145 g blueberries
1 tbsp honey
1 tsp vanilla extract
2 tbsp almond butter
4 whole-grain waffles,
toasted
In a bowl, stir together
ricotta, blueberries,
honey, and vanilla. Spread
almond butter on two
waffles and top each
with an equal amount of
the ricotta-berry mixture.
Top with remaining waffles
and slice in half.
MACROS PER SERVING
CalorIeS: 504
ProTeIn: 23 g
CarbS: 55 g / FaT: 24 g

108

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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Proper nutrition and regular training are essential to achieving your fitness and bodybuilding goals. Facebook logo is owned by Facebook
Inc. All trademarks are owned by their respective trademark owners. Carefully read the entire label before use and follow directions. 2015

This isnt your


regular diet food
wimpy fruit salad. Avocado
provides creamy contrast,
not to mention healthy fats
and nutrients, while the
Greek yogurt topping
delivers the protein your
muscles need after
an overnight fast. Both
the fruit salad and yogurt
topping can be made
ahead of time.

AVOCADO
FRUIT SALAD
SERVES 2
1 avocado, cubed
1 mango, peeled and cubed
145 g blueberries or
blackberries
1 banana, thinly sliced
40 g cashews or
almonds, chopped
25 g unsweetened
coconut flakes
Juice of 1/2 orange
245 g plain Greek yogurt
1 tsp orange zest
2 tbsp cacao nibs
(optional)
1. Toss together avocado,
mango, berries,
banana, cashews or
almonds, coconut,
and orange juice.
In a small bowl,
combine yogurt and
orange zest.
2. Divide fruit salad among
serving bowls and top
with an equal amount of
yogurt and cacao nibs,
if using.
MACROS PER SERVING
CalorIes: 483
ProTeIn: 19 g
Carbs: 55 g / FaT: 26 g

Why limit English muffins to peanut


butter and jam when you can stack them with moreinspiring ingredients like peppery rocket leaves, apple
and almond butter, and the Italian cured ham known as
prosciutto? The outcome is a perfect sweet-savoury
start to your day. Unlike processed-sugar-laden jams,
apple butter is made with just the fruit.

BREAKFAST
HAM
SANDWICH
SERVES 2
2 tbsp unsalted almond
butter
2 tbsp apple butter
2 wholemeal English
muffins, toasted
75 g prosciutto
1 apple or pear, thinly
sliced
20 g rocket leaves
Spread an equal amount
of the almond and apple
butters on two toasted
English muffin halves,
followed by equal amounts
of the prosciutto, apple
or pear, and rocket leaves.
Top with remaining muffin
halves.
MACROS PER SERVING
CaloriES: 403
ProTEin: 23 g
CarbS: 45 g / FaT: 17 g

112

MUSCLE & FitnESS

overnight
mocha oats
SERVES 2
135 g steel-cut oats
1 scoop unflavoured or
vanilla whey protein
2 tbsp chia seeds
1 tbsp cocoa powder
1 tbsp honey or pure
maple syrup
1/2 tsp cinnamon
250 ml brewed coffee
120 ml milk
100 g frozen and thawed
cherries, halved
40 g almonds or hazelnuts,
chopped

No need to hover over a pot of simmering

porridge or settle for the mushy quick-cook version. During the


overnight soak, the oats and chia seeds absorb the coffee and
soften, giving you a bowlful of great chewy texture laced with
a classic mocha flavour. Sneaking in a scoop of whey powder
bumps up the protein content.

114

MUSCLE & FitnESS

1. In a Pyrex bowl,
stir together oats,
protein powder, chia,
cocoa powder, honey
or maple syrup, and
cinnamon. Pour in
coffee, stir again, and
cover. Chill mixture
overnight.
2. In the morning, place
oat mixture in serving
bowls and top with milk
(warmed in the microwave, if you prefer),
cherries, and nuts.
MACROS PER SERVING
CalorIes: 455
ProteIn: 23 g
Carbs: 63 g / Fat: 15 g

Rye crackers provide


a satisfying crunch with
fewer starchy carbs than bagels.
Pairing them with smoked salmon
helps you load up on protein and
ultra-healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
Whipped cream cheese is easier
to spread than the regular
version, making your morning
that much easier.

SMOKED
SALMON
CRACKERS
SERVES 1
110 g whipped cream
cheese
1 tbsp honey
1 tsp minced fresh ginger
1 tsp lemon zest
4 rye crackers
50 g smoked salmon
2 tbsp chopped chives
1. In a small bowl, stir
together cream cheese,
honey, ginger, and
lemon zest.
2. Spread an equal
amount of the cream
cheese mixture on
the crackers and top
each with equal
amounts of smoked
salmon and chives.
MACROS PER SERVING
CalorIeS: 452
ProteIn: 19 g
CarbS: 54 g / Fat: 21 g

01782 281 222


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LUKE SANDOE
Gaspari UK Athlete

PHOTOGRAPHER: BENCE ZANYI


Gaspari Nutrition, Inc. 02/14R1. When combined with a proper exercise and nutrition program.

BULK UP
WITH
118

MUSCLE & FitnESS

sports scientist Ross Edgley explains


how cardio could help if youre looking
to pack on extra muscle mass

CARDIO?

PhotograPhy by Christopher Bailey

MUSCLE & FitnESS

119

Box jumps get the


heart rate pumping

ExErcisE For Extra sizE

traditionally,
bulkinG up mEans
mountains oF
Food, biG liFts and
skippinG cardio.
Some gym-goers
avoid the treadmill like
the plague for fear that
anything pushing the
heart rate above 85
beats per minute will
plunge muscles into a
catabolic state.
But research
published by the
Department of Health
Sciences at Mid Sweden
Universityand
advocates of German
Volume training
seem to contradict
the age-old myth that
cardio kills gains.
Amazingly, Swedish
researchers not only
dispelled this piece of
gym folklore, but also
found cardio could
actually elicit greater
muscle hypertrophy
than resistance
exercise alone.

In plain English
this means
combining cardio
with weights
could actually
increase muscle
size.
120

MUSCLE & FitnESS

To test this theory, scientists took ten


healthy men between the ages of 25 and
30 and subjected them to five weeks of
unilateral knee extensor exercises. One
leg was trained in a manner similar to
conventional strength training routines,
completing four sets of seven reps at
75%-80% of their one rep max. The other
leg was subjected to exactly the same
strength routine but coupled with a
45-minute cycle each session.
Five weeks later researchers used MRI
scans and muscle biopsies to determine any
changes in the cross sectional area and
volume of the leg musclesspecifically the
vastus laterallis (muscle located on the side
of the leg) and the quadcricep femoris
(muscle on the front of the leg).
The leg subjected to both cardio and
strength training was noticeably bigger
than the leg that performed strength
training alone. Results revealed the vastus
lateralis had increased by 17% in the cardiostrength-trained leg compared to only 9%
in the strength-trained leg. Furthermore,
the volume of the quadriceps femoris
had increased by 14% in the cardiostrength-trained leg compared to 8%
in the strength-trained leg.

VEins For Gains

So where did this gym-based wizardry


come from? Well, performing any form of
cardiovascular training dramatically
improves your capillary density. Capillaries
are the small blood vessels that network
through the muscles. By increasing their
density you also increase your ability to
supply the working muscles with blood,
oxygen and nutrients during training.
This is one of the most overlooked
aspects of strength training, as powerbased athletes arguably place too much
emphasis on shifting iron rather than
looking after their capillaries. However,
looking at the sport of strongman, it could
be argued many of the best athletes have
been well aware of this for some time.
Five-time Worlds Strongest Man Mariusz
Pudzianowski was famously a boxer before
taking up strongman and notably included
intense skipping in his training ahead of
most weights sessions. Also, despite
weighing 150 kg, strongman legend Geoff

Cardio Combined

with German
Volume traininG
Can help inCrease
musCle mass

the prowler mixes cardio and strength

Capes had a pretty impressive 200 m best


of 23.7 seconds and three-time Worlds
Strongest Man Bill Kazmaier incorporated
heavy cardio training into his routine
throughout his career.
Putting anecdotal evidence aside, recent
research also supports the idea of caring for
your capillaries.
A study published in the Journal of
Applied Physiology investigated the
adaptive changes in the muscles that occur
during intensive endurance-based training.

Scientists took seven athletes and had


them complete a 24-week cardio-based
training programme. When muscle
biopsies were taken at the end of the study
it was found that the athletes displayed
an increased capillary supply of all muscle
fibre types. They concluded this would
improve the efficiency of the entire cardio
respiratory system.
For strength athletes, this would mean
faster recovery rates between sets and the
ability to increase work rate. This is

especially important for those involved


in high-volume training or who perform
supersets, drop sets and even pyramid
training which typically involves a rep
scheme of 50-40-30-20-10-20-30-40-50.

PumP uP the volume

Most notably, a well-designed cardio


routine has been found to work very well
alongside German Volume Training (GVT)
to increase muscle. Often called the ten
sets method, GVT is a highly effective

MUSCLE & FitnESS

121

the author doing


high-intensity sprints

LOW-INTENSITY CARDIO VS HIIT


Some strength and conditioning coaches will adamantly argue lowintensity cardio is your best bet, while others are big advocates of Hiit.
the truth is, both have their meritsits understanding how your body
responds to both thats the best way to decide which to use in your
training. Here is our guide to what each form of cardio is best suited to.
Cardio and Fat Loss: One of the most quoted studies in the lowintensity vs high-intensity cardio for fat loss debate took place at
Laval University, Canada. A group of healthy young adults were split
into two groups. Group one followed a 20-week endurance-based
training protocol while group two followed a 15-week sprint-based
routineessentially a Hiit programme.
After analysing muscle biopsies and fat measurements, they found
athletes following the sprint-based routine lost more fat than those
in the low-intensity group. they concluded that high-intensity, sprintbased training brings about metabolic adaptations within the body
that favour fat loss.
Cardio and The Immune System: When coupling your cardio with
your strength training, you need to be careful to avoid overtraining. its
widely accepted in strength and conditioning circles that light, easy,
moderate cardio has a positive effect on the immune system. this is
because it can stimulate the lymph system, which, in turn, helps the
entire body. High-intensity training, on the other hand, can have a
negative impact on the immune system because the body cannot
cope with the oxygen demands of the exercise.
As a result, oxygen debt skyrockets, lactic acid goes through the
roof and ultimately the body goes into biochemical overload, which
can negatively affect the bodys lymphocyte productionkiller cells
that fight off disease. When these are affected, you can become ill,
run-down, and unable to train.
form of training and involves completing 10
sets of 10 reps. Believed to have originated
in Germany in the 1970s, it was made
popular by German weightlifting coach
Rolf Feser, who advocated its use to weightlifters looking to move up a weight class
during the off-season. Canadian weightlifter Jacques Demerssilver medallist
at the 84 Olympicsalso followed this
protocol and credited it with building
his massive thighs.
The entire programme works on the
premise that you subject the muscles to an
extensive volume of repeated efforts on a
single exercise. Your muscles are then
forced to adapt and grow as the body is
loaded above the level its accustomed to.
Typically, it involves choosing a large
compound movement, such as the squat,
bench or deadlift, and using a weight thats
roughly 60% of your one rep max (or one
you could perform 20 reps with). You then
do 10 sets of 10 reps with 60-90 seconds
rest in between.
As a hypertrophy protocol, very few
programmes have as much backing as

122

MUSCLE & FitnESS

GVT. Gains of 10 lbs in six weeks are not


uncommon, even in the most advanced
lifters. But its clear how cardio and an
improved capillary density could help you
in those final sets. Even the strongest of
athletes would struggle with the workload
recommended by GVT without any
endurance capability.

Carb burnIng MaChIne

Another important thing to consider is


how cardio can improve the bodys insulin
sensitivity. This is basically how efficiently
your body can absorb and process
carbohydrates. Someone with bad insulin
sensitivity will be more prone to storing
carbohydrates as fat. Typically these are
people who after a large bowl of porridge
oats, pasta or a cheat meal will feel tired,
lethargic and ready for bed. Someone
with good insulin sensitivity, on the other
hand, will eat that same quantity of
carbohydrates but feel their muscles are
full, pumped and primed for a workout.
Cardio has been found to be so effective
at improving insulin sensitivity that

I want more from each workout


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NPC SUPER-HEAVYWEIGHT
2013 NPC USA 2ND PLACE
TEAM SCITEC USA

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Skipping gets you fighting fit

EvEn thE strongEst


of athlEtEs would
strugglE without
any EndurancE
capability

research recently published in the


Journal of Sports Science states that
individuals who maintain a physically
active lifestyle are much less likely to
develop impaired glucose tolerance.
This means cardio not only has benefits
for those who go to the gym but also
those needing to improve their insulin
sensitivity for medical reasons too.
This all seems pretty promising, so
where does the fear of cardio and muscle
loss actually come from? Firstly, many
believe you need to consume more calories
than you use in order to bulk up and any
form of cardio will burn those precious
calories and therefore muscle. But this is a
very simple view of the human body.
The human body isnt just a caloriecontrolled machine. Its not as simple as
counting calories in and out and watching
the muscle grow or shrink in relation to
this. There are thousands more processes
within the human body that have an
influence on thiscapillary density and
insulin sensitivity being just two.
While this is a whole article in itself,
put simply, if youre meeting your macronutrient needsprotein, carbs and fats

124

MUSCLE & FitnESS

within a nutrient-dense diet and sufficient


calories, you wont simply waste away by
going for a jog a few times a week.

Muscle endurance

Strength and conditioning journals


have often quoted that cardio will
cause the body to develop slow-twitch
muscle fibres. These are better for
endurance training and less prone to
fatigue, but theyre also smaller in size
than fast-twitch muscle fibres, which are
needed for strength, speed and power.
This difference is often accompanied
by a misleading picture of a skinny
long-distance runner standing next to
a lean, muscular sprinter. But this type
of muscle adaptation only occurs after
months, if not years of endurance
training.
Scientists from Ohio Univeristy found
that after a lifetime of training, longdistance runners did have a higher
proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibres
compared to strength athletes. But its
safe to say that performing 20 minutes
of cardio five times a week, alongside
your strength training, will not suddenly

transform your physique into that of an


elite marathon runner.
Finally, we have the argument that
cardio will reduce testosterone levels.
Obviously a hormone of particular
importance to strength athletes, but
scientists from the University of Carolina
have pointed out that this dip in testosterone
only occurred after chronic exposure to
prolonged endurance training. Performing
30-45 minutes of cardio is not chronic
exposure so youre not going to wake up
with low-testosterone levels after a brief
stint on the cross-trainer.
So, will cardio kill your muscle? Not
according to the latest research and not if
you follow the right training protocols.
RoSS EdgLEy

is a former international athlete who has a


degree in sports science from Loughborough
University. He writes widely about fitness and
is employed in the sports nutrition industry.
For references to this article go to
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references
Like this story and want to see more great advice
from Ross? See our January issue as he weighs
up the practical and scientific evidence of CrossFit
vs old-school training at dig.muscle-fitness.eu/
and backissues.muscle-fitness.co.uk

Muscle&Fitness went to see


the punishing training regime
Eddie Hall hopes will power
him to the Worlds Strongest
Man crown this year.

By Ben Kenyon // PhotograPhy By Kevin Horton


MUSCLE & FitnESS

127

Millions of people have seen


eddie hall battle it out on tv
in the Worlds strongest Man.

me. Ive done it for nine years.

His phenomenal strength, not to

person to win Englands Strongest

every week he makes gains. His rate

mention his trademark beard and

Man. He hadnt done any strongman

of progress is astonishing in a sport

mohawk, is known around the world

training at the time. Since then he has

where most men peak in their 30s.

but few people have witnessed the

claimed four consecutive UK titles and

brutal training he does away from the

last year placed sixth at the Worlds

warms up at 60 kg then adds a 20 kg

cameras.

Strongest Man.

plate each side after every set until he

So the chance to witness one of

After a few brief introductions it is

Halls four-hour workouts was too

straight down to business. Today is

good to resist.

Thursday, which is deadlift day, along

He trains at Strength Asylum gym

do, he says. This is what works for


So every week he goes full pelt and
cranks up the weight or reps and

Halls deadlift routine is simple. He

hits 300 kg, at which point he will aim


to do eight sets of two reps.
For Hall, 300 kg isnt a huge weight.

with assistance exercises such as

But today is more about speed and

amidst the crumbling factories of

pulldowns and rows. He also plans to

explosiveness. It is pyramid training,

Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent. This is a real

do some Atlas stones event training

he says. I do it with everything.

gym built on blood, sweat and tears.

and hammer his biceps.

Hall arrives in a big pickup truck. His

Halls weekly programme is regi-

With hands chalked and trainers


tightly laced, he completes his first

imposing 380 lbs frame fills the gym

mented. Monday is legs and yoke;

10 reps easily. For a man of his size,

doorway and his sheer size dwarfs

Tuesday is chest and triceps; Wednes-

he is surprisingly quick with the bar.

even the bodybuilders.

day is rest and stretching; Friday is

Its easy to see why he is one of the

Training partner Luke Fullbrook,

shoulders, which includes a mammoth

who is preparing for a strongman

strongest athletes the world has

200 kg log press. He rests at the

competition, steps up, sets his feet,

known and aged just 26, the best is

weekend. It seems more old-school

looks up and blasts out the reps with

yet to come.

bodybuilding than modern strongman

machine gun efficiency.

Hall burst on to the scene at 21 years


old when he became the youngest

eddie hall
Age: 26
Weight: 380 lbs /172 kg
Height: 6 ft 3 ins / 191 cms
Best lifts: 290 kg bench press;
430 kg raw deadlift; 400 kg raw
squat; 200 kg log press
Sponsors: Strength Asylum, Protalean
Nutrition, Xplosive Ape

training, not that this bothers him.


I dont give a fuck what other people

Soon the weight is piling on. Three


plates a side rapidly becomes four,

I dont give a
fuck what other
people do. This
is what works
for me.

Hall deadlifting
300 kg for speed

then five. Each set is 40 kg heavier


than the last. But the two men dispatch
each one ruthlessly and systematically.
Before each set, Hall steps onto the
platform, eyeballs himself in the mirror
and gathers his focus. He then takes
several deep breaths before ripping
the bar off the floor.

EDDIES
DEADLIFT
SPEED DAY

As soon as his last rep crashes down,


Fullbrook continues the onslaught. We

The two men resume and when they

are nearly doing cardio herebetter

hit their top weight of 300 kg they

slow down, Hall jokes.

plough their way through eight sets of

The shirts come off and soon sweat


is pooling on the well-worn platform.
Hall takes a breather. He explains

Se t S

RepS

60 kg x1
100 kg x1
140 kg x1
180 kg x1
220 kg x1
260 kg x1
300 kg x 8

10 reps
8 reps
6 reps
4 reps
2 reps
2 reps
2 reps

300 kg for speed. I am taking it easy


for a couple of months, he grins.

doubles. The pace has slowed but not

10,000 CALorIES A DAY

the ferocity. Every rep now shakes

With the deadlifts done, the two men

the walls of the gym.

move on to lat pulldowns. The plan is to

Im not as fast as I usually am,

do four sets of 10-12 reps. Hall starts

training after outgrowing the weights

says Hall. I really damaged my back

on 100 kg. As he sits down and yanks

in the gym.

after Europes Strongest Man. I couldnt

the bar he nearly pulls the whole

deadlift properly for a couple of

machine over. He then tears through

year my deadlift personal best was

months so I am building my strength

the reps with ease.

420 kg, he says. I literally couldnt get

back up.

how speed has become key to his

Before Europes Strongest Man last

any more weight on the bar so I had to


train for speed.

Theres not enough weights in the

This is only week two of a 12-week


deadlift programme and he is hitting

Luke
Luke Fullbrook
Fullbrook
hits
hits the
the deadlift
deadlift
at
at the
the Strength
Strength
Asylum
Asylum

gym for me to actually train, he says.


When I was about 20 or 21 I maxed out
every machine. So I have to do things
fast to simulate a heavy weight. I have
to be explosive.
He says that pulling at twice the
speed using half the weight will have
the same impact as heavier weights.
The rest periods are long compared
to bodybuilders. Rest is essential,
says Hall. But I am explosive when
I need to be.
Hall gestures towards the seated
row machine, on which they will
pyramid the sets again. He dwarfs

MUSCLE & FitnESS

129

Adding some
human weight

Hall maxes out on the lat pulldown machine


the machine and reps out like childs

flies through the exercise and all four

play. He hits speed reps with two,

stones are on their plinths after 28

three, four and then five plates a side.

seconds. It looks impressive but hes

When he said he had maxed out all

disappointed. I should be looking at five

the machines, he wasnt joking. With

seconds per stone, he says, trying to

200 kg loaded, there isnt room to load

catch his breath.

any more plates so he tells 130 kg


Fullbrook to jump on the back. Even
this fails to stop him roaring through
the set. How did it feel? Easy.
Hall has a breather to gulp down a litre

Training with Ed shows you how weak


you really are, jokes Fullbrook, 36.
Hall has another run-through on the
stones, which again leaves him gasping.
Stones get easier as you get older

of cranberry juice with added carbs to

so in 10 years time I will be a legend,

power him onthats 1,000 calories

he grins.

straight down.
Lifting big means eating big: before his

Four-Hour Workout

marathon sessions he devours flapjacks,

With strongman surging in popularity,

sweets, cashew nuts and a couple of

Hall is becoming a well-known figure.

bottles of energy drink to fire him up.

Last year more than 5,000 fans flocked

He aims to eat 10,000 calories a day

to the Britannia Stadium in Stoke for

but on a bad day only manages 7,000.

the Worlds Ultimate Strongest Team

Its hardly surprising to discover his

event that he co-promoted. More are

food bill is 250 a week and thats

expected when it returns on May 30th

before he has fed his wife and two

this year.

children. It feels like I have to fit in


training around my eating, he jokes.
The most striking aspect of Halls

The popularity of the sport is


growing because of characters like
myself, he says.

workout is its lack of frills. A lot of my

Just when you think the workout is

training is traditional bodybuilding, he

done, Hall announces its biceps time.

says. I started training like that and it has

Strongmen often suffer biceps

not changed. I do use bands and chains

tearsFullbrook has had twoso

but the majority of the time I just keep it

strengthening them is important.

simple. Just make sure you are aggressive in everything you do.
Although he doesnt do as much event

Hall pulls a pair of 30 kg dumbbells


off the rack and stares intently into the
mirror. He says he does four sets of

training as other strongmen, he does

20 reps on hammer curls. Sometimes

some. We sidle off into a back room

he pyramids up to 60 kg each arm.

where some Atlas stones and metal


plinths are waiting.
The stones, weighing 100 kg, 125 kg,
145 kg and 165 kg, are rolled out. With a

Hes already trained for more than


three hours but grits his teeth and
grinds out every rep.
Seated sets of doubles are next:

timer ready, Hall prepares to go. One or

he does four sets of 12 reps and

two faces peer in from the door.

every repetition looks like it hurts

Despite fumbling the third stone, he

130

MUSCLE & FitnESS

but he grimaces through it.

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Game
face

Scary
face

He finishes off this marathon session


with two speed sets of 16 on rope curls.
Hall is known as a charismatic joker
and he does plenty of larking about in
the gym but he is deadly serious when
it matters and equally serious about
cementing his place as the mightiest
man on earth by winning the Worlds
Strongest Man.
I took an oath, he says. I am not going
to give up now I am so close. I am doing it
for my familyit is something for my kids
to look up to and to make my wife proud.
He doesnt care how many times he
wins ithe just wants his name forever
etched in the history books as the worlds
strongest. Seeing how far he has come
so fast, it would be a brave man to bet
against him.

THE 461 KG DEADLIFT THAT WASNT


Before it had even hit the floor I knew
I would get disqualified.
He is sure its only a matter of time before
he completes a monster deadlift beyond
what any human has currently ever lifted.
I can pull even bigger than that, he
says. I think on that day, if I hadnt done
all the extra lifts I would have been good
for 470 kg-plus.
There is now talk of a new challenge for
the first person to lift 500 kgbasically half
a ton. Ten years ago 400 kg was unheard
of. Now it is 500 kg. It is up to people like
me, Benni Magnusson and Brian Shaw to
take the deadlift to the next level.
I will silence everyone next year. It
makes you hungrier. And I wont drop it.

Locking out 461 kg

At Europes Strongest Man last year


Eddie Hall stunned the strength world by
deadlifting a world record equalling 461 kg
only to drop the bar so it didnt count.
More people have been on the moon
than lifted that weight, he says.
So how did he manage to beat more
fancied names and why, oh why, after
locking out did he drop the bar with history
in his grasp?
I knew I had 461 kg in me, he says.
I could have pulled half a ton, I was that
psyched up. The crowd were shouting my
namethe stadium was roaringit got me
through the pain barrier.
I knew everything

was stretched to the limitmy back,


my arms. Even my fingers were
pulling out the sockets.
What happened then? I was so
excited that I had pulled it that I
dropped the bar when the ref gave
the down signal. I just wanted to
celebrate with the crowd. There was
no blood in my head to even think about it.
For 10 years competing I have never
had to put a deadlift down and lower
it under control. But this one day we
were told to lower it, for whatever
reason. I was told that. But with doing
that method for 10 years it was just so
easy to forget.

See the video that accompanies this feature at www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/eddiehall

132

MUSCLE & FitnESS

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MUSCLE & FitnESS

TH

HE

A
R E

NUT

MO
T

OF

I
T
I ON

Ev
EvEryonE
has
hEard of

superfoods.
But now scientists are
trying to unlock the
performance-enhancing
properties of whole foods
from the natural world.
Whole foods contain bioactive ingredients that can induce
physiological effects way beyond their traditional dietary purpose.
This has triggered a wave of recent scientific research.
This article explores where bioactive ingredients come from and
examines five top contenders that could potentially boost your
health and performance.
By Dr Adrian Hodgson
MUSCLE & FitnESS

135

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What are Bioactive


ingredients?
Bioactive ingredients are often
defined as a substance in food that
has a therapeutic effect on the
human bodyor more
generally where science
meets nature. Essentially,
these bioactive ingredients
found in whole foods can
give physiological effects
which may have important
health outcomes but also
performance effects.
There are thousands
of ingredients in the diet
that could be considered
bioactive. But we will
explore five of the most
exciting ingredients
classified by science as
polyphenols.
definition of
a PolyPhenol
A group of natural organic chemicals found in plant-based foods in the
human diet. Polyphenols have four
subclasses, namely phenolic acids,
flavonoids, stilbenes and lignans, which
cover hundreds of plant-based foods in
our diet and thousands of ingredients.

Each subclass is broken down into a


number of subcategories based on the
differing chemical structure, which
gives each ingredient a varying
physiological effect in the human body.
The richest sources of polyphenols
in the diet are the subclasses flavonoids
and phenolic acids (Figure 1).1 However, a specific food can contain more
than one subclass of polyphenols. For
example, green tea is composed of
catechins as well as ferulic acids, while
red wine contains catechins, anthocyanins and stilbenes.
The dose of each polyphenol found in
food is often very low. Compared to
macronutrients like protein, which are
measured in grams, bioactive ingredients are only found in the milli- or
microgram range. This is 100 or 1000
times lower than macronutrients.
Flavonoids are the most ubiquitous
polyphenols in food despite being at low
concentrations of 1530 mg/kg. The
richest sources are onions with up to
1.2 g/kg fresh weight, along with curly
kale, leeks, broccoli, and blueberries.
Getting high doses of polyphenols from
food alone is often difficult. So this is
where supplements may come in when
aiming for a specific physiological
effect, as discussed on the next page.

R o ya lt y- F R e e / C o R b i s

Figure 1

136

MUSCLE & FitnESS


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TH

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TA B LE 1

Doses of PolyPhenols In fooD

PolyPhenol GrouP

SubcateGory examPleS

Food

ServinG Size

doSe Per ServinG (mG)

Flavanols

Catechins

Flavanols

Quercetin

Green tea
Black tea
Chocolate
Red Wine
Apple
Onion
Curly kale
Leek
Broccoli
Tomato
Coffee
Kiwi fruit
Artichoke
Aubergine
Blueberry
Cherry
Plum
Soya beans
Tofu
Soya milk
Orange juice
Lemon Juice

200 ml
200 ml
50 g
200 ml
200 g
100 g
200 g
200 g
200 g
200 g
200 ml
100 g
100 g
200 g
100 g
200 g
200 g
200 g
100 g
200 ml
200 ml
200 ml

20-160
12-140
23-30
8-30
4-24
35-120
60-120
6-45
8-20
1-3
70-350
60-100
45
1500
25-500
70-900
4-50
40-180
8-70
6-35
40-140
10-60

Phenolic acids

Chlorogenic acids

Flavanols

Anthocyanins

Isoflavones

Genistein

Flavanones

Hesperetin

The BenefiTs Of
BiOacTive ingredienTs
Research into bioactive ingredients
over the past 20 years shows the
health-promoting effects of a diet
rich in polyphenolic foods.2
It is only recently, however, that these
ingredients have been considered with a
more exercise-focused goal in insolation
at higher doses.

138

MUSCLE & FitnESS

caTechins
The richest source of catechins in
the diet is teaspecifically green tea.
An average cup of green tea contains
50-100 mg of catechins.
Green tea is shown to boost weight
loss when consumed over 6-12 weeks
in Asian populations, with limited
evidence in Caucasian populations.3
This weight loss effect is believed
to be due to catechins in green tea
inhibiting an enzyme known as
catchol-O-methyltransferease
(COMT). This leads to an increase in
hormones that stimulate the ability to
use more energy and release fat from
fat cells.5
Researchers showed that green
tea consumed over a 24-hour period
significantly increased energy expenditure
and fat burning compared to a placebo.4
However when looking at the effects
during exercise, it appears less clear,
with some studies showing an increase
in fat oxidation and others showing no
change 5.
But green tea supplementation both
in the short and longer term causes the
metabolic fingerprint to become more
dependent on fat as an energy source,
whereas this effect is not seen during
exercise.6

Recently, it has been discovered that


there is great variation in the metabolic
response to green tea supplementation,
which is dependent on the genetic
expression of the COMT enzyme. What
research found was 50% of Caucasians
express the low activity COMT enzyme
that does not respond to green tea
catechins as much as high activity
COMT enzyme, which has a higher
expression in Asian populations.7
This evidence shows there is not a
definitive answer to whether green tea
increases fat oxidation during exercise
or whether this truly impacts on weight
loss. But it would appear that long-term
use around exercise would benefit the
metabolism and so may improve body
composition.
QuerceTin
Quercetin is found specifically in apples,
onions, grapes, red wine, capers and
black tea.
A normal diet contains 5-40 mg per
day but someone with a large intake of
fruit and vegetables could reach
between 200 to 500 mg per day.8
Athletes may benefit from supplementing with quercetin over a period
of 7-28 days, it has recently been
suggested. It may improve endurance

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due to increasing
maximal oxygen uptake
(VO2 max).9
It is thought quercetin is able to
directly target the mitochondria within
skeletal muscle to increase the total
number and function. This creates a
greater energy-yielding capacity to power
muscle during exercise. However, while
evidence in untrained humans has shown
the promising performance effects of
quercetin, it should be noted that the dose
is far higher than what is currently found
in the dietapproximately 1 g per day.
There also seems to be no effect of
quercetin supplementation on the
function, number of mitochondria, or
exercise performance in exercisetrained humans.10 Before adding masses
of onions or capers to your diet, a large
amount of research is needed to further
understand the potential for quercetin
in an athletic setting.
Ursolic acid
Although not considered a polyphenol,
ursolic acid is an ingredient found in a
number of natural whole foods such as
the skin of apples, cranberries, prunes,
and a number of herbs.
Ursolic acid is a fairly new bioactive
ingredient to emerge, with few dietary
supplements currently on the market
today.

The majority of research to date has


been conducted in animals, where it has
been shown to increase skeletal muscle
growth and prevent the loss of muscle
mass under certain conditions.11
Early data suggests ursolic acid
supplementation could increase protein
synthesis in skeletal muscle and support
exercise training adaptations for
performance and body composition.
To date, however, there is no
human evidence to show the benefits
of ursolic acid so further research is
needed before adding it to your
nutrition regime.
anthocyanins
A number of foods contain anthocyanins, but one has received a great deal
of attentiontart cherries. The reason
is that they are rich in anthocyanins,
which possess a potent anti-inflammatory
and anti-oxidant effect.12
It was thought that supplementing
with high doses of tart cherry in highinflammatory conditions, such as
following intense exercise, would
have benefits on muscle recovery.
We know that muscle damage
caused by exercise can impair muscle
strength over three days after a workout.
It is valuable for athletes with intense
training programmes and short recovery
periods (less than a couple of days) to
intervene to support the recovery of
muscle strength.
Eating the equivalent of 50-60
cherries per day for 10 days before and
after damaging eccentric workouts
improved muscle strength over the
four days after exercise.
Scientists still dont understand
what difference tart cherries
make when consumed alongside
protein and carbs. It is also
unclear if the recovery effect is
observed over a 1-2 day supplementation period, which is more
practical than 6-10 days of
supplementation.

chlorogenic acids (cga)


A major source of this phenolic
compound in the human diet comes
from brewed coffee due to the high
amounts of CGA found in green coffee
beans prior to roasting.
A single serving of coffee is reported
to provide anywhere from 20-675 mg of
CGA.13 The source of the bean, the
roasting procedure, and even the
preparation method of the coffee can
account for this huge variation.
Chlorogenic acids could have weight
loss benefits because when coffee is
drunk over long periods it helps reduce
the absorption of glucose from the small
intestine.14 Evidence in animals has
shown early promise for green coffee
extract supplementation on weight loss.
This is through a reduction in
glucose uptake; suppressing accumulation of fat and activation of fat oxidation via lipolysis.15 However, human
evidence to support a weight loss effect
from CGA is currently limited.
Currently chronic supplementation
(4-12 weeks) of CGA (180-200 mg/d)
may induce small effects on weight loss.
But due to the small number of studies
conducted so far it is impossible to
confirm the weight loss effects of CGA
in humans, thus limiting the recommendation of CGA as a successful weight
loss supplementation strategy.
sUmmary
Mother Earth offers a great menu of
nutrition with bioactive ingredients
that have potential physiological effects
relevant to sport and exercise.
More research is needed but some
ingredients look promising. However,
dont let that stop you from incorporating more of these foods in your diet.
The foods mentioned in this article
also offer an array of vitamins and
minerals as well as create variety to
any meal plan. Your challenge is to
start getting creative with bioactive
ingredients.

AdriAn Hodgson, PhD, has a wealth of experience in sports nutrition, metabolism


and physiology and has conducted specialist research in nutrition for optimal performance
and training adaptations. He has worked with elite and amateur athletes and is employed by
Lucozade Ribena Suntory as the senior sport scientist working in research and development.
For references to this article go to www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/scientific-references

140

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68/Maria TouToudaki/ocean/cor

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FIT FOR LIFE


Shawn Perine has
practised what he
preaches since he was
12 years old.

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MUSCLE & FitnESS

Our u.s.
EditOrs
WOrkOut
Shawn perine, editor of
u.s. Muscle & Fitness,
reveals the training
philosophy and
programme that
have got him into the
shape of his life at 48.
photographs By per

BernaL

musCle & fitness

143

I gET ASkED
AbouT my
TRAInIng
pRETTy ofTEn,

maybe because Ive been doing it


for so long that people think that
I must know what Im doing. It
wasnt until a recent photo shoot
with the brilliant photographer
Per Bernal, however, that I finally
decided to log all my workouts,
along with my overarching
training philosophy, to provide a
template and a few hard-learned
lessons that you can apply as
you sculpt your own physique.
I hope this helps you.

THE ARNOLD FACTOR

Ive been working out for about


three-quarters of my 48 years, and
to be honest, my main regret is that
I didnt hit the gym regularly during
the first 12. I love trainingI mean
really love it. I could count the
number of things Id rather do than
pump iron on one hand, and if were
talking a full-on, take-no-prisoners
workout at a real iron dungeon,
I may not be able to count on that
hand at all.
I discovered bodybuilding when
I first came upon the book Pumping
Iron: The Art and Sport of Body
building when I was 10 and saw
photos of Arnold Schwarzenegger,
Franco Columbu, and Lou Ferrigno.
My mind was blown. These were
men who looked like the characters
in my comic books! Improbable as it
seemed, I wanted to look like them
when I grew up.
A year or two later I saw the film

144

MUSCLE & FitnESS

WHAT STARTED IT ALL


The book and film Pumping Iron
inspired a generation of
lifters, including Shawn.

version of the book and immediately


I had a hero: Arnold Schwarzenegger.
I talked about him all the time, boring
anyone within earshot about his
Mr Olympia wins, his 22-inch biceps,
his gruelling squat workouts. Then
one day when I was 13 my dad came
home from the local library with a
book for me: Arnold: The Education

of a Bodybuilder. I dont think Ive ever


read faster in my life. I tore through
the book like a bear through a beehive,
and when I got to the end I started
again. I read it every day until the loan
period expired, and then I took it out
again. Finally, my parents gave me my
own copy for Christmas 1979, with the
inscription, Now you dont have to
keep borrowing this book from the
library. Enjoy!
I logged my first real workouts in
the basement of my childhood home
on Long Island, on equipment
my dad built out of two-by-fours.
He constructed a bench with upright
supports and a combo squat rack/dip
bars/weight rack apparatus. Along
with some mismatched dumbbells,
a chinning bar, a spring-loaded chest
developer, and some hand grips,
I had enough to get started.
The first workout I can remember
following was written for me by my
uncle Joe, who was an accomplished

SHAWNS
WORKOUT

athlete in his youth and an avid


lifter himself. It was a totalbody pyramid routineone that
I followed religiously for several
months. Then came the workouts in
Arnolds Education of a Bodybuilder.
In the summer of 79, my dad bought
me a copy of the September 1979
issue of Muscle Builder/Power,
which, a year later, Joe Weider
renamed Muscle & Fitness. From that
one issue alone I was able to follow
Schwarzeneggers back routine,
Tom Platzs leg routine, and learn the
training and nutrition principles of all
the bodybuilding greats of the day,
including Ferrigno, Mike Mentzer,
and Danny Padilla. I used them all.

REALITY SETS IN

It was in the book Pumping Iron that


I first learned of an IFBB pro bodybuilder named Steve Michalik, aka

This is the programme


Im doing these days.
I believe in mixing
things up frequently
to stave off
complacency.

DAY 1
Calves, BaCk, BiCeps, aBs
ExErcisE

sEts

rEps

1520

1520

cALVEs 1
NOW ANd THeN
Top: Striking a pose at age 12.
Middle: With M&F founder Joe
Weider. Bottom: Shawn can still
do 20-plus pull-ups at age 48.

Seated
Calf Raise
Standing
Calf Raise
BAck

Pulldown 2
4
20,15,12,10
T-bar Row
4
12
V-bar Pulldown 4
16,14,12,10
Seated Cable Row 4
20,17,14,11
Deadlift
5
10,10,10,8,6
Machine Shrug 3
1520
Pull-up/Dip SS 3 12/12,10/10,8/8
Knuckle Push-up *
2030
BicEps

Hammer Curl
3
Down-the-Rack 1
Hammer Curl
Machine
3
Preacher Curl
Reverse-grip
3
Barbell Curl
Knuckle Push-up *

20,15,10
4x8 **
20,15,10
20
2030

ABs

Hanging Leg Raise 3


Cable Crunch
3
One-arm
3 (each side)
Cable Crunch

1520
20
20

1 I train my calves every workout because theyve


always been my weakest point. Ive found that they need
to be trained more frequently.
2 I like to vary my grip width for each set.
* I will perform active recovery sets of an antagonistic
exercise for back, chest, biceps, and triceps. The idea
is to get blood into the muscle group that opposes the
one being trained, in an effort to keep moving, improve
your pump, and stretch the body part being trained.
** I do one set of eight, drop the weight, move to the
next lightest pair, and continue for four mini sets.

SS= Superset

MUSCLE & FitnESS

145

old-school abs
There are more
exciting moves, but
crunches still work.

DAY 2
Calves, CHesT, TRICePs, abs
ExErcisE

sEts

rEps

15-20

15-20

4
4

20,16,14,12
20,15,10,8

12,12,10,10

cALVEs

the Phantom. Steve was known


as arguably the hardest-training
bodybuilder on the planet. His
workouts consisted of anywhere
between 25 and 75 sets per body part
(yes, you read that right), and would
last three to four hours at a time.
Michalik was reported to have left
training partners in crumpled heaps
halfway through a session as he
powered on, never looking back.
I knew I had to meet him and train

among the monsters who stalked


his torture chamber. Luckily for me,
his gym, Mr Americas Body Shop,
was only 20 minutes from my home!
In September of 1982 I shook Steve
Michaliks hand and signed on the
dotted line, proudly becoming a
member of Mr Americas.
My mom joined that day as well: at
16, I was too young to drive, and my
dad, while supportive of my interest,
didnt share in it. But my mom, who

ALL THAT JAZZ


Over the years since
my days at Mr Americas,
my training has evolved
many times, to accommodate new goals, circumstances, and injuries. Yet at
its core, my training is still
based on the principles
followed by Arnold and
Steve Michalik and Joe
Weider. Its volume-based
progressive resistance
training, which is what
pretty much every great
bodybuilder has ever
followed. While exercises,
pacing, and integration of
intensity principles have
varied, whats remained
consistent all these years
is a general formula of

146

MUSCLE & FitnESS

five days per week for


75 minutes per workout
(although back in my
Mr A days, workouts
usually lasted between two
and 2 hourstoo long!).
My favourite body-part split
is back/biceps, chest/
triceps, and legs/shoulders,
with calves and abs
trained pretty much every
workout.
I realise that this may not
sound innovative, but it
works, because its
grounded in time-tested
principles. That being said,
its what you do within the
bounds of those principles
that makes all the difference, kind of like with jazz.

Jazz musicians are trained


in music theory and song
structure, but what makes
their music interesting is
not their ability to play
songs note for note, but the
way they improvise around
chord shifts.
And so it is with training.
My workouts are often very
improvisational. I may
switch up exercises here,
or throw in a descending
set there, but the workouts
themselves are foundationally sound. Of course, you
cant start out improvising.
Like those jazz musicians,
you must become grounded
in the basics before you can
start improvising.

Seated
Calf Raise
Leg Press
Calf Raise
cHEst

Pec-deck Flye
Dumbbell
Bench Press
Hammer Strength
Incline
Bench Press
Dip
Pull-up/Dip SS
Light Pulldown
Knuckle Push-up

4
To Failure
3 12/12,10/10,8/8
*
**

20-30

Seated
4
Overhead DB
or Cable Extension
Straight-bar
4
Pushdown
Seated Exten4
sion Machine
Light
*
Hammer Curl
Knuckle Push-up **

10-15

tricEps

20,17,14,11
16,14,12,10
20
20-30

Abs

Ab Wheel Rollout
Front Lever
Crunch

3
2
3

20
7-10
20

* I will perform active recovery sets of an antagonistic


exercise for back, chest, biceps, and triceps. The idea is
to get blood into the muscle group that opposes the one
being trained, in an effort to keep moving, improve your
pump, and stretch the body part being trained.
** Im obviously a fan of knuckle push-ups and like to
sneak them in to nearly every upper-body workout.
Theyre especially good for upping the intensity of chest
and triceps workouts.

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answered prayers
Few biceps moves
isolate as well as
single-arm preachers.

I couldnt be a pro
bodybuilder, but
I loved to train.
had been an instructor at a health
spa in the late 70s, took to lifting like
a fish to water. In fact, within a year,
she competed in her first bodybuilding competition, the 1983 Ms Long
Island, which she won.
Yet while gains came quickly for
my mom, they were far slower for
me. I desperately wanted to become
a competitive bodybuilder, like
Arnold and Steve, and did all that
was humanly possible to grow
(except steroids, which ran foul of
my obsessive desire not just to look
good, but to be as healthy as I could
be on top of that). Still, despite my
steadfast dedication to training,
proper nutritional habits, and sleep,
I never felt Id developed enough
muscle to justify standing onstage.
I was, in fact, a hardgainer,
meaning that while some guys
could practically look at a weight
and grow, for me gains would

148

MUSCLE & FitnESS

have to be measured in years rather


than weeks or months.
One blessing I could count was that
while my muscles grew at a snails
pace, my strength increased
dramatically. In time I was lifting
the kind of weight suited to much
larger guysweights I couldnt
imagine touching today. (I will leave
out numbers to forestall the attendant cries of Bullshit! Steroids!
and Lies!) So, some of the disappointment I had about my slow
progress in terms of muscle growth
was offset by my ability to lift heavy.
Still, by the time I was in my early
20s I realised that I was never going
to possess enough size to be able to
stand on a bodybuilding stage like
my heroes, and it was disappointing.
But I loved to train as much as ever
and remained steadfast in my
dedication to the gym. Without the
self-imposed pressure of having to get

DAY 3
Calves, legs,
shoulders, abs
ExErcisE

rEps

sEts

cALVEs

Seated Calf Raise 3


Standing
3
Calf Raise
LEGs

20
20

Leverage
Leg Press
Stiff-leg Deadlift
Front Squat
Adductor Machine
Abductor Machine
Leg Extension

6
5
3
3
3
3

30,25,20,
16,13,10
10
10
10-20
15-20
20,15,10

30,25,20,15

3
3

20,15,10
20,15,10

12

10-12

shouLdErs

Seated
Side Lateral
Bentover Lateral
Dumbbell
Front Raise
Wide-grip
Upright Row
Seated
Dumbbell Press
Abs

Hanging Leg Raise 3


Twist
3 (each side)
Machine

20
15

3 Because of chronic knee problems incurred over 35


years of training, I dont train legs especially heavy and
have to avoid certain exercises, like standard squats
and hack squats.

SCULPTING

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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

RULES OF

TRAINING

1 / Follow Your own Path


I decided to train like a bodybuilder.
Others focus on strength. Still others
aim to succeed in CrossFit. Each of
our chosen paths are right for us,
because we chose them. Choose
your own path and dont let anyone
try to push you off it.
2 / SquatBut onlY
IF You want to
I was fanatical about the back squat
for my first two decades of training,
but Im convinced that my knee pain
can be attributed to all those years
of heavy squatting, so Ive cut them
out. I do miss squats, but I dont
believe I absolutely need them,
despite what others may say.
3 / KeeP MovIng
This is a big one for me. I typically
rest less than a minute between
sets. Sometimes a lot less. When
you keep rest periods brief you
increase cardio capacity, keep
your pump going, and get out of
the gym faster.
4 / MachIneS Dont SucK
Machines get a bad rap from the
hardcore crowd, but the fact is
that a lot of them are pretty good.
Some are even excellent.
5 / MaKe Sh*t uP
I like to think of the gym as my
playground, and Im there to have
fun. So, consider making up your
own exercises, so long as they
dont put you or anyone else in
the gym in jeopardy!

CUrlY-Men
Arnold and Shawn
talking shop.

150

MUSCLE & FitnESS

hanging leg raise


Dont swing your
legs or use any kind
of momentum.

to a certain size, I began enjoying my


workouts even more, experimenting
and improvising as I got to know my
body better. And the experimentation continues today, as I constantly
refine my workouts to better suit my
personal needs and set of tolerances,
both physical and mental.

IVE GOT TO ADMIT


ITS GETTING BETTER

Today, having recently turned


48 and standing 5'9'', I tip the scales
at about 165 pounds. On the day the
accompanying photos were shot
I weighed 161, after about a week
and a half of dieting. So, Im not a big
guy and never will be, but rather
than continue chasing an unrealistic
childhood dream of walking around
at more than 200 pounds, Ive
learned to embrace my natural
attributes and focus on things
like symmetry, proportion, and

definition rather than mass. Instead


of defying my gene set, Im rolling
with it.
Plus, I believe that staying a bit
lighter and leaner is a better formula
for longevity. Joint damage I
incurred during my heavy-lifting
days notwithstanding, I feel as
I did in my 20s. My muscles are just
as strong, my endurance hasnt
waned, and I think I actually look
better now than I did then. A clean,
healthy diet has a lot to do with
it, but so does training smart
knowing when to push and when to
back off, and even when to take rest
days, despite wanting nothing more
than to get in a good workout.
So, thats my story, which hopefully provides some insight into
how I developed this programme,
which, I should add, is still a work
in progress. Then again, its all
about progress, isnt it?

ANTH The FREAK


BAILES
IFBB PRO &
PHARMAFREAK Athlete

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HES THE FITTEST MAN IN THE NFL


AND JUST SO HAPPENS TO PLAY THE
LEAST-RESPECTED POSITION ON
THE FIELD. BUT N.Y. GIANTS PUNTER
STEVE WEATHERFORD HAS AN
APPROACH TO THE GAME THATS
MAKING THE ENTIRE LEAGUE DO
A DOUBLE TAKEAND HES JUST
GETTING STARTED.
BY MATT TUTHILL
PHOTOGRAPHS BY DUSTIN SNIPES

152

MUSCLE & FitnESS

MUSCLE & FitnESS

153

Contract your abs hard


and slowly shift the plate
from one hip to the other.

Steve Weatherford doesnt have to look like this. To be


a punter in the NFL, you dont need to be lean and
muscular or have six-pack abs. You dont need 18-inch
arms, striated delts, separated pecs, or V-shaped lats.
And although it might seem
counter-intuitive, you dont even
need big legs.
Punters and place-kickers have
traditionally been the only averagelooking guys on an NFL rosterthe
guys who fuel the daydreams of
regular fans specifically because
their physiques are so unremarkable.
If an ordinary-looking guy can make
a living in the NFL, then maybe we
all can. At least thats the thought.
Jeff Feagles, Weatherfords pre-

154

MUSCLE & FitnESS

decessor on the New York Giants


who set league standards of
consistency and longevity, was an
underwhelming physical presence
to say the least. His slight build and
balding pate made him look more
like a bank clerk than a professional
athlete.
In short, there are a lot of things
that make Weatherford an anomaly.
For starters hes the first punter who
seems tailor-made to transition into
TV when he retires; he already

appears regularly on Fox and ESPN


to talk fitness and football. For
another hes a philanthropist who is
equally generous with his time and
money.
Then theres this: despite signing
a $12.75 million contract with the
Giants in 2012, he drives a family
saloon that looks like its seen a few
too many miles. Its an Infiniti
something, I cant remember, he
says with a laugh. Me and my wife
decided if we were going to have all

these kids, then I wouldnt have too


many toys.
What truly sets him apart, though,
is his physique. At 6'2'' and 230
pounds, with meticulously shaped
symmetrical muscle and a scant 5%
body fat, he is a perfect example of
an overused term: a freak. Judging
by the standards of the IFBBs
physique division, no one in the NFL
is fitter than Weatherfordin fact,
no ones even close. Hes not the
biggest guy in the league and he
might not be the strongest or fastest

(although his weights-room


numbers and sub-4.5-second
40-yard dash time could make him
competitive with most defensive
backs), but in terms of possessing
the most enviableand for so many
guys elusivebody, Weatherford is
tops. In the fitness industry he is
known more for his physique at this
point than his exploits on the field.
His 110,000-plus Twitter followers
continually ask him training and
nutrition questions. These spike
every Weatherford Wednesday,

Use steppers or blocks


of wood to stand on.
This extends the range
of motion.

when he dedicates time to answering nearly every question.


Weatherford doesnt just look the
part, either. He has hit a 308-pound
power clean for two reps; a 420 back
squat for five; a 315 bench for six,
and a 475 deadlift for five.
Hes often askedeven by teammateswhy hes so obsessive, so
the answer he gives is succinct.
I have little man syndrome,
Weatherford says. As a kid I was
always very athletic and very fast.
I was always good at sports, but
I wasnt big and I wasnt strong.
I wasnt big enough to compete at
an elite level, so I developed an elite
work ethic. Im glad that it happened
the way it did, because I wouldnt
have developed that work ethic
otherwise.
He doesnt have to train today. Its
an off day between off-season team
activities in early June, but he
arrives at the Giants-run public gym
at Hackensack University Medical
Centrewhere he often gives free
training and nutrition seminarsat
around 10:30 in the morning with
his wife, Laura, and their 2-year-old
Aurora in tow. He looks a little tired
but says hes ready to go.
Its going to be a quick one, he
says. Im just doing some light
recovery stuff. I did legs yesterday,
so Im taking it easy today.
He drops Aurora off in the day care
room, tosses his bag in his locker,
strolls out to the gym floor, and starts
a general warm-up, foam rolling his
legs, skipping and static stretching.
He does four sets of 10 at the pull-up
station and then its over to the
dumbbell rack. He looks up and
down the length of the rack, studying his options. Then, with a twist of
the lips that says, Yeah, why not? he
turns to the heavy end, grabs a pair
of 100-pounders, flops down on the
bench, and launches right into four
working sets of 10.
The notion of a light recovery
day unravels from there. Once hes
sweating, Weatherford has forgotten
his original declaration and starts

MUSCLE & FitnESS

155

TRAIN
LIKE THE
NFLS
FITTEST
MAN
Perform each
workout once a
week, in order.

WORKOUT I

PULL DAY: Back,


BicePs, and TraPs

EXERCISE

SETS

REPS

Weighted Pull-up 6 12,10,10,8,8,6

Keep your back straight,


shoulder blades back,
and drive through your
heels as you lift the bar.

attacking heavy sets of dumbbell


rows, Arnold presses, and concen
tration curls. All the while hes
interacting with fans in the gym,
and Tweeting pictures and videos
of his workout, which ultimately
clocks in at three hours.
When the workouts done, he
heads to Elite Total Body Cryo
therapy, where he jumps halfnaked
into a cryotube as liquid nitrogen
cooled airchilled to 250is
piped in. It works like a hightech
threeminute ice bath, and Weather
ford swears by its recuperative
properties. Its one of a hundred
outoftheordinary things he does
to maximise health and longevity.
Five times a week he rests for 80
minutes in a hyperbaric chamber,

156

MUSCLE & FitnESS

and while his supplement regime


contains many of the usual
suspectsprotein powder and fish
oilits loaded with many more
uncommon ones like borage oil
for heart health, and bromelain,
collagen type 1 and 3, and hyaluronic
acid for joint health. His obsessive
ness speaks to how seriously he
takes not only his livelihood but
also the fact that his 52 teammates
depend on him.
Its a life that would seem impos
sible to the scrawny kid who grew
up in Terre Haute, Indiana, where
Weatherford was a track and field
athlete and soccer player. The pitch
was where he learned early on that
he had powerful legs, and in high
school he held down triple duty on

Lat Pulldown

Seated Cable
Row

12

Dumbbell Row

10

Rear Delt Flye

12-15

Cable Upright
Row

10

Dumbbell Shrug

15-20

Barbell
Wide-grip Curl

12

Dumbbell
Preacher Curl

10

EZ-bar Curl

10

12,10,10

WORKOUT II
LEG DAY:

EXERCISE

SETS

Power Clean

REPS
3

Back Squat

8,8,6,6,4,
to failure*

Front Squat

8,6,6

Deadlift

Barbell Lunge

8 each leg

Leg Extension

12

One-leg Swiss
Ball Leg Curls

8 each leg

Seated
Calf Raise

21

*Weatherford uses 225 pounds.

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the football team as a safety, placekicker, and punter. He earned a


football scholarship to play at the
University of Illinois, where he was
AllBig Ten First Team, named the
most underrated player in the
conference in 2005 by Sports
Illustrated, and met his wife Laura.
They now have three kids: Ace, 7;
Carney, 5; and Aurora, 2.
But NFL general managers didnt
see the new graduates upside right
away. In 2006 he signed as an
undrafted free agent with the Saints,
stayed for three seasons, then
skipped around the league, suiting
up for three teams in two years
before a scare with an erratic
heartbeatparoxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)sidelined him in 2011, when he was with
the Jets.
Ninety per cent of the time, people
with PSVT were elite athletes as
kids, Weatherford says. I ran
ber-competitive track from age
10 until leaving college. Your heart
becomes so efficient at pumping
blood that your brain thinks your
heart is already adult size.

WORKOUT III

WORKOUT IV

PUSH WORKOUT:
chest, shoulDer,
triceps

EXERCISE

SETS

Flat Dumbbell
Bench Press
Incline Dumbbell
Bench Press

EXERCISE

REPS

8, 8, 6, 6, 4
8, 8, 6, 4

Dumbbell Pec Flye 3

12

Dumbbell
Military Press

12, 10, 8, 8

Lateral Raise

12

Front Plate Raise

12

EZ-bar
Skull Crusher
Dumbbell
Triceps Kickback

158

3
3
3

MUSCLE & FitnESS

WORKOUT V

LEG DAY: eXplosiVe

Incline Triceps
Cable Press

Alternate wide and narrow


grips between sets; the
variation will keep your
muscle fibres guessing.

15
12
10

50-inch
Box Jump
Dumbbell
One-arm
Hang Clean
Back Squat
with Chains
Barbell
Side Lunge
Single-leg
Swiss Ball Curl

TOTAL BODY CIRCUIT:

SETS REPS
4

EXERCISE
5
6
3
3

REPS

Wide-grip Pull-up

10

Hammer Strength
Incline Press

10

6*

Dumbbell
Reverse Lunge

10

Front Plate Raise

15

Bentover Barbell Row

10

French Curl

10

10*

Single-leg
Leg Extension

10*

Calf Raises

21

Leg Raise

20

Russian Twist

10*

*Each side

Directions: Complete the


circuit three times, resting no
more than 30 seconds between
each exercise.

Three-way Plank

1 min*

Dumbbell Hammer Curl

10

Dumbbell Sumo Squat

12

*Each side

www.USPlabsDirect.com

In Weatherfords case, his heart


developed an extra artery to help
distribute the amount of blood his
working muscles needed. He
underwent cardiac ablation surgery
to cauterise the extra artery and has
been in the clear ever since, he says,
knocking on wood.
The following year, he signed
with the Giants, and he now
seems to have found a permanent
NFL home. His first year in New
York ended with a Super Bowl
win over the Patriots, with
Weatherford setting up the first
score of the game: when the
Giants opening drive stalled
around midfield, Weatherford
pinned New England at its own
6-yard line with a perfect punt.
The next play was a safety.
Looking back on his meandering
path, he says he understands exactly
why it happened that way.
It is very easy to trade a punter or
a kicker in and out, he says. We
dont have to learn a specific playbook or be tailored to a 34
defence...Im glad it happened.
I didnt want to go to the Giants in
my first year, win a Super Bowl, then
go to the other teams. Now I realise
and appreciate how special this
place is, how great it is to win a
world championship.
That attitude explains his insistence on playing out this season
despite suffering a high sprain and
four torn ligaments in his left ankle
during the Giants season opener.
The sprain alone would typically
sideline a player from four to six
weeks, but Weatherford, who kicks
with his right leg, didnt even miss
any time the night he injured it.
He simply had the trainers tape
him up tight and kept going.
Theres no doubt in my mind,
he says. My training, diet, and
preparation can be the only reason
for this small miracle.
The doctors, Weatherford says,
are blown away.
If they had ever seen him in the
gym, they might not be.

160

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Dont use
momentum
during any
part of the
lift. Keep
the motion
slow and
controlled.

EAT LIKE A CHAMP

The following is a typical day of eating


for Steve Weatherford.
BREAKFAST

6 egg whites
with avocado,
spinach,
tomato,
and onion
1 slice highprotein bread
475 ml juice:
spinach, kale,
parsley, apple,
lemon,
cucumber

POST-WORKOUT/
LUNCH

Spinach or whole
wheat wrap,
loaded with
veggies
225 g low-fat
cottage cheese
DINNER I

225 g turkey
meatballs
200 g brown rice
2 servings
asparagus

DINNER II

175 g salmon
155 g steamed
broccoli or other
veggie
475 ml juice
(same as
breakfast)
SNACKS
EatEn bEtwEEn
mEals throughout thE day:

Almonds, kale
chips, beef jerky
protein bars

THE MACROS*

2,561
197 G
89 G
279 G
Calories

ProteiN

fat

CarBs

* not including snacks

IGF-1
Mark Gilbert continues his series tackling
common fitness misconceptions by asking:
IGF-1: legendary muscle-builder or not?

162

MUSCLE & FitnESS

stockphoto

MUSCLE & FitnESS

163

164

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Most experts agree


IGF-1 stimulates growth
in muscle cells but
the extent is unclear

stockphoto

In the fitness world, IGF-1 (insulin-like


growth factor-1) is regarded as one of the
big four hormones required for, or
substantially involved in, stimulating
muscle growththe other three being
testosterone, insulin and growth
hormone. As its name suggests, it is a
peptide hormone similar to insulin and
with some similar functions.
Interestingly, the strongest trigger
of IGF-1 secretion is GH, which means
they tend to increase at similar times.
This implies IGF-1s anabolic effects
may not be hugely potent, because as
we saw last month*, GH does not cause
significant muscle growthat least not
at levels that can be achieved naturally
or safely by other means.
In my last article I discussed a study
demonstrating that post-exercise GH
levels are related to better muscle gains
over time, and how this correlation was
likely because more intense workouts
cause greater spikes in GH. Therefore,
GH levels are simply an indicator of the
intensity of a workout rather than the
cause of muscle growth.
That same study also looked at
post-exercise IGF-1 levels and found no
correlation between cranking out high
levels of IGF-1 and muscle growth.
Other studies have found that dramatic
decreases in IGF-1 dont negatively
affect muscle growth and that administering IGF-1, even for long periods,
doesnt increase muscle mass in
humans.
That may sound a bit bleak, but there
is another side to this story. You see,
virtually all the worlds IGF-1 experts
agree that it is definitely involved in
stimulating muscle cell growth in a
variety of circumstances.
During gestation, growth and
development, IGF is certainly crucial to
determining muscle size potential in
humans and animals. Lifting weights
has also ben shown to cause a close
interaction between satellite cells
(precursors to muscle cells) and IGF-1,
which lasts for days. This is important
because IGF-1 is the key stimulator of
satellite cell development.
On the surface, it appears the jury is
still out on IGF-1; there is great debate
among experts as to whether it can

WHY NO STRAIGHT
ANSWER?

The main problem, and the reason for


these seemingly conflicting results, is
that the activity of IGF-1 is very complex
and multi-faceted, and its actual effects
on muscle growth are quite controversial. Perhaps this is because it is such a
tricky hormone to investigate due to the
fact that its regulation in the body and
its various functions are incredibly
complex.
For instance, there are several very
slightly different forms of IGF-1 and it
has half a dozen binding proteins,
which, like testosterone, latch on to it
and either render it ineffective or
prolong its effects. Further complicating
the issue is that it can be active throughout the bodymostly as a result of IGF-1

produced in the liver and circulated in


the bloodstreamor very localised,
affecting only the actual cells in which
it was made or cells nearby.

WHATS GOING ON?

First of all, the reason this stuff is called


insulin-like growth factor-1 is that it is
like insulin and it can cause growth. The
only question concerns the circumstances in which it does so, and whether
it does so in response to weight training.
We know its a crucial hormone for
the production and growth stimulation
of satellite cells, both before birth and
in early life. We also know it stimulates
Akt/protein kinase B, which stimulates
the classic protein synthetic pathway
mTOR, just like leucine, steroids and
most anabolic things do.
Furthermore, various studies have
found that IGF-1 levels increase and
numerous adaptations occur after
resistance training and other stresses
designed to stimulate muscle building
and recovery. These include:
Increased interaction with satellite
cellsthe cells that grow into new
muscle
Stimulation of monocytes and granulocytes, which clean up damaged tissue
Actual measures of muscle adaptation
and recovery

IS IGF-1 NECESSARY?

Of course, many studies suggest that


muscle growth can occur quite happily
with lower levels and even in the
absence of IGF-1, or just as importantly,
its receptor. Lets look at some of these
studies.

stockphoto

increase muscle mass further in


response to resistance training.

The majority of studies show that


intense exercise increases IGF-1, but
quite a few studies dont. There are even
studies that show a decrease in IGF-1
post-exercise.
Right off the bat, if exercise doesnt
increase levels of this hormone, that
doesnt exactly make a strong case for it
being indispensable for muscle gains.
Secondly, one study found exercise did
increase IGF-1 but the expected
signalling and subsequent muscle
protein synthesis did not seem to occur.
Similarly, another study showed
that exercise did stimulate Akt
(the pathway that leads to jacked up
mTOR), but the upstream signalling
from IGF-1 seemed to be absent. The
researchers concluded that Akt was
being stimulated by some pathway other
than IGF-1.
A third study involved giving testosterone to mice. Despite what classic
anabolic signalling research has
determined over the years, researchers
found that even in the absence of IGF-1
and blockage of its receptor, it still
delivered its anabolic effects.
The same type of study was conducted using muscle loading as a
stimulus rather than testosterone, and
again, similar effects were seen. Finally,
in what seems like the most damning
study, when women were administered
IGF-1 for an entire year, there was no
evidence of muscle growth.

ALL HOPE IS NOT LOST

Before you draw any hasty conclusions,


you should know there are some
recurring themes running through
many of these studies that could justify
the Big Four status of IGF-1. The
key is that most studies on IGF-1 looked
at levels in the blood. The thing is,
hormones dont generally have effects
in the blood. They have effects when
they bind to receptors on cells.
Earlier, I talked about systemic and
localised effects. These localised effects
are called the autocrine and paracrine
effects. Autocrine is when a cell
produces IGF-1 and it goes on to bind to
and stimulate that same cell. Paracrine
refers to stimulating a nearby cell. This
is important because it turns out theres

Control looked at survey data from more


than 6,000 people, they actually found
those with the highest IGF-1 levels were
least likely to die of cancer or heart
disease and those with the lowest levels
were at highest risk.
CONCLUSIONS AND
Even though it may not have a major
RECOMMENDATIONS
impact on your gains, you may be
At this stage, there isnt enough
wondering how to potentially boost
evidence to discount IGF-1 or to extol
IGF-1 levels. In truth, its pretty
its virtues as a hormone that can
definitely improve your muscle-building straightforward. Increasing protein
and/or calorie intake will do the trick
results. However, on balance, Id
but youre probably doing that when
certainly rather have slightly higher
appropriate anyway.
IGF-1 levels than lower levels, because
A more direct strategy may be to
more IGF-1 should have at least some
boost not only IGF-1 but also the
positive effect on muscle mass, repair
binding protein IGFBP3, which
and recovery.
prolongs its half-life and prevents it
As a side note, several studies have
being eliminated from the body. You
implied that high IGF-1 levels may
can do this by drinking skimmed milk
increase the risk of certain cancers
or casein protein. Whey protein has
but when the US Centers for Disease

stockphoto

a poor correlation between the concentration of IGF-1 in the blood and the
concentration in various tissues and
cells. In other words, having high blood
levels means nothing with regard to
what could be happening in and around
the muscle cells, so any study that
evaluated blood levelswhich is most
of themis not necessarily valid.
Backing up the idea that its the
amount of localised IGF-1 in or near
muscle that matters, when IGF-1 was
administered into the bloodstream it
was less effective and took longer to
work than when delivered directly to
the muscle tissue by a technique called
gene transfer.
Furthermore, studies that measured
IGF-1 levels usually only measured
pre- and post-workout, and maybe a
few hours later, or measured levels
after several weeks of undertaking a
training programme. They then looked
at anabolic signalling and muscle
protein synthesis at similar times. This
may not be a good way to evaluate
IGF-1 as heavy resistance training
causes interactions between IGF-1 and
satellite cells that last for 72 hours. We
may be looking at a subtle delayed or
prolonged effect that isnt being picked
up by the measurements used in
studies. The same issue could also be
why some studies dont show increases
in IGF-1, despite finding increases in
GHtherefore explaining apparent
muscle building activity in the absence
of IGF-1 or its receptor activity.

been shown to boost IGF-1 but this is


probably mainly the result of increasing protein intake in general, whereas
skimmed milk and casein do so
beyond their contribution of protein
to the diet.

Mark Gilberthas a B.Sc. in

nutrition and is a CISSN certified sports


nutritionist. Hes been involved in the
sports nutrition industry for 20 years
and is a director of MuscleGenes.com
andFitnessInventor.

*If you missed Mark Gilberts


Myth Busters article on growth hormone
in the January issue, you can get a
back issue in digital format from
dig.muscle-fitness.eu/or in print format
from backissues.muscle-fitness.co.uk
For references to this article go to
www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/
scientific-references

MUSCLE & FitnESS

167

CHEST
If youve managed to flat-bench your chest
into a shirt-sagging plateau, its time to shift
your focus north. Elevate your pec programme
with this assortment of moves that zero in
on your upper chest. By Eric Velazquez

Photographs by Per Bernal


170

MUSCLE & FitnESS

The most
defining
characteristic

of a well-built chest
is not its totality of
mass but its proportionality; its more
about the distribution of muscle from
north to south. While
the flat bench barbell
press may have
served you as a
newbie, many still
find themselves
clinging to ita
dated insurance
policy against the
dreaded Whats
your bench?
query. Its time
you graduated to
a routine that is
dedicated to pec
development over
brute force. To do
that, you need to
set your sights
highertowards
your upper pecs.
You might be
thinking, I already
do inclines. But
if youre really
interested in
developing a shelf
on your upper chest,
you need to augment
your workouts with
a few other exercises
that aim high.

REVERSE-GRIP BENCH PRESS


Yes, you can emphasise your upper chest without
adjusting the incline on your bench. In recent studies,
the reverse-grip bench press has been shown to
increase muscle fibre activation in the upper pecs by
30% compared with the standard bench press.

MUSCLE & FITnESS

171

INCLINE DUMBBELL
BENCH PRESS
Using dumbbells allows for
a slightly deeper range of
motion than is available on
incline barbell presses and
can increase fibre recruitment in the upper pecs
the longer the movement, the
greater the potential growth.
Dumbbells also allow you to
move through a more natural
range of motion, which is a
big plus considering that
front-delt activation can be
up to 85% higher when
pressing on an incline.

DECLINE PUSH-UP
You can emphasise your
upper pecs with your own
body weight by elevating
your feet on a standard
push-up. Due to the relatively moderate resistance
provided by your own body
weight, you can focus on
higher volume, stimulating
different fibre types in your
upper pecs.

UPPER CHEST
ExErcisE
Reverse-grip
Bench Press

sEts

rEps

Incline Dumbbell
Bench Press

8-10

Decline Push-up

4 To Failure1

Low-pulley
Cable Flye

12-15 2

Rest no longer than 90 seconds between


sets or exercises.
1 Perform as many reps as you can on each
set until your form degrades. Descend
slowly and explode up on each rep.
2 Hold a peak contraction for 30-60
seconds total on the final set. Squeeze
your upper pecs tightly throughout.

172

MUSCLE & FitnESS

LOW-PULLEY
CABLE FLYE
Incline flyes are great
for isolating your
upper-pec shelf, but
a little cable work
goes a long way. The
low-pulley cable flye
provides smooth,
consistent resistance and a deeperthan-normal stretch
on the negative
that can challenge
this part of your
chest in a way that
can kick-start mass
building.

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SUPPS
THe LaTeST IN SUPPLemeNT aND PRODUCT NeWS

BECOME THE
OMEGA MAN
How you can get all of the nutrients
and benefitsthat come with
Omega-3 supplementation.
By Adam Gonzalez

go fish

p e t e r d A z e l e y/ G e t t y i m A G e s

In addition to their
heart health
benefits, omega-3s
also help fight joint
inflammation from
intense athletic
activity.

1 74

the myriad benefits of fish oil


MUSCLE & FitnESS

supps

SPOTLIGHT

NOT ALL DIETARY FATS


ARE CREATED EQUAL
For a long time the message has been clear that some are healthy
and some are bad. While theres a place for saturated fats in
an athletes diet (they help produce crucial hormones such as
testosterone), man-made fats such as trans fats or hydrogenated
fatsdifferent names for the same thingare very damaging
and should be avoided by all people at all times.
When it comes to healthy fats,
though, you may not know that
youre likely getting too many of
some and not enough of others.
Such is the case with polyunsaturated
fats, a category that includes
omega-3 and omega-6 fats found
in high concentrations in flaxseed
and cold-water fish like salmon.

omega-3s
provide manY
health and
athletiC benefits.
Nutritionists
encourage people
to consume more
omega-3s for their
ability to support
heart health and
fight cancer. While
young athletes would
want these longterm benefits, they
can also benefit
more immediately.
Omega-3s support
muscle building by
improving muscle
fibre integrity and
increasing insulin
sensitivity. The latter
helps you recover
more efficiently.
In addition, omega-3s
help reduce inflammation and support joint
health, both critical
for effective athletic
performance.

To improve athletic performance


and body composition, emphasise
getting more omega-3s through
your diet and supplementation
programmes. Fish oil and krill oil are
the best supplements to take when
looking to accomplish this. Here
are three key points you need to
remember about omega-3s.

You need
to work
at getting
more omega-3s.
Omega-3s can be
found in significant
quantities in only a
handful of foods.
Even oils that are
known for having
plenty of healthy fats
are often relatively
low in omega-3s.
Shoot for one gram
of omega-3 for
every five grams of
omega-6. Foods high
in healthy fats but
relatively low in
omega-3s include
soya beans, pumpkin
seeds, and avocados.
It helps to emphasise
foods and oils that
contain a better
ratio of omega-3s
to omega-6s. These
foods include flaxseeds,
chia seeds, and wild
salmon and mackerel.

CorreCt
Your
healthYfat imbalanCe
with marinebased omega-3
supplements.
While all foods that
have a good ratio of
omega-3s are better
than sources of fat
that dont, theres
another complicating
factor. Many vegetarian
sources of omega-3s
contain alpha-linoleic
acid (ALA), the
omega-3 that must be
converted to DHA or
EPA to unlock its
benefits. To get DHA
and EPA directly,
you should emphasise
fish-based omega-3s
from sources such
as wild-caught salmon,
sardines, and mackerel,
either in food or supplement form.

MUSCLE & FITNESS

175

supps

supplement of the month

sWole
pAtrol
Try these supplements
that support greater blood
flow, full muscle fibres,
and enhanced growth.
By Adam Gonzalez

There are Two ways to


boost muscle sizeincrease
the size of the existing fibres
or add to the number of fibres.
Intense weight training
encourages the addition
of muscle cells through the
repair process, and many
supplements help plump up
the size of existing muscle cells
by filling them with beneficial
fluids and nutrients. To take
advantage of these growth
mechanisms, consider adding
the following supplements to
your pre-workout regime.

glycerol
Taking glycerol before you
train supports enhanced
vascularity and better
hydration during workouts.
Glycerol increases
osmolarity, the expansion
of fluid volume.

176

MUSCLE & FitnESS

citrulline malate
Support blood vessel dilation
by taking citrulline, an amino
acid that helps to increase
arginine levels for increased
nitric oxide activity. Once (NO)
inside your body, citrulline
converts to arginine.

nitrosigine
Take this to increase blood flow.
This ingredient is a specific form
of arginine (inositol-stabilised
arginine silicate). Nitrosigine is
stabilised to increase levels
better than supplemental
arginine HCl.

taurine
Taurine is an amino acid
known to help prevent
muscle fatigue, but it also
supports elevated mood.
Some studies have shown
that taurine improves left
ventrical function.

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SUPPS

PRODUCT REVIEW

UNDER THE
MICROSCOPE
Taking a purely scientific look at the best
products in the world of sports supplements
By Tim N. Ziegenfuss, PhD, CSCS, FISSN
We examine the critical active ingredients in various
sports supplements. We award high marks to those with existing
supportive data, real-world results and innovation in formulation.
Here we put micellar Beast under the microscope.
micellar Beast is an undenatured,
micellar casein formula that delivers a
payload of 40 grams of protein per
50 gram serving, while containing only
0.1 grams of sugar and 0.15 grams of
saturated fat. Within each 50 gram
serving, Micellar Beast also contains
8.75 grams of branched-chain amino
acids (BCAAs) which includes an
impressive 3.4 grams of leucine and
6.75 grams of glutamine. This ultra-slow
digesting protein is ideal for use before
bed to stem protein breakdown
during sleep.
micellar casein is a form of
protein derived from milk using
microfiltration. A micelle is a large
colloidal particle (i.e. an aggregate of
small, spherical molecules). Micellar
casein is unique for two important
reasons. First, because it is microfiltered, micellar casein is undenatured
and thus retains its native structural
properties that include a number
of powerful bioactive fractions
(glycomacropeptides, immunoglobulins,
lactalbumins, etc). Second, because
it forms a gel in the stomach during
digestion, micellar casein provides an
ultra-slow release of amino acids to
the body.
In 1997, a landmark study was
published that compared amino acid
kinetics (digestion and absorption) and
protein accretion between whey protein
and micellar casein. In other words,

178

MUSCLE & FitnESS

scientists wanted to compare the


effects of fast vs. slow proteins on
rates of muscle protein synthesis and
muscle protein breakdown in young
men. The results showed that whey
protein (which led to rapid, but shortlived increases in blood levels of amino
acids) was effective for stimulating
muscle protein synthesis but had no
effect on muscle protein breakdown.
In contrast, casein ingestion (which
resulted in a slower and more prolonged
increase in blood amino acid levels) led
to only slight increases in muscle protein
synthesis, but had dramatic effects on
decreasing muscle protein breakdown.
Since we know that muscle growth =
muscle protein synthesis minus muscle
protein breakdown, this study also
compared the net protein accretion
during the seven-hour experiment.
Casein was the clear winner, as whole
body leucine balance (a marker of
anabolism) was greater during the
casein condition compared to whey.
A follow-up study in 2012 examined
the effects of ingesting 40 grams of
casein prior to sleep on rates of whole
body and muscle protein synthesis. The
results revealed that ingesting casein
before bed increased muscle protein
synthesis by 22%, and therefore
represents an important strategy for
athletes who are trying to gain lean
(muscle) mass during training.
grade: HHHHH
reason: Micellar casein is the most

powerful anticatabolic protein we know


of. Its ultra-slow release profile of
approximately seven hours makes it the
perfect protein to consume just before
bedtime.
Bcaas make up about 30-35% of
skeletal muscle protein and have
important roles in controlling protein
metabolism, neural function, and the
regulation of blood sugar. Athletes often
look for protein powders that are rich
sources of BCAAs in order to reduce
muscle protein breakdown, restore
anabolic signalling, and (potentially)
upregulate fat loss. The BCAAs are
unique among all the amino acids
because they are the only ones thought
to bypass the liver and be metabolised
directly in skeletal muscle.
Leucine is considered the most
important of the BCAAs (at least to
bodybuilders), because scientists have
shown that it has the greatest effect on
stimulating muscle protein synthesis.
Research has clearly demonstrated that
leucine stimulates the amino acid/energy
sensor mTOR (mammalian target of
rapamycin). mTOR in turn stimulates
protein synthesis via two independent
mechanisms that are active in skeletal
muscle, especially during exercise and
recovery. Several studies have demonstrated just how potent leucine is with
respect to muscle growth. For example,
one study demonstrated that an isolated
dose of 2.5 grams of leucine could

effectively stimulate muscle protein


synthesis.
Isoleucine and valine are the other two
BCAAs that are taken up by the muscles
to form glucose during exercise.
Isoleucine also plays a role in regulating
blood sugar and synthesising haemo
globin (which carries oxygen throughout
the body), while valine has mild stimulant
properties and can reduce appetite at
higher doses.
Experimentally, BCAAs have been
shown to help speed muscle recovery
after intense training. Although the
mechanisms are not completely clear,
it appears that BCAAs act as signalling
nutrients and are able to promote the
phosphorylation of proteins directly
involved in muscle protein synthesis
(mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factors,
etc). In addition, some scientists have
speculated that longterm use of BCAAs
may also aid in fat loss, as isoleucine has
been shown to increase the activity of
genes controlling fat burning and
decrease the activity of genes control
ling fat storage. Some data also exists
that shows leucine itself can increase
fatty acid oxidation and increase
mitochondrial biogenesis (translation:
more mitochondria to generate energy)
in both muscle cells and fat cells.
Lastly, many crosstrained and
endurance athletes also use BCAAs to
combat fatigue and enhance their
aerobic performance. During prolonged
aerobic exercise, BCAAs are thought to
reduce the uptake of Ltryptophan (an
amino acid that is converted to seroto
nin) into the brain. The end result is a
reduction in what is known as central
fatigue and enhanced performance. In
addition, at least one study has reported
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GLUTAMINE is a conditionally essential
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GRADE: HHHH
REASON: There are many reasons
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The RaTings
HHHHH Outstanding scientific
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HHHH Solid research available;
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HHH Not much human research
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EXpErt

ADVICE ON TRAINING, NUTRITION AND SUPPLEMENTATION FROM TOP ATHLETES AND FITNESS PROFESSIONALS

this
months
highlights
includE
UFC fighter
Norman Parke
on training to stay
unbeaten in the
octagon
olympic athlete
Stuart Hayes
on training for
a triathlon
strength king
Andy Bolton
on mastering
the two-handed
kettlebell swing

Dr Adrian
Hodgson
on the optimum
protein-leucine
dose for
adaptations
to endurance
training

s i m o n h owa r d

Michelle Brannan
on how to go from
skinny to strong

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

STORMIN
NORMAN

Rising star norman Parke on training


to extend his unbeaten run in the UFC
By Brad Ward
Photography by Paul Wilson

and conditioning work?


Everything I do I like it to be explosive.
So, when Im doing the bench press or
deadlifts I do them fast and explode
with the weight because fighting is
about exploding in and out of different
positions. Ill lower the weight slowly
and then power up with each rep. Im
an explosive fighter so I mimic that
with my lifts. This helps me with my
dynamic movements in the cage like
my judo throws and takedowns. I love
weight training; a lot of fighters like to
pull a weighted sled and things like that
but what does that actually do? Youre

IrIsh mIxed martIal arts Is

better or what I didnt do, I just feel

not going to be pulling people around

on the rIse. Its hard to ignore

like I have improved so much, both

the cage. I do exercises that improve

Conor McGregors rapid ascent to UFC

technically and mentally. I am a more

my strength and that translate to my

stardom but his fellow Irishmenand

confident fighter now and that makes

fighting style.

Norman Parke in particularare also

a lot of difference because fighting

doing their bit to put Ireland on the

is 90% mental; my confidence is high

What fitness work do you do out

MMA map.

and thats the main thing.

of your fight camp?


After a fight Ill only have two or three

Since winning the 2012 series of

The Ultimate Fighter: The Smashes


and a six-figure contract with the UFC,
Parke, 27, has enjoyed an unbeaten
start to his career in the Octagon.
The judo black belts next challenge
is veteran UFC battler Gleison Tibau his toughest test to date. With the bout
scheduled for January 18th in Boston,
Massachusetts, the citys boistrous
Irish-American population should
make Parke feel right at home.
M&F caught up with Stormin
Norman in the run-up to the fight that
he hopes will extend his unbeaten
streak to six.

describe a typical training week.

weeks off before I get back to training

I train twice a day. That consists of a

and light sparring. This is my job, its

lot of sparring15 x 3-minute rounds

not about just training in fight camp,

of light sparring and lots of sprints.

its my job and I love it. Im training all

We dont try to kill each other when

the time and Im in shape as much as

we spar; its about drilling techniques

possible. It doesnt take me long at all

and becoming a better fighter. In terms

to get back to fight-ready fitness.

muscle&FItness: You are

do you do anything unusual in

I dont like to eat more than what my

now unbeaten in five uFc fights.

training?

body needs. I like to make my own

Whats next?

I like to go off alone and stand in

drinks with beetroot, kiwi fruit and

norman Parke: I want to fight

front of the mirror and shadow box.

other fruits as well. For dinner I will

a top 15 guy and I just want to keep

I dont know if this is what other

cook some chicken with broccoli and

getting better. I finally got to finish a

fighters do but it really helps me

green beans, nothing fancy. If I need a

guy after five fights so Im happy. It

identtify small details I can improve,

snack after dinner, Ill have a scoop of

was something that was hanging over

like posture, footwork and different

peanut butter.

my head and now its gone. I would

movements. I like to practise my

love to fight in front of my home crowd

striking in front of the mirror and

What supplements do you take?

in Belfast; that would be great.

watch myself coming in and out of

As well as the amino acids, I take fish

range because I know thats some-

oil in the morning but I like to get most

Your big break was the ultimate

thing I need to improve.

of my nutrients just through eating

Fighter: the smashes. how much


do you feel you have improved
since the show?
When I watch my fights back from the
show I can see what I couldve done

Whats the focus of your strength

right.

of strength and conditioning, I love


to do deadlifts because I can feel

What is your diet like during

my strength improving in my fights.

a weight cut?

Theyre excellent for building the right

I eat oats with blueberries for break-

kind of strength for grappling and

fast. I take amino acids throughout

wrestling. When I can get someone to

the day to keep my energy levels high.

the ground I can feel how my strength

Then I will have a handful of nuts as

has improved.

a snack. After the session I will have


some white rice just to keep me going,

184

MUSCLE & FitnESS

I love to do deadlifts because I can


feel my strength improving in fights

SNAPSHOT

Age: 27
Birthplace: Bushmills, Northern
Ireland
Lives: Bushmills, Northern Ireland
Height: 5 ft 11 ins / 180 cm
Weight: 154 lbs / 70 kg
Career Highlight: Getting my first
finish in the UFC
Ambition: To win my next fight; I
dont like to get ahead of myself.
Training Advice: Make sure all the
tools in the box are sharpened
because you never know when
youre going to need them.
Sponsor: Garden of Life
Contact: @norman_parke

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

FLYING HIGH

England womens rugby union captain


Katy mclean discusses the training that
made her a World Cup winner
By Brad Ward
Photography by Jordan Mansfield/Stringer

burpees and bentover rows. Each


round would take about eight minutes
and I would repeat this six times.
what strength training do you do?
I do a lot of strongman-type training,
such as farmers walk, tyre flipping,
prowler pushing and a bit of wrestling.
These exercises are put into a circuit
and I work on a 30-second to a minute
basis and then rotate around 3-4 times
with limited rest periods.
All my training is specific to my
needs. During the World Cup I was

2014 was a good year for

I hope the growth continues, not just in

working mostly on strength and power.

england womens rugby

rugby but womens sport as a whole.

My four-day split would include two

captain Katy mclean. Not only

lower and two upper body sessions.

did she lead her country to its second

is now the best time for women to

Lower body would be a lot of power

womens World Cup triumph, but she

get into sport?

cleans and back squats and then some

was also awarded an MBE in the New

Definitely. Right now womens sport

balance movements on a wobble board

Years Honours list, and a professional

has a lot of credibility and thats really

with some box jumps. Upper body

playing contract by the RFU.

important. People dont just talk to

would include bench press, shoulder

me about womens rugby, they talk to

press and bentover rows. I also like to

for Darlington Mowden Park Sharks,

me about rugby as a whole, which I

do resistance band exercises. My

is now focusing on preparations for

think is a massive change in the shift

one-rep max on the bench press is

rugby sevens debut at the 2016

of opinion.

75 kg and my squat is about 100 kg.

McLean 28, who plays her club rugby

I do lower sets and reps with a heavier

Olympics and retaining Englands World


Cup crown.

describe a typical week with

Muscle&Fitness caught up with the


fly-half to get an insight into her World
Cup winning training camp.

england before the world cup

weight to improve my overall strength.

Tuesday was our hard rugby session.

do you do any position-specific

In the morning wed be drilling set

training?

pieces and back plays and the for-

The biggest thing I worked on is

muscle&fitness: How does it

wards were off doing lineouts and

acceleration and speed, Im happy

feel to be a world cup winner?

scrums. After lunch wed do our main

with where I am strength-wise and I

Katy mclean: It has been phenom-

endurance training session. This

can look after myself when it comes to

enal. It really has been a massive

consisted of conditioning games, skills

contact and physicality. For me, its

journey for me as a person. When I got

under fatigue, and a big chunk of

10-15 m bursts of pace and accelera-

selected to captain the England team I

running called Malcolmsyou start on

tion off the mark and into a space that

was lucky in the way we set out our

your tummy facing forwards, spring up

is most important. Explosive strength

leadership programme because there

and sprint 10 m and back, hit the deck

is also important in my position, so

were seven other girls involved, which

again then spring back up and do 20 m,

I do a lot of jumping and explosive

made it a lot easier.

hit the deck again and do 30 m, and so

exercises like power cleans, jump

on. Wed have a certain time to do it for

squats and hurdles.

whats next for womens rugby?

a total of six sets.

Twenty of us have been offered


full-time professional contracts in

do you do any other cardio?

preparation for the Olympic games,

One of the hardest cardio sessions I

which is a real honour. I am now a

did was 30 m shuttles, which was 10 m

professional rugby player, which is

and back, 20 m and back, 30 m and

amazingI never thought this would

back in a certain amount of time, for

happen in my career.

three sets. Then we would do coat

I think the Olympics in 2012 was a

hangers, which are basically the same

real turning point for womens sport

but over a longer distance, usually

and there was a bit of a buzz after the

about 150 m. We also did 20 m sprints

womens 2010 World Cup. Since then

with very little rest. After that Id do a

the cricket girls have done really well

circuit involving a 20 m prowler push,

as well as the football and netball girls.

six tyre flips, five push-presses,

186

MUSCLE & FitnESS

All my training
is specific to my
needs. During
the World Cup
I was working
mostly on
strength and
power

SNAPSHOT

Age: 28
Birthplace: South Shields
Lives: South Shields
Height: 5 ft 5 ins / 167 cm
Weight: 159 lbs / 72 kg
Career Highlight: Captaining
England to World Cup success
Ambition: To go to the Olympics
and retain the World Cup
Training Advice: Never give up
Contact: On Twitter, @katymc10

EXPERT

TRAINING TALK

BeST
SuPPORT AcT

Elite triathlete STuarT hayeS discusses


his training and his part in the Brownlee
brothers Olympic triumph
By Dominic Bliss
Photography by Simon Howard

Sports psychology
I used to think negative thoughts before a
race. Michelle, though, is very focused on
believing you can be the best. She has a
nevergiveup attitude.
Dealing with injuries
Training for multisport is easier if you get
injured. Lets say youre a runner: you get
injured, you think your worlds come to an
end, you cant train and you lose your
endorphins. But in triathlon, whatever
injury you have, theres always something
you can work on in one of the three
disciplines.

TriaThleTe STuarT hayeS,

there to hold them back. In triathlon

unusual equipment for training

35, iS beST known for hiS

you have to want to train all day long.

I use a tempo trainer for swimming. It

SupporTing role. At London

If a coach has to push you out of the

keeps my cadence high. In open water you

2012, he was a domestique for Alistair

door, that means theres a problem;

need fast turnover because its choppy

and Jonathan Brownlee. French for

youre not going to make it.

and people might hit you. With the tempo

servant, this role required him to


help the Brownlees stay with the
leaders and mitigate any equipment
problems. He knew the best he could
hope for was third place behind the pair.
When the brothers won gold and
bronze, and Stuart finished 37th, he
couldnt have been more delighted.
I didnt get a medal but I felt I was
part of the Brownlees medals, he
explains. They gave me the recog
nition. They included me in everything.
We all went out celebrating together
afterwards.
His training for triathlon sees him
running through the parks of south
west London, cycling through the
Surrey hills and swimming in various
local pools, as well as the lakes at
Thorpe Park.
We caught up with him recently to
find out more about training for one
of the Olympics most demanding
sports.
on having his wife as his coach
It works well because my wife and I
communicate well. Theres the
downside when she tells me to pick
up the training and I say I cant do
this. We almost argue when that
happens. But shes my boss. In any
case, I tend to push myself too hard,
while Michelle tends to hold me back.
A lot of athletes that are the best tend
to overtrain, and their coaches are

188

MUSCLE & FitnESS

TRAINING ScheduLe
For a tough training week in winter:
Monday
Am: Easy recovery bike ride (90 to
100 km in the Surrey hills)
Am: 4 km-5 km swim in a pool for
1.5 hours
Pm: 45-minute run for 10 km at 14 km/h
Tuesday
Am: Interval run session (8 x 3 minutes
with a 2-minute recovery in between)
Am: Strength training in the gym for
one hour
Pm: Recovery bike ride (25 km for
one hour)
wednesday
Am: Easy bike ride for 2.5 hours
(50 km near Windsor)
Pm: Lactate-intolerance swim (6 x
100 m at maximum effort with 100 m
easy swims in betweena total of 4 km
including warm-up and cooldown)
Thursday
Am: Bike-to-run session (warm-up;
30 minutes of intense cycling plus
20 minutes of hard running straight
off the bike)
Pm: Light swim (2 km in 45 minutes)
friday
Rest day: Just one hour of strength
training in the gym
Saturday
Long run: 20 km in 1.5 hours
Sunday
Long ride: 100 km in four hours

trainer, you adjust it, put it in your hat, and


it beeps so you keep your stroke cadence.
I also use paddles for swim training, and I
sometimes tie my legs together with an old
inner tube. That teaches you to save your
legs for the bike and run sections.
gym work
I mainly do this to prevent injury. Ever
since I hit 30, my body has got much
stiffer. I realised I needed something to
stop me getting injured all the time so I
developed my own programme consist
ing of Pilates on the reformer machine
and light weight training. I concentrate on
the muscles I use as a triathlete: glutes,
scapula set, abdominal work for my
backhigh repetitions and light weights.
Diet
I eat as much as I feel like eating. Because
were training all day long, we have to
keep putting the calories in. Your body
tells you what it wants. My guilty pleasure
is a full English breakfast. I think its
better to have these foods in full training
because you know youre going to burn
the calories off. If you fancy a beer
midweek, then have a beer. Its when
youre not training that you have to be
really careful.
Sleep
I normally go to bed at 10 pm and get
up at 7 am. Nine hours of sleep a night.
You need it.

I concentrate
on the muscles
I use as a
triathlete:
glutes, scapula
set, abdominal
work for my
backhigh
repetitions and
light weights

SNAPSHOT

Date of Birth: 35
Place of Birth: Isleworth, west
London
Lives: Whitton, west London
Height: 6 ft 2 ins / 188 cm
Weight: 165 lbs / 75 kg
Career Highlight: Being the
domestique for the Brownlee
brothers at the Olympic Games.
Ambition: Id like to compete
in the Half Ironman
Championships. Im not going to
go full Ironman.
Training Advice: Whatever your
sport, keep up your strength and
conditioning. That will stop you
getting injured long-term.
Sponsors: Trion:Z
Contact: Twitter @StuHayes13

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EXPERT

PErFormANcE NUtrItIoN

FUELLING
GAINS
How much carbohydrate
is needed during training?
By James Collins and
Mark Hobden

Main Findings
Those who drank 39 grams of
carbohydrate per hour (g/h) or
64 g/h were significantly quicker
(34 m 19 secs and 34 min 11 sec
respectively) than those who
drank water.

192

MUSCLE & FITNESS

Performance was improved by


an average of 6.1% when drinking
carbohydrate. There was no
difference found between the
39 g/h and 64 g/h doses.
Drinking 20 g/h of carbohydrate
improved time-trial performance
by 3.7% compared to the control,
but this was not statistically
significant.

signiFicant Methodology
Twenty male cyclists took part
in the study, which involved four
experimental trials comprising a
two-hour constant cycle at 95%
lactate threshold followed by a
cycling time-trial at 70% peak power
output. During the trials, cyclists
were given carbohydrate drinks
containing 20, 39 or 64 g/h of
carbohydrate or water. All drinks
were provided at a rate of one litre
per hour.

take-hoMe Message
Thirty-nine and 64 g/h of carbohydrate are equally beneficial at
improving performance. Professor
Asker Jeukendrup, a leading authority in this area of research, suggests
that carbohydrate intakes above
60 g/h are only necessary in events
that last more than two hours and
are performed at near maximal
intensity, such as marathons and
competitive cycling stages. In these
situations, the intake of carbohydrates may enhance oxidation rates.

Remember, high intakes of carbohydrate during exercise may cause


digestive discomfort so practising
strategies in training is essential.
Continued use of carbohydrates in
training may improve the guts ability
to handle increased intakes of
carbohydrate.
In shorter events, smaller quantities of carbohydrate are required
(around 30 g/h). Regular, small
intakes of carbohydratesuch as
a few swigs of a sports drink or an
energy gelduring exercise are
optimal. If consuming a sports drink
it is also important to determine the
amount of fluid being consumed, as
overconsumption not only increases
the likelihood of frequent toilet stops
but may also lead to weight gain
thus compromising power-to-weight
ratio, and potentially negatively
affecting performance. However, it is
equally important to minimise the risk
of dehydration.

REFERENCE

Newell ML, Hunter AM, Lawrence C, Tipton KD and


Galloway SDR (2014) The Ingestion of 39 or 64.g.h-1
of Carbohydrate is Equally Effective at Improving
Endurance Exercise Performance in Cyclists.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise
Metabolism [Epub ahead of print]

GoodMood photo

Getting enough carbohydrates


during exercise is vital for endurance athletes. In disciplines like
long-distance running and cycling,
glycogen (energy) stores are
depleted so getting some carbohydrate in provides necessary fuel
for the working muscles.
But the benefits are not restricted
to long-distance events. Evidence
is piling up that carbohydrate intake
during exercise also improves
performance in shorter events
(lasting less than an hour) and
intermittent sports like football
and rugby.
The amount of carbohydrate
needed depends on a range of
factors, including the duration,
intensity and type of exercise youre
doing, but also your experience and
usage of sports drinks and gels.
As a rule of thumb, shorter events
need less carbohydrate per hour
than longer events.
A recent study has investigated
the effects of three different sports
drinks, each with a different concentration of carbohydrate, on performance in a cycling trial lasting a
total of 2.5 hours.

Performance nutrition

rinSe anD
rePeat
Reducing muscular fatigue
is it time to mouth rinse?
Muscular fatigue is a decline in
the ability of a muscle to produce
force. Weve all experienced this,
whether its the difficulty of forcing
out those last few reps or losing
your grip on the bar during heavy
deadlifts.
Our muscles adapt with every
training session, so with regular
and progressive training muscular
fatigue is reached at a higher
intensity (i.e. heavier weight load
and/or more reps). But scientific
evidence also suggests a carbohydrate stimulus in the mouth may
help counteract the onset of
muscular fatigue.
Mouth-rinsing a carbohydrate
solution, such as a sports drink, is
thought to alter muscular function
following the activation of neural
pathways connected with reward
centres in the brain. A recent study

published in the International Journal


of Sport Nutrition and Exercise
Metabolism investigated the effects
of a carbohydrate stimulus on
muscular fatigue in a group of
elite athletes.

Main Findings
A carbohydrate mouth rinse
before a maximal set of knee
extensions lessened the reduction
in peak and average force production in comparison to the placebo.
No differences in the electrical
activity of the muscles were found
between the carbohydrate and
placebo mouth rinse.

signiFicant Methodology
Twelve competitive male athletes
(nine rowers, one cyclist, one runner
and one volleyball player) took part
in the study. They undertook two
experimental trials, one with an 8%
carbohydrate mouth rinse and
another with a placebo mouth rinse.
The trials involved performing three
five-second maximal isometric knee
extensions followed by a 50%
maximal contraction until exhaustion. The mouth rinse (carbohydrate
or placebo) was performed immediately before the 50% maximal
contraction. Muscular force and
electrical activity were measured
throughout.

take-hoMe Message
These findings highlight a potential
benefit to carbohydrate supplementation for strength athletes and gym
enthusiasts. The ability of a carbo-

194

MUSCLE & FitNESS

hydrate stimulus to reduce muscular


fatigue, although by only a small
degree, may prove beneficial during
resistance training sessions.
So, how can this be incorporated
into your training? In this study,
volunteers didnt swallow the
carbohydrate solution but spat
it out. Obviously this isnt a practical
solution in a gym; its likely to make
you rather unpopular. Rather than
spitting the solution out, the key is to
ensure the drink is kept in your mouth
for 5-10 seconds before swallowing.
The carbohydrate stimulus takes
effect within seconds.
Experiment with having a small sip
of a drink immediately before each
set of exercise. Some individuals,
especially those trying to strip body
fat, might be concerned about the
idea of consuming carbohydrates
during resistance exercise. Importantly, however, this strategy only
requires a small intake of carbohydrate and is therefore unlikely to be
an issue.
It is important to note that the
benefits of carbohydrate mouth
rinsing may be less pronounced in
those that have consumed a highcarbohydrate meal or shake before
the training session. This is an area
of research that warrants further
investigation.

REFERENCE

Jensen M, Stellingwerff T, Klimstra M (2014)


Carbohydrate Mouthrinse Counters Fatigue Related
Strength Reduction. International Journal of Sport
Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism [Epub ahead of
print]

Performance Nutrition is a London-based


consultancy, providing comprehensive support
to elite and recreational athletes. Director
James Collins is a leading nutritionist who
was part of Englands back-room team at the
World Cup in Brazil and is head nutritionist
for Arsenal FC. For more information visit
www.theperformancenutritionist.com
Mark Hobden is head of research & development
at Performance Nutrition. He is currently
completing a doctorate in nutrition at the
University of Reading, where he sits on the
committee of the Institute of Cardiovascular
and Metabolic Research. Mark has degrees in
sports biology and sport and exercise nutrition.
He has previously worked for the Gatorade
Sports Science Institute, the Porsche human
performance team at Silverstone and in
professional rugby.

Ian Logan

EXPERT

EXPERT

Muscle MoveMents

Glutes

Top trainer Phil Learneys masterclass


on anatomy and training for different
body parts continues with glutes.
Photography by Christopher Bailey

REad abouT
Phil lEaRnEy online at

www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/phillearney

The gluteus minimus is responsible for abduction and transverse


abduction (moving the leg away from
the body in a horizontal plane) and
internal rotation in abduction (same
direction as feet turning in).
The glutes act almost like a brake
following hip extension. They stop
you going into back hyperextension
and help transfer the force through
the corresponding limbs.

muscle movements

Hip Bridge
Want to generate raw muscular
power for any sport? Then shoot
from the hip.
Every elite athlete from Olympic
lifters to boxers will tell you that
explosiveness comes from extending
the hips. This movement provides
the force behind everything from a
tennis players smash to a discus
competitors throw.
But it is impossible to do without
a powerful pair of glutes.
To get the glutes firing, you need
to understand the function of the
muscles and how theyre designed
to move.

196

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Glutes AnAtomy
When training glutes you need to target
three muscles; gluteus maximus,
gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
The gluteus maximus is the
major muscle. It is a powerful hip
extensor and its job is to allow the
leg to rotate externally (turn outwards), move away from the midline
of the body (transverse abduction),
and move towards the bodys midline
laterally (adduction).
The gluteus medius is also
responsible for all the above with the
exception of hip extension and the
inclusion of internal rotation.

Glutes and hamstrings are hugely


important in building a strong
posterior chain. But a lot of people,
including elite sportspeople, are
weak in this area. Spending a
lot of time sitting behind a desk or
in front of the TV doesnt help.
A large number of people have
inhibition in the glutes because
their hip flexors are tight. The
shortening of the hips causes the
pelvis to tilt forwards. In response
to this, the thoracic portion of the
spine rounds to compensate. This
makes it difficult for the glutes to
work efficiently.
Agonist and antagonist muscles
work synergistically. But if the
glutes (the primary muscle) are
inactive, the hamstrings (the
synergist muscle in this case)
move into pre-stretch and become
overactive and dominant. This
causes them to fire prior to the
glutes. So during hip extension
the glutes therefore become
dysfunctional.
This phenomenon is called
gluteal amnesia because the
glutes are effectively asleep and
do not work properly.
The back squat is renowned
as a glute builder. But unless the
glutes are actively working, the
hamstrings take most of the
eccentric load due to the anterior
tilting of the pelvis and load the
erectors at the base of the squat.
Getting the glutes to fire is
therefore a major issue for many
people.
A sign that somebodys glutes
arent firing is when they bend over
to pick something up by extending
their back, which utilises the spinal

EXPERT

Muscle MoveMents

erectors to pull them upright. Its


better to extend the hips, which
utilises mainly the glutes and
hamstrings.
To activate the glutes, statically
stretch the hip flexors, to inhibit
their activity.
Use a foam roller or trigger point
ball on the tight area then statically
stretch the hips, which helps to shut
them down if they are tight and
overdominant. Then do moves such
as band walks, lying clamshells and
side-lying leg raises to initiate the
glutes.
Think of it like this: inhibit, stretch
and activate.
The main thing to remember
is that you need to activate the
glutes so do relatively high reps.
Do between 8-12 with 3-4 sets to
ensure a decent amount of motor
recruitment as well as a good
amount of metabolic work.

Try This WorkouT


Quadruped hip Extension
3-4 sets x 8-12 reps
hip Bridge 3-4 sets x 8-12 reps
reverse hyper 3-4 sets x 8-12 reps
reverse Lunge 3-4 sets x 8-12 reps

ReveRse HypeR

Quadruped hip extension


Electromyography studies have
shown this move has the greatest
peak activation of any
glute exercise. It also causes the
greatest activation of the gluteus
medius as well.
Starting on all fours, kick the
machine up behind youits a
hip extension so the knee goes
behind the hip. Increase the angle
between your torso and thigh so
the thigh has to go backwards.
hip bridge This is a hip extension
that works the gluteus maximus.
Lie on your back, legs pulled in
and feet flat on the floor. Push
your hips towards the ceiling and
squeeze your buttocks, hold for
five seconds before slowly
returning to the start.
reverse hyper This is a hip
flexion moving to extension. At the
top, the glutes and hamstrings

198

MUSCle & FitneSS

QuadRuped Hip extension


work against gravity to hold the
legs up. Because I have taken the
back out of it the glutes and
hamstrings have got to work.
reverse lunge This is known
as a reverse movement because
the leg goes backwards. Move
the leg first into hip extension and
then into flexion. With forward

lunges, the knee never goes into


extension.

Phil learney

is a respected strength and


conditioning expert with 20 years
experience. He is a coach,
writer and speaker with an
open-minded, results-based
approach. He is the director
of Phil Learney Performance
Education and teaches
extensively across the UK.

EXPERT

BIKINI BODY

FROM SKINNY
TO STRONG
In the first of a new series, British IFBB bikini pro
MiChelle Brannan reveals how she helps different
body types get in shape, beginning with Joanna Wolosz
The ClienT
Many women want to get into weight
training but dont know how to start.
Joanna Wolosz was like this when
she came to me a year ago.
Joanna, a mother and hairdresser,
was naturally slim and didnt have
much muscle tone. She told me she
wanted to compete in bikini fitness
contests but hadnt trained before.
The huge rise in bikini com
petitions has encouraged more
women to train for a fitter look. This
requires building some muscle but
I dislike the traditional bodybuilding
approach, which involves bulking
up and then getting lean.
Most women dont want to get
bigger. They want to increase
muscle, reduce body fat and sculpt
an aesthetic shape to look good all
year rather than spend half the year
bulky. So I describe my approach as
bodysculpting or body composition
management rather than bodybuilding.
The challenge was to find an
approach for someone naturally
skinny like Joanna that would
enable her to add muscle without
getting bulky.
My Diagnosis: nuTriTion
People think you are lucky if you are
naturally slim but such people,
particularly women, usually have
trouble building muscle.
My approach is to lean down first,
get rid of excess body fat and then
add food back in. So we had to get
Joannas nutrition right then gradually
increase calories.

200

MUSCLE & FitnESS

Joanna, I discovered, works


better on a highprotein, lowfat and
highercarb diet.
I wanted her to eat little and
often, which helps with blood
sugar management and energy
levels. The extra energy would
be particularly useful for her,
considering she has a job and
children to look after, and would
also fuel her workouts.
Heres what she ate in a typical
day, which consisted of five or
six small meals. During contest
preparation she consumed about
1,700 calories each day.
Meal 1
Oats, whey protein, coconut oil
Meal 2
Chicken, vegetables, brown rice
Meal 3
Fatfree cheese and berries

Meal 4
Grilled salmon, vegetables, potato
Meal 5
Casein or chicken and vegetables
Joanna also had whey protein and
a small amount of carbohydrate
postworkout.
Once a week she had an offplan
meal, which was a meal of her
choice. Closer to contests this
became a carbohydrate refeed
meal, which was a carbohydraterich
meal low in protein and fats to restore
muscle glycogen.
I use a flexible diet system where
you can select foods within food
groups, which helps to make nutrition
a lifestyle rather than a strict diet.
Consistency is key: you have to
find a way of eating well every day,
not just when youre leaning down
for a big day.

EXPERT

BIKINI BODY

Michelle watches Joanne deadlifting

My Diagnosis: Training
Training for aesthetics is different
to training for fitness; you need to
consider individual body types and
remember that what works for one
may not work for another.
So Joannas programme needed
to suit her genetics. I found she
builds muscle in her upper body
faster than her lower body so we
focused on developing her lower
body by using machines to add size
without increasing the thickness of
her core. We also incorporated
squats, lunges and free weight
exercises.

She wore a weights belt: I recommend anyone training for aesthetics to


do likewise to keep the waist small.
Joanna was not blessed with round
glutes so we targeted that area by
prescribing a lot of glute isolation
exercises, including kickbacks,
stiff-legged deadlifts and single-leg
work, to ensure she hit the glutes
from all angles.
We mixed high volume with low
reps and heavier weights to keep
her body guessing. She did daily
cardio to burn fat because the
leaner someone is, the more
defined they look even if they arent
actually any bigger. The aim was to
create small, defined muscles
rather than bulky ones.
Cardio included a mixture of high
stepper, which helps to shape the
glutes, incline walking on the treadmill
and plyometrics. Im a great believer
in mixing up cardio to prevent your
body getting used to what you
are doing.
Many people just increase the
length of their cardio but my advice

is to do something different before


it gets to that stage. Its a more
effective use of time.
Her typical training split was:
Day 1 Legs
Day 2 Shoulders
Day 3 Chest and back
Day 4 Hamstrings and glutes
Day 5 Arms and shoulders
Day 6 Hamstrings and glutes
or just glutes
The resulTs
Joanna is an extremely hard worker
and quite strong. She pushed to her
limits and the results were evident.
After less than a year of training,
she won three regional bikini
fitness competitions and placed
second at the UKBFF British
Championships. Strong is definitely
the new skinny for her.

ABOUT MICHELLE

s i m o n h owa r d

Having structure to your eating


all year round ensures your body
is fuelled to build shape whilst
keeping you in reasonable condition to prevent muscle loss when
you get lean.
Best of all it avoids the bulk
and cut mentality that doesnt
suit the majority of women who
want to achieve a toned look all
year round.

Michelle Brannan is an IFBB bikini pro.


She also runs a coaching team called
Showgirl Fitness and the online training
subscription resource BodySculpt Pro.
www.michellebrannan.com

MUSCLE & FITnESS

201

EXPERT

KETTLEBELL MASTERCLASS
The Two-handed keTTlebell
swing is one of The mosT
perfecT movemenTs you
could ever perform in The
gym. All you need is a kettlebell and
youre in business.

This one movement will:


n build strength from head to toe.
n develop a powerful hip snap

TWOHANDED
SWING

Build explosive hips, rock-hard abs and


a vice-like grip in one simple move.
By Andy Bolton
Photography by Christopher Bailey
202

MUSCLE & FitnESS

thatll translate to stronger deadlifts,


harder kicks, more powerful punches,
faster sprint times and an overall
improvement in athletic ability.
n build a rock-hard midsection and
vice-like gripboth of which will
translate to more strength on any
barbell exercise you care to name.
Suffice it to say, the kettlebell
swing is a one-stop shot for
strength, speed, power, muscle,
endurance and fat loss. Few
exercises can deliver the same.
You could do much worse than
swing the 48 kg kettlebell for 10 sets
of 10 reps three times a week. Heck,
even if that was all you did youd
look phenomenal and youd be
strong and well conditioned.
However, before you can even
think about swinging the 48 kg
kettlebellaka The Beastyou need
to get your form dialled in.
Done correctly, the swing is easy
to recover from because it doesnt
have a slow eccentric motion. Done
incorrectly, it will beat you up and
injure you faster than you can say
go home and dont train.
With that in mind, lets deal with
the swing technique. Then well look
at programming the swing into your
routine.

perfecTing
The TechniQue
start position:
n Set up with a shoulder-width
stance, toes flared out slightly or
pointed straight ahead and the
bell in front of you. Your feet and
the bell should form a three-point
triangle.
n Push your hands into the crease
of your hips and sit back. Try to keep
your shins vertical and push your
butt backwards. Your hamstrings

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Surrey

30/32 High Street,


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Manchester
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EXPERT

KETTLEBELL MASTERCLASS

will feel tight and your torso will


naturally lean over.
n Grip the bell with two hands. Look
straight ahead, keep a neutral spine,
pack the shoulders and sniff in
through your nose. Brace your abs,
tense your lats and youre ready to
begin.

Jonathan Walker
demonstrates
the two-handed
swing at Gambaru
gym in Harrogate

To begin the swing:


n Hike the bell back between your
legs by tensing your lats hard and
using them to swing the bell
backwards.
n Once your arms touch your belly,
power-breathe and use your hips to
drive the kettlebell forwards. If you
power breathe correctly you should
feel your lats and abs contract even
harder. If you lose tightness you
arent power-breathing.
n Project the kettlebell to about
chest height. Tense your lats to
prevent the bell swinging too high.
Strength expert Pavel Tsatsouline
calls this taming the arc. At the
top of the swing, when the bell
is at chest height, keep your
shoulders packed and allow the
bell to float momentarily. Your
glutes and abs should be rock-hard
at this point.

Reversing the movement:


n Allow the bell to fall back down
between your legs. Stay standing up
tall for as long as possible, only
moving your hips backwards at the
last second. Play chicken with the
bellyou will not hit yourself in
the groin! As the bell descends,
you will need to sniff in some more
air through your nose.
n Once the bell is back between
your legs and you feel your arms
against your belly, use your hips to
fire the bell forwards and begin
another rep.

PROGRAMME
YOUR WORKOUT
To master your two-handed swing
technique, perform five sets of five
reps with about a minutes rest
between sets. Do this daily, either
at the start or end of your training

204

MUSCLE & FitnESS

sessions, or at some other point in


the day.
It doesnt really matter when you
do these sets because they arent
very demanding. What matters
is that you do them. They will
hone your technique to perfection,
assuming you follow the steps
given above.
Use a 16 kg kettlebell if youre an
average man or a 24 kg if youre
already strong. If youre a well-trained
woman, begin with a 12 kg bell.
Once you have your form down,
there are many ways to progress with
your swing. Here is one of the best
Start with five sets of five reps and

60 seconds rest between sets.


Add a set every session (once or
twice a week) until you are doing
10 sets of five reps.
Now add a rep every session until
you are doing 10 sets of 10 reps with
a minutes rest between sets.
At this point switch to a bigger
kettlebell. If you follow this plan and
work up to 10 sets of 10 reps with
the 40 kg or 48 kg kettlebell, youll
be pretty strong and very well
conditioned.
Its a simple progression thats
extremely effectivethe very
definition of efficient
training.

ANDY BOLTON is a multiple world champion powerlifter


and world record holder. He was the first man to deadlift
more than 1,000 lbs. For more information
visit: andyboltonstrength.org

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Bodypower Sports Plc - Sole UK distributor for Body-Solid & Powerline products
Weights sold separately
Northampton

13 Gate Lodge Close,


Round Spinney
Northampton
NN3 8RJ

Surrey

30/32 High Street,


Frimley,
Surrey
GU16 7JD

Manchester
287 Talbot Rd,
Stretford
Manchester
M32 0YA

Chester

157-167 Foregate St
Chester
CH1 1HF

Gloucester
2 Fullers Ct
Westgate St
Gloucester
GL1 2UN

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Kent
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Manchester

Freephone 0808 256 1789

www.fitness-superstore.co.uk/MF
Northampton

13 Gate Lodge Close,


Round Spinney
Northampton
NN3 8RJ

Surrey

30/32 High Street,


Frimley,
Surrey
GU16 7JD

Manchester
287 Talbot Rd,
Stretford
Manchester
M32 0YA

Chester

157-167 Foregate St
Chester
CH1 1HF

Gloucester
2 Fullers Ct
Westgate St
Gloucester
GL1 2UN

Kent

30-34 Grosvenor Road


Tunbridge Wells
Kent
TN1 2AP

Newcastle Upon Tyne


Royal Quays Outlet
Centre, Coble Dene,
North Shields
NE29 6DW

Leeds

Junction 32 Retail Outlet


Tomahawk Trail
Glasshoughton
WF10 4FR

HOT BOD

got what it takes

to be M&Fs next Hot Bod? Go to

www.muscle-fitness.co.uk/
hotbod to submit info and pics.

208

MUSCLE & FitnESS

m i c h a e l pa l m e r

Roxy Winstanley, 26, is a


foRmeR national level
gymnast Who discoveRed
the gym When she Was at
univeRsity. The Scouser is
now a regular on the physique
contest circuit although shes
not a big fan of the diet. I love
sweets so having to restrict
myself to two squares of dark
chocolate a day is hard, she
says. Fortunately, she doesnt
have the same problem with
bread. The sound of buttering
toast goes straight through
me. Its worse than nails on
a blackboard!

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