Hydrocyclone

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Hydrocyclone

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- SizingAndSelectionOfHydrocyclones-Rev2
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- Advanced Theory & Practic Hydro Cyclones
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Minerals Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/mineng

Johann Dueck a,b,, Mohamed Farghaly c, Thomas Neesse a

a

L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan

c

Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Qena, Egypt

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 26 October 2013

Keywords:

Hydrocyclone

Partition curve

Classication

Fish-hook

Fine particle separation

a b s t r a c t

In many cases, the hydrocyclone partition curve exhibits a non-monotonic course in the ne particle

range. The so-called sh-hook effect indicates an increased separation of the ne fraction, which is of

practical interest and has a positive effect on solid/liquid separation. However, for classication purposes,

the separation is less distinct. In this contribution an equation of a partition curve containing a sh-hook

is derived considering the laws of disturbed settling in dense, polydisperse suspensions. The following

effects are considered: the entrainment of ne particles in the boundary layer of the coarse settling particles, the hindered settling due to the increased effective density and viscosity of the uid, and the counter ow of the displaced uid caused by the settling particles. The calculations indicate that the sh-hook

effect is primarily caused by ne particle entrainment, which is inuenced by the feed solid content and

the feed particle size distribution. An approximated analytical solution for the partition curve is presented for aRosinRammlerSperlingBennet (RRSB)-distributed feed. Experiments using 25-mm hydrocyclone conrm the calculations.

2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The fundamental scheme for the hydrocyclone is shown in

Fig. 1a.

The partition curve (Fig. 1b) used to characterize the separation

efciency of the hydrocyclones involves the mass fraction T(d) for

each particle size d, which is discharged in the coarse product

(underow). Schubert and Neesse (1980) demonstrated that the

typical S-shaped partition curve derives from the superposition

of the settling ow and a turbulent diffusion ow in the rotating

uid.

The so-called tapping model (Neesse et al. (1991), Schubert

(2010)), which neglects the distribution of the hydrodynamic characteristics in the processing zone of the apparatus, describes the

inuence of various factors on the separation characteristics. The

theoretical partition curve calculated using the free settling velocity according to the Stokes formula, increases monotonically with d

(see the dashed curve in Fig. 1b).

However, in many cases in the ne particle range, an increased

particle removal can be observed (see the continuous curve in

Fig. 1b). This so-called sh-hook effect is subject of many investigations and discussions.

Corresponding author at: Friedrich-Alexander-Universitt, Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany. Tel.: +49 9131 85 23 200.

E-mail address: johann.dueck@mbt.uni-erlangen.de (J. Dueck).

0892-6875/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2013.10.004

underow leads to practical consequences. For example, increasing

the removal of ne particles is benecial for water purication by

removing mechanical impurities. However, the sh-hook effect is

detrimental to ne particle classication because it reduces the

separation sharpness.

Although the non-monotonic separation function was described

in the scientic literature (Finch (1983), many years ago, no consensus has developed regarding the physical basis of this

phenomenon.

Some researchers remain skeptical (Flintoff et al. (1987), Nageswararao (2000)) of this effect, believing that it has no physical basis and that the experimental observations are the result of

agglomeration phenomena, measurement errors, or the variations

in the particles size fractions relative to their shape and density.

These doubts have been analyzed and refuted by Dueck et al.

(2007).

After analyzing the statistical properties of the measurements,

Bourgeois and Majumder (2013) came to the same conclusion that

the shhook effect is a real physical phenomenon.

In several publications by Finch (1983), Del Villar and Finch

(1992), and Kraipech et al. (2002), empirical correlations have been

developed to describe the sh-hook effect.

Schubert (2003, 2004) provided a qualitative explanation of the

sh-hook effect using the buoyancy acting on the particles in a

non-uniform rotational ow. The random motion of particles of

26

Nomenclature

a

cV

d

dm

Dc

Do

Din

Dt

D(d)

E(d)

fe(d)

g(cV)

q(d)

H

centrifugal acceleration ()

entrainment constant ()

total volume solid concentration ()

particle size (lm)

characteristic particle size (lm)

diameter of the cylindrical portion of the hydrocyclone

(mm)

overow diameter (mm)

diameter of the inlet (mm)

coefcient of turbulent diffusion (m/s2)

deceleration function for the disturbed settling ()

acceleration function ()

entrainment function ()

function of solids content ()

density of the particle size distribution (lm1)

depth of the sh-hook ()

n

uin

Dp

s

S

T(d)

Vh(d)

VS(d)

VSt,j

wtan

_o

W

_u

W

velocity of the suspension ow in the inlet (m/s)

inlet pressure (bar)

internal variable of integration (lm)

volume split ()

partition function

hindered settling velocity (m/s)

settling velocity (m/s)

Stokes velocity (m/s)

maximum tangential velocity (m/s)

suspension throughput at overow (m3/s)

suspension throughput at underow (m3/s)

uid density (kg/m3)

solid density (kg/m3)

uid viscosity (kg/ms)

Gamma function ()

qf

qp

lf

C

and Yu (2010). Majumder et al. (2003, 2007) attempted to explain

the origin of the sh-hook effect using a sudden decrease in the

settling velocity of the coarser particles due to the Reynolds

number restriction. Roldan-Villasana et al. (1993) introduced the

concept that a turbulent dispersion could inuence the motion of

ne particles.

These concepts have not yet been applied in a systematic

calculation to determine which parametersthe hydrocyclone,

the particulate material and/or the operating conditionscontrol

the characteristics of the sh-hook effect.

Kraipech et al. (2002) pointed to the mechanism of ne particle

entrainment by larger particles, but did not offer an appropriate

mathematical model. This was provided by Dueck et al. (2004),

who explained the non-monotonic separation curves through the

entrainment of ne particles caught in the boundary layer of the

coarse, rapidly settled particles. This model is based on experiments of Gerhart et al. (1999) and Kumar et al. (2000) and has

already been implemented in the computations of Minkov and

Dueck (2012).

By varying several parameters, the computer simulations

require considerable effort.

calculation of the separation and should be presented in a convenient form for analytical estimations that consider the collective

effects of disturbed settling in a dense polydisperse suspension.

2. Partition function

According to the tapping model of Schubert and Neesse (1980),

the partition function T(d) as a function of the particle size d can be

expressed as follows:

Td

1

h

i:

Dc

V s d

1 Sexp 2D

t

_ o

W

_

_

SW

_ u in which W o and W u are the suspensions ows of the overow and underow, respectively. The value of S can be determined

using empirical formulas (Bradley (1965)).

Furthermore, Dc is the diameter of the cylindrical portion of the

hydrocyclone, and Din is the diameter of the inlet.

This model assumes that the turbulent diffusion coefcient Dt of

the particle is independent of its size. Thus, the shape of the

Overflow

Do

Din

Vortex finder

Dc

Inlet

Partition function

0.75

Partition function

(after Stokes)

0.5

H

0.25

0

0

Du

10

15

Particle size d, m

Underflow

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. (a) Principal scheme for the hydrocyclone and (b) partition curve of the hydrocyclone.

20

27

Vs. According to Eq. (1), T(d) is a monotonous function of d if Vs(d) is

also a monotonous function of d. The Stokes formula for Vs yields

the monotonous S-shaped line of the partition function (Fig. 1b).

The separation curve T(d) increases monotonically from T(0) < 1

at d ? 0 to T = 1 at d ? 1.

The partition function is typically characterized using the following parameters:

(a) d50 the cut size with a 50% fractional recovery in the

underow (Eq. (1) indicates that, for d50, V s d50

2Dt =Dc ln S).

(b) T0 the value of T(0).

(c) Tmin the minimum value of the function. When the Stokes

formula is applied to obtain Vs, T0 = Tmin.

In many cases, the experimental determination of the partition

curve demonstrates that the curve has a minimum value for particle sizes below 10 lm (Fig. 1b). Such separation curve behavior is

called the shhook effect. This phenomenon can result from disturbed particle settling due to particle interactions as described by

several researchers (Roldan-Villasana et al. (1993), Kraipech et al.

(2002), Dueck et al. (2004)).

3. Disturbed particle settling in a polydisperse suspension

Some experimental and theoretical results have been obtained

regarding the settling of dense suspensions (Gerhart et al. (1999),

Gerhart (2001), Kumar et al. (2000), Dueck et al. (2004), Minkov

and Dueck (2005)). These studies focused on the settling behavior

of polydisperse suspensions. The settling of polydisperse

suspensions involves the following interparticle effects:

As demonstrated by Eq. (2), the predicted sedimentation velocity of a particle depends not only on its size, the medium properties, and the solid-phase concentration in the suspension but also

on the particle size distribution.

4. Approximation for the RRSB size distribution

In the present work, specic equations are derived for a typical

case when the two-parameter RRSB (RosenRammlerBennet

Sperling) function for the particle size distribution is used:

qd

n1

n

n d

d

exp

dm dm

dm

steepness of the distribution function.

For this case, the integrals in Eq. (2) can be estimated (Dueck

et al., 2010), which leads to the following expression for the sedimentation velocity of particles in a polydisperse suspension:

0

11=3

2

2

B

C

V S d

dm

6=n 1C 6=n 1

C

gcV B

1

@ 6n

A

V h d

d

n

bd

6=n

1

C

6=n

1

dm

2

dm

2

cV C

1

n

d

tion: Cz 1 0 t z ez dt. For simple engineering calculations, rational functions are convenient. Taking into account that the

parameter n varies over a narrow range of 11.5, the following

approximation can be applied:

1. Hindered settling due to an increased effective density and

viscosity of the uid.

2. Counter ow of the displaced uid caused by particle settling.

3. Entrainment of ne particles in the surrounding coarse settling

particles.

If the particles size distribution is presented as a continuous

R1

function, q(d), such that 0 qsds 1, then the settling rate

equation of a particle can be written as follows:

V S d

2

2

1 d gcV fe bd d cV

V h d

s2 gcV fe bsqsds

ad2j qp qf

18lf

V S d

1ED

V h d

D are

E

R1

1=3

(2005) fe d bd s6 qsds ; gcV 94 c2=3

V exp5cV , V h V St

1 cV 4:5 , V St;j

Thus, Eq. (4) can be presented as follows:

dm

d

D

2

dm

d

0

@

0:9c0:46

V

dbdm

6n

n

2 (

6:8 )

2

3

2:6 10 cV

n

11=3

A

The rst term on the right side of Eq. (2) corresponds to the hindered sedimentation velocity of a particle (the Stokes velocity accounts for the impact of solid content). The second term, the

2

acceleration function E d gcV fe bd, reects the increase in

the particle velocity due to its entrainment by larger particles.

R1

2

The third term, the deceleration function D d cV 0

s2 gcV fe bsqsds, determines how the ow of the liquid displaced by the settling solid phase inuences the particle settling

velocity.

In Eq. (2) the following designations are used: a centrifugal

acceleration, entrainment constant, cV total solid volume concentration, g(cV) function of the intensity of the entrainment on

the solid concentration, fe(d) entrainment function, q(d) density

of the particle size distribution, VSt(d) Stokes settling velocity,

Vh(d) hindered settling velocity, qf uid density, qp solid

density, lf uid viscosity in kg/ms.

indicates that for small particles the acceleration mechanism dominates, but for larger particles the deceleration effect is more

important.

The comparison with Vh (the Stokes velocity, corrected relative

to the solid content) demonstrates that small particles can settle at

velocities several orders of magnitude higher than that determined

using the Stokes law. For large particles, both functions E(d) and

D(d) are negligibly small, and the actual settling velocity VS (d) is

slightly lower than that of Stokes because the suspension has a

higher density and viscosity than water.

5. Experiments and calculations

The experiments conducted by Gerhart (2001), taken for a comparison with the calculations, are listed in Table 1.

28

1.0E+05

Sedimentation functions,-

Counter Current function D(d)

1.0E+03

1.0E+01

1.0E-01

1.0E-03

1.0E-05

0.01

0.1

10

Fig. 2. Disturbed settling functions (Eqs. (5)(7)) dening the interaction of particles during settling in an RRSB-distributed suspension, depending on the relative particle size

(data used for calculation: n = 1.2, dm = 6 lm, cv = 0.04).

the experiments can be approximated using Eq. (3) with the

parameters dm = 6 lm and n = 1.23 provided in Table 1.

In Eq. (1), the volume split value (S) is derived from the experimental results with a value of S = 7.5.

The centrifugal acceleration (a) was determined using the formulas of Schubert et al. (1990) and Heiskanen (1993) as follows:

a w2tan =Dc

wtan 3:7

Din

uin

Dc

Dof

uin 0:52

Din

!0:5

Dp

qf

10

used (Schubert et al. (1990)):

Dt 16 104 wtan Dc :

11

following values can be obtained:

Dt 3:2 104 m2 =s:

Using these values, Eqs. (5)(7) can be applied to calculate the

settling velocities of particles of varying sizes.

Table 1

Parameters of hydrocyclone experiments.

Hydrocyclone diameter

Inlet diameter

Overow diameter

Feed pressure

Particle density

Particle size distribution of ne material (Mf)

Particle size distribution of coarse material (Mc)

Dc = 25 103 m

Din = 10.5 103 m

Dof = 1 102 m

Dp = 105 Pa

qp = 2.6 g/cm3

dm = 6 lm, n = 1.2

dm = 11 lm, n = 1.3

Using the values of S, Dc, Vs and Dt, the partition function in Eq.

(1) can be determined. Fig. 3 presents the calculation of the settling

velocities and the partition curves for two different conditions:

rst, for the settling according to Stokes, and second, considering

the disturbed settling in dense suspensions.

The settling velocity as a function of particle size is a nonmonotonous function. As previously mentioned, the shape of the

partition curve under given operational conditions depends only

on the settling velocity. Therefore, the partition curve may have a

shape similar to that of the settling velocity curve versus the particle size. Non-monotonous course of the sedimentation velocity

could be the reason for the so-called sh-hook effect, which, in

practice, often manifests itself as the measured curve. This result

is in agreement with the investigations of Gerhart (2001) and Dueck et al. (2007).

A comparison between the calculated values and the experimental results under the conditions listed in Table 1 is presented

in Fig. 4.

The separation model indicates that there is sufcient condence in the explanation of the sh-hook effect. No further accordance can be expected for the deviation between the experimental

and calculated values given the extensive simplications in the

ow model.

Experimental partition functions demonstrate the sh-hook effect, which can be characterized by the depth H (the difference between the value of partition function at d = 0 and the minimum

value of the separation curve) as indicated in Fig. 1b. The calculated

and measured values of H, depending on the solid content (cv) for

the materials provided in Table 1, are plotted in Fig. 5.

The sh-hook depth (H) presents a non-monotonic curve versus

the solid content cv as predicted by the disturbed settling. Fig. 5

also indicates that the values of T(0) vary with cV in a manner similar to that of H.

Using this fact, the dependence of T0 on the suspension parameters can be analyzed as follows:

In Eq. (5), D can completely neglected relatively to E if d tends

toward zero as demonstrated in Fig. 2. Considering the denominator of Eq. (6), in the function E, the term containing d can be

neglected.

After the transformations, the settling velocity of the smallest

particles, Vs(0) (d tends toward zero), can be obtained:

29

1.0E+08

1.0E+06

0.75

Settling velocity

1.0E+04

0.5

Partition function

(Stokes velocity)

1.0E+02

0.25

Partition function, -

Stokes velocity

Partition function

(disturbed settling)

1.0E+00

0

0.1

10

100

Relative particle size d/dm, Fig. 3. Calculated partition curves and settling velocities for a 25-mm hydrocyclone using a ne particle suspension and solid content cV = 0.04. The parameters are listed in

Table 1.

1

Mf (calc)

Mc (calc)

Mf (exp)

Mc (exp)

Partition function, -

Partition function, -

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.8

dm=6 m

0.6

dm=7 m

dm=8 m

0.4

dm=9 m

0.2

0.2

T(d) after

Stokes

0

0

0.1

0.1

10

100

Fig. 4. Calculated and measured partition functions for a 25-mm Hydrocyclone

using a solid content cV = 0.04, a ne particle suspension Mf and a coarse particle

suspension Mc (parameter are listed in Table 1).

0.8

0.6

Mc (calc)

0.4

T(0), -

Mc (exp)

0.6

Mf (exp)

0.4

Mf (calc)

0.2

T(0) for Mc

0.2

T(0) for Mf

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Solid volume concentration cV,Fig. 5. Comparison of calculated and measured sh-hook depths as a function of

the solid concentration.

4:5 2:26

V S 0 7:07V St dm c0:46

n

V 1 cV

12

of size dm.

10

100

Fig. 6. Partition curves for different dm values at n = 0.23 (all other parameters are

provided in Table 1).

The maximum value of VS(0) in Fig. 5 occurs at the concentration cV = 0.09, which is higher than the experimental value of

approximately 0.04.

In addition, VS(0) explicitly depends on the parameters dm and n

2

from the size distribution in Eq. (12): V S 0 / dm and VS(0) / n2.26.

Given VS(0), T0 can be easily estimated based on Eq. (1).

The calculated and experimental curves of H are qualitatively

similar, but quantitative differences can arise for various reasonsthe simplications included in Eq. (5), for example. Specically, these variations may be caused by the difference between

the inlet solid concentration used for the calculations and the actual cV values inside the hydrocyclone.

The physically reasonable model appears to adequately describe some of the effects observed in the experiments. A parametric study using the particle size distribution Eq. (3) was performed

to clarify the effect of the constants in the equation on the value of

the sh-hook.

In Fig. 6, each curve is drawn by changing one variable only (dm)

with all other parameters held constant. The increase in dm causes

a marked increase in T0 and smooth increases in the Tmin values,

leading to an increased depth of the sh-hook effect (H), which

can be interpreted as follows: the coarser the particles, the greater

the chance for small particles to enter the boundary layer of a large

particle and be captured by it.

This phenomenon is conrmed by the experiments of Gerhart

(2001) in which small and coarse materials were mixed in various

proportions. In these experiments, the value of H increased steadily

with the proportion of the coarse material.

30

Partition function, -

n=1.1

0.8

n=1.2

0.6

n=1.3

0.4

n=1.4

0.2

T(d) after

Stokes

0

0.1

10

100

Fig. 7. Partition curves for different n values using dm = 8 lm (all other parameters

are provided in Table 1).

Fig. 7 illustrates that the growth of parameter n leads to a weakening of the sh-hook effect.

Thus, the theory predicts that the effect should be particularly

signicant for a suspension with at distribution functions and

more coarse fractions.

7. Conclusions

The presented separation model rst enables the rst approximated calculation of the non-monotonous course of the hydrocyclone partition curve. The model indicates the importance of the

disturbed settling of the particles. Even given the excessive simplications of the complicated three-dimensional turbulent ow inside the cyclone, the separation can be satisfactorily simulated by

considering the particle interactions.

The entrainment of the ne particles by the settling of the

coarse particles is primarily responsible for the sh-hook effect.

Consequently, the parameters of the feed size distribution and

the feed solid content were introduced into the equation for the

partition curve, providing a new element in the separation model.

Although the experimental database remains relatively small, the

experiments with a 25-mm cyclone largely conrm the calculations. One can conclude that the hydrocyclone separation in the

ne particle range is primarily limited by the sh-hook effect,

which can be explained physically. The approximated partition

function also indicates the factors inuencing the sh-hook effect.

These factors can be controlled using known methods: dilution of

the feed and/or changing the feed size distribution using a multistage separation. The opposite is true for thickening and successfully removing the nest fractions in which high sh-hook

fractions would be advantageous, and the addition of coarse

particles for that purpose is less practicable.

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