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GEOMETRICAL AND MATERIAL OPTIMIZATION OF ALLOY WHEEL FOR

FOUR WHEELER USING HONEY-COMB TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT
Alloy wheels are automobile wheels which are made from an alloy of aluminum or
magnesium metals
or sometimes a mixture of both. Alloy wheels differ from normal steel wheels because of their
lighter weight, which improves the steering and the speed of the car. Alloy wheels will reduce
the unstrung weight of a vehicle compared to one fitted with standard steel wheels. The
benefit of reduced unstrung weight is more precise steering as well as a nominal reduction in
fuel consumption.
At present four wheeler wheels are made of Aluminum Alloys or steel. In this
Aluminum alloy wheel will be replaced with different alloys like ZAMAK and magnesium.
In this a parametric model will be made to design for Alloy wheel used in four
wheeler by collecting data from reverse engineering process from existing model. Design has
to be evaluated by analyzing the model by considering the constraints as ultimate stresses and
variables as different materials and different loads.
The main aim of the project is to suggest best geometric shape along with material,
for geometrical optimization four different shapes of straight, inclined, Y-shape, and HONEY
COMB-shape are analyzed with above described materials by applying loads.
Structural analysis will be done at maximum load conditions to determine structural
characteristics. Buckle analysis will be done to determine the buckle factors for all above
models and material.

INTRODUCTION TO WHEELS

CHAPTER-I

A wheel is a circular device that is capable of rotating on its axis, facilitating


movement or transportation while supporting a load (mass), or performing labour in
machines. Common examples are found in transport applications. A wheel, together with an
axle overcomes friction by facilitating motion by rolling. In order for wheels to rotate, a
moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its axis, either by way of gravity, or by
application of another external force. More generally the term is also used for other circular
objects that rotate or turn, such as a ship's wheel, steering wheel and flywheel.
1.1 TYPES OF WHEELS:
There are only a few types of wheels still in use in the automotive industry today.
They vary significantly in size, shape, and materials used, but all follow the same basic
principles.
1.1.1 STEEL WHEEL:
The first type of wheel worth mentioning, and by far the most-used wheel, is the steel
wheel. This kind of wheel consists of several sheets of steel, stamped into shape and typically
welded together. This type of wheel is strong, but heavy. They are found on every kind of
vehicle from sports cars to the larger pickup trucks; the wheels look different but are
essentially the same device.
1.1.2RALLY WHEEL:
The second type of wheel to be mentioned is the rally wheel. These are essentially
steel wheels but they are made somewhat differently, and tend to consist of a heavier gauge of
steel. While the inner portion of a steel wheel is generally welded to the rim along its entire
circumference, a steel wheel's inner portion is cut to resemble the spokes of a mag wheel, and
is welded accordingly.
1.1.3 MAG WHEEL:

Mag wheels are cast and/or milled wheels typically made from aluminum or an alloy
thereof. They used to be made of magnesium for their light weight and strength, but
magnesium catches fire somewhat easily and is very difficult to put out. This is unfortunate,
because it is superior to aluminum in every other way. This tendency also makes it a
dangerous metal to work with, because piles of shavings tend to burst into flame and burn
through concrete surfaces when they get too hot.
1.1.4SPOKE WHEEL:
As previously mentioned, spoke wheels (sometimes with more than 100 spokes) are
still in use today and are popular on roadsters and low-riders. They tend to be fairly low in
weight, and are reasonably strong. They have an "old school" appearance and style which is
often highly sought after.
1.1.5 Centerline Wheel
Various combinations of these technologies can be used to produce other, more
unusual wheels. Large earth-moving vehicles such as the more gargantuan dump trucks often
have some degree of the vehicle's suspension actually built into the wheel itself, lying
between the hub and rim in place of spokes. Also, various companies make wheels which are
designed like steel wheels but are made of aluminum -- The most famous of these are made
by centerline, and the style is actually called the centerline wheel.
1.1.6 Mounting
Wheels are mounted to the hub by a combination of lug bolts, or studs, and lug nuts.
The studs are mounted to the hub, which is attached to a hub carrier or suspension upright.
The wheel has holes to match these studs, and is placed over them. The lug nuts are then
applied and tightened to the proper tension.
1.1.7 Hub- And Lug- Centricism
Automobile wheels are considered to be either hub-centric or lug-centric, the
difference being how the wheel is centered. If a wheel is off-center, the result is a lack of
balance and a tendency for that wheel to bounce as the radius changes. Hub-centric wheels
are centered by the center bore of the wheel matching the protruding portion of the hub, and
lug-centric wheels are centered simply by the position and diameter of the lug bolts. Adapter

rings are available for some wheels to center them to the hub, though it is generally not
necessary. Some lug-centric wheels are centered by a beveled edge on the lug nuts matching a
bevel on the wheel's holes.

1.2. INTRODUCTION TO ALLOY WHEEL


Alloy wheels are automobile (car, motorcycle and truck) wheels which are made from an
alloy of aluminum or magnesium metals (or sometimes a mixture of both).
Alloy wheels differ from steel wheels in a number of ways:

Typically lighter weight for the same strength


Better conductors of heat
Improved cosmetic appearance

Lighter wheels can improve handling by reducing unsprung mass, allowing suspension to
follow the terrain more closely and thus provide more grip, however it's not always true that
alloy wheels are lighter than the equivalent size steel wheel. Reduction in overall vehicle
mass can also help to reduce fuel consumption.
Better heat conduction can help dissipate heat from the brakes, which improves braking
performance in more demanding driving conditions and reduces the chance of brake failure
due to overheating.

Fig: 1.1. Aluminum Alloy Wheel

Alloy wheels are not only for improved driving performance, they are also for cosmetic
purposes. The alloys used are largely corrosion-resistant, permitting an attractive bare-metal
finish, with no need for paint or wheel covers, and the manufacturing processes allow

intricate, bold designs. In contrast, steel wheels are usually pressed from sheet metal, and
then welded together (often leaving unsightly bumps) and must be painted (as they corrode
otherwise) and/or hidden with wheel covers / hub caps.
Alloy wheels are prone to galvanic corrosion if appropriate preventative measures are not
taken, which can in turn cause the tires to leak air. Also, alloy wheels are more difficult to
repair than steel wheels when bent, but their higher price usually makes repairs cheaper than
replacement and even severely damaged wheels can often be repaired to like new, though this
depends on how badly the owner wishes to salvage the wheel and its intrinsic worth or
availability.
Alloy wheels are more expensive to produce than standard steel wheels, and thus are
often not included as standard equipment, instead being marketed as optional add-ons or as
part of a more expensive trim package. However, alloy wheels have become considerably
more common since 2000, now being offered on economy and subcompact cars, compared to
a decade earlier where alloy wheels were often not factory options on inexpensive vehicles.
Alloy wheels have long been included as standard equipment on higher-priced luxury or
sports cars, with larger-sized or "exclusive" alloy wheels being options. The high cost of alloy
wheels makes them attractive to thieves; to counter this, automakers and dealers often use
locking wheel nuts which require a special key to remove.
Most alloy wheels are manufactured using casting, but some are forged. Forged wheels
are usually lighter, stronger, but much more expensive than cast wheels.
1.2.1 Aftermarket wheels:
A sizeable selection of alloy wheels are available to automobile owners who want lighter,
prettier, rarer, and/or larger wheels on their cars, in order to increase performance, manipulate
handling and suspension, and/or signify luxury, sportiness, or wealth. These wheels have
become a part of pop culture.

1.2.2 Magnesium alloy wheels:

Fig: 1.2 Magnesium alloy wheel on a Porsche Carrera GT

Magnesium alloy wheels, or "mag wheels", are sometimes used on racing cars, in place of
heavier steel or aluminium wheels, for better performance. The wheels are produced by onestep hot forging from a magnesium alloy known as ZK60, AZ31 or AZ91 (MA14 in Russia).
Cast magnesium disks are used in motorcycle wheels.
The mass of a typical magnesium automotive wheel is about 59 kg (depending on size).
Magnesium wheels are flammable and have been banned in some forms of motorsport in
the UK following fires which are very difficult to extinguish. Mag wheels have been known
to catch fire in competition use after a punctured tire has allowed prolonged scraping of the
wheel on the road surface. Some variants of Magnesium alloy wheels may have low
corrosion resistance.
They have the disadvantages of being expensive and not practical for most road vehicles.

1.2.3 Magnesium alloys:


Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by aerospace industry
requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions.
Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two
thirds that of aluminum. This has been a major factor in the widespread use of magnesium
alloy castings and wrought products.
A further requirement in recent years has been for superior corrosion performance and
dramatic improvements have been demonstrated for new magnesium alloys. Improvements in
mechanical properties and corrosion resistance have led to greater interest in magnesium

alloys for aerospace and specialty applications, and alloys are now being specified on
programs such as the McDonnell Douglas MD 500 helicopter.
Key Properties:

Light weight
Low density (two thirds that of aluminum)
Good high temperature mechanical properties
Good to excellent corrosion resistance

1.2.4 Applications:
Aerospace:
For many years, RZ5 alloy has been the preferred material for helicopter transmission
casings due to the combination of low density and good mechanical properties. More
recently, however, the requirement for longer intervals between overhauls and hence
improved corrosion properties has caused manufacturers to reconsider material choice.
In the past, RZ5 was generally used for gearbox casings but many new programs will
use WE43 instead including the main rotor gearbox castings. For this application, an
aluminium transmission would have been used but for the exceptional corrosion resistance of
WE43. The Eurocopter EC 120 and NH90 helicopters have also flown with WE43
transmission casings and WE43 is specified for the Sikorsky S92. Further applications for
WE43 will go ahead in the future both on new programs and also to replace RZ5 on older
helicopters.
RZ5, ZRE1, MSR and EQ21 alloys are widely used for aircraft engine and gearbox
casings. This will continue although it is likely that WE43 will be used increasingly for its
corrosion and high temperature properties. Very large magnesium castings can be made, such
as intermediate compressor casings for turbine engines. These include the Rolls Royce Tay
casing in MSR, which weighs 130kg and the BMW Rolls Royce BR710 casing in RZ5. Other
aerospace applications include auxiliary gearboxes (F16, Eurofighter 2000, Tornado) in MSR
or RZ5, generator housings (A320 Airbus, Tornado and Concorde in MSR or EQ21) and
canopies, generally in RZ5.

Magnesium alloy forgings are also used in aerospace applications including critical
gearbox parts for the Westland Sea King helicopter and aircraft wheels, both in ZW3. Forged
magnesium parts are also used in aero engine applications. In the future, magnesium forgings
are most likely to be used in higher temperature applications
Automotive motor racing
In motor racing, RZ5 is generally used for gearbox casings although MSR/EQ21
alloys are also being used increasingly due to their superior ambient temperature properties or
because of increased operating temperatures. RZ5 wheels have been shown to have
significantly better performance than Mg-Al-Zn alloy wheels under arduous racing
conditions. Due to the high operating temperature of racing engines, WE54 castings have
been used for a variety of Formula 1 engine parts and are used for engine components for a
limited edition road car. Forged WE54 pistons offer great future potential for motor racing
and other applications will exist for other wrought products.
Magnesium alloys are also used in many other engineering applications where having
light weight is a significant advantage. Magnesium-zirconium alloys tend to be used in
relatively low volume applications where they are processed by sand or investment casting,
or wrought products by extrusion or forging. Zirconium-free alloys, principally AZ91 but also
other alloys, are used in automotive and various other high volume applications.
Bicycles:
As mentioned above Melram 072, the metal matrix composite is used in the bicycle
industry due to its excellent stiffness and reduced weight compared to aluminum.
1.2.5 OVERVIEW OF ZAMAK:
Eastern Alloys manufactures the complete range of zinc die casting alloys. ZAMAK
alloys were first developed during the 1920's by The New Jersey Zinc Company. The name
ZAMAK draws upon the basic metallurgy of the alloy group: Z-Zinc, A-Aluminum, MAMagnesium, and K-Kopper (e.g., German). In the United States, ZAMAK 3 is the most
common alloy for hot chamber die casting. With a combination of superior mechanical
properties and low melting/manufacturing costs, it fulfills the needs for most die casting
applications. Other ZAMAK alloys include ZAMAK 2, ZAMAK 5, and ZAMAK 7.

Common to each alloy is a consistent Aluminum content range; however, the alloys differ in
specification by varying amounts of copper, magnesium, and nickel - resulting in different
mechanical and physical properties.
Eastern Alloys is the global leader in ZA alloy manufacturing and process technology.
High strength ZA alloys were originally engineered for gravity casting, but now own an
increasing percentage of the die casting market. Today, there are three ZA alloys: ZA8, ZA12,
ZA27. ZA8 is the only ZA alloy that can be HOT chamber die cast due to the relatively low
melting temperature (708-759 F). ZA12 and ZA27 can be COLD chamber die cast at higher
melting temperatures (875-1050 F).
The ACuZinc is another zinc die casting alloy-, developed by General Motors
Research and Development engineers. At the outset ACuZinc alloys were limited to
production of GM-specific parts. More recently, however, the GM licensing agreement allows
for a broader scope of applications. With the addition of high percentages of copper, ACuZinc
alloys were developed to improve the wear resistance and creep properties in the zinc alloy
family. Today there are two ACuZinc alloys: ACuZinc 5 (5% Copper), and ACuZinc 10 (10%
Copper), and are used in a variety of automotive applications. ACuZinc 5 is HOT chamber
die cast due to its lower melting temperature, whereas ACuZinc 10 is COLD chamber die
cast. The process of casting these zinc die casting alloys utilizesa hydraulic press that allows
metal to be injected into a cavity at extremely high pressures. The term "HOT" (as in HOT
chamber) refers to the fact the metal pump (gooseneck) is immersed in the hot metal. In
COLD chamber die casting, the metal is ladled into a holding sleeve until a plunger forces the
metal into the cavity. These processes are designed for high volume applications, and are cast
at "net-shaped" precision.
1.2.6 Alloy Description:
Alloy
#3

Description
No. 3 alloy is usually the first choice when considering zinc die casting. Its
excellent balance of desirable physical and mechanical properties, superb
cast ability and long-term dimensional stability are the reasons why over
70% of all North American zinc die castings are in No. 3 alloy. It is,
therefore, the most widely available alloy from die casting sources. ZAMAK
No. 3 also offers excellent finishing characteristics for plating, painting and
chromate treatments. It is the "standard" by which other zinc alloys are rated

#5

in terms of die casting.


No. 5 alloy castings are marginally stronger and harder than No. 3. However,
these improvements are tempered with a reduction in ductility which can
affect formability during secondary bending, riveting, swaging or crimping
operations. No. 5 contains an addition of 1% copper which accounts for
these property changes. The alloy is widely die cast in Europe and does
exhibit excellent cast ability characteristics, as well as, improved creep
performance over No. 3.
Because of No. 3's wide availability, material specifies often strengthen
components by design modifications instead of using No. 5. However, when
an extra measure of tensile performance is needed, No. 5 alloy castings are
recommended. The alloy is readily plated, finished and machined,
comparable to No. 3 alloy.

#7

No. 7 alloy is a modification of #3 alloy in which lower magnesium content


is specified in order to increase the fluidity. To avoid problems with intergranular corrosion lower levels of impurities are called for and a small
quantity of nickel is specified. Alloy #7 has slightly better ductility than #3
with other properties remaining at the same level.
The alloy is therefore popular for those special cases where the die caster is
making thin walled components requiring a good surface finish. However,
research testing has shown that metal and die temperatures have a bigger
effect than changing alloys. Close attention to control of the die casting
process parameters is important so as to eliminate defects and achieve
consistent quality.

#2

No. 2 is the only ZAMAK alloy which is used for gravity casting; mainly for
metal forming dies or plastic injection tools. This alloy is sometimes referred
to as Kirksite. For die casting, No. 2 offers the highest strength and hardness
of the ZAMAK family. However, its high copper content (3%) results in
property changes upon long term aging. These changes include slight
dimensional growth (0.0014 in/in/after 20 yrs.), lower elongation and
reduced impact performance (to levels similar to aluminum alloys) for die
cast products.

Although No. 2 alloy exhibits excellent castability, it has seen limited use by
die casters in North America. It does, however, provide some interesting
characteristics which may assist designers. Its creep performance is rated
higher than the other ZAMAKs and No. 2 maintains higher strength and
hardness levels after long term aging. Also, preliminary investigations
suggest No. 2 alloy is a good bearing material, and may eliminate bushings
and wear inserts in die cast designs.
ZA-8

A good gravity casting alloy, ZA-8 is rapidly growing for pressure die
casting. ZA-8 can be hot chamber die cast, with improved strength, hardness
and creep properties over ZAMAK's, with the exception of a No. 2 alloy
which is very similar in performance. ZA-8 is readily plated and finished
using standard procedures for ZAMAK. When the performance of standard
No. 3 or No. 5 is in question, ZA-8 is often the die casting choice because of
high strength and creep properties and efficient hot chamber cast ability.

ZA-12

ZA-12 is the most versatile zinc alloy in terms of combining high


performance properties and ease of fabrication using either gravity or
pressure die casting. ZA-12 is the best gravity casting alloy for sand,
permanent mold and the new graphite mold casting process. It is also a good
pressure die casting alloy (cold chamber) which provides a sounder structure
than ZA-27, as well as higher die cast elongation and impact properties. For
these reasons, die cast ZA-12 often competes with ZA-27 for strength
application. An excellent bearing alloy, ZA-12 is also platable, although

ZA-27

plating adhesion is reduced compared to the ZAMAK alloys.


ZA-27 is the high strength performer of the zinc alloys whether for gravity
or pressure die casting (cold chamber). It is also the lightest alloy and offers
excellent bearing and wears resistance properties. ZA-27, however, requires
care during melting and casting to assure sound internal structure,
particularly for heavy wall sections. It may also need a stabilization heat
treatment when tight dimensional tolerances are required. ZA-27 is not
recommended for plating. However, when brute strength or wear resistant
properties are needed, ZA-27 has demonstrated extraordinary performance.

1.2.7 Mechanical Properties


#3

#5

#7

#2

ZA-

ZA-

ZA-

12
58

27
61

Ultimate Tensile Strength: psi x 41

48

41

52

8
54

103 (MPa)

(328)

(283)

(359)

(374

(400

(421)

)
46

55

(283)

Yield Strength - 0.2% Offset: 32

39

32

41

)
42

psi x 103 (MPa)

(269)

(221)

(283)

(290

(317

(379)

)
4-7
43

1-3
47

(221)

Elongation: % in 2"
Shear Strength: psi x 103 (MPa)

Hardness: Brinell

10
31

7
38

13
31

7
46

)
6-10
40

(214)

(262)

(214)

(317)

(275

(296

(325)

100

)
95-

)
95-

105-

115
213

125
93
(5)
21

82

91

80

48

43

35

110
313

(58)
Fatigue Strength Rotary Bend - 6.9

(65)
8.2

(58)
6.8

(48)
8.5

(42)
15

(29)
17

5x108 cycles: psi x 103 (MPa)

(57)

(47)

(59)

(103

(117) (145)

874

604

934

)
37

39

52

(414)

(600)

(414)

(641)

(252

(269

(385)

psi x 103 (MPa)


Modulus of Elasticity - psi x 106 12.46

12.46

12.46

12.46

)
-

)
-

(MPa x 103)

(85.5

(85.5

(85.5

(85.5

Poisson's Ratio

)
0.27

)
0.27

)
0.27

)
0.27

0.29

0.30

0.32

#3

#5

#7

#2

ZA-8

ZA-12 ZA-27

.24

.24

.24

.24

.227

.218

.181

(6.6)
718-

(6.6)
717-

(6.6)
718-

(6.6)
715-

(6.3)
707-

(6.0)
710-

(5.0)
708-

728

727

728

734

759

810

903

(381-

(380-

(381-

(379-

(375-

(377-

(376-

387)

386)

387)

390)

404)

432)

484)

Impact Strength: ft-lb (J)

Compressive

Yield

0.1%

Offset:

43

(48)

Strength 604

1.2.8 Physical Properties

Density: lb/cu in (g/cm3)

Melting Range: F (C)

Electrical Conductivity: %IACS 27


Thermal
Conductivity: 65.3

26
62.9

27
65.3

25
60.5

27.7
66.3

28.3
67.1

29.7
72.5

BTU/ft/hr/F (W/m/hr/C)
(113.0) (108.9) (113.0) (104.7) (114.7) (116.1) (125.5)
Coefficient
of
Thermal
Expansion:

15.2

15.2

15.2

15.4

12.9

13.4

14.4

68-212F in/in/F (100-200C (27.4) (27.4) (27.4) (27.8) (23.3) (24.2) (26.0)
m/mm/C)
Specific
Heat:

BTU/lb/F .10

.10

.10

.10

.104

.107

.125

(J/kg/C)

(419)

(419)

(419)

(419)

(435)

(448)

(534)

Pattern of Die Shrinkage: in/in

.007

.007

.007

.007

.007

.0075

.008

1.2.9 Compositions
Chemical Specification (per ASTM) (% by Weight) for ZAMAK Alloys
#3
Ingot

#5
Casting
3.5-

Al

3.9-4.3

Mg

.03-.06 .020-.05
.10

Cu

max

4.3

#7

#2

Ingot Casting Ingot Casting Ingot Casting


3.9-4.3

3.54.3

3.9-4.3

3.54.3

3.9-4.3

3.54.3

.03-.0 .03-

.01-.0 .005-.02 .025-. .020-.05

20

.08

.25 max9

.7-1.1 .75-1.25

.10
max

0
.25 max

05

2.7-

2.5-

3.3

3.0

Fe (max)

.035

.10

.035

.10

.075

.075

.035

.10

Pb (max)

.0040

.005

.0040

.005

.0020

.003

.0040

.005

Cd (max)

.0030

.004

.0030

.004

.0020

.002

.0030

.004

Sn (max)

.0015

.003

.0015

.003

.0010

.001

.0015

.003

Bal.

Bal.

Bal.

Bal.

Bal.

Bal.

Ni
(other)x10
Zn
Color

Code None

ASTM B908

1.2.10 Applications:

Black

.005-. .005-.02
020

Bal.

Bal.

Brown

Green

Fig: 1.4aluminum

counterparts

With ZA-27 alloy cast in the same dies as its 380 aluminum counterparts, Super winch was
able to cut project development time for its medium-load electric winch from 18 months to
six months. Die-casting supplier: Kennedy D.C., Inc.

Fig: 1.5 Connecters

The connector shield geometry is complex, containing pin grooves, cored holes in two
directions and connector slots in both legs. Die-casting supplier: Dynacast, Inc.

Fig: 1.6 Faucets

The zinc cover on the faucet - manufactured by Delta Faucets - provides an excellent base
for plating and finishing. Die-casting supplier: Gamco Products, Inc.
1.2.11 Overview of Aluminum Alloy:
The 8xxx series is used for those alloys with lesser used alloying elements such as Fe,
Ni and Li. Each is used for the particular characteristics it provides the alloys: Fe and Ni
provide strength with little loss in electrical conductivity and so are used in a series of alloys
represented by 8017 for conductors. Li in alloy 8090 provides exceptionally high strength and
modulus, and so this alloy is used for aerospace applications where increases in stiffness
combined with high strength Reduces component weight.
1.2.12 Cast Alloys
In comparison with wrought alloys, casting alloys contain larger proportions of
alloying elements such as silicon and copper. This results in a largely heterogeneous cast
structure, i.e. one having a substantial volume of second phases. This second phase material
warrants careful study, since any coarse, sharp and brittle constituent can create harmful
internal notches and nucleate cracks when the component is later put under load. The fatigue
properties are very sensitive to large heterogeneities. As will be shown later, good
metallurgical and foundry practice can largely prevent such defects. The elongation and
strength, especially in fatigue, of most cast products are relatively lower than those of
wrought products. This is because current casting practice is as yet unable to reliably prevent
casting defects. In recent years however, innovations in casting processes have brought about
considerable improvements, which should be taken into account in any new edition of the
relevant standards.

1.2.13 Al-Cu Alloys

Heat treatable/sand and permanent mold castings


High strength at room and elevated temperatures; some high toughness alloys
Aircraft, automotive applications/engines
Representative alloys: 201.0, 203.0
Approximate ultimate tensile strength range:19-65 ksi

The strongest of the common casting alloys is heat-treated 201.0/AlCu4Ti. Its cast ability
is somewhat limited by a tendency to micro porosity and hot tearing, so that it is best suited
to investment casting. Its high toughness makes it particularly suitable for highly stressed
components in machine tool construction, in electrical engineering (pressurized switchgear
casings), and in aircraft construction. Besides the standard aluminum casting alloys, there are
special alloys for particular components, for instance, for engine piston heads, integral engine
blocks, or bearings.
For these applications the chosen alloy needs good wear resistance and a low friction
coefficient, as well as adequate strength at elevated service temperatures.
A good example is the alloy 203.0/AlCu5NiCo which to date is the aluminum casting
alloy with the highest strength at around 200C.Landing flap mountings and other aircraft
components are made in alloys of the 201.0 or in A356.0 types.

Fig 1.7. Al-Cu Alloys

1.2.14 Al-Si+Cu or Mg Alloys

Heat treatable/sand, permanent mold, and die castings


Excellent fluidity/high strength/some high-toughness alloys
Automotive and applications/pistons/pumps/electrical
Representative alloys:356.0, A356.0,359.0, A360.0
Approximate ultimate tensile strength range:19-40 ksi

The 3xx.x series of castings are one of the most widely used because of the flexibility
provided by the high silicon contents and its contribution to fluidity plus their response to
heat treatment which provides a variety of high-strength Options. Further the 3xx.x series
may be cast by a variety of techniques ranging from relatively simple sand or die casting to

very intricate permanent mold, lost foam/lost wax type castings, and the new erthixo casting
and squeeze casting technologies. Among the workhorse alloys are 319.0 and 356.0/A356.0
for sand and permanent mold casting, 360.0, 380.0/A380.0 and 390.0 for die casting, and
357.0/A357.0 for many type of casting including especially the squeeze/forge cast
technologies. Alloy 332.0 is also one of the most frequently used aluminum casting alloys
because it can be made almost exclusively from recycled scrap. Among the illustrative
applications are:

Inner turbo frame for a Mercedes truck


Gearbox casing for a passenger car in alloy pressure die cast

Fig:1.8 Al-Si+ Cu or Mg Alloys

Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment, by Dr. Dietrich G.

Altenpohl, the Aluminum Association and TMS,1998.


Aluminum Standards & Data, the Aluminum Association,1997.
The Aluminum Design Manual, the Aluminum Association,1994.

1.2.15 EN19T Alloy Steel:


EN19T steel stockholders and suppliers, delivering to the whole of the UK. A
high quality alloy steel specification usually supplied as a high tensile steel grade to EN19T
or EN19U. This grade offers good ductility and shock resisting properties combined with
resistance to wear. With these characteristics it is a popular high tensile engineering steel with
a tensile of 850/1000 N/mm. At low temperatures EN19T has reasonably good impact
properties. It is also suitable for a variety of elevated temperature applications. For maximum

wear and abrasion resistance EN19T can be nitrided to give a shallow depth wear resistant
case. Flame or induction hardening can give a case hardness of 50 HRc or higher.
1.2.16 Analysis:
Carbon
Manganese
Chromium
Molybdenum
Silicon
Phosphorous
Sulphur

0.35-0.45%
0.50-0.80%
0.90-1.50%
0.20-0.40%
0.10-0.35%
0.035% max
0.050% max

Form of Supply:
West Yorkshire Steel are stockholders and suppliers of EN19T round bar. Diameters
in EN19T can be sawn to your required lengths as one offs or multiple cut pieces. EN19T
ground steel bar can be supplied, providing a high tensile steel precision ground bar to tight
toleran

1.2.17 Applications:
EN19T was originally introduced for the use in the machine tool and motor industries
for gears, pinions, shafts, spindles and the like. Later its applications became much more
extended and it is now widely used in areas such as the oil and gas industries. EN19T is
suitable for applications such as gears, bolts, studs and a wide variety of applications where a
good quality high tensile steel grade is suited

Forging:
Pre heat carefully, and then raise temperature to 850-1200C for forging. Do not forge
below 850C. After forging cool slowly in still air.

Hardening:
This steel grade is commonly supplied ready heat treated. If further heat treatment is
required annealed EN19 should be heated slowly to 860-890C and after adequate soaking at
this temperature quench in oil. Temper as soon as tools reach room temperature.
Annealing: Heat the EN19T slowly to 680-700C. Cool in air.
Heat-resistant high-alloy steel: These castings are extensively used for applications
involving service temperatures in excess of 650 0C.

1.3. Introduction to Solid Works


Solid Works is a 3D mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) program that runs on
Microsoft Windows and is being developed by Dassault Systems Solid Works Corp., a
subsidiary of Dassault Systems, S. A. (Vlizy, France). Solid Works is currently used by over
1.3 million engineers and designers at more than 130,000 companies worldwide. FY2009
revenue for Solid Works was 366 million dollars up to 2011.
Solid Works is a Para solid-based solid modeler, and utilizes a parametric featurebased approach to create models and assemblies.
Parameters refer to constraints whose values determine the shape or geometry of the
model or assembly. Parameters can be either numeric parameters, such as line lengths or
circle diameters, or geometric parameters such as tangent, parallel, concentric, horizontal or
vertical, etc. Numeric parameters can be associated with each other through the use of
relations, which allow them to capture design intent.
Design intent is how the creator of the part wants it to respond to changes and
updates. For example, you want the hole at the top of a beverage can to stay at the top
surface, regardless of the height or size of the can, solid Works allows you to specify that the
hole is a feature on the top surface and will then honour your design intent no matter what the
height you later gave to the can. Features refer to the building blocks of the part. They are the
shapes and operations that construct the part. Shape-based features typically begin with a 2D
or 3D sketch of shapes such as bosses, holes, slots, etc. This shape is then extruded or cut to

add or remove material from the part. Operation-based features are not sketch-based, and
include features such as fillets, chamfers, shells, applying draft to the faces of a part, etc.
Building a model in Solid Works usually starts with a 2D sketch (although 3D
sketches are available for power users). The sketch consists of geometry such as points, lines,
arcs, conics (except the hyperbola), and spines. Dimensions are added to the sketch to define
the size and location of the geometry. Relations are used to define attributes such as tangency,
parallelism, perpendicularity, and concentricity. The parametric nature of Solid Works means
that the dimensions and relations drive the geometry, not the other way around. The
dimensions in the sketch can be controlled independently or by relationships to other
parameters inside or outside of the sketch.
Finally, drawings can be created either from parts or assemblies. Views are
automatically generated from the solid model, notes, dimensions and tolerances can then be
easily added to the drawing as needed. The drawing module includes most paper sizes and
standards (ANSI, ISO, DIN, GOST, JIS, BSI and SAC).

1.4 COSMOS
COSMOS Works is a design analysis automation application fully integrated with
Solid Works. This software uses the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate the working
conditions of your designs and predict their behavior. FEM requires the solution of large
systems of equations. Powered by fast solvers, COSMOS Works makes it possible for
designers to quickly check the integrity of their designs and search for the optimum solution.
COSMOS Works comes in several bundles to satisfy your analysis needs. It shortens
time to marketbytestingyourdesignsonthecomputerinsteadofexpensiveandtime- consuming
field tests.
COSMOS Works uses the Finite Element Method (FEM). FEM is a numerical
technique for analyzing engineering designs. FEM is accepted as the standard analysis method

due to its generality and suitability for computer implementation. FEM divides the model into
many small pieces of simple shapes called elements effectively replacing a complex
problem by many simple problems that need to be solved simultaneously.
Elements share common points called nodes. The process of dividing the model into
small pieces is called meshing. The behavior of each element is well-known under all possible
support and load scenarios. The finite element method uses elements with different shapes. The
response at any point in an element is interpolated from the response at the element nodes.
Each node is fully described by a number of parameters depending on the analysis type and
element used. For example, the temperature of a node fully describes its response
in thermal analysis. For structural analyses using shells, the response of a node is described by
three translations and three rotations. For structural analyses using tetrahedral elements, the
response of a node is described by three translations. These are called degrees of freedom
(DOFs). Analysis using FEM is called Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

LITERATURE SURVEY

CHAPTER-II

HIGH CYCLE FATIGUE OF A DIE CAST AZ91E-T4 MAGNESIUM ALLOY


M.F. Horstemeyer a,*, N. Yang b, Ken Gall c, D.L. McDowell d, J. Fan e, P.M. Gullett b.
3 July 2003; accepted 11 November 2003
ABSTRACT:
This study reveals the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack nucleation and growth in a
commercial high-pressure die cast automotiveAZ91E-T4 Mg component. Mechanical fatigue
tests were conducted under R _1 conditions on specimens machined at different locations
in the casting at total strain amplitudes ranging from 0.02% to 0.5%. Fracture surfaces of
specimens that failed in the high cycle fatigue regime with lives spanning two orders of

magnitude were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The difference in lives for
the Mg specimens was primarily attributed to a drastic difference in nucleation site sizes,
which ranged from several hundred lms to several mms. A secondary effect may include the
influence of average secondary dendrite arm spacing and average grain size. At low crack tip
driving forces (Kmax< 3:5 MPa) intact particles and boundaries act as barriers to fatigue
crack propagation, and consequently the cracks tended to avoid the interdendritic regions and
progress through the cells, leaving a fine striated pattern in this single-phase region. At high
driving forces (Kmax> 3:5 MPa) fractured particles and boundary de-cohesion created weak
paths for fatigue crack propagation, and consequently the cracks followed the interdendritic
regions, leaving serrated markings as the crack progressed through this heterogeneous region.
The ramifications of the results on future modeling efforts are discussed in detail.
Samples of cast Mg machined from a commercial high-pressure automotive diecasting were tested until failure under completely reversed cycling in laboratory air at room
temperature at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.02% to 0.5%. Initial microstructures and
fracture surfaces of the failed samples were examined with SEM, and the following
observations support these primary

CONCLUSIONS:
(I) The variability in the fatigue life data in the HCF regime spans over two orders of
magnitude. The difference in lives for the specimens machined from the casting is primarily
attributed to a difference in the inclusion size that start fatigue cracks, which range from
several mm to several hundred lm. Secondary effects may include the influence of average
secondary dendrite arm spacing and average grain size, which were found to vary from 1522
and105140 lm, respectively. The average secondary dendrite arm spacing and grain size can
influence fatigue crack propagation rates, particularly in the micro structurally small fatigue
crack regime.
(II) At low crack tip driving forces for completely reversed straining (Kmax< 3:5 MPa),
intact particles and boundaries can act as barriers to fatigue crack propagation, and
consequently the cracks will tend to avoid the interdendritic regions and progress through the
relatively homogeneous dendrite cell interiors, leaving a fine striated pattern in this single-

phase region. At high driving forces that correspond to overload conditions (Kmax> 3:5MPa
fmp), fractured particles and inclusion de-bonding can create weak paths for fatigue crack
propagation, and consequently the cracks will follow the interdendritic regions and leave
serrated markings.

WHEELS AUTO MODELING USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD


Amalia Ana DASCL, 2.Daniel CRULEANU

Year 2011.
The question always arises buying rims "steel or alloy wheels?". In addition to the
rims look more appealing than those of alloy steel, there are technical reasons why it tends to

use them: reduced weight, starting and braking, rigidity, rapid cooling. Although it can
produce sheet steel or cast alloy wheels profile is adopted depending on the specifics of the
construction vehicles and the stress faced by their wheels. In this paper we studied the
tensions that arise when a wheel is subjected to aerodynamic loading conditions, trying to
play the best areas in which attention must be enhanced in order to prevent premature
destruction. Using CATIA V5, we designed a concept of light and have undergone a finite
element method using different forces and accelerations restrictions in areas where problems
occur during use. Calculating the diagrams thus playing rim is observed when the material
behavior is tensed and so we can correct the areas that present a danger of destruction. At the
end of the method could draw the conclusion which shows the success of the concept, but
also design new technologies for observation and verification of parts or assemblies. This
approach is useful for any product development needs of Class A-surfacing. CATIA V5 users
can implement and practice the same technique, without adding any costly hardware. As a
personal opinion I add, as a matter of fact, over time, the need to design a new model of the
rimin a short period of time can be achieved only with computers, specialized software
specifically with these dedicated engineers today.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DYNAMIC SIDE IMPACT TEST FOR


AN ALUMINIUM ALLOY WHEEL
Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(18), pp. 2694-2701, 18 September, 2010
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/SRE
ISSN 1992-2248 2010 Academic Journals
A great number of wheel test are requited in designing and manufacturing of wheels
to meet the safety requirements. The impact performance of wheel is a major concern of a
new design. The test procedure has to comply with international standards, which establishes
minimum mechanical requirements, evaluates axial curb and impact collision characteristics
of wheels. Numerical implementation of impact test is essential to shorten the design time,
enhance the mechanical performance and lower development cost. This study deals with the
simulation of impact test for a cast aluminium alloy wheel by using 3D explicit finite

element methods. A numerical model of the wheel with its tire and striker were developed
taking account of the nonlinearity material properties, large deformation and contact.
Simulation was conducted to investigate the stress and displacement distributions during
wheel impact test. The analyses results are presented as a function of time. The maximum
value of the displacement and stress on the wheel and tire are shown. As a result, the use of
explicit finite element method to predict the performance of new products design is replacing
the use of physical test.
The dynamic response of a wheeltire assembly during the impact test is a highly
nonlinear phenomenon. In this paper, a numerical study of impact test of the wheeltire
assembly was the dynamic response of a wheeltire assembly during the impact test is a
highly nonlinear phenomenon. In this paper, a numerical study of impact test of the wheel
tire assembly was performed using explicit finite element code. 3D finite element analysis
with a reasonable mesh size and time step can reliably estimate the dynamic response. Such
results will help to predict the locations, in which the failure may take place during impact
test and improve the design of a wheel with required mechanical performance. The result
showed that the maximum stress takes place in the lug region of the wheel. This is primarily
due to the fact that the lug hole forms geometrical complexities and irregularities in this
region. Moreover, the moment generated by the striker is highest with respect to an axis
passing through lug region. As a result, non linear simulation can be very useful in the
optimization phase in the design of the wheel.

FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF WHEEL IMPACT TEST

VOLUME 28
ISSUE 2
June
2008
C.L. Chang*, S.H. Yang

Mechanical Engineering Department, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology,


Yunlin, 640, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Purpose: In order to achieve better performance and quality, the wheel design and
manufacturing use a number of wheel tests (rotating bending test, radial fatigue test, and
impact test) to insure that the wheel meets the safety requirements. The test is very time
consuming and expensive. Computer simulation of these tests can significantly reduce the
time and cost required to perform a wheel design. In this study, nonlinear dynamic finite
element is used to simulate the SAE wheel impact test.
Design/methodology/approach: The test fixture used for the impact test consists of a striker
with specified weight. The test is intended to simulate actual vehicle impact conditions. The
tire-wheel assembly is mounted at 13 angle to the vertical plane with the edge of the weight
in line with outer radius of the rim. The striker is dropped from a specified height above the
highest point of the tire-wheel assembly and contacts the outboard flange of the wheel.
Because of the irregular geometry of the wheel, the finite element model of an aluminium
wheel is constructed by tetrahedral element. A mesh convergence study is carried out to
ensure the convergence of the mesh model. The striker is assumed to be rigid elements.
Initially, the striker contacts the highest area of the wheel, and the initial velocity of the
striker is calculated from the impact height. The simulated strains at two locations on the disc
are verified by experimental measurements by strain gages. The damage parameter of a wheel
during the impact test is a strain energy density from the calculated result.
Findings: The prediction of a wheel failure at impact is based on the condition that fracture
will occur if the maximum strain energy density of the wheel during the impact test exceeds
the total plastic work of the wheel material from tensile test. The simulated results in this
work show that the total plastic work can be effectively employed as a fracture criterion to
predict a wheel fracture of forged aluminum wheel during impact test.
Research limitations/implications: A standard impact load is used to carry out the test. For
future study, a heavier striker or higher impact can be used to perform the test in order to
produce the rupture at impact.
Originality/value: In this study, the nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis is performed
to simulate a forged aluminium wheel during SAE impact test. The structural damage
parameter of the wheel is estimated by the strain energy density, and the fracture criterion is
based on the total plastic work of the wheel material. Computer simulation of wheel impact
test can significantly reduce the time and cost required to finalize a wheel design.

Keywords: Computational mechanics; Nonlinear dynamic finite element; Total plastic work;
Wheel impact test the dynamic response of a wheel during the impact test is highly nonlinear.
Nonlinear dynamic finite element with a reasonable mesh size and time step can reliably
calculate the dynamic response. The dynamic finite element result can be

verified by

comparing the calculated strain with the measured strain from the strain gage. The total
plastic work of a wheel material, which can be obtained by the material properties from a
tensile test, is utilized as a ductile fracture criterion. The prediction of a wheel failure is based
on the condition that fracture will occur if the maximum strain energy density exceeds the
total plastic work. The simulated results in this work show that the total plastic work can be
effectively employed as a fracture criterion to predict a wheel fracture of forged aluminium
wheel during impact test.

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER-II

PROBLEM DESCRIPTION:
Previously steel wheels are used to manufacture wheels for the higher strength, but
these alloy wheels are heavily due to its density and also giving trouble to manufacture
because of its higher melting point and hard to forge it. Weight is also playing crucial role in
mileage. After that aluminum and magnesium took the place for the manufacturing of alloy
wheel, but these alloy wheels are not giving good life due to its low compressive and yield
strength.

As above these aluminum and magnesium wheels getting yield (bends) at the larger
run and also these types of materials are not permitting heavy loads.

METHEDOLOGY:
As observed above problem and literature survey new type of alloy wheels are not
permitting heavy loads and also getting yield (bend) during bumps and pits in long
run.
Hence in this project geometric optimization and material optimization used to solve
the above said problems.
New type of composite zamak is implemented in this thesis.

MODELLING

3.1 SECTION VIEWS OF ALLOY WHEEL


STRAIGHT CROSS MEMBER

CHAPTER-III

Fig: 3.1. Straight cross member


INCLINED CROSS MEMBER

Fig:3.2. Inclined cross member

Y - SHAPE CROSS MEMBER

Fig: 3.3. Y-shape cross member

Fig:3.4. Honey comb Shape cross member


3.2 2D SKETCH:

Fig:3.5 Sketch

3.3. FIRST MODEL:

Fig:3.6First Model

3.4 3D MODEL FOR STRAIGHT CROSS MEMBER:

Fig:3.7. 3D model for straight cross member

3.5 3D MODELS FOR INCLINED CROSS MEMBER:

Fig:3.8. 3D model for inclined cross member

3.6 3D MODEL FOR Y-SHAPE CROSS MEMBER:

Fig:3.9. 3D model for Y-shape cross member


3.7 3D MODEL FOR HONEY COMB-SHAPE CROSS MEMBER:

fig:3.10. 3D model for honey comp-shape cross member

CALCULATIONS

CHAPTER - IV

4.1 LOAD CALCULATIONS


Type of vehicle: Mercedes benz c250
1.8let,201 HP, torque 1.5789mpa at 2000rpm
Car weight (wc) = 1944 kgs
5 passengers + luggage - (wp) = 500 kgs
Area (A) = 128738.66 mm2
Pressure:
wc
A

1944 9.81
128738.66

19070.64
2
128738.66 = 148.13 = 0.148 N/mm

Case 2
wc +w p
A

(1944+500)9.81
128738.66

23975.64
2
128738.66 = 186 = 0.186 N/mm

4.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES


Aluminum
Yield strength:
3.49e+008 N/m^2
Tensile strength:
3.59e+008 N/m2
Mass density:
2800 kg/m^3
Elastic modulus:
7.1e+010 N/m2
Poisson's ratio:
0.33
Thermal expansion coefficient:
3.5e-005 /Kelvin
Cast Alloy Steel
Yield strength:2.41275e+008 N/m2
Tensile strength:
4.48083e+008 N/m2
Mass density: 7300 kg/m3
Elastic modulus:
1.9e+011 N/m2
Poisson's ratio:
0.26
Thermal expansion coefficient:
1.5e-005 /Kelvin

Magnesium Alloy
Yield strength:
1.05e+008 N/m2
Mass density:
1700 kg/m3
Elastic modulus:
4.5e+010 N/m2
Poisson's ratio:
0.35
Thermal expansion coefficient:
2.5e-005 /Kelvin
Zamak material
Model type:
Default failure criterion:
Yield strength:
Tensile strength:
Mass density:
Elastic modulus:
Poisson's ratio:

Linear Elastic Isotropic


Max von MisesStress
2.68e+008 N/m^2
3e+007 N/m^2
6040 kg/m^3
8.3e+010 N/m^2
0.3

ANALYSIS
5.1

CHAPTER - V

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

5.1.1 Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Material

Fig. 5.1.The above image shows the loads applied

Fig.5.2. The above image is showing meshed component.


STRESS

Fig.5.3.The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses


theory of failure, max value is about 16.0883 n/mm2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.4. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0273815 mm

STRAIN

Fig. 5.5.The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000166758

5.1.2 Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Steel Material


STRESS

Fig.5.6. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about15.0051 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.7. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about0.0103362 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.8. The above image shows a strain MAX VALUE IS ABOUT 5.98774e-005

5.1.3 Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium Material

STRESS

Fig.5.9. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 16.618 n/mm2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.10 The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.043015 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.11. The above image shows the strain MAX VALUE IS ABOUT 0.000268224

5.1.4 Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material


STRESS

Fig.5.12 The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 15.5894 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.13. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0235479 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.14. The above image shows the strain MAX VALUE IS ABOUT 0.000139443

5.1.5 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Material

Fig. 5.15.The above image shows the loads applied

Fig.5.16. The above image is showing meshed component

STRESS

Fig.5.17. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 24.5466 n/mm2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.18. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0277233 mm

STRAIN

Fig. 5.19.The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000202928

5.1.6 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel with Steel Material


STRESS

Fig.5.20.The image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses theory


of failure, max value is about25.5087 n/mm2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.21. The image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on object
max value is about0.0104004 mm
STRAIN

Fig. 5.22.The above image shows a strain MAX VALUE IS ABOUT 7.74009e-005

5.1.7 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium Material


STRESS

Fig .5.23. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 24.4902 n/mm^2
DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.24. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0436577 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.25. The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000317877

5.1.8 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material

STRESS

Fig.5.26.The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses


theory of failure, max value is about 24.8723 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.27. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0237676 mm
STRAIN

Fig.5.28. The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000175194

5.1.9 Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Material

Fig.5.29. The above image shows the loads applied

Fig.5.30.The above image is showing meshed component mesh is used to divide the
object into no. of elements to de-construct the complex problem into small problem

STRESS

Fig.5.31. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 17.0821 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.32.The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0238971 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.33. The above image shows the strainmax value is about 0.000142738

5.1.10 Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Steel Material


STRESS

Fig.5.34. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about17.5281 n/mm^

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.35.The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
objectmax value is about0.00897626 mm
STRAIN

Fig.5.36. The above image shows a strainMAX VALUE IS ABOUT 5.19134e-005

5.1.11 Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium Material


STRESS

Fig.5.37. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 17.0135 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT:

Fig.5.38.The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0376351 mm
STRAIN

Fig.5.39. The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000226803

5.1.12 Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material

STRESS

Fig.5.40. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 17.2278 n/mm^2
DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.41. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0204995 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.42. The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000120639

5.1.13 Honey Comb - Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum

Material

Fig. 5.43.The above image shows the loads applied

Fig.5.44. The above image is showing meshed

STRESS

Fig.5.45. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 5.20554 n/mm^2
DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.46. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object Max value is about 0.023931 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.47. The above image shows the strainmax value is about 2.76276e-005

5.1.14 Honey Comb - Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Steel Material

STRESS

Fig.5.48. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 5.88082 n/mm2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.49. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about0.00896603 mm

STRAIN

Fig.5.50. The above image shows a strainMAX VALUE IS ABOUT 1.04632e-005

5.1.15 Honey Comb - Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium

Material
STRESS

Fig.5.51. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 5.00034 n/mm^2

DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.52.The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0377355 mm

STRAIN

Fig. 5.53.The above image shows the strain max value is about 4.33859e-005

5.1.16 Honey Comb - Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak

Material

STRESS

Fig.5.54. The above image is showing von-misses stress value it depends on von-misses
theory of failure, max value is about 5.50315 n/mm^2
DISPLACEMENT

Fig.5.55. The above image is showing displacement value red indicates max value on
object max value is about 0.0204909 mm

STRAIN

Fig. 5.56.The above image shows the strain max value is about 0.000139443

5.2

BUCKLE ANALYSIS

5.2.1

Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Material

Fig.5.57.The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.2

Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Steel Material

Fig.5.58. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.3

Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium Material

Fig.5.59. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.4

Straight Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak material

Fig.5.60. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.5 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel With Aluminum Material

Fig.5.61. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.6 Inclined cross member type wheel with steel material

Fig. 5.62.The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.7 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel With Magnesium material

Fig.5.63. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.8 Inclined Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material

Fig.5.64. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.9. Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Material

Fig.5.65. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.10. Y-Shape cross member type wheel with steel material

Fig. 5.66.The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1


5.2.11. Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium

Fig.5.67. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.12. Y-Shape Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material

Fig. 5.68.The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.13 HoneycombShape cross Member Type Wheel with Aluminum Wheel

Fig.5.69. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.14 HoneycombShape cross Member Type Wheel with Steel material

Fig. 5.70.The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.15 HoneycombShape cross Member Type Wheel with Magnesium material

Fig.5.71. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

5.2.16 HoneycombShape Cross Member Type Wheel with Zamak Material

Fig.5.72. The Above Image Is Showing Mode Shape Of Component At Shape-1

RESULT TABLES AND GRAPHS

CHAPTER - VI

6. Structural Analysis of cast alloy steel for four different materials

Cast alloy steel

Model

Stress
In N/mm2

Displacemen
t In mm

Strain

Straight

15.0051

0.0103362

0.00005987

Inclined

25.5087

0.0104004

0.00007740

Y - shape

17.5281

0.00897626

0.00005191

ZAMAK

Model

Straight
Inclined
Y - shape
Honeycomb

Honeyco
mb

Stress
In
N/mm2

5.88082

Displacemen
t In mm

0.00896603

0.00001046

Strain
Structural Analysis of magnesium for
four different materials

15.5894 0.0235479
Magnesium
24.8723 0.0237676

0.000139443
0.000175194

17.2278 0.0204995
Model
Stress
In
N/mm2
5.50315 0.0204909

0.000120639 Strain
Displacemen
t In mm
0.0000237

Straight

16.618

0.043015

0.000268224

Inclined

24.490
2
17.053
5
5.0003
4

0.0436577

0.000317877

0.0376351

0.000226803

0.0377355

0.00004338

Y - shape
Honeycom
b

Structural Analysis of ZAMAK for four different materials

Structural Analysis of ALUMINIUM for four different materials

ALUMINIUM

Model

Stress

Displacemen
In t In mm
N/mm2

Strain

Straight

16.088
3
24.546
6
17.082
1
5.2053
4

0.0273815

0.000166758

0.0277233

0.000202928

0.0238971

0.000142738

0.023931

0.000027627

Inclined
Y - shape
Honeycom
b

BUCKLE ANALYSIS RESULTS:

Material/
Model

Aluminum

Steel

Magnesium

ZAMAK

Straight

144.24

382.24

91.782

167.78

Inclined

156

415.84

990.092

181.93

387.31

92.692

169.76

806.31

187.84

349.09

Y shape
Honeycomb

145.78
297.11

STRESS GRAPH
30
25
20
Cast alloy steel
Magnesium

15

ZAMAK
ALUMINIUM

10
5
0
Straight

Inclined

DISPLACEMENT GRAPH

Y - shape

Honeycomb

0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03

Cast alloy steel

0.03

Magnesium
ZAMAK

0.02

ALUMINIUM

0.02
0.01
0.01
0
Straight

Inclined

Y - shape

Honeycomb

STRAIN GRAPH
0
0
0
Cast alloy steel

Magnesium
ZAMAK

ALUMINIUM
0
0
0
Straight

FOS table:

Inclined

Y - shape

Honeycomb

40
35
30
Steel

25

Meg
ZAMAK

20

Alu

15
10
5
0
FOS

The above graph is showing factor of safety for honey comb type wheel the minimum
value for wheel parts should be 3 or more.

CONCLUSION

CHAPTER - VII

This paper presents optimized alloy wheel for car by simulating alloy wheel on
different geometric shapes with different materials. Modeling of alloy wheel was done using
solid works and simulation works was done in simulation works.
Simulation is done on alloy wheel with Straight, Slant and Y-shaped cross members
and honey-comb structure for two load conditions to find the structural characteristics.
Simulation is a done using steel, aluminum A360, and Magnesium and ZAMAK materials.
As per the factor of safety ZAMAK is giving maximum factor of safety with in low cost the
minimum FOS value for wheel parts should be 3 or more.
While comparing geometric shape honeycomb model is showing good results than other
models.
As per the above results ZAMAK material along with honey-comb structures better.
While comparing with other materials ZAMAK is having some higher stress and
displacement but the values had negligible difference. ZAMAK is the right choice due to its
higher tensile and yield strength
1.
2.
3.
4.

Aluminum
Cast Alloy Steel
Magnesium Alloy
ZAMAK

Yield strength:3.49e+007 N/m^2


Yield strength:2.41e+008 N/m^2
Yield strength:1.05e+008 N/m^2
Yield strength:2.68e+008 N/m^2

As per the buckle analysis also ZAMAK is the right choice due to low deflections in buckle
consideration.
Advantage of using ZAMAK: we can manufacture ZAMAK alloy wheels using metal
injection molding machines so that we can increase production rate and also we can reduce
cost of production while comparing with steel and magnesium wheels.

REFERENCES

CHAPTER - VII

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