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AnIntroductiontotheEnvironmentalPhysicsofSoil,WaterandWatersheds

ByCalvinW.Rose
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Coverimage:Furrow irrigation of newly planted sugar cane crop near Clare
(Queensland, Australia.) CSIROLandandWater.
Chapter1frontispiece:Meteosatimageoftheworldfromspace.
(ProvidedbyasuspendedimageserviceprovidedbytheUniversityofNottingham.)

Fig.1.2:NaturalerosionatBryceCanyon,Utah,USA.
(PhotobytheAuthor.)

Fig.1.3:Soilshavedevelopedandcontinuetochangeattheinterfaceofmajorearth
environments.
(AfterMcTainshandBoughton(1993)inLandDegradationProcessesinAustralia,
LongmanCheshire.)

Fig.1.8:Componentsofthedaytimeheatenergyexchangeattheearth'ssurface.
(FromRose(1979)inAgriculturalPhysics,reproducedwithpermissionfromPergamon
Press.)

Fig1.9:Componentsofthenighttimeheatexchangeattheearth'ssurface.
(AfterRose(1979)inAgriculturalPhysics,reproducedwithpermissionfromPergamon
Press.)

Chapter2frontispiece:LandslideinNepal.
(ReproducedwithpermissionfromAustralianAssociatedPressLtd.)

Fig2.2:Soilaggregatesorcrumbs,withwaterwithinandbetweenadjacentaggregates.
(AfterRose(1979)inAgriculturalPhysics,reproducedwithpermissionfromPergamon
Press.)

Fig.2.20:Effectsofsuctionanddegreeofsaturationandstressontheeffectivestressofa
beachsanddryingfromsaturation.
(FromMarshall,HolmesandRose(1996)inSoilPhysics,3rdEd,p238;reproducedwith
permissionfromCambridgeUniversityPress.)

Fig.3.12:TherelationshipbetweenthedragcoefficientforasphereandtheReynolds
number.
(AfterMonteithandUnsworth(1990)inPrinciplesofEnvironmentalPhysics,2ndEd,
EdwardArnold.)

Photographonpage62:ChildrenstandingneartheedgeofalandslideinEastTimor.
(ReproducedwithpermissionbyLisetteWilsonandKevinAustin,takenwhentheywere
withtheUnitedNationsTransitionalAdministrationinEastTimor.Lisetteiscurrently
withtheWorldWideFundforNature,SouthPacificProgram.)

Fig.4.4:Arunoffplotdefinedbyboundariesacrosswhichthereisnoflowexceptatits
lowerend.
(AfterRose(1993)Chapter14inHydrologyandWaterManagementintheHumid
Tropics,edsBonnell,HufschmidtandGladwell,p321;reproducedwithpermissionfrom
CambridgeUniversityPress.

Fig.4.8:Therelationshipbetweentheratioevapotranspiration/lossandthedriedmass
perhectareofagrowingtropicallegumepasturecrop.
(AfterRoseetal.(1972)inAgriculturalMeteorology(nowAgricultureandForest
Management)Vol10,p167;reproducedwithpermissionfromElsevier.)

Fig.4.9:Acomparisonofestimatedandobservedchangesinavailabilityofsoilwater
underawheatfallowsequence.
(AfterFitzpatrickandNix(1969)inAgriculturalMeteorology(nowAgricultureand
ForestManagement)Vol6,p317;reproducedwithpermissionfromElsevier.)

Fig.4.10:Relationshipsbetweentheyieldofgrainsorghumandacomputedwaterstress
indexforfivegrainsorghumvarieties.
(AfterNixandFitzpatrick(1969)inAgriculturalMeteorology(nowAgricultureand
ForestManagement)Vol6,p317;reproducedwithpermissionfromElsevier.)

Chapter5frontispiece:Coastline,WellingtonPoint,Queensland,Australia.
(PhotobytheAuthor.)

Fig.5.4:Thesensorheadofanetradiometer.
(AfterSzeicz(1975)inVegetationandtheAtmosphere,Vol1,edMonteith;reproduced
withpermissionfromAcademicPress.)

Fig.5.7:Thehistoryofvariationonanalmostcloudfreedayofthecomponentsofthe
energybudgetequation.
(AfterRoseetal.(1972)inAgriculturalMeteorology(nowAgricultureandForest
Management)Vol9,p392;reproducedwithpermissionfromElsevier.)

Fig.5.16:Therelationshipbetweentemperatureandvapourdensityandrelativehumidity
atsealevelatatmosphericpressure.
(AfterCampbell(1988)inAnIntroductiontoEnvironmentalBiophysics,2ndEd,p23;
reproducedwithpermissionfromSpringerVerlag.)

Fig.6.12:Illustratingtheresponseoftheaveragefieldinfiltrationratetotherainfallrate.

(AfterRose(1985)inAdvancesinSoilScience,Vol2,p10;reproducedwithpermission
fromSpringerVerlag.)

Fig6.14:Theapparentinfiltrationrateasafunctionoftherainfallrateduringa
thunderstorm.
(AfterYuetal.(1997)intheTransactionsoftheAmericanSocietyofAgricultural
Engineers,Vol40(5)p1297;reproducedwithpermissionfromtheAmericanSocietyof
AgriculturalEngineers.)

Fig6.17:Therelationshipbetweenthespatialmeaninfiltrationrateandtherainfall
intensity.
(AfterYuetal.(1997)intheTransactionsoftheAmericanSocietyofAgricultural
Engineers,Vol40(5)p1299;reproducedwithpermissionfromtheAmericanSocietyof
AgriculturalEngineers.)

Chapter9(1st)frontispiece:Watershedwithpineappleproduction,southeast
Queensland,Australia.
(PhotobytheAuthor.)

Chapter9(2nd)frontispiece(alsoFig9.16):RingaroomaRiver,Tasmania,Australia.
(ReproducedwithpermissionbyDrRebeccaBartleyofCSIROLandandWater,
Australia.)

Fig.9.9:Therelationshipbetweentheamountofprior10drainfallandtheinitial
infiltrationamount.
(FromYuetal.(2000)intheSoilScienceofAmericaJournalVol64;reproducedwith
permissionfromtheSoilScienceSocietyofAmerica.)

Fig.10.10:Schematiccrosssectionofanunconfinedaquifer.
(AfterBouwer(1978)inGroundwaterHydrology,Fig.1.2;reproducedwithpermission
fromTheMcGrawHillCompanies.)

Fig.11.7:Asuctionplatewithancillarysuctioncontrolequipment.
(AfterRose(1979)inAgriculturalPhysics,reproducedwithpermissionfromPergamon
Press.)

Fig.11.9:DesorptionmoisturecharacteristicsforarangeofsoiltypesintheUSA.
(AfterHanks(1980)inAppliedSoilPhysics,2ndEd,p42;reproducedwithpermission
fromSpringerVerlag.)

Fig.11.14:Profilesofthevolumetricwatercontent,measuredonthenumberofdays
afterdrainage.
(AfterOlssonandRose(1978)intheAustralianJournalofSoilResearchVol16,p174;
reproducedwithpermissionfromCSIROPublishing.)


Fig.11.15:a)Relationshipsbetweenthehydraulicconductivityandthevolumetricwater
content.b)Relationshipsbetweenthehydraulicconductivityandtheinsitusuctionhead.
(AfterOlssonandRose(1978)intheAustralianJournalofSoilResearch,Vol16,p175;
reproducedwithpermissionfromCSIROPublishing.)

Chapter12frontispiece:Asalinestream,Quairadong,WesternAustralia.
(CopyrightCSIROLandandWater,Australia.)

TheauthorwouldalsoliketoacknowledgetheexpertassistanceofMr.WalterMackand
Mr.GerryLoiaconoinpreparingmuchoftheartworkforthebook.