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SOLUTIONS TO INTERNET ASSIGNMENTS

Chapter 1
1. There are numerous Internet sites that contain accounting information. Following are
some suggested sites:
The CICA's website (www.cica.ca) contains extensive information on the
organization's activities. For example, it contains the entire report of the Special
Committee on Assurance Services and a listing of the current status of all outstanding
exposure drafts.
The Rutger's Accounting Web's Accounting Resources on the Internet
(www.rutgers..edu/Accounting/raw/) contains numerous links, including professional
organizations, accounting journals, and education sites.
The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (www.acfe.org) website contains
extensive information on the Associations certification as Certified Fraud Examiners
(CFE).
The Institute of Internal Auditors (www.theiia.org) website contains detailed
information on internal auditing.
The International Federation of Accountants (www.ifac.org) website provides detailed
information on international accounting and auditing standards.
The SECs Edgar Web site (www.sec.gov) contains all filings by public companies
with the SEC. It also contains information on other activities by the SEC.
The major public accounting firms and many smaller firms also maintain good
informative websites.
2. The Special Committee on Assurance Services proposed a number of assurance
services that offer significant opportunities for increased revenues for auditors. For
example, the CICA's website (www.cica.ca) contains detailed information on the
following services:
Risk assessment. Assurance that the entitys profile of business risks is
comprehensive and evaluates whether the entity has appropriate systems in
place to effectively manage those risks.
Business performance measurement. Assurance that an entitys
performance measurement system contains relevant and reliable measures
for assessing the degree to which the entitys goals and objectives are
achieved or how its performance compares to competitors.
Information system reliability. Assurance that an entitys internal
information systems provide reliable information for operating and
financial decisions.
Electronic commerce. Assurance that systems and tools used in ecommerce provide appropriate data integrity, security, privacy, and
reliability.
ElderCare. Assurance that specified goals regarding the elderly are being
met by various caregivers.

In the U.S., the Elliott Committee also identified seven other opportunities
where assurance services might be appropriate: corporate policy compliance,
providing internal auditing services, trading partner accountability, mergers and
acquisitions, ISO 9000 certification, investment managers compliance with
Association of Investment Management and Research Performance
Presentation Standards, and World Wide Web assertions.
3. Molson Brewery's website contains links to a great deal of financial and
nonfinancial information that might be useful to investors. For example, the home
page has an investors relations link that contains information on Molson's stock;
financial statements and analysis; and its social responsibility. The website also
has a link entitled "press room" that features press releases, and executive
information.
4. A search of the Internet identified a number of potential sources for information on
the mail order industry:
The National Mail Order Association (www.nmoa.com) is one site where
small- to medium-sized organizations can go to get information on
education, ideas, resources, and contacts.
Pegasus Research International, LLC (www.pegasusri.com) maintains a
website that contains statistics on e-commerce and the Internet.
The National Retail Federation (www.nrf.com) maintains historical retail
statistics.
The International Society for Strategic Marketing (www.issm.org)
maintains a site that contains economics statistics from the Census Bureau
on various SIC codes related to the mail order industry.
Lastly, a number of the major public accounting firms specialize in the
retail industry. Their websites contain information on the retail industry.
Chapter 2
1. EarthWear Clothiers' home page contains a number of different types of information
about the company. This includes background information on the company and its
annual report.
2. Willis & Adams' home page contains various information on EarthWear including
selected audited information. The home page also contains various information on
the mail order industry and selected ratios for EarthWear's competitors.
3. a. Rogers home page contains the link investor info which contains extensive
amounts of financial and nonfinancial information that might be useful to investors.
For example, there is information on Rogers stock, financial statements and analysis,
management commentary, etc. The non-financial information consists of such things
as press releases and executive information.
Microsoft's home page contains similar information. The investor relations link
contains the annual report, earnings releases, SEC filings and stock information. It also
contains information on investments, acquisitions, speeches, and events. Microsoft also

maintains an analysis tools link that allows users to download and manipulate financial
information using Excel. It even allows a "what-if" financial model.
b. The auditor's report for BMW contains one paragraph:
"The Consolidated Financial Statements, which we have audited in
accordance with professional standards, comply with the German legal
provisions. The Consolidated Financial Statements present, in compliance
with required accounting principles, a true and fair view of the Group's assets,
liabilities, financial position and net income. The Group's Economic Review
is consistent with the Consolidated Financial Statements."
c. The most common type of audit report in Canada is the standard unqualified
audit report. Regardless of the auditor, the following seven parts of the audit
report remain the same: (1) report title, (2) report address, (3) introductory
paragraph, (4) scope paragraph, (5) opinion paragraph, (6) name of CPA firm,
and (7) audit report date. The major differences between the Canadian audit
report and audit reports issued in Germany are discussed by reference to each
part.
Report title:
The Canadian audit report is titled Auditors Report. The German audit
report is titled "Auditors' Certificate".
Report address:
The German audit report is addressed to the Board of Management.
Introductory paragraph:
The Canadian introductory paragraph indicates that an audit was performed
and includes three items: (1) the financial statements that were audited, (2) the
responsibility of management and (3) the responsibility of the auditor. The
German report mentions that the auditors conducted an audit, but does not
specifically indicates the financial statements that were audited. The report
makes reference to the "consolidated financial statements." The report does
not mention the responsibility of management or the auditor.
Scope paragraph:
The German report makes no mention of what the audit entails and how the
auditors conducted the audit and states that the audit was conducted in
accordance with the professional standards and German legal provisions
Opinion paragraph:
In Canada, the opinion paragraph states the auditor's conclusions. It
includes the words "present fairly" to describe how the auditors believe the
financial statements are presented. The German audit report uses "true and
fair view."

Name of firm:
In the German audit report both the firm name and the individual auditors'
names appear.
Audit report date:
The reports conclude with the audit report date. This date has the same
meaning as the Canadian report; it indicates the day on which the auditor has
completed the most important auditing procedures.
Some of the reasons behind the differences in the German audit report
result from different accounting laws and procedures. In Canada, the private
sector establishes accounting and auditing standards. In Germany, as in many
other countries, accounting and auditing standards are part of the country's
laws and regulations. Germany has a well-established public accounting
profession with strict rules on independence and professional ethics. The
profession is a self-governing body (Wirtschaftsprferkammer). The Institute
of Public Accounting (IdW) sets German auditing standards that are
comparable with those of other developed countries. A fundamental principle
is that the German auditor exercises due professional competence and is
guided by his or her own independent judgment. The German auditor may
depart from the standard wording in the set-forth audit report only if he or she
either wants to call attention to a particular aspect of the statements or wants
to qualify or disclaim an opinion. German law requires the auditor to conduct
a full-scope audit by accumulating extensive and detailed information on the
environment of the firm.
Chapter 3
1. In Problem 1-44 a number of Internet sites were identified that contained information
on the mail order industry. Sites included were the National Mail Order Association
(www.nmoa.com), Pegasus Research International, LLC (www.pegasusri.com),the
National Retail Federation (www.nrf.com), the International Society for Strategic
Marketing (www.issm.org). Additionally, a number of the major public accounting
firms have sites that contain information on the retail industry.
a.

EarthWear would likely be assessed to have low to moderate client business


risk. The following factors would be considered in assessing client business
risk:
The industry is highly fragmented and subject to stiff competition.
Profitability within the industry is highly variable and affected by overall
consumer spending.
For many entities, including EarthWear, sales are seasonal (most sales occur
during the Christmas season).
The company is well positioned within the retail clothing industry.
EarthWear ranks in the top third of the industry in terms of market share and
profitability.

b. The risk of material misstatement due to error or fraud for EarthWear would
likely be assessed as low. Few of the risk factors listed Tables 3-2 to 3-6
would be considered significant for EarthWear.
2.
a. There are a number of sites on the Internet that contain information on the paging
(telecommunications) industry. Unfortunately, many of these sites sell their data
at relatively high prices. Three sites that contained such information are Gartner
Group (www.info-edge.com), Cahners In-Stat Group (www.research.instat.com),
and The Strategis Group (www.strategisgroup.com). For example, The Strategis
Group offers a report entitled "The State of the US Paging Industry: 1998" for
$1,700. There are other sites that contain limited information on the paging
industry. The Personal Communications Industry Association (PCIA)
(www.pcia.com) and the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association
(CWTA) (www.cwta.ca) have websites that contain information on the industry.
Another source of information is the homepages of other companies that operate
in the paging industry. Some examples include competitors of Calabro Paging
Services: American Paging, Inc., Metrocall, Inc., Page America Group, Inc., and
Paging Network, Inc. For example, an examination of Metrocall, Inc.'s annual
10-K provides significant information on the risks faced by companies in the
paging industry.
b. The memo describing Calabro Paging Services' client business risk should include
the following factors:
Highly competitive industry, with price being the primary means of
differentiation among service providers.
There are 500 licensed companies with the industry undergoing
consolidation through merger and acquisition.
The industry requires substantial funds to finance the maintenance and
growth of operations and customer base.
Many smaller companies in the industry are losing money.
There are significant risks to changing technology.
Many of Calabro's competitors are larger and better financed.
The industry is subject to federal and state regulation.
Chapter 4
1.
A general search for each term using an Internet browser resulted in a long list of
"hits;" most of which did not apply to the material covered in the text. One site
(www.accountingstudents.com) provided a glossary of auditing terms that
contained EDI and image processing systems. The Institute of Internal Auditors'
home page (www.theiia.org) contained some information related to EDI and
image processing systems. This information was available at a related IIA site
(www.itaudit.org). Using the search function at both the CICAs and AICPA's
home pages (www.cica.ca and www.aicpa.org), identified a significant number of
references to the three terms.

Chapter 5
1. A search of the Internet identified a number of potential sources for information on
the mail order industry:
The National Mail Order Association (www.nmoa.com) is one site where
small to medium-sized organizations can go to get information on
education, ideas, resources, and contacts.
Pegasus Research International, LLC (www.pegasusri.com) maintains a
home page that contains statistics on E-commerce and the state of the
Internet.
The National Retail Federation (www.nrf.com) maintains historical retail
statistics.
The International Society for Strategic Marketing (www.issm.org)
maintains a site that contains economics statistics from the Census Bureau
on various SIC codes related to the mail order industry.
Lastly, a number of the major public accounting firms have industry
specialization in retail. The sites of these firms contain information on the
retail industry.
2.

The memo should include information gathered from the EarthWear and Willis
and Adams home pages about the clients business and industry. The information
gathered in Internet assignment 1-46 or 5-45 should provide additional
information on the mail order industry. Chapter 3 discusses materiality for
EarthWear and the various risk factors that would affect the auditors risk
assessments. EarthWear has a strong control environment and strong internal
controls over its various business processes (for example, revenue and purchases
cycles). There is a relatively low possibility for errors, fraud, or illegal acts.
Comparison of EarthWears ratios to industry data (Exhibit 5-4) indicates that
EarthWears financial position, profitability, and solvency are excellent.

3.

The Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) home page (www.theiia.org) contains


detailed information about various activities of the IIA. This includes information
on the profession, certification, conferences, products, etc. A search of the Web
site identified information about independence and objectivity under the About
the profession button.

Chapter 6
1.
The information to complete the control environment questionnaire was obtained
from the text, and the home pages of EarthWear and Willis and Adams.
Control Environment Questionnaire
Client: EarthWear Clothiers
Completed by: _____ Date: ______

Balance Sheet Date: 12/31/2002


Reviewed by: _____ Date: _______

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND AUDIT COMMITTEE


An entitys control consciousness is influenced significantly by the entitys board of directors or audit

committee. Attributes include the board or audit committees independence from management, the
experience and stature of its members, the extent of its involvement and scrutiny of activities, the
appropriateness of its actions, the degree to which difficult questions are raised and pursued with
management, and its interaction with internal and external auditors.
Yes,
No, N/A Comments
Are there regular meetings of the board of
Yes
The board of directors meets quarterly to
directors (or comparable bodies) to set
review the companys performance.
policies and objectives, review the entitys
Minutes of these meetings are prepared
performance, and take appropriate action, and
promptly and signed by the secretary after
are minutes of such meetings prepared and
approval of the board.
signed on a timely basis?
Does an audit committee exist?
Yes
Does the audit committee adequately assist
Yes
The audit committee meets with the
the board in maintaining a direct line of
external and internal auditors on a
communication with the entitys external and
quarterly basis.
internal auditors?
Does the audit committee have adequate
Yes
resources and authority to discharge its
responsibilities?
Is this evidenced by
Regular meetings?
The appointment of qualified members?
Minutes of meetings?

Yes

The audit committee also meets quarterly,


just prior to the quarterly board of directors
meeting. Minutes are maintained of each
meeting. The audit committee consists only
of individuals who are not part of
management.

MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY AND OPERATING STYLE


Managements philosophy and operating style significantly influence the control environment
particularly when management is dominated by one or a few individuals. Managements philosophy and
operating style should create a positive atmosphere that reduces the risk of misstatement and that is
conducive to the effective operation of internal control.
Yes,
No, N/A Comments
Are management and operating decisions
No
dominated by one or a few individuals?
Are business risks adequately monitored?
Yes
EarthWears business plan and budgeting
process include an analysis of business
risks. Senior management meet monthly to
discuss events that might affect the
company.
Is management willing to adjust the financial Yes
statements for misstatements that approach a
material amount?
Does management adequately consult with its Yes
auditors on accounting issues?
Has management been responsive to prior
Yes
recommendations from its auditors?
Is a high priority given to internal control?
Yes

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
An entitys organizational structure provides the framework within which its activities for achieving
entitywide objectives are planned, executed, controlled, and monitored. Establishing a relevant
organizational structure includes considering key areas of authority and responsibility and appropriate
lines of reporting.
Yes,
No, N/A Comments
Is the organization of the entity clearly
Yes
defined in terms of lines of authority and
responsibility?
Are controls for authorization of transactions Yes
established at an adequately high level?
Are such controls adequately adhered to?
Yes
Is the organizational structure appropriate for Yes
the size and complexity of the entity?
Has management established policies for
Yes
developing and modifying accounting systems
and control activities?
Are accounting and data processing
Yes
All data processing is centralized at the
centralized or decentralized?
companys headquarters.
ASSIGNMENT OF AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY
The methods of assigning authority and responsibility should result in clear understanding of reporting
relationships and responsibilities established within the entity.
Yes,
No, N/A Comments
Is there a clear assignment of responsibility
Yes
and delegation of authority to deal with such
matters as organizational goals and objectives,
operating functions, and regulatory
requirements?
Are employee job responsibilities, including
Yes
The human resources department
specific duties, reporting relationships, and
maintains detailed job descriptions.
constraints, clearly established and
communicated to employees?
Has management clearly communicated the
Yes
scope of authority and responsibility to data
processing management?
Does adequate computer systems
Yes
The IT department maintains detailed
documentation indicate the controls for
systems documentation, including
authorizing transactions and approving
authorizations for program changes.
systems changes?
Is there adequate documentation of data
Yes
processing controls?

HUMAN RESOURCE POLICIES AND PROCEDURES


Human resource policies and practices relate to hiring, orientation, training, evaluating, counseling,
promoting, compensating, and remedial actions. The entitys human resource policies and practices
should positively influence the entitys ability to employ sufficiently competent personnel to accomplish
its goals and objectives.
Yes,
No, N/A Comments
Do client accounting personnel appear to have Yes
the background and experience for their
duties?
Do client accounting personnel understand the Yes
duties and procedures applicable to their jobs?
Is the turnover of accounting personnel
Yes
There has been no turnover in the last three
relatively low?
years.
Does the entity adequately train of new
Yes
accounting personnel?
Does the workload of accounting personnel
Yes
appear to permit them to control the quality of
their work?
Does previous experience with the client
Yes
indicate sufficient integrity on the part of
personnel?

Chapter 12
1.
A search of the Internet showed a number of sites that contained information on the
retail industry. Unfortunately, many of these sites are for industry organizations and
the user must be a member to obtain information. One site, the National Retail
Federation (www.nrf.com) contains information on its National Retail Institute
(NRI). NRI provides knowledge about consumer needs, industry trends and
strategies that are shaping the retail industry, and demographic information. NRI
also publishes reports and books on financial and merchandising issues, information
technologys effect on retailing, and a retail salary survey. For example, one report,
published annually, is entitled Combined Financial, Merchandising & Operating
Results of Retail Store.
There are also a number of regional sites that contain information on the retail
industry. For example, the North Carolina Retail Merchants Associations site
(www.ncrma.org) reported that North Carolina retail stores pay over $15 billion in
wages and salaries annually.
A number of the major public accounting firms home pages contained information
on the retail industry. Lastly, some financial services companies, such as Standard
& Poors have sites (www.standardpoors.com) that contain links to the retail
industry.

Chapter 13
1.
A search of the Internet showed a number of sites that contained financial
information on the retail industry. Unfortunately, many of these sites are for
industry organizations and the user must be a member to obtain information. One
site, the National Retail Federation (www.nrf.com) contains information on its
National Retail Institute (NRI). NRI provides knowledge about consumer needs,
industry trends and strategies that are shaping the retail industry, and demographic
information. NRI also publishes reports and books on financial and merchandising
issues, information technologys effect on retailing, and a retail salary survey.
Another site is Lebhar-Friedman (www.lf.com) which a leading independent
publisher and provider of information for the retail and foodservices
communities. Lebhar-Friedman also owns Corporate Intelligence on Retailing
which maintains a site (www.cior.com) that has links to over 100 retailing
companies.
There is also the International Mass Retail Associations (IMRA) site
(www.imra.org) which contains general economic trends analysis, but no direct
information on inventory turnover and merchandise liquidations.
A number of the major public accounting firms home pages contained
information on the retail industry, as does Andersen Consulting. Finally,
financial services companies, such as Standard & Poors have sites
(www.standardpoors.com) that contain links to the retail industry. However,
these services are available by subscription only.
Chapter 16
1. Intels home page (www.intel.com) contains the financial statements for the year
ended December 31, 1997 (later financials will be available after this book goes to
press). The footnotes state Highly liquid investments with insignificant interest rate
risk and with original maturities of three months or less are classified as cash and
cash equivalents. Investments with maturities greater than three months and less
than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments with maturities
greater than one year are classified as long-term investments. At December 31,
1997, Intels balance sheet shows cash and cash equivalents of $4.102 billion,
short-term investments of $5.63 billion, and long-term investments of $1.839 billion.
The footnotes state that Intel accounts for investments in accordance with SFAS No.
115, Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities.
Microsofts home page (www.microsoft.com) contains the financial statements for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1998. The footnotes state The Company considers all
liquid interest-earning with a maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase
to be cash equivalents. Short-term investments generally mature between three
months and five years from the purchase date. All cash and short-term investments
are classified as available for sale and are recorded at market. Cost approximates

market for all classifications of cash and short-term investments; realized and
unrealized gains and losses were not material. At June 30, 1998 cash and short-term
investments amounted to $8.966 billion. Publicly tradeable equity securities are
recorded at market; unrealized gains and losses are reflected in stockholders equity.
At June 30, 1998 equity investments amount to $2.346 billion.
Chapter 17
1.
a.
It is possible to get information on these frauds by searching the Internet using
one of the search engines. The company name can be used to identify some
references to such information. Using terms like accounting fraud and
accounting irregularities also identified some information. One site that was
particularly informative was the Wall Street Journal site (www.wjs.com). It allows
for searches through Dow Jones Interactive and identifies articles about the topic in
the Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Fortune, The Washington Post, and The New York
Times. However, the user must pay for each article retrieved. Another way to get
information on a specific company is to use the SECs EDGAR data base
(www.sec.gov). By inputting the company name in the EDGAR search engine,
filings with the SEC can be retrieved.
b. One way to identify additional companies that recently reported an accounting
irregularity or fraud was to again use the EDGAR data base search engine.
Inputting the term accounting fraud provides a list of recently filings with the
SEC that report fraud.
2.

Again, the EDGAR data base search engine is perhaps the best source for finding
situations where the auditor has withdrawn an audit report on a company. The Dow
Jones Interactive site also produced some hits.

Chapter 21
1.
a. The management of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
asserts the following:
We have disclosed our business practices for electronic commerce transactions and
executed transactions in accordance with these disclosed business practices.
We have maintained effective controls to provide reasonable assurance that
customers orders placed using electronic commerce were completed and billed as
agreed.
We have maintained effective controls to provide reasonable assurance that private
customer information obtained as a result of electronic commerce was protected from
uses not related to our business.
The time period covered is for 3 months (e.g., December 16, 2000 through
March 15, 2001).
b. The CPA firm that issues the report on the AICPAs web site is J. H. Cohn.
2.

a. Currently, Timberland does not sell products over the Internet. Both L. L.
Bean and Lands End use TRUSTe. TRUSTe is an independent, non-profit

organization whose aim is to encourage companies to adopt responsible


privacy practices, and to disclose these practices in honest, understandable
terms.

3.

b. The TRUSTe seal is different WebTrust. When a user clicks on the


TRUSTe seal they are referred to a validation page that confirms that the
entity (Lands End or L. L. Bean) is a licensee of the TRUSTe privacy
program. By agreeing to display the TRUSTe seal, the Web site has agreed
to notify the use of the following:
What information this site gathers/tracks about you.
What this site does with the information it gathers/tracks.
With whom this site shares the information it gathers/tracks.
The sites opt-out policy.
The sites policy on correcting and updating personally identifiable information.
The sites policy on deleting or deactivating your name from their database.
The TRUSTe seal does not, however, provide any assurances similar to those
provided by WebTrust. It should be noted that both L. L. Bean and Lands
End provided very detailed information on security and privacy issues.
a. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
(JCAHO) Web site (www.jcaho.org) is a valuable source of information on all
types of healthcare organizations. JCAHOs mission is to improve the quality
of healthcare for the public by providing accreditation and related services
that support performance improvement in healthcare organizations. One of
the most important aspects of JACHOs database is ready access to
performance reports (that is, accreditation information) on all types of
healthcare organization by state and city.
b. Searching the Internet produced at number of sites for information in the
Atlanta area (my area). However, the JACHO site was by far the best source
of information by area.