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Would rather is used to express a preference in English.

Would rather is the same in


meaning as would prefer. These two phrases are used interchangeably to express a
preference when making a choice. Here are some examples of short conversations that use
would rather to either state or ask for a preference.
Example Dialogues
John: Let's go out tonight.
Mary: That's a good idea.
John: How about going to a film? There's a new film out with Tom Hanks.
Mary: I'd rather go out for dinner. I'm hungry!
Sue: I'm not sure which topic to choose for my essay.
Debby: Well, what are your choices?
Sue: I can write about the economy or about a book.
Debby: Which would you rather write about?
Would Rather - Structure
The form would rather is a little strange because 'rather' is not a verb but is part of an
expression that means 'would prefer to'. 'Rather' is usually immediately followed by a verb
in base form (verb without 'to'). It's common to use would rather in the shortened 'd rather
form in positive statements. All subjects take 'would rather'. Would rather can be used to
refer to the present moment or a future moment in time.
Positive
Subject + would rather ('d rather) + base form of verb
Peter'd rather spend time on the beach.
I would rather learn a new language than study math.
Question
Would + subject + rather + base form of verb
Would you rather stay at home?
Would they rather do homework tomorrow morning?
Would Rather - Than
Would rather is often used with 'than' with two verbs or objects when making a choice
between two specific actions.
Would you rather work for Tom than for Mary?
She would rather play tennis than go horseback riding.

Would Rather - For Other People


Would rather is also used to express what one person prefers another person to do. The
structure is unusual because it takes the past for the preferred action. Here are some
examples:
Tom would rather Mary bought a SUV.
Would you rather she stayed here with us?
Positive
Subject + would rather ('d rather) + object + past tense
I would rather my son worked in finance.
Susan would rather Peter took a plane.
Question
Would + subject + rather + object + past tense
Would she rather her sister flew home tomorrow?
Would you rather he came with us to the meeting?
Positive
Subject + would rather ('d rather) + object + negative past tense
I'd rather she didn't come with us today.
Tim would rather Peter didn't join the company.
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he future, like the past and present, has four different forms: Simple Future, Future
Continuous, Future Perfect, and Future Perfect Continuous. To this comes the use of 'going
to' as a future form. The following article takes a look at each of these forms, as well as
some variations in future tense usage with clear examples to help explain the use of each.
Listed below are examples, uses and formation of Future Forms followed by a quiz.
Will Verb (base form)
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English Grammar Help
English Grammar Structures and Forms Explained for ESL EFL
Tenses - Present, Past and Future

Future Forms
By Kenneth Beare
English as 2nd Language Expert
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The future, like the past and present, has four different forms: Simple Future, Future
Continuous, Future Perfect, and Future Perfect Continuous. To this comes the use of 'going
to' as a future form. The following article takes a look at each of these forms, as well as
some variations in future tense usage with clear examples to help explain the use of each.
Listed below are examples, uses and formation of Future Forms followed by a quiz.
Will Verb (base form)
Examples:
It will snow tomorrow.
She won't win the election.
Used for predictions
Will Verb (base form)
Examples:
The concert will begin at 8 o'clock.
When will the train leave?
Used for scheduled events
Will Verb (base form)

Examples:
Will you marry me?
I'll help you with your homework after class
Used for promises
Will Verb (base form)
Examples:
I'll make you a sandwich.
They'll help you if you want.
Used for offers
Will Verb (base form)
Examples:
He will telephone as soon as he arrives.
Will you visit me when you come next week?
Used in combination with time clauses (as soon as, when, before, after)
Be going to Verb (base form)
Examples:
Frank is going to study Medicine.
Where are they going to stay when they come?
She isn't going to buy the new house afterall.
The future with 'going to' is used to express planned events or intentions. These events or
intentions are decided on before the moment of speaking.
NOTE
'Going to' or '-ing' are often both correct for planed events. 'Going to' should be used for
distant future intentions (example: He's going to study Law)
Be going to Verb (base form)
Examples:

Oh no! Look at those clouds. It's going to rain.


Be careful! You're going to drop those dishes!
Used for future predictions based on physical (usually visual) evidence.
Present Continuous (be '-ing')
Examples:
He's coming tomorrow afternoon.
What are we having for dinner?
I'm not seeing the doctor until Friday.
Used for planned or personally scheduled events. Usually used with principle verbs such as:
come, go, begin, start, finish, have, etc.
NOTE
'Going to' or '-ing' are often both correct for planed events. 'Going to' should be used for
distant future intentions (example: He's going to study Law)
Simple Present
Examples:
The class begins at 11.30.
The plane leaves at 6 o'clock.
Used for scheduled public events such as train and plane schedules, course schedules, etc.
Common future time expressions include:
next (week, month, year), tomorrow, in X's time (amount of time, i.e. two week's time), in
year, time clauses (when, as soon as, before, after) simple present (example: I will
telephone as soon as I arrive.) soon, later
Structure of the Forms
Future with Will
S + will + verb (base form) = positve
Examples:

I'll make you a sandwich.


They'll visit soon.
It'll rain tomorrow.
S + will not (won't) + verb (base form) = negative
Examples:
She won't come next week.
It won't take a long time.
We won't sing that song.
Will + S + verb (base form) = question
Examples:
Will you give me a hand?
Where will she stay?
When will we leave?
Future with 'going to'
Conjugate the helping verb "be" 'going to' verb (base form).
Examples:
You are going to stay with them.
She is going to visit Paul.
They are going to move soon.
Conjugate the helping verb "be" not going to verb (base form)
Examples:
I'm not going to stay very long.
We aren't going to visit our friends in Paris.
They aren't going to get a new job.
Question word conjugate the helping verb 'be' subject going to verb (base form)
Examples:
What are you going to do?
Where is he going to stay?
When are they going to leave?

Future with '-ing' (present continuous)


Conjugate the helping verb "be" and verb -ing.
Examples:
I'm meeting him tomorrow.
She's having lunch with Tom.
They're flying to Lisbon next week.
Conjugate the helping verb "be" not verb -ing.
Examples:
She isn't having a meeting tomorrow.
You aren't playing tennis this weekend.
They aren't going to the party.
Question word conjugate the helping verb 'be' subject verb -ing
Examples:
Are you attending the meeting on Friday?
Is he coming to the party?
Are they giving a presentation?
Test your knowledge of future forms by taking the Future Forms Quiz
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Future with Going to for Future Plans


The future with 'going to' is used to express future plans or scheduled events. It is often
used instead of the present continuous for future scheduled work events. Either form can be
used for this purpose.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
... next week / month
... tomorrow
... on Monday, Tuesday, etc.
Basic Construction
Positive

Subject + be + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression


Tom is going to fly to Los Angeles next on Tuesday.
Negative
Subject + be not (isn't, aren't) + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They aren't going to attend the conference next month.
Question
(Question Word) + be + subject + going to + verb + object(s) + time Expression
When are you going to meet Jack?
Take this future forms quiz to check your understanding.
If you are a teacher, use this guide on how to teach future forms for more help.

Present Simple
The present simple is used to express daily routines and habits. Adverbs of frequency such
as 'usually', 'sometimes', 'rarely', etc. are often used with the present simple.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
always, usually, sometimes, etc.
... every day
... on Sundays, Tuesdays, etc.
Basic Construction
Positive
Subject + Present Tense + object(s) + time Expression
Frank usually takes a bus to work.
Negative
Subject + do / does + not (don't / doesn't) + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They don't often go to Chicago.
Question

(Question Word) + do / does + subject + verb + object(s) + time Expression


How often do you play golf?
Test your understanding with this short quiz.
If you are a teacher, here is a guide on how to teach the present simple.
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Teaching the present simple tense is one of the first, and most important tasks when
teaching beginners. It's a good idea to teach the present simple of the verb 'to be' to begin
with, and introduce simple adjectives to help students expand their understanding of the
verb 'to be'. After English learners are comfortable with the present and past forms of the
verb 'to be', teaching the present simple and past simple will be much easier.
Introducing the Present Simple
Start by Modeling the Present Simple
Most English learners are false beginners. In other words, they have already studied
English at some point. Begin teaching the present simple by stating some of your routines:
I get up at six thirty in the morning.
I teach at the Portland English School.
I have lunch at one o'clock.
etc.
Students will recognize most of these verbs. Model some questions for the students as well.
At this point, it's a good idea to ask yourself a question and provide the answer.
When do you have dinner? - I have dinner at six o'clock.
When do you come to school? - I come to school at two o'clock.
Where do you live? - I live in Portland.
etc.
Continue by asking students the same questions. Students will be able to follow your lead
and answer appropriately.
Introduce Third Person - S
Once the students are comfortable speaking about their own basic daily activities, introduce
the third person singular for 'he' and 'she' which will prove the most difficult for students.
Again, model the present simple third person 's' for the students.

When does Mary have dinner? - She has dinner at six o'clock.
When does John come to school? - He comes to school at two o'clock.
Where does she live? - He lives in Portland.
etc.
Ask each student a question and ask another for a reply, creating a chain of questions and
answers changing from 'you' to 'he' and 'she'. This will help students memorize this crucial
difference.
Where do you live? - (Student) I live in Portland.
Where does he live? - (Student) He lives in Portland.
etc.
Finally, introduce the negative form of the present simple in the same manner as above.
Remember to continually model the form to the students and immediately encourage a
similar answer.
Does Anne live in Seattle? - No, she doesn't live in Seattle. She lives in Portland.
Do you study French? - No, you don't study French. You study English.
etc.
Practicing the Present Simple
Explaining the Present Simple on the Board
Students will now recognize the present simple tense and be able to respond to simple
questions. It's time to introduce the grammar. Use a present simple tense timeline on the
board to stress the fact that this tense is used to express routines. I also like to use simple
charts showing the underlying structure of this tense.
Comprehension Activities
Once you have introduced the tense, and used the whiteboard to explain forms, continue
teaching the present simple tense through activities which use the present simple in context.
I suggest this reading comprehension about daily routines, or this interview listening
comprehension.
Continued Activity Practice
Students have learned to recognize the present simple, as well as understand the form in
comprehension activities. It's time to continue by having students use the present simple to
describe their own lives in both spoken and written form. This detailed lesson on daily
routines will help you continue the practice.
Expected Problems

Here are most common challenges for students when using the present simple:

Confusing with the present continuous for actions occurring at the moment of
speaking.
Use of 's' in the third person.
Auxiliary verb usage in the question and negative form, but NOT in the positive
form.
Placement of adverbs of frequency.

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The present simple is used to express daily routines and habits. Adverbs of
frequency such as 'usually', 'sometimes', 'rarely', etc. are often used with the present simple.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:
always, usually, sometimes, etc.
... every day
... on Sundays, Tuesdays, etc.
Basic Construction
Positive
Subject + Present Tense + object(s) + time Expression
Frank usually takes a bus to work.

Negative
Subject + do / does + not (don't / doesn't) + verb + object(s) + time Expression
They don't often go to Chicago.
Question
(Question Word) + do / does + subject + verb + object(s) + time Expression
How often do you play golf?
Test your understanding with this short quiz.
If you are a teacher, here is a guide on how to teach the present simple.
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Teaching the present simple tense is one of the first, and most important tasks when
teaching beginners. It's a good idea to teach the present simple of the verb 'to be' to begin
with, and introduce simple adjectives to help students expand their understanding of the
verb 'to be'. After English learners are comfortable with the present and past forms of the
verb 'to be', teaching the present simple and past simple will be much easier.
Introducing the Present Simple
Start by Modeling the Present Simple
Most English learners are false beginners. In other words, they have already studied
English at some point. Begin teaching the present simple by stating some of your routines:
I get up at six thirty in the morning.
I teach at the Portland English School.
I have lunch at one o'clock.
etc.
Students will recognize most of these verbs. Model some questions for the students as well.
At this point, it's a good idea to ask yourself a question and provide the answer.
When do you have dinner? - I have dinner at six o'clock.
When do you come to school? - I come to school at two o'clock.
Where do you live? - I live in Portland.
etc.

Continue by asking students the same questions. Students will be able to follow your lead
and answer appropriately.
Introduce Third Person - S
Once the students are comfortable speaking about their own basic daily activities, introduce
the third person singular for 'he' and 'she' which will prove the most difficult for students.
Again, model the present simple third person 's' for the students.
When does Mary have dinner? - She has dinner at six o'clock.
When does John come to school? - He comes to school at two o'clock.
Where does she live? - He lives in Portland.
etc.
Ask each student a question and ask another for a reply, creating a chain of questions and
answers changing from 'you' to 'he' and 'she'. This will help students memorize this crucial
difference.
Where do you live? - (Student) I live in Portland.
Where does he live? - (Student) He lives in Portland.
etc.
Finally, introduce the negative form of the present simple in the same manner as above.
Remember to continually model the form to the students and immediately encourage a
similar answer.
Does Anne live in Seattle? - No, she doesn't live in Seattle. She lives in Portland.
Do you study French? - No, you don't study French. You study English.
etc.
Practicing the Present Simple
Explaining the Present Simple on the Board
Students will now recognize the present simple tense and be able to respond to simple
questions. It's time to introduce the grammar. Use a present simple tense timeline on the
board to stress the fact that this tense is used to express routines. I also like to use simple
charts showing the underlying structure of this tense.
Comprehension Activities
Once you have introduced the tense, and used the whiteboard to explain forms, continue
teaching the present simple tense through activities which use the present simple in context.
I suggest this reading comprehension about daily routines, or this interview listening
comprehension.

Continued Activity Practice


Students have learned to recognize the present simple, as well as understand the form in
comprehension activities. It's time to continue by having students use the present simple to
describe their own lives in both spoken and written form. This detailed lesson on daily
routines will help you continue the practice.
Expected Problems
Here are most common challenges for students when using the present simple:

Confusing with the present continuous for actions occurring at the moment of
speaking.
Use of 's' in the third person.
Auxiliary verb usage in the question and negative form, but NOT in the positive
form.
Placement of adverbs of frequency.

Definition:
A negative verb construction that ends in -'nt.
These are the negative contractions commonly used in speech and in informal writing:

aren't, isn't, wasn't, weren't


can't, couldn't, mustn't, shouldn't, won't, wouldn't
didn't, doesn't, don't
hasn't, haven't, hadn't

Shan't (the contraction of shall not ) is extremely rare in American English , but it can still be heard
in British English . Contractions for
may not ( mayn't ) and might not ( mightn't ) occur infrequently in contemporary English. Except in
Hiberno-English (which uses amn't ), there is no negative contraction for am , though the
nonstandard form ain't is sometimes used in casual speech. See Examples and Observations
(below).

See also:

Contraction
Double Negative
Negation
Negative Particle
Notes on Contractions in English
Polarity
Sentence Negation

Examples and Observations:

"'If you shouldn't be defendin' him, then why are you doin' it?'
"'For a number of reasons,' said Atticus. 'The main one is, if I didn't I couldn't hold up my
head in town, I couldn't represent this county in the legislature, I couldn't even tell you or
Jem not to do something again.'
"'You mean if you didn't defend that man, Jem and me wouldn't have to mind you any
more?'
"'That's about right.'"
(Harper Lee, To Kill a Mockingbird. J.B. Lippincott, 1960)

Stella: Oh, you can't describe someone you're in love with! Here's a picture of him
Blanche: An officer?
Stella: A Master Sergeant in the Engineers' Corps. Those are decorations!
Blanche: He had those on when you met him?
Stella: I assure you I wasn't just blinded by all the brass.
(Tennessee Williams, A Streetcar Named Desire, 1947)

"I'll say, 'It was an accident Mom . . . a mistake . . . it won't happen again.'
"And Ralph will say, 'If you hadn't been thinking about that girl this never would have
happened.'"
(Judy Blume, Then Again, Maybe I Won't. Bradbury Press, 1971)

"I'm getting very deaf. I suppose I don't hear people. Emily's got a bad toe. We shan't be
able to start for Wales till the end of the month."
(John Galsworthy, The Forsyte Saga, 1922)

"'Don't go to any trouble on my account,' Paul D said.


"'Bread ain't trouble. The rest I brought back from where I work.'"
(Toni Morrison, Beloved. Alfred Knopf, 1987)

Negative Contraction and Auxiliary Contraction


"[N]egative contraction is possible for a much wider range of verbs than auxiliary (or nonnegative) contraction in standard English. Practically every verb (except am) has a form

with a contracted negative, whereas auxiliary contraction is only possible for a smaller
number of verbs. For this reason, speakers have a choice between negative vs auxiliary
contraction for the following verb forms only: is, are; have, has, had; will, would; shall,
should. Some of the auxiliary contracted forms are ambiguous: he's not is the contracted
form of both he is not and he has not (although this use is relatively rare); I'd not can be
derived from either I had not, I would not or I should not; and you'll not can--at least in
principle--be the contracted form of you will not or you shall not.
"In addition, however, one has to consider different syntactic environments. The
distinction between auxiliary and negative contraction is only relevant for declarative
sentences. Only here and for those verbs listed above do speakers have a choice between
negative contraction, auxiliary contraction and completely uncontracted forms."
(Lieselotte Anderwald, Negation in Non-Standard British English: Gaps, Regularizations
and Asymmetries. Routledge, 2002)

Rogue Contractions: Aren't I and Ain't


"Negative contraction is not a possibility with am not (*I amn't), and this causes a
difficulty in questions (where inversion does not allow verb contraction). In colloquial
English, aren't I is sometimes substituted for the non-existent *amn't I. (The full form am I
not is generally avoided.)
I'm naughty aren't I? ( conv)
' Aren't I supposed to understand?' (fict)
"[Ain't] is a very versatile negative contraction, capable of substituting for all negative
contractions of be or the auxiliary have:
'There ain't nothing we can do.' (fict) isn't>
'I'm whispering now, ain't I?' (fict) aren't>
I ain't done nothing. (conv) haven't>
Ain't is common is the conversation of some dialects, and it occurs in representations of
speech in writing. However, ain't is widely felt to be nonstandard, and so it is generally
avoided in written language, as well as in careful speech."
(Douglas Biber, Susan Conrad , and Geoffrey Leech, Longman Student Grammar of Spoken
English. Pearson, 2002)

Usage: The Case Against Ain't


"Long a shibboleth for 20th-century Americans, the negative contraction ain't continues
to be Substandard when used unconsciously or unintentionally. It is a word, though, and in
Vulgar and some Common use, it replaces are not, is not, am not, has not, and have not in

statements. Standard English replaces I ain't with I'm not and the interrogative ain't I
(which is often added to statements, e.g., I'm safe, ain't I?) with a choice of somewhat
clumsy locutions: am I not? aren't I? or an even more roundabout Isn't that so? . . . The
firm rejection of ain't in Standard use is hard to explain, but clearly Americans have come
down hardest on it, and they have made the rejection stick in Standard American English.
Consciously jocular uses are acceptable, but using ain't in circumstances that do not
suggest deliberate choice may brand you as a speaker of Vulgar English."
(Kenneth G. Wilson, The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. Columbia
University Press, 1993)

Negative Contraction and Be Contraction


"Whereas for all auxiliary verbs negative contraction (e.g. haven't, hasn't, won't) is vastly
preferred over auxiliary contraction (e.g. 've not, 'd not, 'll not), we get the reverse picture
for be. Even isn't (12.5%) and aren't (3.5%) are used very rarely in the British Isles, so that
the near absence of amn't in standard as well as non-standard varieties is not a striking
exception, but simply the tip of the iceberg.
"The motivation for this striking preference of be-contraction over negative contraction
for all other auxiliaries is most likely a cognitive one, namely the extremely low semantic
content of be."
(Bernd Kortmann, Tanja Herrmann, Lukas Pietsch, and Susanne Wagner, Agreement,
Gender, Relative Clauses. Walter de Gruyter, 2005)

Negative Contractions and Language Acquisition


"[C]hildren will use some of the negative contractions prior to their acquisition of the
rules for not in the verb phrase. The negative contractions don't, won't, and can't are
acquired early and may be used prior to the acquisition of the particular auxiliaries which
they represent. Children appear to learn these negative contractions as single morphemes
and use them to negate prior to learning the auxiliary plus not."
(Virginia A. Heidinger, Analyzing Syntax and Semantics: A Self-Instructional Approach for
Teachers and Clinicians. Gallaudet University Press, 1984)

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Use the present perfect to express a state or repeated action that began in the past and
continues into the moment of speaking. The present perfect or the present perfect
continuous can often be interchanged. The main difference between these two forms is that
the present perfect continuous is generally used to express the length of the current activity
up to the present moment in time.
This tense is often used with the following time expressions:

... for + amount of time


... since + specific point in time
Basic Construction
Positive
Subject + have / has + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
I have lived in Portland for four years.
Negative
Subject + have / has not (haven't, hasn't) + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Max hasn't played tennis since 1999.
Question
(Question Word) + have / has + subject + past participle + object(s) + time Expression
Where have you worked since 2002?
Take this present perfect quiz to check your understanding.
If you are a teacher, use this guide on how to teach the present perfect tense for mor
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Here are the rules for using would rather, would prefer and prefer correctly. The first table
looks at how we can express specific preference; the second shows us how to express
general preference.
Would prefer, would rather:
expressing specific preference
We went to the theatre yesterday. Today I
When we speak about a specific preference,
would rather go to the cinema.
would rather and would prefer have the
We went to the theatre yesterday. Today I
same meaning and are interchangeable.
would prefer to go to the cinema.
Would rather can be abbreviated to 'd
rather.
I'd rather go to the cinema.
Would prefer can be abbreviated to 'd
I'd prefer to go to the cinema.
prefer.
Would rather is followed by the bare
I'd rather have fruit juice.
infinitive.
I'd prefer to have fruit juice.

I'd prefer fruit juice.


Would prefer is followed by to + infinitive
or a noun.
We use a past tense after would rather when
we speak about the actions of other people,
even though that action may be in the present
or future.
We say:
would rather . . . than
We say:
would prefer . . . rather than / instead of

I'd rather you took a taxi (instead of


walking) it's not safe on the streets at night.
The film is quite violent. I'd rather our
children didn't watch it.
It's such nice weather I'd rather sit in the
garden than watch TV.
It's such nice weather I'd prefer to sit in the
garden rather than watch TV.

Prefer, would rather:


expressing general preference
When we talk about general preferences, we
I prefer walking to cycling.
can use prefer or would rather. The
I would rather walk than cycle.
meaning is the same.
I prefer using a keyboard to writing with a
After prefer we use the verb in the -ing
pen.
form.

We say: prefer . . . to . . .

Id rather use a keyboard than write with a


pen.
(Id = I would)
I prefer walking to driving.

We say: would rather . . . than . . .

Id rather walk than drive.

After would rather we use the infinitive


without to.

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Been, gone: difference


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Been is the past participle of the verb be:


The verb "be"

I am
you are
he is, etc.

I was
you were
he was, etc.

I have been
you have been
he has been, etc.

Been can also mean come or gone:


Been (meaning come or gone)
We sometimes use been as the past participle of come and go.
present simple

past simple

present perfect

I go to the cinema a lot.

I haven't been to the cinema for


I went to the cinema yesterday. years.
I haven't gone

Do you often go to London?

Did you go to London last


weekend?

Have you ever been to London?


have you ever gone
She's been here twice today.

She comes here a lot.

She came here yesterday.


She's come here twice today.

Been or gone?
Been, gone: difference
gone = She went there and she is still there.
Liz has gone to the bank.
(She's at the bank now.)
been = She went there but now she's back.
Liz has been to the bank.
(She's back at home now.)
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Be used to, get used to, used to


Home > English resources > Grammar rules > Other grammar rules >

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How to use be used to, get used to and used to correctly.


Be used to
If you are used to something, you have often
I am used to getting up early in the morning.
done or experienced it; it is not strange, new
I don't mind it.
or difficult for you.
He didn't complain about the neighbours
Structure: Be used to + noun phrase or verb
loud party he was used to the noise.
(-ing form)
I dont think Toms strange Im used to
We can also say be used to someone.
him.
I don't understand him: I'm not used to his
Negative: be not used to.
accent yet.
Get used to
Structure:
Get used to + something / someone
Get used to + verb (-ing form)
If you get used to something, you become
accustomed to it; it is no longer unusual or
strange.
Get used to is the process of becoming used
to something.

I got used to his Scottish accent after a while


.
I got used to waking up early in the morning.
After a while he didn't mind the noise in the
office; he got used to it.

Used to
Used to + verb infinitive refers to a habit or state in the past. It is used only in the past
simple tense.
Past habits
We used to live there when I was a child.
If you used to do something, you did it for a
I used to walk to school every day when I
period of time in the past, but you don't do it
was a child.
any more.
I used to like The Beatles, but now I never
Past states
We also say used to to express a state that
listen to them.
existed in the past but doesn't exist now.
He used to have long hair, but now its very
States are NOT actions. We express states
short.

with stative verbs such as have, believe,


know and like.
Structure of questions:
did(n't) + subject + use to be
Structure of negative:
subject + didn't + use to be.

I used to believe in magic when I was a


child.
Did(n't) he use to work in your office?
I didn't use to like wine, but now I love it.

Practice exercise (intermediate) used to, be used to and get used

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Short forms (contractions): Im, hes,


shes, dont, lets, etc.
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We often use short forms (called contractions) in spoken English. For instance, instead of
saying I am here, we often say Im here. Instead of he is late, we say hes late.
When we write a short form, we replace the missing letter with (called an apostrophe).
Short forms (contractions):
Im, hes, were, etc.
I
am = m

he, she, it

Im

is = s

hes, she's, it's

are = re
have = ve
has = s

we, you, they

were, youre, theyre


I've

we've, you've, they've


he's, she's, it's

would = d

I'd

he'd, she'd, it'd

we'd, you'd, they'd

will = ll

I'll

he'll, she'll, it'll

we'll, you'll, they'll

Short forms (contractions) of negatives:


don't, doesn't, haven't, etc.
isnt (= is not)

hasnt (= has not)

dont (= do not)

cant (= cannot)

arent (= are not)

havent (= have not)

doesnt (= does not)

couldnt (= could not)

wasnt (= was not)

hadnt (= had not)

didnt (= did not)

wont (= will not)

werent (= were not)

wouldnt (= would not)


shouldnt (= should not)
mustnt (= must not)
neednt (= need not)
mightnt (= might not)
darent (= dare not)

The contraction s can mean is or has

Hes going to the cinema. (= he is going)


Hes gone to the cinema. (= he has gone)
Its getting dark. (= it is getting)
Its got dark. (= it has got)

See a further explanation and more examples: Its = it is or it has. How to tell the
difference.

The contraction d can mean would or had

Id = I would or I had
Youd = you would or you had
Hed = he would or he had
Shed = she would or she had
Itd = it would or it had
Wed = we would or we had
Theyd = they would or they had

See a full explanation with more examples: Id = would or I had.

Lets = let us

Its sunny lets go to the park for a picnic. (= let us go)


Its raining lets watch a film at home. (= let us watch)

Hows, whats, etc.


We often use some short forms with question words (how, which, what, etc.) in spoken
English:
Short forms (contractions) of question words:
how, who, what, etc.
who

whos = who is

Whos that man over there?

who

whod = who would

Whod like some tea?

who

wholl = who will

Wholl be here tomorrow?

what

whats = what is

Whats for dinner?

what

whatll = what will

Whatll happen if . . . ?

how

hows = how is

Hows your father?

where

wheres = where is

Wheres the nearest shop?

when

whens = when is

Whens your birthday?

Heres, theres, thats


We can also use some short forms with here, there, and that:
Short forms (contractions):
here, there, that
here

heres = here is

Heres the kitchen and heres the


bathroom.

there

theres = there is

Theres a great pub in the village.

there

thered = there would

If people drove less, thered be less


pollution.

there

therell = there will

If you come early, therell be more


time to talk.

that

thats = that is

Thats my house over there.

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Few, a few, little, a little


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Few / a few, little / a little are quantifiers. Here is how to use them correctly:
Few, a few
A few is more than few.
We use a few and few + a plural
countable noun.

few people, few books, few letters


a few people, a few books, a few letters
Fortunately, our financial situation is good: we
A few is a positive idea.
still have a few good customers.
I'm very sad: I have few good friends.
Few is a negative idea. It means 'almost I'm very sad: I have very few good friends.
none'. We can also use very few.
(Both these sentences mean I don't have many
good friends I would like to have more.)
A few and few have irregular
few fewer the fewest
comparative and superlative forms.
a few more the most
Little, a little
A little is more than little.
We use a little and little + an uncountable
noun.
A little is a positive idea. It means 'not much,
but some'.
Little is a negative idea. It means 'nearly
none, nearly nothing'. We can also use very

a little time, a little food, a little money,


little time, little food, little money
I can help you: I speak a little English.
I can't help you. I speak little English.
I can't help you. I speak very little English.

little.

A little and little have irregular comparative


and superlative forms.

Both these sentences mean My English


isnt good; I would like to speak English
better.
little less the least
a little more the most

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d = had or would
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The contraction Id can mean I would or I had.


Here are some similar examples:
Youd = you would or you had
Hed = he would or he had
Shed = she would or she had
Itd = it would or it had
Wed = we would or we had
Theyd = they would or they had
We can often tell if Id means I would or I had simply by looking at the context of the
sentence. However, if were not sure, we must look at the grammatical form which follows
the contraction d.
Take a look at this table for an explanation with examples:
'd = "had" or "would"
The contraction 'd can mean would or had.
To tell the difference we need to look at what follows 'd:
Would is followed by the bare infinitive
I'd like some tea. ('d = would)
(infinitive without to).
He'd go if he had some money. ('d = would)

would be, would go, etc.


Would can also be followed by the perfect
infinitive (have + past participle).
would have been, would have gone, etc.
Had is followed by a past participle
had gone, had had, had been, had spoken,
etc..
I'd better do something
('d = had)
(used for giving advice or warnings)
I'd rather
('d = would)

It'd be a good idea. ('d = would)


I'd have gone if I had had time. ('d = would)
He'd have been 70 today. ('d = would)
He'd gone home. ('d = had)
He'd been married a year. ('d = had)
She'd just spoken to her. ('d = had)
I wish I'd waited longer. ('d = had)
You'd better be careful it might be
dangerous. ('d = had)
We'd better ask someone else because I'm
not sure. ('d = had)
I'd rather live in Paris than in Rome. ('d =
would)
I'm tired so I'd rather not go out. ('d =
would)

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Would rather, would prefer, prefer


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Here are the rules for using would rather, would prefer and prefer correctly. The first table
looks at how we can express specific preference; the second shows us how to express
general preference.
Would prefer, would rather:
expressing specific preference
We went to the theatre yesterday. Today I
When we speak about a specific preference,
would rather go to the cinema.
would rather and would prefer have the
We went to the theatre yesterday. Today I
same meaning and are interchangeable.
would prefer to go to the cinema.
Would rather can be abbreviated to 'd
rather.
I'd rather go to the cinema.
Would prefer can be abbreviated to 'd
I'd prefer to go to the cinema.
prefer.

Would rather is followed by the bare


infinitive.

I'd rather have fruit juice.


I'd prefer to have fruit juice.
Would prefer is followed by to + infinitive I'd prefer fruit juice.
or a noun.
We use a past tense after would rather when I'd rather you took a taxi (instead of
we speak about the actions of other people, walking) it's not safe on the streets at night.
even though that action may be in the present The film is quite violent. I'd rather our
or future.
children didn't watch it.
We say:
It's such nice weather I'd rather sit in the
garden than watch TV.
would rather . . . than
We say:
It's such nice weather I'd prefer to sit in the
would prefer . . . rather than / instead of garden rather than watch TV.

Prefer, would rather:


expressing general preference
When we talk about general preferences, we
I prefer walking to cycling.
can use prefer or would rather. The
I would rather walk than cycle.
meaning is the same.
I prefer using a keyboard to writing with a
After prefer we use the verb in the -ing
pen.
form.

We say: prefer . . . to . . .

Id rather use a keyboard than write with a


pen.
(Id = I would)
I prefer walking to driving.

We say: would rather . . . than . . .

Id rather walk than drive.

After would rather we use the infinitive


without to.

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Confusing words: so, such


Stuart Cook May 4, 2012 Confusing words 6

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In this post well look at so and such, two more words that often cause problems for
students of English.

Well see a simple rule that tells us whether we need so or such in a sentence. You can then
test yourself with the quick exercise below.

Meaning
So and such both show an extreme state:

Hes so tall.
Its so cold today.
Its such a big country.
Shes such a nice lady.

Rule
Heres the simple rule:
We use so if we follow with just an adjective or adverb.
We use such if we follow with a noun.
Here are some examples to illustrate the rule:

Chinese is so difficult to learn. *so + adjective+


He always drives so quickly. *so + adverb+

Chinese is such a difficult language to learn.


*Here we used such because we followed with a noun, language.+

The weather is so nice today.


*The noun weather comes at the start of the sentence. We therefore used so.+

Its such nice weather today.


*Here we used such because the noun weather comes later in the sentence.]

! Compare the following two sentences, which mean the same:

The room was so cold that I had to put my coat on.


It was such a cold room that I had to put my coat on.

So that / such that


When we want to express that the extreme thing or situation has a consequence, we can say
so that
and
such that.
The structures are as follows:

so + adjective + that
so + adverb + that
such + adjective + noun + that
Here are some examples:

Hes so tall that he cant find clothes to fit him.


*Hes extremely tall; the consequence is that he cant find clothes to fit him.+

It was so cold that I needed three sweaters and a jacket.


[The consequence of the cold is that he needed three sweaters.]

Its such a big country that it takes the train three days to cross it.
[The consequence of the extreme distance is that the journey takes a long time.]

So many / so much / so few / so little


We can also use so with many, much, few and little:

There were so many people in the shopping centre. It was horrible.


Hes got so much money.
There are so few teachers in the area that the school has to employ unqualified people.
I had so little time for lunch that I only managed to finish the soup before I had to leave.

Now try this quick quiz to see how well you can use so and such':
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Confusing words: theyre, their, there


Stuart Cook February 26, 2013 Confusing words 0

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English learners often have a problem with theyre, their and there because these words
have the same pronunciation despite having different spellings and meanings.
We call words like this homophones.
Here are some typical mistakes with theyre, their and there:

I saw there daughter yesterday.


I saw their daughter yesterday.

The children were ill last week but their fine now.
Theyre fine now.

Please wait their for me.


Please wait there for me.

Example sentences

Do you live in London? How long have you lived there?

Jack and Jill are quite wealthy. Their kids go to a private school.
Pete and Liz have two kids; theyre eleven and nine.
Can you see that sign over there?
Tigers are carnivores. Their food includes deer and antelope.

Want to test yourself? You can see a theyre, their, there exercise here.
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Be used to, get used to, used to


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How to use be used to, get used to and used to correctly.


Be used to
If you are used to something, you have often
I am used to getting up early in the morning.
done or experienced it; it is not strange, new
I don't mind it.
or difficult for you.
He didn't complain about the neighbours
Structure: Be used to + noun phrase or verb
loud party he was used to the noise.
(-ing form)
I dont think Toms strange Im used to
We can also say be used to someone.
him.
I don't understand him: I'm not used to his
Negative: be not used to.
accent yet.
Get used to
Structure:
Get used to + something / someone
Get used to + verb (-ing form)
If you get used to something, you become
accustomed to it; it is no longer unusual or
strange.
Get used to is the process of becoming used
to something.

I got used to his Scottish accent after a while


.
I got used to waking up early in the morning.
After a while he didn't mind the noise in the
office; he got used to it.

Used to
Used to + verb infinitive refers to a habit or state in the past. It is used only in the past
simple tense.
Past habits
We used to live there when I was a child.
If you used to do something, you did it for a
I used to walk to school every day when I
period of time in the past, but you don't do it
was a child.
any more.
I used to like The Beatles, but now I never
Past states
We also say used to to express a state that
listen to them.
existed in the past but doesn't exist now.
He used to have long hair, but now its very
States are NOT actions. We express states
short.
with stative verbs such as have, believe,
I used to believe in magic when I was a
know and like.
child.
Structure of questions:
Did(n't) he use to work in your office?
did(n't) + subject + use to be
Structure of negative:
I didn't use to like wine, but now I love it.
subject + didn't + use to be.
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List of question words


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Question words
Question word

Asking for / about

What?

information, type

When?

time, day, year, etc.

Why?

reason

Which?

choice

Who?
How?

a person, a name
method, quality,

Example
Whats your name?
What is an oak a tree or a plant?
When were you born?
When are you coming today or tomorrow?
Why are you so tired?
Why dont you go to bed?
We have fruit tea and green tea which
would you like?
Who wrote War and Peace was it Tolstoy?
How do you travel to work by car?

condition
Whose?

possession, owner

Whom? (formal)

a person, name

How was the soup?


How are you today?
Whose is this pen? Is it yours?
Whom did you see? (formal, less common)
Who did you see? (more common)

Whom is very formal and is not often used in spoken English. Most native speakers use
who:

Whom did you see? [formal written, formal spoken English]


Who did you see? [standard spoken English]

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http://speakspeak.com/resources/english-grammar-rules/various-grammar-rules

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Very - Too - Enough


English Grammar Rules

The following grammar notes show the difference uses (and word order) of Very, Too and
Enough.

Very and Too + adjective

1. The exam is very difficult, but Jim can complete it.


2. The exam is too difficult. Jim can't complete it.
Very difficult = it is difficult but possible for Jim to complete the exam.
Too difficult = It is impossible for Jim to complete the exam.
Remember that Too implies a negative result.

Too + adjective + infinitive

Alex couldn't play basketball because he was too short.


Alex was too short to play basketball.
We are too tired to go to the gym.
Mary was too ill to finish her food.

Too + adjective + for (someone) + infinitive

I can't walk to Valparaiso because it is too far.


Valparaiso is too far for me to walk.
It is too late for me to go out.
The soup is too cold for Tim to eat.
The price of the ticket is too expensive for Mike to fly to Europe.

Enough + noun

Enough (pronounced "enuf")


There was sufficient food for everybody at the party.

There was enough food for everybody at the party.


I had enough money to pay for dinner with my girlfriend.
Is there enough time to finish the test?

Adjective + Enough

Everybody notices her because she is very pretty.

She is pretty enough for everybody to notice her.


My friend lives close enough to my house to walk.
Last summer it was hot enough to go swimming every day.

Enough + infinitive

When she lost her dog, it was enough to make her cry.
He was sick enough to stay home from work today.
I arrived at the airport early enough to make my flight to New York.

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Home

How to use Enough?


Poor
Okay
Good
Great
Awesome
Average: 3.9 (27 votes)
Mon, 10/04/2010 - 07:53 Chris McCarthy

Confusing Words
Grammar
Vocabulary

How to use enough with adjectives and nouns Pre-intermediate

I have 10 and I want to buy this car:

Unfortunately this car costs 100,000


I dont have enough money. The car is very expensive and I will never be rich enough to
buy it.

Look at the sentence above, it uses enough in two different ways. Can you see them? What
is different about the way we use enough?
There are two examples in the sentence. Lets look at them separately:
1. "I dont have enough money."
Money is a noun, so it comes after enough.
2. "I will never be rich enough."
Rich is an adjective so it comes before enough.
Lets look at the two rules:
1. Enough + noun e.g. "There is not enough food for everybody, go and buy some more."
2. Adjective + enough e.g. "He is not tall enough to play basketball."
Remember! Adjective before, noun after.
Complete the sentences with enough/not enough or not ___ enough and words from
the box.
fast
big
time
hot
beds
water
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Grammar: teaching the modals 'ought to',


'should', 'must' and 'have to'.
By Tim Bowen
Level: Starter/beginner, Elementary, Pre-intermediate, Intermediate, Upper intermediate,
Advanced Type: Reference material, Teaching notes

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Comments (8)
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Suggestions for teaching the modals 'ought to', 'should', 'must' and 'have to' when talking
about suggestion or advice.

I have recently started teaching English in the sultanate of Oman. Please give me some
ideas on how to teach the modal verbs ought to, should, must and have to. I dont
find these easy and am having great difficulty in planning a teaching lesson.
How do I teach should and shouldnt to indicate suggestion/advice?
Joanna West

Modal verbs present specific problems for both teachers and learners. Quite apart from the
numerous difficulties associated with meaning, their use also differs from other verbs in a
number of ways, notably:
1. Forming the interrogative through inversion rather than the use of the auxiliary verb
do (so Can I? rather than *Do I can?)
2. Forming the negative by adding not to the modal verb rather than using the
auxiliary verb do (You mustnt and not *You dont must)
3. No s ending in the third person singular
4. No consistent past forms in some cases.
5. Have to, however, is different, forming interrogatives and negatives using do and
having a normal past form.
In terms of teaching the modal verbs, the list of verbs in the first question suggests that the
distinction between ought to and should and must and have to respectively is the key
point, which also suggests that the learners in question have reached a fair degree of
proficiency in English.

1) Must and have to


A key distinction between must and have to can be found in the negative forms.
Whereas You must go and You have to go can be regarded as broadly the same in terms
of meaning, You mustnt go and You dont have to go are quite different, the first
indicating that going is prohibited in some way, or even dangerous, while the second
implies an absence of obligation or need.
Another difference between must and have to in the sense of obligation can be found in
the nature of the obligation. It is possible to say Im sorry. I cant come to the meeting
tomorrow because I have to go to the dentist at 3 oclock but not I cant come to the
meeting tomorrow because I must go the dentist at 3 oclock. On the other hand, if you
have a raging toothache, you would probably say I really must go to the dentist, although
have to could replace must in this sentence. A generalized distinction would be that
must refers to an internal need or obligation while have to is used to refer to an external

need or obligation. It is probably true to say, however, that must can generally be replaced
by have to but have to often cannot be replaced by must so in terms of teaching, it is
probably a good idea to teach have to for obligation because it is nearly always correct
whereas must is often inappropriate. Must and must not are useful for official notices
and instructions, e.g. You must carry your passport at all times and You must not smoke
in the toilets.

2) Should and ought to


Should and ought to are basically the same, although should is much more widely used
than ought to. The negative and interrogative forms of ought to are becoming
increasingly rare. Both should and ought to are used to talk about obligation and duty
and to give advice. One way of getting the meaning of should across to learners is to
contrast its meaning with that of must and have to as the degree of obligation is
considerably less, e.g. I have to go to the doctor as compared to I should go to the
doctor.
It is probably a good idea to practise the above verbs using a generative context, i.e a
simple context that can generate lots of examples. In the case of should and shouldnt,
you might ask your learners to think of things they should and should do if they want to
improve their English. Answers might include You should read a lot in English, You
should learn vocabulary in context, You should talk to English people, You shouldnt
talk Arabic in class and You shouldnt translate everything. Other simple contexts where
you give advice might include how to lose weight, what to do if you have a bad cold, how
to give up smoking, how to be successful at an interview and so on.
At higher levels, it is more appropriate to contrast different modal verbs and to concentrate
on nuances of meaning. At lower levels it is probably best to concentrate on the main
meaning of each modal verb rather than to confuse learners by introducing too many
meanings at once. In the case of must, for example, its use for expressing deduction or
concluding that something is certain, as in The keys must be on the kitchen table, is a
useful one but is arguably confusing for learners at lower levels, particularly as the negative
form is cant and not mustnt.
Many coursebooks introduce the most important modal verbs first and concentrate on their
main meanings initially. Make full use of the way coursebooks present and practise the key
modal verbs. You dont need to reinvent the wheel. Contrasting some of the verbs (e.g.
have to and should) can help to consolidate the meaning and giving plenty of relevant
practice in generative situations should help your learners to understand and use these verbs
correctly.
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Should and Ought to

Modal verbs: Should and Ought


There is hardly any difference in meaning between should and ought. Both express duty,
obligation, advice. It must be remembered that ought is always followed by to + infinitive.
Patterns. Read and memorize!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

John should study English hard.


John should read English books loudly.
John should work on his pronunciation.
John should write dictations regularly.
John ought to practise oral drills.
John ought to drill the patterns.
John ought to recite English poems.
John ought to listen to good records.

Should and ought in interrogative sentences.


Key examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Should John read English books loudly?


Should John read the patterns?
Ought John to listen to English records?
Ought John to recite English poems?

Should and ought in negative sentences.


Key examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

John should not talk at the lessons.


John should not give up studying French.
John ought not to (1) prompt at the lessons.
John ought not to neglect his spelling.

(1) In negative sentences, not comes before to.


E. g. : You ought not to go. You oughtnt to go.
Should, ought + Perfect Infinitive express an unfulfilled action considered desirable.
Key examples:
1. You should have learned the words last night. Now it is too late. You wrote the test badly.

2. You should have been studying hard the whole term. Now it is difficult for you to catch up
with the group.
3. Jack should have come to see us but he didnt come. He was at the cinema.
4. Jack ought to have telephoned, but he didnt call up.
5. Jack ought to have warned us about his decision. We didnt know anything.

Should and ought to: difference in meanings.


In general modal verbs should and ought to are used to say what we think it is right or good for
people to do. In most cases, both should and ought to can be used with the same meaning. There
is, however, a very slight difference. When we use should, we give our own subjective opinion;
ought to has a rather more objective force, and is used when we are talking about laws, duties and
regulations.
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Modal Phrases (Had Better and Would Rather)


Semi-modal multi-word constructions 'had better' and 'would rather' are followed by the
infinitive without to.
Examples:

We had better go into the house because it is raining.


I can come today but I would rather come tomorrow.

Had Better
'Had better' expresses advice and means 'would find it wiser or more suitable'.
E.g.: You had better go now (=it would be good, wise or suitable for you to go now).
Synonyms: ought to do something / should do something.
In negative structures, better comes before not.
E.g.: You had better not go now.
Patterns. Read and memorize!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

We had better take an umbrella. It may rain. (Wed (1) better)


Hed better stop and have a rest if he feels tired.
Youd better go on the excursion.
You had better not eat so much. (Youd better)
Hadnt you better hurry if you want to catch the eight oclock train? (2)

6. What had I better put on for the party?


Note 1: - The contracted form d is very common.
Note 2: - The negative form 'hadn't better' is used mainly in questions: Hadn't we better try again
later?
'Had' is sometimes dropped in very informal speech.
E. g. : You better go now.
I better try again later.

Would Rather
'Would rather' expresses choice and means 'would prefer to do something'.
E.g.: I would rather you didn't help them (=I would prefer it if you didn't help them).
Patterns. Read and memorize!

I would rather stay at home than go to the cinema. Its raining.


'How about a drink?' 'Id (1) rather have something to eat.'
Id rather take a taxi than walk home (its too late).
The children would rather play in the garden than go to bed.
Would you rather write a composition or a dictation?
Would he rather read J. Galsworthy or W. Faulkner?

Note 1: - The contracted form d is very common.


'Would rather' can be used with different subjects before and after it, to say that one person
would prefer another to do something. In this case, a past tense is generally used with a present or
future meaning.
E. g. : Id rather you went home now.
Dont come tomorrow. Id rather you came next weekend.
To talk about past actions, past perfect tense is used.
E. g. : Id rather you hadnt done that.
Go to the 'Modal Verbs: Must' page
Should and Ought to

Modal verbs: Should and Ought


There is hardly any difference in meaning between should and ought. Both express duty,
obligation, advice. It must be remembered that ought is always followed by to + infinitive.
Patterns. Read and memorize!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

John should study English hard.


John should read English books loudly.
John should work on his pronunciation.
John should write dictations regularly.
John ought to practise oral drills.
John ought to drill the patterns.
John ought to recite English poems.
John ought to listen to good records.

Should and ought in interrogative sentences.


Key examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Should John read English books loudly?


Should John read the patterns?
Ought John to listen to English records?
Ought John to recite English poems?

Should and ought in negative sentences.


Key examples:
1.
2.
3.
4.

John should not talk at the lessons.


John should not give up studying French.
John ought not to (1) prompt at the lessons.
John ought not to neglect his spelling.

(1) In negative sentences, not comes before to.


E. g. : You ought not to go. You oughtnt to go.
Should, ought + Perfect Infinitive express an unfulfilled action considered desirable.
Key examples:
1. You should have learned the words last night. Now it is too late. You wrote the test badly.
2. You should have been studying hard the whole term. Now it is difficult for you to catch up
with the group.
3. Jack should have come to see us but he didnt come. He was at the cinema.
4. Jack ought to have telephoned, but he didnt call up.

5. Jack ought to have warned us about his decision. We didnt know anything.

Should and ought to: difference in meanings.


In general modal verbs should and ought to are used to say what we think it is right or good for
people to do. In most cases, both should and ought to can be used with the same meaning. There
is, however, a very slight difference. When we use should, we give our own subjective opinion;
ought to has a rather more objective force, and is used when we are talking about laws, duties and
regulations.
The Perfect Continuous Tenses

The Perfect Continuous Tenses: grammar rules, examples and using.


(In English, the perfect continuous tenses can also be called the perfect progressive tenses.)
present perfect continuous
past perfect continuous
future perfect continuous

The Present Perfect Continuous


The Formation of the Present Perfect Continuous
auxiliary verb to have (have/has ) been + Participle I

(the present perfect tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I have been studying.


He has been studying.
She has been studying.
It has been studying.
We have been studying.
You have been studying.
They have been studying.

Have I been studying?


Has he been studying?
Has she been studying?
Has it been studying?
Have we been studying?
Have you been studying?
Have they been studying?

I have not been studying.


He has not been studying.
She has not been studying.
It has not been studying.
We have not been studying.
You have not been studying.
They have not been studying.

(Verb Contractions: I have = Ive; he has = hes; she has = shes; it has = its; we have = weve; you
have = youve; they have = theyve; have not = haven't; has not = hasn't)

The Present Perfect Continuous denotes an action which began in the past, has been going on up
to the present and may be still going on.
Note: - The Present Perfect denote a complete action while with the Present Perfect Continuous
there is no implication of completeness.
Key examples:
I have been living here for three years.
The members of Parachute (rock band from Charlottesville, Virginia) graduated from college in
May 2008 and since then have been touring and promoting their debut album Losing Sleep and
sophomore album The Way It Was full-time. For study:
1. I have been studying English for 5 years.
I have studied English. I know it.
2. I have been reading English books all these years.
I have read David Copperfield. I can speak about it.
3. We have been practising at the language laboratory for 3 years.
I have practised this sound thoroughly.
4. We have been working all the time.
I have worked hard on my composition. I like it.

The Past Perfect Continuous


The Formation of the Past Perfect Continuous

auxiliary verb had been + Participle I

(the past perfect tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I had been studying.


He had been studying.
She had been studying.
It had been studying.
We had been studying.
You had been studying.

Had I been studying?


Had he been studying?
Had she been studying?
Had it been studying?
Had we been studying?
Had you been studying?

I had not been studying.


He had not been studying.
She had not been studying.
It had not been studying.
We had not been studying.
You had not been studying.

They had been studying.

Had they been studying?

They had not been studying.

The Past Perfect Continuous expresses an action which began before a given past moment and
continued into it or up to it. Also the Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which was in
progress just before a given past moment and its effect tells on the past situation in some way.
Key example:
He said that he had been studying English for three years.
For study:
1. They had been sailing for ten days when at last they saw land.
2. They said that they had been working in this laboratory since they graduated from the
University.

The Future Perfect Continuous


The Formation of the Future Perfect Continuous

auxiliary verb shall/will have been + Participle I

(the future perfect tense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

I shall have been studying.


He will have been studying.
She will have been studying.
It will have been studying.
We shall have been studying.
You shall have been studying.
They will have been studying.

Shall I have been studying?


Will he have been studying?
Will she have been studying?
Will it have been studying?
Shall we have been studying?
Shall you have been studying?
Will they have been studying?

I shall not have been studying.


He will not have been studying.
She will not have been
studying.
It will not have been studying.
We shall not have been
studying.
You shall not have been
studying.
They shall not have been

studying.
(Verb Contractions: I shall = Ill; he will = hell)
This construction is used for an event that will still be in progress at a certain point in the future.
Key example:
By the 1-st of June he will have been working here for 10 years.
He will have been working in the garden for an hour before you come to help him.
Modal Phrases (Had Better and Would Rather)
Semi-modal multi-word constructions 'had better' and 'would rather' are followed by the
infinitive without to.
Examples:

We had better go into the house because it is raining.


I can come today but I would rather come tomorrow.

Had Better
'Had better' expresses advice and means 'would find it wiser or more suitable'.
E.g.: You had better go now (=it would be good, wise or suitable for you to go now).
Synonyms: ought to do something / should do something.
In negative structures, better comes before not.
E.g.: You had better not go now.
Patterns. Read and memorize!
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

We had better take an umbrella. It may rain. (Wed (1) better)


Hed better stop and have a rest if he feels tired.
Youd better go on the excursion.
You had better not eat so much. (Youd better)
Hadnt you better hurry if you want to catch the eight oclock train? (2)
What had I better put on for the party?

Note 1: - The contracted form d is very common.


Note 2: - The negative form 'hadn't better' is used mainly in questions: Hadn't we better try again
later?

'Had' is sometimes dropped in very informal speech.


E. g. : You better go now.
I better try again later.

Would Rather
'Would rather' expresses choice and means 'would prefer to do something'.
E.g.: I would rather you didn't help them (=I would prefer it if you didn't help them).
Patterns. Read and memorize!

I would rather stay at home than go to the cinema. Its raining.


'How about a drink?' 'Id (1) rather have something to eat.'
Id rather take a taxi than walk home (its too late).
The children would rather play in the garden than go to bed.
Would you rather write a composition or a dictation?
Would he rather read J. Galsworthy or W. Faulkner?

Note 1: - The contracted form d is very common.


'Would rather' can be used with different subjects before and after it, to say that one person
would prefer another to do something. In this case, a past tense is generally used with a present or
future meaning.
E. g. : Id rather you went home now.
Dont come tomorrow. Id rather you came next weekend.
To talk about past actions, past perfect tense is used.
E. g. : Id rather you hadnt done that.
Conditional Mood Examples in Proverbs and Quotations
Conditional and Subjunctive Mood Examples in Proverbs, Quotations and Rhymes
1. Comment on the use of the Conditional Mood in complex sentences expressing unreal
condition in the following proverbs and sayings.
1.
2.
3.
4.

If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.


If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun.
If it were not for hope, the heart would break.
If the pills were pleasant, they would not be guilded.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

If things were to be done twice all would be wise.


If "ifs" and "ans" were pots and pans.
Many would be cowards if they had courage enough.
Pigs might fly if they had wings.
If my aunt had been a man, shed have been my uncle.
If each would sweep before his own door, we should have a clean city.

2. Comment on the use of the Subjunctive Mood forms in the following quotations and funny
rhymes complex sentences with subordinate clauses of condition.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

If I could always read, I should never feel the want of society. (J. Byron)
If If all the year were playing holidays, To sport would be as tedious as to work. (W.
Shakespeare)
If I hadnt been a writer, I think I should have been a gardener. (A. Ckekhov)
We could never have loved the earth so well, if we had had no childhood in it. (G. Eliot)
I have loved the principle of beauty in all things, and if I had had time I would made
myself remembered. (J. Keats)
Most people would succeed in small things if they were not troubled with great
ambitions. (H. Longfellow)
If all the world were just, there would be no need of valour. (Plutarch)
If there had been a censorship of the press in Rome we should have had today neither
Horace nor Juvenal, nor the philosophical writings of Cicero. (F. Voltaire)
If dogs could talk, perhaps wed find it just as hard to get along with them as we do with
people. (K. apek)
If there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers. (Ch. Dickens)
If Cleopatras nose had been shorter the whole history of the world would have been
different. (B. Pascal)
If I were not Alexander I would wish to be Diogenes. (Alexander of Macedon)

13. Nursery Rhymes


If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.
If turnips were watches, I would wear one by my side.
And "ifs" and "ands"
Were pots and pans
Thered be no work for thinkers.

14. Topsy-Turvy World

If the butterfly
courted the bee,
And the owl
the porcupine;
If churches were
built in the sea,
And three times
one was nine;
If the pony rode
his master,
If the buttercups
ate the cows,
If the cats had the
dire disaster
To be worried, sir,
by the mouse;
If mamma, sir,
sold the baby
To a gypsy
for half a crown;
If a gentleman, sir,
was a lady,
The world would
be Upside-down!
If any or all
these wonders
Should ever come about,
I should not consider
them blunders,
For I should be
Inside-out!
(William Brighty Rands)
Gerund - Grammar Exercises

Grammar exercises and activities for teaching the Gerund to English language learners. Some
exercises include answer keys.

I. Define the forms of the gerund .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Skiing is my favourite sport.


I remember his telling me about his coat.
I remember having seen this match.
Before taking up swimming she had been very fond of playing basketball.
The football player was punished for having pushed the centre forward.
The young high jumper was very proud of being praised.
I did not know you had stopped rooting for our team.
I remember having been told about this match.

Answer: 1. Skiing Indefinite Active; 2. telling - Indefinite Active; 3. having seen - Perfect Active;
4. taking up Indefinite Active; playing Indefinite Active; 5. having pushed Perfect Active; 6.
being praised Indefinite Passive; 7. rooting for Indefinite Active; 8. having been told Perfect
Passive.
II. State the forms and functions of the gerund .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Seeing is believing.
In copying this text he made a few mistakes.
After finishing the experiment the discussed the results.
After having read the letter, she put it into her bag.
We enrich our knowledge by reading books.
Asking him about it was useless.
It is good fishing in troubled water.
There is nothing doing.
Her greatest pleasure is reading such books.
He began reading this book yesterday.
We insisted on the meeting being put off.
I dont like his manner of reading.
I had the pleasure of knowing him personally.

Answer: 1. Seeing Indefinite Active, Subject; believing - Active Indefinite, part of a compound
predicate; 2. In copying Indefinite Active; adverbial modifier of time; 3. after finishing Indefinite Active; adverbial modifier of time; 4. after having read Perfect Active; adverbial
modifier of time; 5. by reading books - Indefinite Active; adverbial modifier of manner; 6. asking
Indefinite Active; subject; 7. fishing - Indefinite Active; subject; 8. doing Indefinite Active;
subject; 9. reading Indefinite Active; part of a compound predicate; 10. reading Indefinite
Active; part of a compound predicate; 11. being put off Indefinite Passive; object; 12. of reading
Indefinite Active; attribute; 13. of knowing - Indefinite Active; attribute.
III. Complete the proverbs and sayings by adding gerunds. Employ the suitable gerunds in brackets.
Consult this list of proverbs.
1. Learn to swim by ...

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Think twice before ...


Doing is better than ...
Seeing is ...
Appetite comes with ...
You cant make an omelet without ...
A watched pot is long in ...
Clean hands want no ...
It is no use
He who likes borrowing dislikes ...

(speaking; swimming; believing; saying; eating; boiling; paying; washing; crying over the split milk;
breaking eggs)
Answer: 1. Learn to swim by swimming. 2. Think twice before speaking. 3. Doing is better than
saying. 4. Seeing is believing. 5. Appetite comes with eating. 6. You cant make an omelet without
breaking eggs. 7. A watched pot is long in boiling. 8. Clean hands want no washing. 9. It is no use
crying over the split milk. 10. He who likes borrowing dislikes paying.
IV. Practise the following table. Make changes whatever necessary using the Gerund.
Model
To read English papers helps you to learn English better. Reading English papers helps you to
learn English better.
1.
To listen to the radio
To do grammar exercises
To speak English

helps you to learn English better.

2.
To travel

first class
by coach
by express
by plane

is more expensive.
will be more quicker.
may be more convenient.

V. Use the Gerund instead of the Infinitive.

Model
A: Rafael has given up (to smoke).
B: Rafael has given up smoking.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Philip has finished (to pack).


We all enjoy (to travel).
This door needs (to paint).
My vacuum cleaner wants (to fix).
Will you please go on (to play the piano)?
I dont mind you (to do this work).
Nick is sure of his (to come here in time).
Thanks for (to bring the book).
He is too fond of (to talk).
We look forward to (to see you soon).
We are all pleased with her (to sing).
I cant help (to laugh at his jokes).
Its no good (to look for it now).
Its worth (to see this play).
Theres no use (to worry about these things).

VI. Practise gerunds in functions of adverbial modifier of time.


1. Combine the sentences using the Gerund.
Model
A: Post a letter. First stick a stamp on the envelope.
B: Before posting a letter stick a stamp on the envelope.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Get on the train. First buy the ticket.


Make a conclusion. First explore the problem carefully.
Enter the office building. Show your pass.
Buy a suit. First try it on.

2. Make up sentences using the Gerund.


Model
A: He wrote some letters and then went out.
B: After writing some letters he went out.
1.
2.
3.
4.

She laid the table and then brought in the tea.


The boys lay on the beach and then had a swim.
We visited the museum and then went to a tea house.
He packed and then went to the airport.

VII. Replace the subordinate clauses by gerunds. State their functions.


1. I remember that I enjoyed speed skating, now I am ardent figure skating.
2. The sportsman complained that he had strained a leg muscle some days before.
Answer:
1. I remember enjoying speed skating, now I am ardent figure skating. 2. The sportsman
complained his having strained a leg muscle some days before.
VIII. Practise in using the Gerund. Compose flashes of conversation according to the model. Work
in pair.
Model 1. Somebody invited you to a party.
A: Thank you very much for inviting me to the party.
B: Its so nice you could come. (Youre welcome.)
1. Somebody assisted you with your English.
2. Somebody helped you to arrange a visit.
3. Somebody let you know about a press-conference.

Model 2:
A: You are late.
B: Excuse my being late. (Excuse me for being late.)
1.
2.
3.
4.

Youve missed the speakers point.


Youve interrupted a person.
You didnt follow the teachers explanations.
You ask someone an embarrassing question.

Model 3:
You can make a living by (to write, to paint, to teach, etc.)
You can make a living by writing (by painting, by teaching, etc.)
1. you can keep healthy and fit (to walk much, to consult the doctor regularly, to diet, to go
in for sports, etc.);
2. a person can enjoy (to read, to visit museums, etc.);
3. you are good at (to play tennis, to learn foreign languages, to swim, etc.);
4. you are no good at (to play chess, to paint, to recite poetry, etc.)

Participle Examples in Proverbs and Quotations


1. Point out participle I and participle II in the following proverbs.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

United we stand, divided we fall.


Better untaught than ill taught.
One volunteer is worth two pressed men.
Fear the Greeks bearing gifts.
Stolen sweets are sweetest.
Forbidden fruit is sweetest.
A forced kindness deserves no thanks.
The rotten apple injures its neighbours.
The beaten road is the safest.
A watched pot never boils.
Rats desert a sinking ship.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
A growing youth has a wolf in his belly.
The tongue ever turns to the aching tooth.
No living man all things can.
A burnt child dreads the fire.
Let sleeping dogs lie.
Coming events cast their shadows before.
A man without a smiling face must not open a shop.
Inside every fat man there is a thin man trying to get out.
Forewarned is forearmed.
A drawing man will clutch at a straw.
Barking dogs seldom bite.
Advice most needed is least heeded.

2. Comment on the use of participle I and participle II in the following quotations.


1. Science is organized knowledge. (H. Spencer)
2. Welcome ever smiles,
And Farewell goes out sighing.
(W. Shakespeare)
3. Be not afraid of greatness: some born great, some achieve greatness, and some have
greatness thrust upon them. (W. Shakespeare)
4. Concealed talent brings no reputation. (D. Erasmus)
5. Learning without thought is labour lost, thought without learning is perilous. (Confucius)
6. A thing well said will be wit in all languages. (J. Dryden)
7. The human heart has hidden treasures,
In secret kept, in silence sealed; The thoughts, the hopes, the dreams, the pleasures

Whose charms were broken if revealed.


(Ch. Bront)
8. One cannot shut ones eyes to things not seen with eyes. (Ch. Morgan)
9. What is the friend? A single soul dwelling in two bodies. (Aristotle)
10. Something attempted, something done. (H. Longfellow)

3. Comment on the use of the participles in the following short dialogues and text.
Dialogues
At the Station
1
A.: I say, what about our bags?
B.: We must get them packed as quickly as possible.
A.: No need to make haste, I think. Let me finish this letter first.
B.: You can do that at the station waiting for the train. I like to go in good time.
2
A.: Have you long way to go?
B.: Yes, two nights.
A.: I saw many people waving to you from the platform.
B.: Oh, they are all my friends. They gave me such a send off. I almost missed the train. I was quite
out of breath having jumped in.
3
Lady: Porter, I want to have my bags taken out to the platform.
Porter: Ill surely Take care of them. But wed better wait till your train pulls in.
Lady: Oh, look at all those passengers getting excited, isnt it time we moved on?
Porter: Dont worry, madam. Its not your train. You have another 15 minutes to wait.

Text
Having examined the tickets the conductor of a slow train said pointing to a tall boy? Madam,
your boy cant pass as a half fare, hes too large. Being very angry at the slowness of their
progress the lady replied: He may be too large now, but he was small enough when we started.

Gerund examples in literature, proverbs and quotations

Proverbs and Sayings


1. Comment on the use of the gerund in the following proverbs and sayings. Memorize them.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Be slow in choosing a friend, slower in changing him.


He who likes borrowing dislikes paying.
By doing nothing we learn to do ill.
In doing we learn.
Learn to swim by swimming.
Think twice before speaking.
Saying and doing are two things (Saying is one thing and doing another.)
Doing is better than saying.
The word spoken is past recalling.
Seeing is believing.
No flying from fate.
It is ill jesting with edged tools.
Appetite comes with eating.
You cant make an omelet without breaking eggs.
Pouring water on the fire is not the way to quench it.
Know your own faults before blaming others for theirs.
A watched pot is long in boiling.
Clean hands want no washing.
Between promising and performing a man may marry his daughter.
A thief passes for a gentleman when stealing has made him rich.
Fools grow without watering.

2. Note the use of the gerund as subject in the following proverbs and sayings.
a.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

It is ill striving against the stream.


It is good fishing in troubled waters.
It is ill jesting with edged tools.
Its no use crying over spilt milk.
Its no safe wading in an unknown water.

b.
1. 1. There is no accounting for tastes.
2. 2. There is nothing doing.
3. 3. There is no saying.

Quotations
1. Comment on the tense and voice forms of the gerund in the following quotations.

1. Journalists say a thing that they know isnt true, in the hope that if they keep on saying it
long enough it will be true. (A. Bennett)
2. One does not love a place the less for having suffered in it unless it has all been suffering,
nothing but suffering. (J. Austen)
3. One does not blame an epoch; one congratulates oneself on not having belonged to it. (J.
Cocteau)
4. The mirror reflects all objects without being sullied. (Confucius)
5. No one abhors violence more than I do. Still theres no use crying over spilt milk. (S. Lewis)
6. He who begins by loving Christianity better than Truth will proceed by loving his own sect
or church better than Christianity, and end by loving himself better than all. (S. T.
Coleridge)
7. Greatness consists in bringing all manner of mischief on mankind, and goodness in
removing it from them. (H. Fielding)
8. If a book is worth reading, it is worth buying. (J. Ruskin)
9. Riches are for spending. (F. Bacon)
10. The art of pleasing consists in being pleased. (W. Hazlitt)
11. He seemed to indulge in all the usual pleasures without being enslaved by any of them. (A.
Camus)
12. In baiting a mouse-trap with cheese, always leave room for the mouse. (Saki)

2. Point out the quotations in which the gerund is used in the syntactic function of an attribute,
object, predicate and subject.
1. Lord, how ashamed I should be of not being married before three and twenty! (J. Austen)
2. An annuity is a very serious business; it comes over and over every year, and there is no
getting rid of it. (J. Austen)
3. Life is one long process of getting tired. (S. Butler)
4. The world is a fine place and worth fighting for. (E. Hemingway)
5. It is happy for you that you possess the talent of flattering with delicacy. (J. Austen)
6. Theres only one corner of the universe you can be certain of improving, and thats your
own self. (A. Huxley)
7. Its no use crying over spilt milk, because all the forces of the universe were bent on
spilling it. (W. S. Maugham)
8. Well, Ill tell you, Miss Grange, you cant make an omelet without breaking eggs. I dont
ever believe anything till I see it in the papers. (W.S. Maugham)
9. This is adding insult to injuries. (E. Moore)
10. There is no duty we so much underrate as the duty of being happy. (R. L. Stevenson)
11. Borrowing is not much better than begging. (G. Lessing)
12. We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, while others judge us by what we
have already done. (H. W. Longfellow)
13. No man was ever a great poet, without being at the same time a profound philosopher. (S.
T. Coleridge)
14. Its wiser being good than bad;
Its safer being meek than fierce;
Its fitter being sane then mad. (R. Browning)

Text
Read the extract, memorize the sentences with gerunds, and retell the text using those sentences.
"Now", said Wardle, after finishing lunch, "What do you say to an hour on the ice? You skate,
of course, Winkle?"
"Ye-yes, oh, yes," replied Mr. Winkle. "I-Iam rather out of practice but I shall enjoy skating."
Old Wardle led the way to a pretty large sheet of ice. After adjusting their skates all the guests
began describing circles with their legs, and cutting figures of eight.
All that time Mr. Winkle stood watching the others, with his face and hands blue with cold.
How he wished that something prevented him from showing his skill!
"Now, Winkle," cried Mr. Pickwick, very much surprised at his friends being so slow, "Come,
the ladies are all anxiety."
The unfortunate gentleman started moving to the centre of the reel and in so doing he struck
against Mr. Sawyer and with a loud crash they both fell heavily down.
(After 'The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club' by Ch. Dickens)

Complex Object Exercises


English grammar exercises and activities for teaching Complex object to English language
learners. Some exercises include answer keys.
Exercise 1
Make up as many sentences as you can using the words and word-groups from each column of the
substitution table. Pay attention that after verbs 'to see, to hear, to feel, to let, to make, etc...' the
infinitive has no particle 'to' .
1) with the verb 'to see'
We
see(s)
He
saw
Everybody

them
a bricklayer
my friend
a boy
the landlady

move to a summer cottage.


lay a brick house.
enter a two-storey house.
draw a skyscraper.
speak to her lodger.
pull down a house.

2) with the verb 'to hear'


I
We
He
They

hear(s)
heard

my friend
them
a guest
the hostess
our teacher

ring the bell.


praise my two-room flat.
speak to the hostess.
welcome her guests.
tell his friend of the rest-home.
read a play.

3) with the verb 'to feel'


The patient feel(s)
I
felt
He

the nurse mother


the older sister
her
his friend
the feather-bed

smooth his pillow.


tuck the blanket.
dry his back with a bath towel.
smooth his bedsheet.
put a cushion.
sink under his weight.

4) with the verb 'to want'


I
She
Our teacher

want(s)
wanted

you
him
our house
us
this work

to draw the blinds.


to pull up the blinds.
to spread the carpet on the floor.
to face the park.
to master English.
to be done.

5) with the verb 'to make'


I
Mother

make(s) her son


him
made
us

5) with the verb 'to let'

go to bed.
turn off the light.
water the flowers.
mend the bookshelf.

I
She
They

let(s)
let

her son

screw in a new bulb.


unscrew a fused bulb.
light a candle.
plug in the iron.
leave for London.

6) with the verb 'to expect'


I
We
Mother

expect(s)
expected

you

to air the room.


to receive the guests in the setting room.
to wait in the adjoining room.
to follow her advice;

6) with the verb 'should like' / 'would like'


I

should like

you
him
George

to help me.
to have a good time.
to arrange everything by the time I come
back.

Exercise 2
Change the complex sentences into simple ones using complex objects.
Model:
A: I think that the flat is very cosy.
B: I think the flat to be very cosy.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I think that a shower is a most important convenience.


I think that our water supply is not good.
I saw that he pressed the bell.
I did not expect that they would come in time.
I watched how he spoke on the phone.
He heard that the telephone rang.
I saw that he took out his latch-key.
She believed that he had stolen her money to pay his debts.
He wants that this work will be done.
He wants that this work will have been done by Friday.

Answer key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

I think a shower to be a most important convenience.


I think our water supply not to be good.
I saw him press the bell.
I did not expect them to come in time.
I watched him speak on the phone.
He heard the telephone ring.
I saw him take out his latch-key.
She believed him to have stolen her money to pay his debts.
He wants this work to be done.
He wants this work to have been done by Friday.

Exercise 3
Combine the following sentences using either Complex Object or that-clause (pay attention to
Sequence of tenses).
1.
2.
3.
4.

They havent seen. The railway accident occurred near the station.
I heard. They argued about different tastes in art.
I see. Your tastes differ greatly.
We heard. He made a report on his new discovery.

Answer key:
1. They havent seen the railway accident have occurred near the station. - They havent seen
that the railway accident had occurred near the station.
2. I heard them argue about different tastes in art. / I heard them arguing about different tastes
in art. - I heard that they argued about different tastes in art.
3. I see your tastes differ greatly. - I see that your tastes differ greatly.
4. We heard him make a report on his new discovery. / We heard him making a report on his
new discovery. - We heard that he made a report on his new discovery.
Exercise 4
Practise in using Comlpex Object after 'make'. Change the sentences according to the model.
Model:
A: His mother advised him to write a story.
B: His mother made him write a story.
1.
2.
3.
4.

His father advised him to quit smoking.


His brother advised him to get a new job.
Marys teacher advised her to take part in the writing contest.
Her parents advised her to move to Chicago.

Exercise 5

Practise sentences with Complex Object after the verb 'want'. Say that you (he, she, they, etc.)
want somebody to do the following.
Model:
A: I want to be introduced to Mr Laurie. (the host)
B: I want the host to introduce me to Mr Laurie.
1.
2.
3.
4.

The patient wanted to be examined. (the doctor)


The man wants to be treated for rheumatism. (Doctor House)
He wished to be cured of his illness. (the specialist)
Usually English people dont like to be asked personal questions. (strangers)

Answer key: 1. The patient wanted the doctor to examine him. 2. The man wants Doctor House to
treat him for rheumatism. 3. He wished the specialist to cure him of his illness. 4. Usually English
people dont like strangers to ask personal questions.

Exercise 6
Combine sentences using Complex Subject.
Model:
A: I heard him. He answered the door-bell.
B: I heard him answer the door-bell.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He saw her. She burst into tears.


I havent heard him. He called my name.
The nurse watched the boy. The boy cried.
I felt his hand. His hand shook.
We saw a man. The man pulled the door open.

Answer: 1. He saw her burst into tears. 2. I havent heard him call my name. 3. The nurse watched
the boy cry. 4. I felt his hand shake. 5. We saw the man pull the door open.

Exercise 7
Practise in using Complex Object.
a. Say what you (he, she) would (should) like me (him, her) to do.
Model:
to fix an appointment for someone for Monday
A: I would like you to fix an appointment for me for Monday.

1.
2.
3.
4.

to have a good time at the party;


to arrange everything by the time I come back;
to show them the historical monuments of the city;
to tell me the news in brief.

b. Ask a friend if he wants you to do the following. Work in pair.


Model:
to take care of the tickets
A: Do you want me to take care of the tickets?
B: Yes, do please.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

to come and help you with the packing;


to brief the pressman about the State Visit;
to show you some historical places of our city;
to entertain the guests;
to make a speech in Italian.

c. Say that you want certain thing (to be) done.


Model:
to answer a telephone call
A: I want a telephone call to be answered
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

to publish the historical manuscripts;


to do the steak well;
to do the work properly;
to forget this incident;
to tell the story in brief.

d. Ask a friend if he has heard or seen the following. Work in pair.


Model:
the Chairman to make an announcement
A: Did you hear the Chairman make an announcement?
B: Yes, I certainly did. (No, I am sorry, I didnt.)
1.
2.
3.
4.

they (to tell) about the car accident;


these flowers (to grow) in your country;
he (to do) the role of Richard III;
George (to take) the papers out of his brief-case.

Exercise 8
Read the extract from the poem pointing out complex objects. Learn the extract by heart.
The Wind
(by R. L. Stevenson)
I saw you toss the kites on high
And blow the birds about the sky.
And all round I heard you pass
Like ladies skirts across the grass.
Oh, wind, a-blowing all day long,
Oh, wind, that sings so loud a song!
I saw the different things you did.
But always you yourself you hid.
I felt you push, I heard you call,
I could not see yourself at all.
O wind, a-blowing all day long!
O wind, that sings so loud a song !

Go to the 'Infinitive (Forms and Functions) Worksheet' page


Go to the 'Infinitive Complex Object' Grammar page

Infinitive Worksheet
The forms and functions of the Infinitive: free exercises and answers to check your
result.
Exercise 1
Define the forms of the Infinitive (Passive or Active; Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect or Perfect
Continuous) in the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

I want to see your design.


It can be done.
The mistake must be found.
We knew him to be working in the room.
They are likely to be being served now.
I remember to have seen her somewhere.
We thought the mistake to have been found.
He must have been working all night.
She appeared to have been leading a very busy life before.
Its nice to be sitting here with you.
Its good to have finished work for the day.

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

Im sorry not to have come on Friday.


I appear to have made a small mistake.
I didnt expect to be invited.
There is a lot of work to do.
There is a lot of work to be done.

Answers: 1. to see Indefinite Active; 2. be done Indefinite Passive; 3. must be found


Indefinite Passive; 4. to be working Continuous Active; 5. to be being served Continuous
Passive; 6. to have seen Perfect Active; 7. to have been found Perfect Passive; 8. have been
working Perfect Continuous Active; 9. to have been leading - Perfect Continuous Active; 10. to be
sitting Indefinite Active; 11. to have finished Perfect Active; 12. to have come Perfect Active;
13. to have made Perfect Active; 14. to be invited Indefinite Passive; 15. to do Indefinite
Active; 16. to be done Indefinite Passive
Exercise 2
State the functions of the Infinitive in the sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

To say is to act.
To err is human, to forgive is divine.
To travel hopefully is the better thing.
The problem was to get there in time.
Our duty is to help this man.
He began to read this story yesterday.
He cant utter a word.
He wanted to read this book.
He prefers to read books in the original.
She was the first to come.
We shall have no possibility to go there.
The road to connect these two towns is being built.
Here is the letter to be sent at once.
There was only one house to live in.
There is no chance to get tickets for this concert.
He stopped there (in order) to rest a little.
He has come to see you.
You must work hard to master English.
He is well enough to continue this way.

Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

To say is to act. (subject and part of predicate)


To err is human, to forgive is divine. (subject and subject)
To travel hopefully is the better thing. (subject)
The problem was to get there in time. (part of predicate)
Our duty is to help this man. (part of predicate)
He began to read this story yesterday. (part of predicate)
He cant utter a word. (part of predicate)
He wanted to read this book (object)

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

He prefers to read books in the original. (object)


She was the first to come. (attribute)
We shall have no possibility to go there. (attribute)
The road to connect these two towns is being built. (attribute)
Here is the letter to be sent at once. (attribute)
There was only one house to live in. (attribute)
There is no chance to get tickets for this concert. (attribute)
He stopped there (in order) to rest a little. (adverbial modifier of purpose)
He has come to see you. (adverbial modifier of purpose)
You must work hard to master English. (adverbial modifier of purpose)
He is well enough to continue this way. (adverbial modifier of result)

Exercise 3
Replace the subordinate clauses by infinitives in various functions.
Model
A: The child is very proud that he pressed the button in the lift.
B: The child is very proud to press the button in the lift.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I am proud that I have completed this work by the 1-st of June.


We are glad that we have seen this game.
There is a lift in the house which takes us to the upper stories.
She said she was sorry that she had missed you.
Im sorry that I didnt come on Friday.
We have a comfortable bed in which you can sleep.
He bought some beautiful pictures which he will hang in his study.
Ann was surprised when she heard Peters voice.
Answers:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

I am proud to have completed this work by the 1-st of June.


We are glad to have seen this game.
There is a lift in the house to take us to the upper stories.
She said she was sorry to have missed you.
Im sorry not to have come on Friday.
We have a comfortable bed for you to sleep.
He bought some beautiful pictures to hang in his study.
Ann was surprised to hear Peters voice.

Exercise 4
Begin these sentences with it and put the infinitive to the end.
Model:
A: To make mistakes is easy.

B: It is easy to make mistakes.


1.
2.
3.
4.

To explain what I meant was impossible.


To complete our research on time was important for the project.
To sell my car was difficult.
To get nished on time was a great feeling.

Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.

It was impossible to explain what I meant.


It was important for the project to complete our research on time.
It was difficult to sell my car.
It was a great feeling to get finished on time.

Exercise 5
Insert an active or a passive infinitive from the list below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

She was delighted to the party.


She was delighted her friends to the party.
I hate you but I cant move the table alone.
She hated with questions concerning the cost of her furniture.
The room as a nursery should be warm enough.
His intention is this room as a nursery.
She was anxious for us her taste in decorating the flat.
Her taste in furnishing the room should

(to invite, to use, to praise, to bother)


Answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

She was delighted to have been invited to the party.


She was delighted to have invited her friends to the party.
I hate to bother you but I cant move the table alone.
She hated to be bothered with questions concerning the cost of her furniture.
The room to be used as a nursery should be warm enough.
His intention is to use this room as a nursery.
She was anxious for us to praise her taste in decorating the flat.
Her taste in furnishing the room should be praised.

Exercise 6
Retell the following extract using infinitives in various functions.
Text

Paul offered to accompany his mother and they soon found a little gate, and soon were in a broad
green alley of the wood. In front was a cluster of low red farm buildings. It was very still. They
were already near enough to see a pond under overhanging oak-trees and some cows in the
shade. Mother and son went into the small garden. By the open door were some floury loaves, put
out to cool. A hen was just coming to peck them. In a minute a small frail woman appeared. "Oh!"
she exclaimed. "I am glad to see you. Its so lost up here, we have no one to talk to."
They were taken into the parlour a long, low room, with a great bunch of roses in the fire place.
There the women talked while Paul went out to survey the land. The world around was flooded
and bluebells, while tiny forget-me-nots were in the paths. The hills were golden with evening. It
was perfectly still, save for the rustling of leaves and birds.
(After 'Sons and Lovers' by D.H. Lawrence)

Modal Verb May Examples


There are examples of the use of modal verb MAY in proverbs, sayings and quotations.
Proverbs
I
Note the use of the verb 'may / might' in the following proverbs and sayings. Memorize them.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

A cat may look at a king.


Cowards may die many times before their death.
A fair face may hide a foul heart.
Bitter pills may have blessed effects.
Be careful what you wish for, you just might get it.
Hares may pull dead lions by the beard.
The remedy may be worse than the disease.
Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me.
When the oak is before the ash, then you will only get a splash; when the ash is before the
oak, then you may expect a soak.
If you dont like it you may lump it.
Between the cup and the lip a morsel may slip.
You may know by a handful the whole sack.
Oaks may fall when reeds stand the storm.
A baited cat may grow as fierce as lion.
A stumble may prevent a fall.
One man may steal a horse while another may not look over a hedge.
A fools bolt may sometimes hit the mark.
Little bodies may have great souls.
He who peeps through a hole may see what will vex him.

II
Explain the use of the verb 'may' and might and the forms of the infinitive in the following
proverbs and sayings.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The evil wound may be cured, but not the evil name.
Never put off till tomorrow what may be done today.
What may be done at any time is done at no time.
A bird may be known by its song.
Nothing is so bad but it might have been worse.
Nothing is so good but it might have been better.

Quotations

III
Comment on the use of the verb may in the following quotations. Explain them.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

The wisest of the wise may err. (Aeschylus)


Little friends may prove great friends. (Aesop)
Self-conceit may lead to self-destruction. (Aesop. 'The Frog and the Ox')
Seize the present day, trusting the morrow as little as may be. (Horace)
You may break, you may shatter the vase, if you will, But the scent of the roses will hang
round it still. (T. Moore)
Come what come may. (W. Shakespeare. 'Macbeth')
By medicine life may be prolonged, yet Death will seize the doctor too. (W. Shakespeare)
But men may construe things after their own fashion, Clean from the purpose of the
things themselves. (W. Shakespeare)
A friend may well be reckoned the masterpiece of nature. (R. Emerson)
For men may come and men may go, But I go on for ever. (A. Tennyson)
Dont part with your illusions. When they are gone, you may still exist, but you have
ceased to live. (M. Twain)
Fortune may have yet a better success in reserve for you, and they who lose today, may
win tomorrow. (M. de Cervantes)
He that has patience may compass anything. (F. Rabelais)
The severest justice may not always be the best policy. (Abraham Lincoln)
We hope all danger may be overcome; but to conclude that no danger may ever arise
would itself be extremely dangerous. (Abraham Lincoln)
Particular lies may speak a general truth. (G. Eliot)
"You may have as many words as you please, only I cant stay to hear them." (Anne
Bront . 'A Controversy')

There is There are Dialogues


'There is - There are' construction through real life dialogues and proverbs
I hope this page will enable the English learner to see how to use There is/are rules in the right
ways and put grammar learning into context.
Dialogues
1.
A: There is something Id like to talk to you about.
B: Perhaps we leave it for tomorrow.
2.
A: There is a wonderful novel among your books. May I take it?
B: Of course, you may.
3.
A: Was there anything interesting in this book?
B: Yes, there is a lot of very useful material in Chapter 3.

4.
A: Your bag is so heavy! What is there in it?
B: There are a few books and a big dictionary.
5.
1: Hello, Anne, are there any students in the classroom?
2: Yes, there are five of them.
6.
A: Is there anything else to do?
B: Yes, you can help Mother lay the table.
7
A: Were there many guests at the party last night?
B: Yes, quite a lot
A: Were there the Greenbergs there?
B: No, there werent. They are in Madrid.
8.
A: Excuse me, is there a bus-stop near here?
B: Yes, there is one, just round the corner.

A. Thank you.
9.
A: Is there a swimming pool in your area?
B: Yes, there is. I go there with my friends.
10.
A: Is there a pet shop near your house?
B: Yes, there is. I buy food for my cat there.
11.
A: Is there caf near there?
B: Yes, there is. On the corner of the street. You can see it.
12.
A: Is there a supermarket near your house?
B: Yes, there is. Its in front of the caf.
13.
A: What is there in the middle of the park?
B: There is an old church. Its a very beautiful.
14.
1: Excuse me. Is there a bus from here to National Gallery?
2: No, there isnt. Take bus 60 to Pennsylvania Avenue and then transfer to R2.
15.
1: Excuse me. Does this bus go to the Library of Congress?
2: No, this bus wont take you there. Youll have to change at Dupon Circle. By the way, you can
get there by subway. There is a subway station over there.
16.
(Booking Theatre Tickets)
1: Can I get tickets for tonights show?
2: The front row of the dress circle is fairly free.
1: Are there any boxes?
2: No, Im afraid not.
17.
(Booking Theatre Tickets)
1: Are there any seats left for Saturday tonight?
2: B-13 and B-14 are all that is left.

1: Isnt there anything cheaper?


2: Only if somebody cancels.

Proverbs
1. There is no fight without smoke.
2. For every thing there is a season (From the Bible, Ecclesiastes III (King James Version); 3:1
'To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven').
3. There is no such thing as bad publicity.
4. If there were no clouds we should not enjoy the sun,
5. There is one born every minute (Meaning: There are many fools and dupes in the world).

There is - There are Exercises

Contents Worksheets There is -There are Exercises

This page contains free 'there is/are' grammar exercises with answer keys when necessary.
Exercise I
Write the interrogative and negative form of the following sentences according to the models:
Model 1:
There
is
Is
there
There is no pen on the desk.

a
a

pen
pen

on
on

the
the

desk.
desk?

the
the

glass.
glass?

1. There is a magazine on the desk.


2. There is a garden near the house.
3. There is a hole in my trousers.

Model 2:
There
is
Is
there
There is no tea in the glass.

some
any

1. There is some butter on the plate.


2. There is some milk in the jug.
3. There is some bread on the table.

tea
tea

in
in

Model 3:
There
are
some
Are
there
any
There are no dogs in the park.

dogs
dogs

in
in

the
the

park.
park?

1. There are some pictures in the room.


2. There are some chairs in the kitchen.
3. There are some people outside.

Exercise II
Read and answer according to the model.
Model:
A.:
There
are
B.:
And
C.: There is one book on the shelf.

two
on

books
the

on

the
shelf?

table.
(one)

1. A.: There is one car in the garage.


B.: And in the street? (fifteen)
C.: ...
2. A.: There are six chairs in the room.
B.: And in the kitchen? (three)
C.: ...
3. A.: There are seven of us in my family.
B.: And in your family? (four)
C.: ...

Exercise III
Read the following questions and answer them according to the model.
Model 1:
A.:
Is
there
a
B.: No, there isnt. There is no book on the desk.

book

on

the

desk?

1. A.: Is there a yellow carpet in the room?


B.: ...
2. A.: Is there any spare room at the hostel?
B.: ...
3. A.: Are there apple trees in your garden?
B.: ...
4. A.: Is there a car factory in your city?
B.: ...
Model 2:
A.:
How
many
chairs
B.: There are four chairs in the room.
1.
2.
3.
4.

are

there

in

the

room?

(four)

How many people are there in the room? (three)


How many children are there in the bus? (a lot of)
How many women were there at the table? (few)
How many students were there in your group? (thirteen)

Exercise IV
Fill in the spaces with 'is' or 'are'. Practise in using 'There is/are' with plural and singular subjects.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

There ... many animals here.


There ... a large city near the mouth of this river.
There ... some beautiful flowers there.
There ... many trees near our house.
There ... many different birds there.
There ... a big black cat in the bathroom.
There ... a newspaper on the table.
There ... newspapers on the table.
There ... different newspapers there.
There ... ice on the lake.
There ... no children in this house.
There ... two girls and a woman in the room.
There ... nothing to do.

Answers: 1. are; 2. is; 3. are; 4. are; 5. are; 6. is; 7. is; 8. are; 9. are 10. is; 11. are; 12. are; 13. is

Exercise V
Fill in the spaces with 'there is' or 'there are', 'are there' or 'is there'.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

... a forest at our village.


... seven days in a week.
... a river at your village?
... some coffee in his cup.
What ... in your living room?
What ... more on the earth - grass or sand?
'Are there many students?' 'No, ... only one student.'
'Are there many rooms in the house?' 'Yes, ... many.'
... many pictures on the wall?
... anything in the fridge?
... not a cloud in the sky.
... a fine view from here.
... nobody in.
... a needle and thread in her fingers.

Answer key: 1. There is; 2. There are; 3. Is there; 4. There is; 5. is there; 6. is there; 7. there is; 8.
there are; 9. Are there; 10. Is there; 11. There is; 12.There is; 13. There is; 14. There is

Exercise VI
Note that 'there' can be used with all tenses of 'be'. Practise 'there + be' in various tenses.
1. Open the brackets and put the verb 'to be' in the Present Indefinite.
a. There (to be) a fine view from here (J. Galsworthy).
b. There (to be) no knowing when he will come.
c. There (to be) no going against bad blood.
d. (to be) there anybody there?
2. Open the brackets and put the verb 'to be' in the Future Indefinite.
a. There (to be) snow on high ground.
b. There (to be) enough for everybody, wont there?
3. Open the brackets and put the verb 'to be' in the Past Indefinite.
a. There (to be) a child with her.
b. There (to be) nothing to say.
c. There (to be) not any flowers on the balconies.
d. There (to be) no sign of him in the hall.
e. There (to be) no talking that evening.
f. There (to be) all of them on the bank.
g. There (to be) nothing to do.

h. There (to be) something wrong about the whole situation.


i. Once upon a time there (to be) three wicked brothers.
j. There (to be) circles under her eyes as though she had not slept (J. Galsworthy).
4. Open the brackets and put the verb 'to be' in the Present Perfect.
a. There has never been anybody like you.
b. There has been a meeting at our plant this week.

Answers:
1.
a. There is a fine view from here (J. Galsworthy).
b. There is no knowing when he will come.
c. Theres no going against bad blood.
d. Is there anybody there?
2.
a. There will be snow on high ground.
b. Therell be enough for everybody, wont there?
3.
a. There was a child with her.
b. There was nothing to say.
c. There werent (were not) any flowers on the balconies.
d. There was no sign of him in the hall.
e. There was no talking that evening.
f. There were all of them on the bank.
g. There was nothing to do.
h. There was something wrong about the whole situation.
i. Once upon a time there were three wicked brothers.
j. There were circles under her eyes as though she had not slept (J. Galsworthy).
4.
a. There has never been anybody like you.
b. There has been a meeting at our plant this week.

Exercise VI
Answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.

How many states are there in the USA?


How many stars are there on the American flag?
How many stars and stripes are there on the American flag?
How many cities are there in United Kingdom?

5. How many planets are there in the Solar System?


6. How many letters are there in the English alphabet?
7. How many continents are there in the world?
Key answers:
1. There are fifty (50) states and Washington D.C. in the USA.
2. There are fifty stars on the American flag.
3. There are fifty stars and thirteen stripes on the U.S. flag. The 13 alternatingred and white
stripes represent the original 13 colonies, and the are 50 whitestars on a blue background
represent the 50 modern states.
4. There are sixty nine (69) official cities in the United Kingdom (51 in England, 5 in
Northern Ireland, 7 in Scotland and 6 in Wales).
5. There are eight planets in our Solar System (List of planets: Mercury, Venus,Earth, Mars,
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Pluto also was listed as a planet until 2006.)
6. There are twenty six letters in the English alphabet.
7. There are six continents in the world. (Eurasia, Africa, North America, South America,
Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Eurasia is sometimes considered as two continents,
Europa and Asia.)

Exercise VII
Solve the problems:
1. There twelve months in a year and thirty-six months in three years. How many months are there
in nine years?
Answer: There are one hundred eight (108) months in nine years.
2. What is there more on the earth land or water?
Answer: There is more water on Earth than land (surface area). (Water covers nearly 3/4 of the
planet.)
Going To Usage and Illustrative Examples

Contents Grammar in Dialogues Going to Usage

Another way of expressing a future action is the construction "to be going to + infinitive". It is
mainly found with dynamic verbs; it is characterized by the following additional modal meanings:
a) premeditated intention (see the illustrative example below):
1. Father and son are watching the stars.

Father: I wonder if theyre what we think they are? Stars! Stars like this! People think we know
about them. I wonder if we do. I wonder if we can. I wonder if we they are what we think they are.
Son: Lets find out. Im going to find out.
Father: Well.
Son: Im going to find out all about them.
Father: Perhaps you will. A lot of people have tried, you know. Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Robert
Ball and Sir William Herschell --
(G. P. Snow. The Search)

b) the action is imminent, unavoidable in the near future (see the passage quoted below):
2. The children eagerly tell their teacher of their holiday adventures.
Anne: Miss, we went to Southsea last week, and Ive brought you back a piece of rock.
Eric (producing a long piece of seaweed): Its for us to tell the weather by. You hang it up out in
the lobby and if its wet its going to rain, and if its dry, it aint going to rain.
The teacher: Isnt.
(Miss Read. Village School)

To Be Going to + Infinitive
Contents To Be Going to + Infinitive
To Be Going To + Infinitive form for a future action

I am
He is
She is
It is
We are
You are
They are

going to do something.

We often use the present form am/are/is/ going to + infinitive to talk about the future.

What are you going to do on Sunday?

It is going to snow.

Meanings:

Generally speaking, the "going to +infinitive" construction often used to talk about future events
that have already been
decided 1)
or predicted 2).

1)
It expresses an intention or plan:

Im going to work this evening.


Who is going to look after the baby tomorrow?
Were going to (go to) France next summer.
She is going to have a baby.

It may have additional meanings of strong resolution or determination:

Im going to keep asking her out until she says yes.


You are going to regret it.
Hes going to suffer for this!

2)
We use this construction when we predict:

I think its going to rain this evening.


Do you think the car is going to start?

Sometimes we use "going to" when we say that something is going to happen because we can see
it coming (we have "present evidence for the future").

Look at those clouds its going to rain.


The flowers are going to wither.

With some verbs the meaning is that of apprehension or presentiment:

My God - were going to crash!


Hes going to be hanged.

Had Better
We use had better plus the infinitive without to to give advice. Although had is the
past form of have, we use had better to give advice about the present or future.

You'd better tell her everything.


I'd better get back to work.
We'd better meet early.

The negative form is had better not.

You'd better not say anything.


I'd better not come.
We'd better not miss the start of his presentation.

We use had better to give advice about specific situations, not general ones. If you want
to talk about general situations, you must use should.

You should brush your teeth before you go to bed.


I shouldn't listen to negative people.
He should dress more appropriately for the office.

When we give advice about specific situations, it is also possible to use should.

You shouldn't say anything.


I should get back to work.
We should meet early.

However, when we use had better there is a suggestion that if the advice is not followed,
that something bad will happen.

You'd better do what I say or else you will get into trouble.
I'd better get back to work or my boss will be angry with me.
We'd better get to the airport by five or else we may miss the flight.

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exercise 1

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exercise 4

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Would Rather & Had Better


Would Rather
Would rather is used when there is a preference.
Also See:
Would Rather vs Would Prefer
Although and In spite of
Used to Vs Would
Other Modal Verbs
Modal Verbs Exercises

After would rather, we use the infinitive without to.


I would rather stay at home than go to a movie.
It means....... (I prefer staying at home)

I would rather leave. (I would like to leave.)

Contracted Would - I'd, He'd, She'd, We'd, You'd, They'd


She'd rather stay with me than go out with you.
They'd rather play with the baby than change its diaper.

Had Better
We use had better when we give advice to others. The meaning of had better is similar to should.
Had better expresses advice and warning.
You had better watch your steps.
She had better listen to you.
It's getting late. I had better go.

Contracted form of had better - I'd better, You'd better...


Notice that the contracted forms of had and would are the same and that I'd can be I had or I
would so we need to look at the context to see what's meant to be said.
I'd rather lie than to hurt you. (I would)
I'd better tell the truth. (I had better)

More Examples
I would rather drive than go by bus.
I would rather drink water than soda.
I would rather quit smoking. (than pay for it)
I'd better leave before it gets dark.
He had better quit smoking.
You'd better tell me what happened. Now!
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Should have

We can use 'should have' to talk about past events that did not happen.

I should have let her know what was happening but I forgot.
He should have sent everybody a reminder by email.
They should have remembered that their guests don't eat pork.

We can also use 'should have' to speculate about events that may or may not have
happened.

She should have got the letter this morning. I expect she'll give us a call about it
later.
He should have arrived at his office by now. Let's try ringing him.
They should have all read that first email by this stage. It's time to send the next
one.

We can use ' should not have' to speculate negatively about what may or may not have
happened.

She shouldn't have left work yet. I'll call her office.
He shouldn't have boarded his plane yet. We can probably still get hold of him.
They shouldn't have sent the report off for printing yet. There is still time to make
changes.

We can also use 'should not have' to regret past actions.

I shouldn't have shouted at you. I apologise.


We shouldn't have left the office so late. We should have anticipated this bad traffic.
They shouldn't have sacked him. He was the most creative person on their team.

mis pinturas y dibujos son hechas con diferentes materiales y herramientas..


por ejemplo este cuadro es hecho con leo pastel, pintura acrilica, oleo,
estos otros son hechos con lapices de diferents tipos..
este dibujo es hecho con la tecnica de luz y sombra

bueno ese es mi talento ..... gracias por escuchar me

my paintings and drawings are made with different materials and tools ..
for example this painting is done with oil pastel, acrylic paint, oil,
these others are made with pencils diferents types ..
This drawing is done with the technique of light and shadow
hey that's my talent ..... thanks for listening to me