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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of The Problem


In teaching English, teachers need to prepare many things, such as developing
syllabus, lesson plan, teaching materials, instructional media, language assessment, etc.
Furthermor, teachers also have to design a good teaching strategy to create the class more
meaningful, more interactive, and more enjoyable. To create this condition, teachers
should be creative and innovative in handling their class, developing the relevant teaching
materials, and selecting the appropriate instructional media.
Based on the many things that should be prepared by teachers in teaching English,
media is one of things that have big role to reach the purpose of teaching itself. As
Huebener (in Murdibjono,1982:69) Media play very important role because they increase
the effectiveness of learning by helping the pupil to assimilate ideas in a more meaningful
and interesting manner . Since the existence of media has given as a big influence in the
educational field, there are many schools use media in teaching and learning.
Media can facilitate teachers and students in teaching learning process. Media have
many advantages in making teaching learning process to be successful. Media not only
give benefits for teachers but also give benefit for students. According to Sunarto (2011: 4)
says that media for teaching are the tools that can be used to deliver lesson materials from
the teacher to the learners, which can stimulate students thought and desire to learn. Here,
media can help teachers in transferring the lesson to the students, and can affect students
motivation and students understanding in learning
By using media, teachers can deliver the materials of English easily. Teachers can
teach effectively and efficiently without takes or waste much times in teaching. Media is
also useful and enjoyable for teachers to develope the skills and knowledge to engage in

media work in the English classroom. Media is a tool that will help the teachers in facing
the students. It will simplify teacherss job in explaining the materials. The teacher will be
at ease in order to make teaching and learning process more interesting. The media that
can be used by teacher is a video that related to the topic. For example: the teacher use the
picture in pre-teaching activity or use video to attract students attention and to activate
students background knowledge about the topic and then provide some questions
concerning the video.
In addition, it is good for students to learn English through media because media can
help them to understand the lesson easier. Media can encourage or support the students to
predict, read, and respond the materials. Media also catch students attention and increase
students motivation in learning. Through the media students can be attracted to learn
english because media as one of the components in teaching and learning process are used
by teacher as a source to explain the materials to students. Students can know the real
context, culture, the correct pronunciation of English through the media.
In general, media in teaching English can be classified into audio, visual, and audio visual
media. Audio media are media that can be listened to such as cassete or CD. Visual media
are media that can be seen such as picture. Audio visual media is the media that involve
the senses of sight and hearing such as video and movie. According to Smaldino et
al(2007), there are six kinds of media: text, audio, visuals, video, manipulative and people.
There are various kinds of media that can be used in the teaching and learning process.
Teachers should know what kind of media those are appropriateto the students in the
teaching and learning process.
Therefore, the preliminary observation is done in senior high school at Payakumbuh
to see the availability of media. From the preliminary observation, it found that there are
some media are available in school. For teaching listening, there are cassete, and CD. For
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teaching speaking as model of authentic pronunciation, there is video (movie and video
clip). For teaching reading there is picture (card and flash card). There is slide for teaching
writing.the schools has many facilities to improve students ability in English such as:
computer, lcd projector, and speaker box, and a computer labolatory that give the students
to learn through technology. However, all of these facilities can not be functioned
effectively
Most of teachers tend to not use the media effectively. They tend to use the same
media for teaching all skills without any variation. . The media for the teaching and
learning process were available. Most of the English teacher still has not a creative in
applying those media in the teaching and learning process. The English teachers tend to
use textbook and students worksheet as the main media instead of using another
interesting media. This condition made the students easily got bored to learn the lesson.
There are some assumptions that related to the reason why teachers do not use the
media for teaching English. May be they have lack of skills or have difficulties in using
and no budget to make the media. May be they do not know how to use them / they have
lack skills and creativity in using some media. Then, may be they know how to use media,
but avoid to use media because the lack of innovation. Last, may be the facilities to
support the media in the school are not enough so that they must wait to their turns to use
the media.
In conclusion, this research wants to observe more deeply about how far media still
be used by English teachers at school. It is done because learning can become unsuccessful
in reaching learning achievement, one of the reasons is caused by there is no media. Then,
it is hoped will answer the question about the real phenomena that happens in teaching and
learning English at school so that there is no negative or positive judgments about the
teacher.
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B. Identification of the problem


Based on the background of study above, there were some problems which can be
identified related to teaching English by using media. Teachers seldom use media in
teaching English. Most teachers use limited variation of using media. The use of media in
teaching English are not effective yet. Other problem is not all kinds of media are
appropriate for teaching English. Therefore, this research wants to analyze what kind of
media used in teaching English in Senior High Schools Payakumbuh. All the kinds of
media teachers used in teaching english would be related to the goal of English teaching
itself.
C. Limitation of the problem
Based on the problems identified, this research only focuses on media used by
English teachers in teaching English at Senior High Schools Payakumbuh.
D. Formulation of the problem
The problem of the research is formulated in the following question: Do the
teachers use media in teaching English? and what kinds of media do English teachers use
in teaching English at Senior High Schools Payakumbuh?
E. Research Questions
Based on the formulation of the problem above, there are two questions which will
be answered in this study:
1. Do the teachers use media in teaching English?
2. What kinds of media are used by teachers at Senior High Schools
Payakumbuh in teaching English.
F. Purpose of the research
This research is conducted to analyze media used by teachers at Senior High
Schools Payakumbuh in teaching English. Therefore, purposes of the research are as
follow:
1.
To see if the teachers use media in teaching English or not
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3. To find out kinds of media used by teachers at Senior High Schools


Payakumbuh in teaching English.
G. Significance of the research
In this research, the focus is on kinds of media used in teaching English. It is
expected that the findings of this research can give contribution theoretically and
practically. Theoretically, the result of the study is expected to enrich English teaching by
giving information about the kinds of media that suitable to reach the goal of English
teaching. Practically, the result of this research is expected to be useful for English teacher
certainly in teaching English. Therefore, teacher can reduce the difficulties of teaching
English and can encourage students to practice and improve their ability in English in the
classroom. For students, the implementation of the media in learning English is expected
to reduce their difficulties in learning English, especially when they want to express their
thoughts and ideas in oral or written form.
H. Definition of Key Terms
Teaching English : the process of delivering knowledge/ information/ materials
Media

about English
: the medium or facilities that uses sight and sound to present

information or materials.
Instructional media: the contents of media object which are used in teaching
learning process.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

A. The Teaching and Learning of English


The definition of teaching cannot be separated from the definition of learning. The
understanding towards the concepts of teaching and learning may underlie the success of
language teaching and learning process. Therefore, the following presents a discussion on
the concept of teaching and learning.
Murray and Christison (2011:140), state that learning is a process that brings
together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences for the purpose of making
changes in ones knowledge, skills, values, and worldviews. Learning also refers to a
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relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of practice or experience. Similarly,


Brown (2000:7) proposes that learning is acquisition or getting information and skill which
imply storage systems, memory, and cognitive system. It can be conclude that learning is a
process to get the knowledge, behavior, and information by involving cognitive,
emotional, practice and experience.
Then, Brown (2000:7) breaks down the components of the definition of learning as
follows: (1) Learning is acquisition or getting; (2) Learning is retention of information or
skill; (3) Retention implies storage system, memory, and cognitive organization; (4)
Learning involves active, conscious focus or and acting upon events outside or inside the
organism; (5) Learning is relatively permanent but subject to forgetting; (6) Learning
involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice; (7) Learning is a change in
behavior.
In relation to English teaching learning, Harmer (1998:24) suggests that the natural
language acquisition can be difficult to replicate in the classroom, but there are elements
which can help the students learn effectively. The elements are engaged, study, and
activate. Engage is related to a teaching sequence where teachers try to stimulate
students interest by involving their emotion. Meanwhile, the concept of study focuses
on the language and how the language is constructed. The last element is activate. This
term refers to the exercise and activities which are designed to get the students using
language as freely and communicatively as they can. Therefore, in teaching English
teachers should engage with their students so that students are interested to learn, then
teachers should make their students focus on what is being learned and the last is let their
students practice the language freely and communicatively by giving some activities.
In fact, teaching and learning are related to each other. Language learning cannot
be separated from language teaching. To learn is to know something while to teach is to let

learners know something. Brown (2000:7) defines the concept of teaching. He explains
that teaching is guiding and facilitating learning encouraging the learners to learn, and
setting the condition for learning.
In addition, Blum in Richard and Renandya (2002:21) says that an effective
teaching considers some crucial aspects. It includes well-planned curriculum , efficient
classroom activities, focused instruction, and the like. With regard to the above aspects,
teaching is not only a matter of transferring knowledge. Many aspects are involved in the
process of teaching which determine in effectiveness of teaching process. Those important
aspects of teaching can be some guidance to create an effective teaching in the English
teaching and learning process.
B. Teaching English as a Foreign Language
By the end of the twentieth century, English was already well on its way to
becoming a genuine lingua franca, that is a language used widely for communication
between people who do not share the same first (or even second) language (Harmer,
2007:13). This rapid expansion of the use of English as an international language led its
position including in Indonesia. In Indonesia, English is categorized as a foreign language.
It denotes that the learners of the language are the foreigners who study it for various
purposes.
Concerning the way in English teaching, Harmer (2001: 4) states that a foreign
language does not have an immediate social and communication function within the
community where it is learned. It is mostly to communicate elsewhere. Furthermore,
foreign languages are those in which the students do not have a readiness for
communication beyond their classroom, they may be obtainable through language clubs,
special media, or books.
Based on those statements above, it is clear that teaching English in Indonesia is
regarded as teaching English as a foreign language. English is needed and used by
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Indonesian people in daily communication. In the daily life, English is learned in a very
limited environment such as at school as one of the compulsory subjects.
C. Teaching English at Senior High Schools and Its Problems
The teaching of English has become increasingly important as a foreign language
in Indonesia. It is a compulsory subject to be taught for three years at Junior High Schools
and for three years in Senior High Schools. Actually, they have the same goal for learning;
that is passing the examinations to move to the next level and graduating from school and
applying the language in daily coomunication or real context.
In addition by mastering English, the high school students are expected to be able
to take part in social live and able to communicate. In senior high school, the teaching of
English should emphasize the students to achieve high proficiency in four skills, such as,
listening, speaking, reading, and speaking according to the literacy level as stated in
National Education Department of Indonesia No. 22 year 2006.
Therefore, teachers should help students to accomplish the general standard
objectives of English language teaching at Senior High Schools in Indonesia. As National
Education Department of Indonesia (2006) states that the general standard objectives of
English language teaching at Senior High Schools in Indonesia are determined as follows:
(1) Developing communicative competence both in oral and in written in order to reach the
level of informational literacy; (2) Raising awareness of the nature of English as a foreign
language in order to compete with other countries in global community; and (3)
Developing comprehension of students about the relation between language and culture
There are four things that students need to do with new language: be exposed to it,
understand its meaning, understand its form (how it is constructed) and practice it
(Harmer, 1998:52). English in Indonesia is still as foreign language, that is why EFL
(English as Foreign Language) students need lots of exposures since they are much less

exposed to target language, target culture and target people than ESL (English as Second
Language) students.
In the classroom, a major part of the teachers job is to expose students to language
so that they can use it later. Foreign language students need opportunities to develop the
their English ability.
However, many learners are studying English simply just because it is stated, on
the syllabus. Students can be exposed to the language besides from the teacher utterances;
they can also listen to tapes, read texts and look at computer printouts. In each case, the
students are given chances to see or hear the language before they are asked to produce it
themselves.
Then, there are three Important things that must be considered by teacher in
teaching English. They are: (1) What English to teach; (2) How to give practice in a
meaningful way; (3) How to prepare and execute a progression of enjoyable welI
organised lessons. The completion of the realization takes place when these language items
are presented in the classroom as instances of actual use. Students are expected to get the
knowledge about English and can apply it in communication. The teacher as facilitator
must develop the students ability of all the elements of the English language. Later,
students can use English in a variety of contexts and for a variety of purposes. As Brown
and Yule (1983:27) say that the aim of language teaching is to help the students to have
ability to express themselves in the target language in all aspect of their lives, such as in
greetings, expressing their gratitude, share their feelings, asking to people or doing
negotiations.
The one of problems in teaching English now is a reduction on the number of hours
of the teaching of English in each level of education in Indonesia in the Curriculum 2013.
In KTSP, English is taught 2 hours a week in elementary school from grade 4-6, 4 hours a
week in junior high school, and 4 hours a week in senior high school (Ministry of National
Education, 2006). But, in Curriculum 2013, English subject will not be taught at

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elementary school. It will still be taught 4 hours a week in junior high school, but only 2
hours a week in senior high school, for students majoring in social and science programs.
However, the times in teaching English is not enough to support the development of
English proficiency of students . Therfore teachers have to use the times effectively and
efficiently through using the media in teaching English.
English teaching still deals mainly with the complex structures of the language,
long reading passages, too technical vocabulary items, and other activities that are far from
the real purpose of the current curriculum. In real condition, it is still difficult for teachers
to encourage their students to learn English because of some reasons, they are: the shyness
of students in performing their ability, large students in a class, and practically the students
are not exposed to hear and use English everywhere and all the time. Since language
learning is a hard task, teachers now face a big challenge to find techniques and ways so
that the students can be active in learning English. In applying techniques, teachers need
provide the media too.
In teaching English, teachers also need some guidelines that will help them as the
ones who are responsible in increasing students English achievement. Every English
teachers have to keep in mind that they are teaching a mixed class with various abilities,
expectation, motivation level, knowledge and different learning styles. Teachers need to
vary their teaching methods and offer as much opportunity as possible to make the whole
class enjoy with the teaching learning progress.
Every teachers need to arrange and prepare the material and all the things needed
for teaching and learning process (include media). One of a successful key of teaching is
the teachers should make sure that they have thought about the whole way of teaching
process and check whether the stuff that can accommodate the students in learning can be
operated well while teaching.
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D. Media for Teaching English


1. Definition
In Etymology, media is the plural form of medium. It is from Latin medius
which means among. Smaldino et.al (2008:9) say that the term of media refers to
anything that carries information between a source and a receiver. In contrast to the above
opinion, the National Education Association in Ministry of National Education (2009:7)
defines that media are the forms of communication either printed or audiovisual. Hence,
media are some tools which help transferring information or communicating ideas to
others. Based on those definitions, the utilization of media also exists in teaching learning
process.
2. Types of Media for Teaching
According to the ministry of national education (2009:8), media for teaching
consist of two parts, they are teaching aids and instructional media. Teaching aids are the
equipments which are used in teaching and learning process. Computer, internet, projector,
TV, VCD/DVD player, tape recorder, radio, cassette, blackboard/whiteboard, cardboard,
flannel board, etc are the example of this type of media. Meanwhile, the instructional
media are the contents of media which are used along teaching and learning process.
Computer-assisted instruction, website, slides, TV shows, movie, video, recording, radio
program, drawing, picture, etc are the example of instructional media.
2.1 Type of Teaching Aid
According to Smaldino et.al (2008), teaching aids can be divided into modern
media and traditional media. Modern teaching aids refer to computer, internet, and
multimedia. In this respect, computer is also related to the use of internet. Tafani (2009:
11) argues that internet helps students and teachers compare and classify information,

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induce and deduce ideas, analyze errors and abstract concepts, analyze perspectives, gather
information, work in teams, etc. Internet is not only a source of authentic material in
English but also a source of information about all sorts of topics. In short, modern media is
a form of interpretative system that provides a broader range of information. In other hand,
the traditional teaching aids include audio recorder, visual, audio-visual, printing, and
games.
2.2 Types of Instructional Media
Rudasill (2011: 105) notes that there are nine types of instructional media: realia
(includes: real objects and models), printed text (includes: books, handouts, worksheets),
printed visual (includes: pictures, photos, drawings, charts, graphs), interactive whiteboard,
slides, audio recording (tape or CD), video and movie, and the multimedia.
a. Realia
Realia are the real objects which can be used by teachers to clarify form or shape of
a thing. It represents a replica of the original, while simplified models do not represent
reality in all details.
b. Printed text
Printed text can be in the form books, handouts, worksheets, magazine, etc. Printed
text usually contains some passages, exercises and so on. This is available in schools. It is
also the one of media that often be used by teachers in teaching.
c. Printed Visual
For providing printed visual, teachers may use pictures, photos, drawings. Printed
visual give the concrete description to the students. For examples in teaching speaking

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about descriptive of people. Teachers can use photo and picture. Then, students are asked
one by one to describe the photo or picture that is shown.
d. Whiteboard
Include a whiteboard plan in the lesson outline that determines which aspects of the
lesson will be illustrated on the board, list of concepts to be learned, timelines, outline for
the days presentation. Use different colored markers to highlight important aspects of the
lesson. Write neatly and horizontally, making certain the handwriting is large enough for
students to read. Board work should be organized so that students will be able to interpret
their notes later. Write on the board in several places (top, bottom, right side, left side). Go
to the back of the room to see if the handwriting can be seen from any location. Be
sensitive to obstructions, including the heads of students, overhead projectors, etc., that
may block the lower part of the board. Give students time to copy what has been written.
Avoid modifying the board while students are copying information. Talk to the students
and do a little practice.
e. Audio Recording
It includes tape and CD. Teachers can use audio recording from tape and CD to
teach listening. Students can hear the correct pronunce of words and how to use them in a
context. The audio recording will train the students hearing about English.
f. Multimedia
Rudasill (2011:118) says that multimedia is combination of text, audio, still images,
animation, video, or interactive content forms. Afterwards, computer-assisted instructions
are sequences of information which are designed through computer. It also includes slides,
video, and movie. For example in teaching reading, teachers may use video of tsunami to

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teach report text. Then, teachers can prepare slides that contains of some questions related
to thevideo that has been seen. In addition, using video or movie in classroom has the advantage of presenting abstract ideas in a realistic context, which helps students grasp the
abstract ideas more easily and to retain the material longer.
Futhermore, Harmer (2007) states that there are several types of instructional media
that can be used by teachers:
a. The students themselves
The students are the most useful resources in the classroom (Harmer, 2007:176).
By using the students themselves, teacher can do many things in the classroom.
b. Realia
Realia is defined by Nunan (1999:313) as objects and teaching props from the
world outside the classroom that are used for teaching and learning. So, it can be inferred
that realia is unmodified real things inside or outside the classroom which is used by the
teacher for teaching learning process. Realia can be used as starting point to introduce the
lesson and/or understanding concept of the material.
c. Pictures

Pictures or graphic materials refer to non-photographic and two dimensional


materials which is utilized by the teachers to convey messages to the students. This kind of
material includes drawings, charts, graphs, posters, cartoon, etc.
Pictures are utilized for several purposes. Harmer (2007) explained that pictures
can be used for multiple ways comprising: (1) drilling, (2) communication, (3)
understanding, (4) ornamentation, (5) predicting, and (6) discussing
In addition, pictures play an important role in facilitating the teaching and learning
process. Wright (1989:29) states that pictures are very important to help students to retell
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experience or understand something since they can represent place, objects, people, etc.
Pictures contribute to interest and motivation, a sense of context of the language, and a
specific reference point or stimulus and it also can be useful on emphasizing the teaching
of writing and speaking, listening and reading. The most benefit of a picture is to give
contribution to the students understanding of a context.
d. Coursebook
Coursebook is a form of print media. It contains material or verbal information through
print. It can also be used as basic instructional guide by the teacher. This is usually
avalaible in schools.
e. Boards
Boards refer to chalkboard/ blackboard, whiteboard and interactive whiteboard
(IWB). Like pictures, boards are also used for several purposes. Harmer (2007) describes
that teachers can use boards as (1) notepad, (2) explanation aid, (3) picture frame, (4)
public workbook, (5) gameboard, and (6) noticeboard.
f. Overhead Projector (OHP)
By using overhead projectors, the students can see in front of the class the material
which is writer or drawn in a transparent. The transparent will be projected by using
projectors.

g. Flipcharts
Another instructional media that may be used by the teacher is flipchart. Flipchart
is an instructional media which contains big sheets of paper. It is mostly used to write
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down some important points in group discussion (Harmer, 2007). Several benefits of
flipchart are portable, accessible, and easy to use.
h. Computer-based presentation technology
Harmer (2007) said that this instructional media has two vital components. They
are hardware and software. The hardware needed for this instructional media are computer
and LCD projector. This instructional media combine both audio and visual material. By
using computer-based presentation technology or multimedia presentation, it is enable the
teacher to convey much larger information to the students.
E. Functions and Advantages of Media
Function of media is to break the boundaries of place and time in teaching. Media
make students understand more easily about something that needs more explanation. If it
takes much time, it can be shorter. It also helps teachers; they may not be confused about
how to explain an object to the students who might have never heard of or seen a certain
object before. Some teaching materials can be delivered more easily and more
interestingly; it will give new experiences to students as well.
Harmer (2001:284) states there are many advantages in using videos in the
teaching and learning process:
a. Seeing language-in-use, students do not just hear language but they can also see
it. They can know the general meaning and moods that are conveyed through expressions,
gesture, and other visual clues.
b. Cross-cultural awareness, which is allowing students a look at situations for
beyond their classroom. Videos also give students a chance to see such things as what
kinds of food people eat in other countries and what they wear.

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c. The power of creation, when students use video cameras themselves they are
given the potential to create something memorable and enjoyable.
d. Motivation, most students show an increased level of interest when they have a
chance to see language in use as hear it, and when this is coupled with communicative
tasks.
Brown (1983) states that the function of media are saving time, stimulating interest,
encouraging students participation, providing a review, helping students learn to
communicate ideas visually, providing medium for individual or group reports, and
making a classroom dynamic, relevant, and attractive. Media can save the time, while
most media presentation requires a short time to transmit their messages. Media can make
class situation more alive since it can interest students and attract students attention.
Klancar (2006) says that the learners have varied abilities, expectation, motivation
level, knowledge, and learning style. Based on those problems, those differences can be
united through the use of media because it is able to help teachers in delivering
information captivatingly. Moreover, the combination of media will make the class more
alive, it can also stimulate students to think and stimulate their desire to learn.
Thus, media can break monotonous situation; a teacher can catch students
attention by using interesting media. Then, students can get information that opens up their
mind to absorb the lesson. Another advantage is that students become more active in the
class activities because media brings new educational strategies. Media also becomes the
helper, supporter, and mediator in teaching learning process.
In conclusion, the media are helpful in developing the ability to speak. The students
can perform how to communicate to each other by the aid of media. The students are more
courageous to speak. It creates a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom, so students feel free

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to express their ideas in a comfortable and enjoyable situation in the classroom where they
learn English. Lastly, in teaching English, the kinds of media used is also analyzed here.
F. Previous Studies
In relevance to this study, there are two researchers who have studied about media.
Sri Wulan Wahyuni (2007) whose study entitled a Study on the Use of Teaching Media in
Teaching English at TK AS Salam Malang. Based on her finding of the study, it can be
concluded that the teaching media used were pictures, realia, magazines, story books, tape
recorder and computer. The teachers used the teaching media depending on the material
being taught.
In implementing the teaching media, the teachers, however; faced some problems.
The first problem faced by both teachers was the lack of various pictures. The problem can
be overcome by preparing the pictures few days before the material was taught. The
second problem was related to the listening lesson. The teacher taught songs with the
limited number of song cassettes. To overcome the problem the teacher gave different
cassettes material in every listening class. The last problem was the small size of pictures
and the limited number of the magazine.
In dealing with this problem, the teacher showed the pictures to the students one
by one in turn, or the teacher drew the bigger pictures of the story by herself. Related to
the limited number of the magazine, it can be overcome having cooperation between the
teacher and the students parents. The teacher asked the parents to buy the magazine, so
each student got one magazine. The use of teaching media in teaching English not only
needs various media but also creativity of the teacher in implementing the teaching media.
Other researcher was Yuniani Miftahul Nimah (2007) who studies about A Study
of Using Media in Teaching English at SMU 3 Madiun. The study aimed at describing of

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using media in teaching English at SMU 3 Madiun. The study described kinds of media that
was used by English teacher at SMU 3 Madiun, how teacher used the media in teaching
English, the benefit of using media and the weakness of using it. This study used qualitative
design. The subject of study was one English teacher of second grade at SMU 3 Madiun. The
data were obtained trough observation and interview. The results of this study showed that the
teacher used several of teaching media they are visual media consist of: whiteboard, real
object, overhead projector and text book. Audio media consist of: radio, tape recorder and
language laboratory. Audiovisual media consist of: VCD player, television and Computer/
internet. The teacher used appropriate media for teaching in each English skill. Although
English teacher used the media well, researcher would like to give some suggestion that
teacher should maintain the using of media appropriately by following workshop or short
course, teacher should evaluate the weakness and the benefit after using that media in teaching
English.

Another researcher was Novita Retno S., (2008) studied about The Use of Media
in Teaching Speaking to the Eight Grade Students at SLTP Negeri 2 Batu Malang. She
searched about the kinds of media used by teacher in teaching speaking and the way the
teachers apply the media. She found that teachers used audio visual media such as, play the
cartoon movie in television and use visual media such as, picture story to tell narrative and
picture series to tell recount. As a result, those media give some advantages such as: they
can increase and inprove students ability especially in speaking, motivate and aroust
students interest , make students easily catch the lesson and more active joining in the
class.
The last researcher was Wildan Nurul Aini (2013) that who studies about
Instructional Media in Teaching English to Young Learners. This research investigated
(1) the use of instructional media by the teachers in teaching English to young learners; (2) the
problems that they encounter in using instructional media; also (3) problem solving of the
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media utilization challenges. This study was conducted in elementary schools in Kuningan. To
collect the data, the researcher employed observation and interview techniques. The result of
the study indicates that there are five types of instructional media which are generally used by
the teachers, comprising: (1) boards; (2) realia; (3) pictures; and (4) books. Each of them is
used in various ways. The teachers faced challenges in both process of selecting and using
instructional media. The strategy used to solve the problems during selection process was
utilizing available media. Meanwhile, to overcome the problem during the use of instructional
media were by requesting technician help, borrowing instructional media supply from other
class and preparing back-up instructional media.

Based on those researches, media is very important, in order to help the teachers
deliver lesson materials accurately and effectively. This research was inspired by those
researches. Thus, the kinds of media are used in teaching English at senior high school will
be analyzed in this research.
G. Conceptual Framework

21

Teaching English

Media for Teaching


English

Type of Instructional Media for


Teaching English

Realia

Printed
Text

Printed
Visual

Real
Objects

Books

Models

Whiteboard

Audio
Recording

Multimedia

Drawings

Tape

Slides

Handouts

Pictures

CDs

Videos

Worksheets

Photos

Movies

CHAPTER III

22

METHOD OF RESEARCH
A. Design of the Research
This research will be conducted by using a descriptive research. According to Gay
(2009), a descriptive research involves collecting data in order to test hypothesis or to
answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study. Moreover, it
determines and reports the way things are representative about current condition.
Therefore, this research will describes the phenomena that happen when teachers use
media in teaching English and the data will be analyzed based on the theory.
B. Population and Sampling
This research will be conducted in five Senior High Schools in Payakumbuh. These
senior high schools will be chosen as the site of this research because they are easy to be
accessed. The population of the research will be all of English teachers that are taught in
grade X and XI grades teaching at those schools. As Gay et al. (2011: 130) mentions that
the population is the group to which makes the researcher interested to research and the
population are accessible and available.
Moreover, in choosing the sample, this research use purposive sampling. As Gay et
al.(2011:141) says that purposive sampling also referred to as judgment sampling, is the
process of selecting a sample that is believed to be representative of a given population. In
other words, the researcher selects the sample using his experience and knowledge of the
group to be sampled. Therefore, the samples of this research are all of English teachers are
taught in grade X and XI.

C. Research Instrument
23

In conducting this research, the researcher uses two instruments. The instruments
are observation and interview. The research will use a guideline of observation.
Then, researcher interview the teachers to know the reason why teachers use or do
not use the media. In order to get accurate data, it is important to check the validity before.
Here, the researcher also uses content validity. Therefore, the list of interview questions
used in this research will be discussed with the lecturers of English Department of State
University Padang who are qualified at this field to. After that, the list of interview
questions will be revised based on the judgment of the experts.

D. Technique of Data Collection


To collect data, observation and interview were employed. The observation was
non-participant observation, in which the researcher only sits at the back of the classroom
to prevent disturbing students concentration in learning process. As Creswell (2008:214)
says that a non-participant observer is an observer who sits a site and record notes without
becoming involved in the activities of the participants. The observation was purposed to
identify what kinds of instructional media used by the teachers. This observation was
conducted 8 times.
Meanwhile, interview was employed informally. In formal interview was
conducted mainly to find out the problem occurs related to instructional media utilization
and how the teachers solve them. However, since it is in-depth interview, the questions
could be developed as needed. The research also uses a recording to support / strengthen
the data. The researcher will ask some questions to the interviewees informally. The
questions that are going to be asked are all about the teachers responses of the teaching
English by using media. The interview will be conducted in Indonesian and English in
order the teachers can express their feelings and thought freely. Through the interview, the
researcher will know the reason why teachers tend to do not use the media in teaching

24

English and if they use media, what is the reason to select the kinds of media for teaching
English. While conducting the interview, the researcher will record each interview by
using cell phone recorder to enable the researcher to get verbatim data which will be
written down on the researchers note. Then, the recording will be transcribe in
transcription.
E. Technique of Data Analysis.
After the stages above, the data were transformed into descriptions.
In analyzing the notes of observation, if observations are graded, the grading
standards used will be from the Common Inspection Framework (CIF). Grades and grade
descriptors are:
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Grade 4

Outstanding
Good
Requires Improvement
Inadequate

Second, in analyzing the data of interview, the researcher will use these steps:
1. The interview data which is recorded by the tape recorder will be transcribed into
the written text, in order to complete the interview data which is obtained from the
researchers note.
2. Categorizing the data of the interview that relate to any kinds of media are used in
teaching English.
3. Interpreting the data from interview to answer and relating the data to the theory
the research questions. At the end, the data will be reported in a written form.

25

Appendix 1
Name of School :
Date

: .

Teachers name

: .

Topic

: .

Duration

: .

Class
Observation Sheet about the kinds of media teacher used in teaching English
The types of media based on Rudasill (2011: 105)
Types of Media
Realia
Real Objects
Models

Yes

No

Printed Text
Books
Handouts
Worksheets

Printed Visual
Drawings
26

Comment

Pictures
Photos

White board
Audio recording
Tape
CDs

Multimedia
Slides
Videos
Movies

Appendix 2
Interview Format
Teachers name :
Name of School:
Day/ Date
:
Questions:
Years of teaching:
1. Do you use media in your classroom? If yes, what are those?
2. Why do you use that kinds of that media in teaching language?
3. How do they facilitate you in teaching language skills?
4. How do you relate that media with the lesson?
5. How do you select the media for your class?
6. Do you face any challenges while using certain media? If yes, what are those?
7. How do you overcome those problems?

27

1. Jenis Media
A. Audio (Suara)
No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi bahasa Inggris


dengan media yang berkenaan dengan ..?)

Ya Tdk
1

2
3

4
5

6
7

10
11

Mendengarkan percakapan antara dua orang atau


lebih
Mendengarkan sandiwara di radio
Mendengarkan penyiar di radio menyapa
pendengar
Mendengarkan informasi melalui telfon
Mendengarkan pengumuman di bandara, di mall,
dll
Mendengarkan iklan di radio, di tempat umum, dll
Mendengarkan rekaman dongeng, legenda, atau
cerita pendek
Mendengarkan cerita dengan akhir yang lucu di
radio
Mendengarkan deskripsi seseorang, benda, atau
tempat
Mendengarkan informasi berbentuk ajakan di radio
Mendengarkan informasi/ cerita live-streaming di
internet?

28

Seberapa seringkah
Bapak/Ibu,
menggunakan media
ini dalam
mengajarkan bahasa
Inggris
SS

Kd

HTP

B. Audio-Visual (Gambar dan Suara)


No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi bahasa Inggris


dengan media yang berkenaan dengan ..?)

Ya Tdk
1

2
3

4
5

Seberapa seringkah
Bapak/Ibu,
menggunakan media
ini dalam
mengajarkan bahasa
Inggris
SS

Kd

HTP

menonton video percakapan antara dua orang atau


lebih
menonton talkshow ditelevisi
menonton informasi/pemberitahuan yang bertujuan
untuk mengajak ditelevisi
menonton iklan ditelevisi
menonoton video dongeng, legenda, atau cerita
pendek
menonton video-video lucu

C. Multimedia (Gambar, Suara, Video, Tulisan/Text pada komputer)


No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi bahasa Inggris


dimana siswa mendengarkan dan menonton multimedia
(terdapat gambar, suara, video, dan text) yang berkenaan
dengan ..?)

Ya Tdk
1

3
4
5
6

Percakapan antara dua orang (tokoh seperti


animasi hewan, benda) atau lebih dalam bentuk
kartun
Potongan bagian-bagian film (bagian/scene
tertentu)
Percakapan antara dua orang atau lebih
Dongeng, legenda, atau video/film pendek
Video/film pendek dengan akhir cerita yang lucu
Deskripsi seseorang, benda, tempat atau kejadian

29

Seberapa seringkah
Bapak/Ibu,
menggunakan media
ini dalam
mengajarkan bahasa
Inggris
SS

Kd

HTP

7
8

Informasi dengan tujuan mengajak


Informasi/ cerita berupa live streaming diinternet

D. Multimedia Interaktif ( Terdapat Gambar, Suara, Video, Tulisan/Text pada komputer dimana siswa
bisa memberikan jawaban untuk setiap pertanyaan dan komputer akan memberikan respon terhadap
jawaban siswa)
No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu meminta siswa mengerjakan materi


listening berupa interaktif multimedia (terdapat suara, gambar,
video, dan text) dan komputer akan merespon jawaban siswa
yang berkenaan dengan ...?

Ya Tdk
1

3
4
5
6
7
8

Seberapa seringkah
Bapak/Ibu,
menggunakan media
ini dalam
mengajarkan bahasa
Inggris
SS

Kd

HTP

Percakapan antara dua orang (tokoh seperti


animasi hewan, benda) atau lebih dalam bentuk
kartun
Potongan bagian-bagian film (bagian/scene
tertentu)
Percakapan antara dua orang atau lebih
Dongeng, legenda, atau video/film pendek
Video/film pendek dengan akhir cerita yang lucu
Deskripsi seseorang, benda, atau tempat
Informasi dengan tujuan mengajak
Informasi/ cerita berupa live-streaming diinternet.

Jika Bapak/Ibu memiliki jenis-jenis media yang mungkin bermanfaat untuk dimasukkan didalam mengajar
bahasa Inggris SMA, tolong ditulis di bawah ini!

...................................................................................................
.............

30

2. Jenis-Jenis Topik
No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi listening yang


berkenaan dengan ..?)

Ya
1

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyampaikan


pendapat

Mendengarkan tindak tutur meminta pendapat

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyatakan puas

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyatakan tidak puas

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menasehati

Mendengarkan tindak tutur meluluskan


permintaan

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyatakan perasaan


relief, pain, pleasure

Mendengarkan tindak tutur setuju dan tidak setuju

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyatakan perasaan


cinta

10

Mendengarkan tindak tutur menyatakan perasaan


sedih

11

Mendengarkan tindak tutur perasaan malu

12

Mendengarkan tindak tutur perasaaan marah

13

Mendengarkan tindak tutur perasaan jengkel

15

Mendengarakan iklan diradio, tv, internet, dan


tempat umum

16

Mendengrkan pengumuman diradio, tv, internet,


dan tempat umum

18

Mendengarkan monologue berbentuk report

19

Mendengarkan monologue berbentuk narrative

20

Mendengarkan monologue berbentuk spoof

21

Mendengarkan monologue berbentuk analytical


expoition

22

Mendengarkan monologue berbentuk hortatory

31

Menurut Bapak/Ibu,
seberapa seringkah
siswa menemukn
kesulitan dalam
topik ini?
Tdk SS

Kd

HTP

exposition

Jika Bapak/Ibu memiliki topik yang seharusnya ada pada bahasa Inggris kelas X dan kelas XI, silahkan tulis
dibawah ini:
...............................................................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................

3. Jenis-Jenis Language
A. Language Component

No

Grammar
Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi listening yang
fokusnya melatih siswa dalam keterampilan
..?)

Menurut Bapak/Ibu,
seberapa seringkah
siswa menemukn
kesulitan dalam
materi ini?

Ya Tdk SS
1

Kd

HTP

Mengenali kelas kata (verb, noun, adjective,


preposition, adverb, conjunction, determiner,
exclamation)

Mengenali pola susunan kalimat

Mendeteksi makna yang diekspresikan masingmasing tenses

No

Vocabulary
Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu membrikan materi Listening yang
fokusnya melatih siswa dengan
keterampilan?

Menurut Bapak/Ibu,
seberapa seringkah
siswa menemukn
kesulitan dalam
materi ini?

Ya Tdk SS
1

Mengenali kosa kata yang digunakan dalam


topik percakapan?

Mengidentifikasi kata kunci yang berhubungan


dengan subjek/ topic?

32

Kd

HTP

Pronunciation
No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi listening yang


fokusnya melatih siswa untuk keterampilan
..?

Menurut Bapak/Ibu,
seberapa seringkah
siswa menemukn
kesulitan dalam
materi ini?

Ya Tdk SS
1

Membedakan bunyi kata-kata homophone


(pengucapan sama, arti dan penulisan berbeda)

Mengidentifikasi kata-kata yang mendapat


tekanan/ tidak dalam kalimat?

Kd

HTP

B. Language Skills
No

Pernahkah Bapak/Ibu memberikan materi listening yang


fokusnya melatih siswa untuk keterampilan
..?)

Ya
1

Menebak makna kata dari konteks

Mengenali fungsi ekspresi sesuai dengan


situasi dan tujuan

Menggunakan pengetahuan nyata dan


pengalaman untuk menentukan latar belakang
situasi/peristiwa

Mengindentifikasi tujuan percakapan

Mengindentifikasi topik dari percakapan

Mengindentifikasi hubungan (sebab, akibat,


kesimpulan)

Mendeteksi sikap pembicara terhadap topik


pembicaraan

Mengindentifikasi participant/tokoh dalam


pembicaraan

Mengindentifikasi hubungan antara


participant/tokoh

10

Mengindentifikasi topik dari percakapan

33

Tdk

Menurut
Bapak/Ibu,
seberapa seringkah
siswa menemukn
kesulitan dalam
materi ini?
SS

S Kd

HTP

Jika anda memiliki informasi mengenai subskill yang penting didalam listening, anda bisa menulisnya
dibawah ini!

..
..........................................

4. Jenis-Jenis Latihan
No

Pernahkah anda mendapatkan latihan dalam Listening


dimana?

Ya
1

Anda diminta untuk menggambar benda tertentu


(contoh gambarlah sebuah bunga jika kamu
seorang gadis)?

Anda mendengarkan 2 ujaran dan disuruh


menentukan apakah mereka sama atau berbeda

Anda mendengarkan satu pernyataan/percakapan,


kemudian melihat sejumlah gambar dan
menentukan gambar mana yang mewakili
pernyataan

Anda melihat satu gambar, dan mendengarkan


beberapa pernyataan/percakapan dan menentukan
pernyataan mana yang relevan dengan gambar

Anda ditunjukkan sebuah gambar yang kompleks


yang terdapat berbagai kejadian didalamnya,
kemudian saudara mendengar beberapa
pernyataan mengenai gambar dan menentukan
apakah pernyataan itu benar atau salah

Anda diberikan satu seri pernyataan dan disuruh


menentukan apakah pernyataan-pernyataan itu
benar atau salah berdasarkan infromasi yang anda
dengar

Anda mendengarkan sebuah pernyataan


berdasarkan suatu objek(dan kemudian
menentukan apakah pernyataan itu benar atau
salah)

Anda melihat beberapa gambar dan


mendengarkan sebuah percakapan/cerita dan
diminta mengurutkan gambar berdasarkan

34

Seberapa seringkah
anda mendapat
kesulitan dalam
menyelesaikan
latihan ini?
Tdk SS

Kd

HTP

cerita/ujaran tersebut
9

Anda melihat 4 gambar yang diberi label A, B, C,


D dan mendengarkan satu seri percakapan/ujaran
dan menentukan gambar mana yang dimaksud
oleh tiap-tiap percakapan/ujaran

10

Anda mendengar sebuah percakapan dengan


pertanyaan yang diikuti oleh 3 kemungkinan
respon dan menentukan respon mana yang paling
tepat berdasarkan percakapan tersebut

11

Anda mendengar rekaman dari radio dan


menentukan jenis program yang saudara
dengarkan (misal: berita, olah raga, ramalan
cuaca, fashion))

12

Anda mendengarkan sebuah percakapan/cerita dan


diberikan tapescript dari percakapan/cerita
tersebut dengan beberapa kolom rumpang. Anda
diminta untuk mengisi kolom rumpang tersebut.

13

Anda diberikan sebuah peta dan tempat untuk


memulai, kemudian anda mengikuti arahan yang
ada di peta, dan menentukan tempat tujuannya

14

Anda mendengarkan pengumuman dari beberapa


informasi dan menyusun informasi itu dalam
sebuah format

15

Anda mendengarkan seseorang di telepon dan


mencatat pesan berdasarkan perintah dari si
pembicara

16

Anda melihat sebuah gambar dan menggambar


sebuah objek atau rincian lainnya berdasarkan
perintah

17

Anda melihat satu seri gambar dan menyimak


sebuah diskusi dan mengklasifikasi gambar
berdasarkan teks

18

Anda mendengar satu pernyataan yang diikuti


oleh 3 kemungkinan kelanjutan dan memilih satu
yang mungkin menjadi kelanjutan terbaik

19

Anda mendengar satu percakapan pendek, dan


kemudian mendengar satu pertanyaan pendek
tentang topik pembicaraan/ informasi rinci berupa
tempat dan kapan terjadinya percakapan?

20

Anda mendengar satu pembicaraan atau


percakapan, dan kemudian menjawab beberapa
pertanyaan pemahaman pendek

35

Jika anda memiliki informasi mengenai beberapa latihan penting yang mesti dimasukkan kedalam materi
listening, anda bisa menulisnya dibawah ini!)

interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly,


it has become a common phenomenon to integrate language textbooks with audio and video as additional or
supplementary resources for classroom language learning activities

Questionnaire for students focus group discussion


1. What are the common audio/visual materials that your teachers use in English classes?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
1. Do you think that audio-visual aids help you in language learning? If yes, how?
2. How do visual aids facilitate you in speaking?
3. How do audio materials help you to improve your listening skill?
4. How do visual aids (pictures, graphs, posters etc.) motivate you in reading?
5. Do you think that audio-visual aids facilitate you in your writing? If yes, how?
6. Does the class become interesting if a teacher uses audio and videos in language classes? If
yes, how?
7. What are the common problems that you face when audio-visual aids are used in the class?
In the teaching and learning process, there are some components to
make the instruction successful. They are teacher, students, material, media,
and the like. Those components are essential and should be inter-correlated.
Media as one of the components in teaching and learning process are
used by teacher as a source to explain the materials to students. Since the

36

existence of technology has given us a big influence in the educational field,


there are many schools adopting technology as the sources in the teaching and
learning process. In fact, technology has affected positively to the language
teaching, especially in attracting the students motivation in learning a
language

The learning of language involves acquiring the ability to compose correct


sentences and it involves an understanding of which sentences or part of sentences are
appropriate for a particular context (Widdowson, 1978:2)

The English teacher did not


use interesting media to conduct the teaching and learning process. She did
not optimize any teaching aids as the sources to help her to conduct the
teaching. Consequently, the teaching and learning process seemed less
interesting.
Besides, media
provide clear context, meaning and guidance that can make students enthusiastic
in learning English. It is clear stated that media are very useful and really needed
for the teaching and learning process

37