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Chapter 3

CRITICAL FLOW

3-1
= f ( y )
=
E d cos +

Q2
2 gA2

E = cos 2 +

Q2
2 gA2

For critical flow

dE
Q2 d
= 0= cos 2 +

dy
2 g dy A2
d 1 d
2 dA 1 d 2 dA
=
=

2
2
dy A A dy
A3 dy A2 dy
A dy
1 d 2

d 1 d 2

B cos =2
cos
2 =2
dy A A dy
A
D
A dy

Equation 1

cos 2 +

Q2 1 d 2

cos =
0
2
D
2 g A dy

V 2 2
d
cos

dy
2g D
Solving for V2

=
cos 2

V2 =

V=

Fr

2 g cos 2
2
d
D cos dy

2 g cos
2
1 d
D cos dy

V
= 1
2 g cos
2
1 d
D cos dy

31

(1)

where D =

A
B

Chapter 3

Or, Fr
=

V
= 1
2 g cos
2 d
D dd

3.3

Q
V
A
F = =
=
1
cos
cos
gD
gD

Q
60
A D
=
= = 20.09
cos
9.81
g
1.1

T +b
A=
y
2
T = 4y + b
=
A

D=

4 y + 2b
=
y
2
(2 y + b) y

(2 y + b) y

4y + b

(2 y + b) y
D=
(2 y + b) y

4y + b

yc2 ( 2 yc + b ) 2
=
=
20.09
1
( 4 yc + b ) 2

By trial error, yc = 0.9835m


3.4
V
= 1
cos
gD

Q
A
=1
cos
gD

FD
=

For = 0 and = 1

For critical depth

A D=

Q
cos
g

A=
D

Q
= 25.54
g

A=
( Bo + Sy ) y =+
(8 0.5 yc ) yc

where Bo = 8m, S = 0.5


32

Chapter 3

B = Bo + 2Sy = 8 + y c
A ( 8 + 0.5 yc ) yc
=
= 25.54
B
8 + yc
Using trial and error y c = 2.074 m
D=

( B + 0.5 yc ) yc 2
25.54
( Bo + 0.5 yc ) yc o
=
8 + yc

3.5
Y
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

A
0
23.4
58.3
95.7
134.8
174.6
214.4
252.5
287
315.4
331.7

Q
850
=
= 271.38
g
9.81
Using graphical method

R
0
1.34
2.68
3.7
4.5
5.15
5.65
5.99
6.13
6.01
5.08

B
0
16.6
18.2
19.2
19.8
20
19.6
18.3
16
12
0

=
Zc

y c= 6.8 m

3.6

E =y1 +

V12
V2
=y2 + 2
2g
2g

Q12
Q22
y1 +
=
y2 +
2 gB12 y12
2 gB22 y22
Rectangular Channel
q2
q2
y1 +
=
y2 +
2 gy12
2 gy22
q2 y2 y2
y1 y2 = 1 2 2 2
2 g y1 y2

33

D=A/B
1.41
3.203
4.984
6.808
8.73
10.939
13.798
17.938
26.283

Z=A D
27.79
104.34
213.65
351.72
515.88
709.11
937.93
1215.54
1616.96

Chapter 3

y2 y2
q2
=2 1 2
g
( y1 + y2 )

but, yc =

q2
g

2 ( y1 y2 )
yc =
( y1 + y2 )
2

3.7
For
For = 0 and = 1
i.

Q
g

=
z A=
D

Trapezoidal

D=

A = (b+ zy)y

( b + zy ) y
b + 2 zy

( b + zyc ) yc
Q
=
g
b + 2 zyc
Triangular

1.5

ii.

A= Zy3
D = 0.5 y
2 2.5
Q
=
zyc
2
g

iii.

Q
yc =
z
circular

z 2.5

1 sin
D= A=
8 sin
2

1
=
A
( sin ) do2
8

Q
1 ( sin )
d o2.5
=
0.5
g 16

2sin
2

d d

yc =o + o cos 180 c
2 2
2

do

1.5

c
do
= 1 cos
2
2

34

Chapter 3

3.8
i. using a step, with constant width
V
=
cos
gD

E1 = z + E2

=
Fr

V1
250 / (5 50)
=
= 0.143 < 1 subcritical
gy1
9.81 5

q2
(250 / 50) 2
= 3
= 1.366m
g
9.81
=
Vc 250 / (1.366=
50) 3.66m / s
=
yc

y1 +

V12
V2
= y2 + 2 + z
2g
2g

( 3.66 ) + 1.366
1
+ 5 =z +
2 9.81
2 9.81
2

z = 5.051 2.049 = 3 m
ii. Reduction in the channel width
q= 250/50 = 5 m3/sec/m

q2
52
5+
5.05m
E1 =
y+
=
=
2 gy 2
2 9.81 52
(E y) 2gy2 = q2
=
q (2 gy 2 E 2 gy 3 )0.5
0.5
dq
2
0
= 0.5 2 gy 2 E 2 gy 3 4 gEy 6 gy=
dy
4g Ey = 6gy2
y c = 2/3 E
y c = 2/3x 5.05 = 3.367 m
qmax = 2 9.81 3.367 2 5.051 2 9.81 3.3673
B min = Q / q max = 250 / 19.35 = 12.92 m
Reduction in width = 12.95 / 50 x 100 = 25.8%
iv.

Width Reduction and bottom step


Use z < 3.0 m
Solve problem (i) to find y2 y c
35

(Max q)

0.5

=19.35 m3/sec/m

Chapter 3

Solve problem (ii) to go from y2 to y c by reducing the channel width.

3.9
E1 = z + E2

V=
1

Q
96
=
= 1.896 m/s
A1 12 4.22 =
1.896

1.8962
E1 =
4.22 +
=
4.4m
2 9.81
E2 = 4.4 - 0.2 = 4.2 m
Q
96
96
=
=
A2 10 + 10 + 2 y2
(10 + y2 ) y2

y2
2

2
96
4.2
= y2 +
2 2
(10 + y2 ) y2 2 9.81

V=
2

21.67
y2 = 4.05 (by trial and error)
4.2 y2 =
10 y2 + y22
Q
96
F=1 = A=
D
= 30.65
g
9.81

(10 + yc ) yc
(10 + yc )

10 + 2 yc

0.5

30.65
=

1.5

Or,

10 yc + yc2
= 30.65
0.5
(10 + 2 yc )

Or,

10 yc + yc2
= 939.45
(10 + 2 yc )

y c = 1.97 m (by trial and error)

3.11
X = Ky m
Triangular
K = S m=1 X = S Y
Rectangular K = B o / 2 m = 0
Parabola

1
K =
a

Yc

m
=
Ac 2=
Ky dy 2 K
0

m = 1/n

Y=a x n

ycm +1
m +1

=
Bc 2=
xc 2 Kycm

36

Chapter 3

2 K m +1
y
3
2
Ac m + 1 c
Q
= =
2 Kycm
g
Bc

A
Q2
= c
2
gAc Bc

Q2
=
g

8K 3
1
y 3m +3
=
3 c
2 Kycm
( m + 1)

Q 2 ( m + 1)3
yc =

2
g 4 K
3.12

4K 2

( m + 1)

yc2 m +3

1
2 m +3

Y=axn
3 = a ( 4.5) 2
A = 0.14815
Critical depth
Q
=A D
g

(1)

50
2
2
= TY Y
3
32.2 3
1.5
16.187 = TY

(2)

Also

T
Y = 0.148
2
T = 5.196 Y 0.5

(3)

Putting Eq 3 in Eq 2,
16.187 = 5.196 Y0.5 Y 1.5
Y c = 1.765
3. 13
Slope = 1 ft / mile = 1 /(1760 x 3)
do

=
1 cos
Y

2
2
Q
=A D
g
100
1 ( sin )
=
d o2.5
0.5
16
32.2

2sin
2

1.5

37

Chapter 3

0.5

sin
2.2028
=
( sin )

sin

or, 135.2o (trial and error)


8
135.2
1
cos
2.48

=
or, Yc =
2
2
This problem may also be solved by using Figure 3.7.
3.14
Q
= A=
D 17.62
g
A = (Bo + 5y) y = (10 +2y ) y
(10 + 2 y ) y
D=
10 + 4 y

10 y + 2 y 2
= (10 y + 2 y )
17.62

10 + 4 y
Critical depth yc = 1.33

0.5

3.15
Q =15 ft3/sec
Q
15
Zc =
=
= 2.64
g
32.2
Using fig. 3.7
Zc
2.64
=
= 0.0472
2.5
52.5
Do
Y
= 0.215
Do
Yc =
5 0.215 =
1.075
3.16

Q
300
= A=
D
= 52.868
g
32.2
Use the notations in problem 1.1.
Assume that the critical depth occurs in the lower portion
1

=
A
B = 2d o sin
( sin ) do2
8
2
0
Using = 48.59

38

Chapter 3

302 48.59

2
A
=
sin 48.59=

44.125 ft
2 180

48.59
B=
2 30sin
=
58.99 ft
2
The critical depth is located in the lower portion.
Trial and error procedure
critical = 47.2o

D
47.2
1 cos

2
2
D = 2do = 60
60
Yc = [1 0.916] =2.52
2

Ycritical
=

3.17

Q
10
=
= 1.762
g
32.2
Z c 1.762
0.05506
=
=
42.5
Do2.5
Using Fig 3.7,
Y / Do = 0.23
Y c = 0.23 x 4 = 0.92
Zc
=

3.18
Q =Cd A 2 gH =0.7 10 y2 2 32.2 60
Q = 435.127 y2
v3
435.127 y2
=
F3 =
gy3 10 9 32.2 9
F3 = 0.284 y2
y3
y=
1 + 1 + 8 F32
2

2
9
2
y2=
1 + 1 + 8 ( 0.284 ) y22

2
y2
+ 1= 1 + 0.645 y22
4.5

y22 + 9 y2 + 20.25
= 20.25 (1 + 0.645 y22 )
12.06 y22 9 y2 = 0

y2 = 0.766
39

Chapter 3

Q = 0.746 x 435.127 = 324.6 cfs


F = Fs1 Fs 2=

Q2
Q2
+ Z1 A1
Z 2 A2
gA1
gA2

(324.6) 2 1
1
0.746

+ 30 60 10
0.746
=
10 1364.037 ft 3

32.2 10 60 0.746
2
Thrust = r F = 62.4 x 1364.037 = 85115.9 lb

3.19

Q = 2 x 4 = 8 ft3/sec/ft
v
2
=
Fr =
= 0.176
gD
32.2 4
Subcritical
E1 = z + E2
v12
q2
+
=
y1
+ y2 + z
2g
2 gy22
22
82
=
+4
+ y2 + 0.5
2 32.2
32.2 2 y22
0.9938
=
3.562
+ y2
y22
y23 3.562 y22 + 0.9938 =
0
Y2 = 3.48
v2 = 8 / 3.48 = 2.99 ft/sec

3.20
q = 250 / 50 = 5 m3/sec/m
q2
52
E=
y+
=
5+
=
5.05m
2 gy 2
2 9.81 52
y c= 0.67 E = 3.367 m

q = gyc3 = 9.81 3.3673 =19.35 m3/sec/m


B min = 250 / 19.35 = 12.92 m
3.23

1.5
= 0.2395 subcrtical
9.81 4
Q= 1.5 x 4 =6 m3/sec/m

=
F

=
yc

q2
=
g

36
= 1.543m
9.81

Q = 6 x 5 = 30 m2/s
if there is no converging transition

40

Chapter 3

q2
62
E=
y+
=
4+
=
4.114
2 gy 2
2 9.81 42
y c= 0.67 E = 2.74 m
q2
q = 14.2 m3/sec/m
g
Min Width = 30 / 14.2 = 2.11 m
yc =

41

Chapter 4
UNIFORM FLOW

4.1
Given:
B= 5m
Q=5m3/s
n=0.013
S0=0.001

Compute Yn (Normal Depth)

a) Design curves Method


nQ
Section Factor: 1 / 2 = (0.013)(5)/(0.001)1/2= AR2/3
S 0
2/3
8/3
Thus, AR / B = 2.055/58/3= 0.028
For a rectangular Channel and AR2/3/ B2/3= 0.028,
Figure 4.5 gives Yn/ B=0.128,
Thus, Yn= 0.64 m.
b)Trial and error method
We have A=BYn=5Yn (Area)
P=2Yn+B=2Yn+5(Wetted perimeter)
A
5Yn
R=
=
P 2Yn + 5
5Yn
Therefore, AR2/3= (5Yn )[
]2 / 3 =2.055
(2Yn + 5)
or, 14.62Yn2.055(2Yn+5)2/3=0 ----------------------------------------(1)
Substituting values in Eq 1, we get the following results:
Y
0.6
0.7
0.64
0.645

f(y)
-0.69
0.984
-0.05
0.037

Therefore, Yn=0.64m
c) Numerical Methods
The programs in Appendix C may be used to compute Yn.

42

Chapter 4

4.2
Given:
Compute: Yn (normal depth)
Q=50m3/s
n=0.013
B0=10m
S0=0.001
a) Design Curves Method:
b) Section Factor: nQ/S01/2= (0.013)(50) /(0.001)1/2=20.55
AR2/3 = 20.55 and AR2/3/ B8/3= 0.0443
Entering in figure 4.5 with S=2 and AR2/3/ B8/3= 0.044 we get
Yn/B0=0.145
and, Yn=(0.145)(10)
or
Yn= 1.45m
b) Trial and Error method
for Trapezoidal channel we have: A = (10 + 2Yn )Yn , and R=

(10 + 2Yn )

(10 + 2Y

or,
AR2/3=

(10 + 2Yn )

(10 + 2Y

2/3

1+ 2
Rearranging the equation:
2

Yn [(10 + 2Yn )Yn ]

[(10 + 2Yn )Yn ]2 / 3 20.55(10 + 2Yn

2/3

1 + 22

)Y

=20.55

2/3

1+ 4
= 0 -----------------{1}
By trial and error, the solution to equation 1 is:
Yn= 1.46m
c) Numerical methods
A similar result will be obtained by using the programs in appendix C to solve for the normal
depth
From the graph we get Yn= 3.6m
For the critical depth we have:

150
A
=A =
=47.89
9.81
g
T

or; [(b + 0.583 y ) y ]

3/ 2

[b+y(1.667)]1/2 = 47.89 for 0< Yc<4

Where, b=15, therefore:

[15 y + 0.583 y ]

2 3/ 2

[15 + 1.667 y ]1 / 2

=47.89

Solving by trial and error for y, we get


yc=2.15 m.
43

Chapter 4

4.4
Given Q=150 m3/s
S0=2/1000
n=0.03
Compute Yn and Yc
Compute section factor: Qn/S01/2= (150)(0.03)/(0.002)1/2= 100.62
From Mannings equation: AR2/3=100.62
For 0< y 4:
TT=b+y/1.5+y/2 (Top width)
AT=(b+TT)y/2=(b+b+1.1667y)y/2 (flow area)

PT=15 + y 1 + 1.5 2 + y 1 + 2 2
PT=15+4.0388y (wetted perimeter)
Make a plot of AT RT 2/3 vs. y to compute the normal depth
Y
2
4
3

AT
32.33
69.33
50.25

PT
23.08
31.16
27.12

RT
1.40
2.22
1.853

4.5
Given:
Trapezoidal Channel 1H: 1V
b=10m
S0=0.0005
Q=60 m3/s
n=0.013 (for concrete)
Determine flow depth (normal depth)
Solution:
For a trapezoidal channel with 1H: 1V we have:
A=(b+T)y/2=(b+b+2y)/2=(b+y)y
T=b+2y
P=b+2 2 y
Mannings equation becomes: Qn/S01/2=A 5/3 P-2/3

( )

Or,
Qn/S01/2=(by+y2)5/3/{b+2 2 y }2/3
Where, Qn/S01/2= (60) (0.013)/ (0.0005)1/2=34.88

( )

Then, 10 y + y 2

] [10 + 2(
5/3

2) y

2 / 3

34.88 = 0

44

RT2/3
1.25
1.70
1.51

ATRT2/3
40.41
117.86
75.81

Chapter 4

This equation can be solved by trial and error or by using numerical methods as presented in
appendix C. The solution is yn=2.10m.
4.6
According to Mannings equation:
AR 2/3=nQ/S01/2[ for n and S0 constants we have Q AR 2 / 3 ]
For a circular cross section the section factor is :
2/3

D0 2
( Sin )
5/3

8
8 / 3 ( Sin )

2/3
AR =
= 0.04496 D0
2/3
2/3
1 D
0
2
See Table1.1 for geometric factors.

The value of corresponding to maximum discharge is found by equating the first derivative of AR 2/3 :
( AR 2 / 3 ) / = 0, or
0.0496 D0

4/3

8/3

[5 / 3( Sin )

2/3

(1 Cos ) 2 / 3 2 / 3 1/ 3 ( Sin ) 5 / 3 = 0

Equating the term in brackets to zero and simplifying we get : (1.5 2.5Cos ) + Sin = 0
Solving for 0 by trial and error we get, = 5.278
The corresponding depth is : yn = 0.5(1 Cos (5.278 / 2))
or , yn / D0 = 0.938
In terms of flow velocity the Mannings equation gives:
R2/3=nV/S01/2
Then, for constant n and S0, the velocity is maximum, when R2/3 is maximum, or:
V R2/3
For a circular section: R2/3 =[1/4(1-Sin/)D0]2/3(see Table 1.1). Following the same reasoning as
for the discharge, the angle Corresponding to the maximum velocity is given by: (R2/3)/ =0
Sin 1 / 3
or: 2 / 3( D0 / 4) 2 / 3 (1
) [( Sin Cos)/ 2]=0

Solving for results in: m=4.493

The corresponding depth for maximum velocity is:


yn=Do/2(1-Cos4.493/2)
or, yn/D0=0.812
4.7
Max(Q) Max(

A8 / 3
) Min( P)
P2/3

For a triangular section: P=2y 1 + s 2 where s is the lateral slope


45

Chapter 4

Also,
A=sy2
Then,
2

P=2y 1 + A 4
y

To find the min (P), dP/dy=0 is to be satisfied.


or, dP/dy=2(1+A2/y4) A2/y2=0
but, A2=s2y4, then,

1+ s2

y=1/s
2
Substituting this expression in the equation for P we get:

1+ s2 1+ s2
2 1+ s2

P=2
=
s
s
2
2
dP/ds=21/s21=0
or, s=1
or, =450x2
d2P/ds2=2/s>0 implies P is minimum.
ii. Trapezoidal section :
A=(b+sy)y --------------------------(1)

P= b+2 1 + s 2 y ------------------ (2)

dP/dy=2 { 1 + s 2 s} b / y
for minimum wetted perimeter dP/dy=0
or:

b=2y( 1 + s 2 s ) ----------------(3)
substituting 3 in 1 we have:
A=[2y(

(1 + s ) s + sy] y
2

(2{ 1 + s } s )

or, y=

from Eq 2, we have,
P=2y[2

(1 + s ) s ]
(A{2 [1 + s ] s})
2

2
or, P=2
To find s corresponding to minimum P, dP/ds=0 is to be satisfied.
2s
for A 0, we get
1 = 0
1+ s2

or, s=

3
=tan300. Thus, the most efficient section for a channel is half a hexagon.
3
46

Chapter 4

4.8
The channel having the least wetted perimeter for a given area has the maximum flow capacity.
The area and the wetted perimeter for a circular channel are:
A=1/8(Sin) D02, P=1/2 D0
Solving for D0 in the equation for the area:
8A
D0=

Sin
Substituting in to the perimeter:
8A
P= /2

Sin
The wetted perimeter is minimum when dP/d=0

1
3 / 2
dP/d=
( Sin ) (1 Cos )

( Sin ) 2
dP/d=0, when = .

(8 A)
2

This corresponds to a semicircular section.


4.9
Sin 2


2
For flow in a pipe flowing partially full that Q p = Q f
2/3

( )

5/3

in which Qp=flow for

partially full pipe and Qf=flow when pipe is full.If D,=pipe diameter, yn=normal depth and
S0=slope of the energy grade line in the case of full pipe flow (equal to the slope of the pipe
bottom in pipe angle is given by:
2y
= Cos 1 1 n
D0

Christensens equation for partially full pipes, based on experimental data, is given by:
Qp
= 0.46 0.5 cos(y n / D0 ) + 0.04(2y n / D0 )

Q
f
exp

Plot yn/D0 vs. Qp/Qf using the analytical result and Christensens equation. Compute and plot
np/nf with respect to y/D0 assuming that n is a function of depth.
Solution:
Prove that Qp=Qf(0.5Sin2)5/3/( 2/3)
a)Find an expression for the area of a circular segment for the element showed in the figure
we have:
y=RCos
dy=RSind
47

Chapter 4

The area of the segment under the element is given by:


A= 2 xdy
x2+y2=R2 therefore:
R

A= 2 R 2 y 2 dy
y

2
Or, in terms of , A=2R2 Sin d
0

Solving by integration by parts we get,


A=2R2 [0.5Sin2]---------------------------------------(1)
Put in terms of yn.
When, yn<R
yn=RRCos
2yn=2R(1Cos)
2yn/D0=1Cos
or, =Cos-1(12yn/D0)
The same equation results when yn>R.
=Cos-1(12yn/D0) --------------------------------(2)
Use Mannings equation
5/3
1/ 2
1 Ap S 0
Qp=
,
2/3
n
Pp
where Ap is given by equation1
For full-pipe flow:
5/3
1/ 2
1 Af S0
Qf =
2/3
n
Pf

Then, Qp/ Qf=

(A

5/3
p

Pf

2/3

2/3
5/3

) ---------------------------(3)

Pp A f
Recalling that Pp=2R, Af=r2, and Pf=2R and substituting equations 1 and 2 into 3 we get,
(Qp/ Qf )T= (0.5Sin2)5/3/( 2/3)------------------(4)
Where T refers to a theoretical result.
2.Compute np/nf
Assuming that the difference between theoretical equation 4 and experimental results
(Qp/ Qf )exp is due to a variation of n with respect to yn, we have
5/3
1/ 2
5/3
1/ 2
1 Af S0
1 Ap S 0
Qf exp=
and, Qp exp=
,
2/3
2/3
nf
np
Pf
Pp
Then,

48

Chapter 4

(Qp/ Qf)exp

(A
=(n /n )
f

5/3
p

2/3

Pf

2/3

5/3

) ----------------------(5)

Pp A f
The last term on the right hand side of Eq 5 is the same as Eq 3 and the result is given by Eq
4. Therefore,

(Qp/ Qf) exp=(nf/np) (Qp/ Qf )T


(np/ nf) exp=(Qf/Qp)exp (Qp/ Qf )T
Where, (Qp/ Qf )T is calculated from Eq 4 and (Qf/Qp)exp is calculated with Christensens
equation.
3. Construction of curves
Equations 4, 6 and Christensens are functions of yn/D0. To solve Eq 4, angle must be
calculated first by using Eq 2.Table1 summarizes this calculation.
Table1: Qp/ Qf , np/ nf for circular pipes as function of yn/D0
(rad)
0.6435
0.9273
1.1593
1.3694
1.5708
1.7722
1.9823
2.2143
2.4981

yn/D0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

(Qp/ Qf )T
0.0209
0.0876
0.1958
0.3370
0.5000
0.6719
0.8373
0.9775
1.0658

(Qp/ Qf) exp


0.0168
0.0679
0.1537
0.2731
0.4200
0.5821
0.7415
0.8779
0.9679

(nf/np)
1.2403
1.2403
1.2737
1.2338
1.1905
1.1541
1.1291
1.1148
1.1012

4.10
For the horse-shoe section the following graphical method will be used:
1. Compute the value of nQ/ S from the given data.
2. Plot a graph of y verses the section AR2/3
3. The normal depth is the value of y corresponding to the ordinate AR2/3= nQ/ S .
For this particular problem we have:
1. nQ/ S =0.03x800/(0.0005)1/2=1073.31
2. for the horse-shoe section:
y(m)
5
10
12
13

A(m2)
91.06
210.63
260.37
285.37

R(m)
3.35
5.63
6.28
6.57

AR 2/3(m 4/3)
203.87
666.59
886.74
1001.55
49

Chapter 4

13.5
13.75
15
20

297.87
304.06
334.94
448.44

6.71
6.77
7.06
7.67

1059.44
1087.88
1232.64
1744.09

The normal depth is yn=13.55m. This value was obtained by plotting the first and the last
columns of the previous table and taking the value corresponding to nQ/ S =1073.
4.11
Given: n=0.0125
B0=1.2m
Q=210l/s, 350l/s, 450l/s
Channel gradient: 0.67, 0.07, 0.17, 0.3 m/Km
Compute: Normal Depths.
Case1: S0=0.00067 and Q=0.21m3/s, nQ/S01/2=0.10141
AR2/3=(B0yn)5/3/(2yn+B0)2/3
Solve for yn by trial and error or by using the computer programs in Appendix C.
(1.2yn)5/3/(2yn+1.2)2/3=0.10141 or, yn=0.262m
The other cases are solved in a similar way by using the appropriate values of Q and S0.The
following Table summarizes the results.
Computation of Normal Depths for Nimes Aqueduct
Case Section

Q0(m3/s)

S0

nQ/ S 0

yn(m)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

0.21
0.35
0.45
0.21
0.35
0.45
0.21
0.35
0.45
0.21
0.35
0.45

0.00067
0.00067
0.00067
0.00007
0.00007
0.00007
0.00017
0.00017
0.00017
0.00030
0.00030
0.00030

0.10141
0.16902
0.21731
0.31375
0.5229
0.67232
0.2013
0.3355
0.43142
0.1515
0.2526
0.32476

0.262
0.375
0.448
0.587
0.869
1.062
0.424
0.618
0.748
0.347
0.500
0.603

ELEVATED CHAN.
ELEVATED CHAN.
ELEVATED CHAN.
POND DU GARD
POND DU GARD
POND DU GARD
SUBTERRANEAN CH.
SUBTERRANEAN CH.
SUBTERRANEAN CH.
SUBTERRANEAN CH.
SUBTERRANEAN CH.
SUBTERRANEAN CH.

4.12
Given: B0=15ft
Q=150cfs
S=1.5
50

Chapter 4

n=0.024
S0=2.5ft/mi
1mi=5280ft
Solution:
S0=2.5ft/5280ft/mi=0.000473
For steadyuniform flow the channel flow depth will be the normal depth, then we use
Mannings equation to solve for y=yn
n Q/ S01/2 =1.49 (AR2/3)
AR2/3=0.024x150/(1.49x90.000473)1/2=111.09
1. Design curves method
Use Figure 4.5 for AR2/3/B08/3=0.081 and s=1.5 to get yn/B0=0.21 or yn=0.21x15=3.15ft
2. Trial and Error
Solve for yn by trial and error (or using a root finding computer program).
(B0 + sy n ) y n ]5 / 3
[
2/3
AR =
= 111.09
2/3
2
B0 + 2 y n 1 + s

or

[(15 + 1.5 y n )y n ]5 / 3

[15 + 2 y

1 + 1.5

2/3

= 111.09

or yn=3.17 ft
4.13
Given: S0=10ft/mi
n=0.045
Q=50ft3/s
Parabolic cross-section of problem 3.12
x2
where, P=distance between the focus and the vertex.
y=
4P
Compute: uniform flow depth
4.5 2
Using the coordinates (4.5, 3), P is computed as P =
=1.6875
4(3)
x2
Then, the equation of the parabolic section is: y =
6.75
Also: A=(2/3)Ty, T=2x, P=T+(8/3)y2/T
or, A=0.1975x3
P=2x+0.02926x3
nQ/(1.49S01/2)=(0.045)(50)/{(1.49)(0.001891/2)}=34.7348 -----------------------(1)
51

Chapter 4

A5 / 3
0.06698 x 5
and 2 / 3 =
2/3
P
2 x + 0.02926 x 3
Equating 1 and 2 and solving for x we get,

----------------------------(2)

x=4.9336 ft
Finally, yn=

x2
or yn= 3.606 ft
6.75

4.14
Given:
Circular cross section
D0=8ft
S0=1ft/m
Q=30ft3/s
Concrete lined
Compute: flow depth, y
Solution: Assume steady-uniform flow, therefore y=yn
S0=1/5280=0.000189
n=0.013(from table4.1)
nQ/(1.49S01/2)=(0.013)(30)/(1.49)(0.000189)1/2=19.019
1. Design curves
Using Figure 4.5 for AR2/3/D08/3=19.019/88/3=0.0742 we get yn/ D0=0.33 or yn=0.33(8) =2.64 ft.
2. Numerical solution
2/3

Expressing AR

in terms of the angle we get,

[1 / 8( Sin )D ]

2 5/3
0
2/3

((1 / 2)D0 )

= 19.019

The solution is:

= 2.46rad , which corresponds to

D0

1 Cos =2.64 ft. Therefore, yn = 2.64 ft


2
2

4.15
Given:
Sewer of problem 3-15
D0=5ft
S0=2ft/mi=0.00038
Q=15ft3/s
Concrete lined
Compute: Normal depth

52

Chapter 4

Solution:
AR2/3= nQ/(1.49S01/2) = (0.014)(15)/(1.49)(0.00038)1/2 = 7.23
1. Design curves method
Use Figure 4.5 with AR2/3/D08/3=7.23/58/3=0.09891 and get, yn/ D0=0.39 or yn=1.95 ft
2. Numerical solution
2/3

Expressing AR

in terms of the angle we get

[1 / 8( Sin )D ]
((1 / 2)D0 )

2 5/3
0
2/3

=7.23

The solution is:

= 2.6861 rad , which corresponds to

D0

1 Cos =1.94 ft. Therefore, yn =1.94 ft.


2
2

4.16
Given:
Q=28m3/s
S=1
B0=8m
S0=0.0001
y=3m
Compute y if Q is doubled.
Solution:
Assuming steady-uniform flow compute Manings coefficient using data for Q=28m3/s and
Mannings equation.
Assuming constant n for the new flow we can compute the new flow depth.
n= (AR2/3S01/2)/Q
For a trapezoidal channel,Table1.1 gives:
A=(B0+syn)yn=(8+3)3=33
(B0 + sy n ) y n = (8 + 3)3 =2.00
R=
8 + 2(3) 2
B0 + 2 y n 1 + s 2
2/3
1/2
and n=33(2) (0.0001) /28=0.0187
Section Factor for 56m3/s:
nQ (0.0187)(28 x 2)
AR2/3=
=
=104.76
0.0001
S0

) (

1. Design Curves method


AR 2 / 3
Use Figure 4.5 for
= 0.41 and s = 1.0 to get yn/B0=0.56
8/3
B0
or, yn=0.56x8=4.48m
2. Numerical solution
Solving for yn from
53

Chapter 4

[(8 + (1) yn ) yn ]5 / 3 104.76(8 + (2) yn

2/3

= 0, we obtain

yn = 4.40m
4.17
Given:
Long rectangular channel
Change in flow depth from 4ft to 5ft
Determine: Percentage change of rate of discharge.
From Mannings equation: Q= (1.49/n)AR2/3S01/2
5/3
(
By1 )
At 4ft:
Q1= (1.49/n)
S01/2
2/3
(B + 2 y1 )
At 5ft:

Q2= (1.49/n)

Q1 y1
Then
=
Q2 y 2
Assuming a wide rectangular channel:
B+2y2 B
B+2y1 B ,

(By1 )5 / 3
(B + 2 y1 )2 / 3

5/3

B + 2 y2

B + 2 y1

S01/2

2/3

Then, Q1/Q2= (0.8)5/3=0.689


or , Q1/Q2=68.9 % i.e., Q1 is 68.9 % of Q2
4.18
Assuming that the flow must be controlled by improving the channel conditions two possible
solutions are:
a) Improve Lining
The conveyance of the channel can be increased by reducing the channel resistance. If the
channel is lined, for example with concrete, the Mannings coefficient will decrease and the
channel capacity will be increased. Different lining processes should be considered.
b) Increasing the flow area.
If the cross-section area is increased, the capacity of the channel will increase. For example, a
trapezoidal section could be a good choice. If any case, the cost of excavation and other local
conditions will dictate the viability of this option.
4.19
Given
Rectangular Channel
B=4m
Q=9m3/s
54

Chapter 4

S0=0.005
n=0.014
Determine if the flow is sub-critical or supercritical
Solution:
i) Compute Critical Depth:
yc= 3 Q 2 /( gB 2 ) (see problem 3.11)
yc= 3 9 /(9.81x16 ) =0.802m
ii) Assume steady-uniform flow and compute the normal depth:
nQ
AR2/3=
S0
2/3
AR =1.065
(By n )5 / 3
or,
= 1.065
( B + 2 y n )2 / 3
or, yn=0.5m
3) Compute yn and yc
In this case yn < yc
4.20
Given:
Trapezoidal channel
B0=20ft
s=1.5
Q=220cfs
S0=0.00032
n=0.022
Determine if the flow is subcritical or super critical.
Solution:
i) Compute critical depth:
Section Factor Z=Q / g =220/ 32.2 =38.77
a) Design Curves Method
Use Figure 3.7 for Z/B02.5=0.0217 and s=1.5
to obtain, yc/B0=0.076 or yc=1.52ft
b) Solving by trial and error (or using numerical methods)
Solve for A D =38.77 or:

55

Chapter 4

[(B0 + sy c )y c ]3 / 2 = 38.77
(B0 + 2sy c )1 / 2
[(20 + 1.5 y c ) y c ]3 / 2 = 38.77
(20 + 2(1.5) y c )1 / 2

or,yc= 1.49ft

ii) Compute Normal Depth:


0.022(220)
nQ
Section factor:
or,
=181.59
1.49 0.00032
1.49 S 0
Design Curves:
Use Figure 4.5 for AR2/3/B08/3 = 0.0616 and s=1.5 to get yn/b0=0.18 or yn=(0.18)(20)=3.6ft
Trial and Error:
Solve for yn from

[(B0 + sy n )y n ]5 / 3 181.59(B0 + 2 y n

or, [(20 + 1.5 y n ) y n ]

5/3

1 + 1.5 2

2/3

=0

181.59 20 + 2 y n 1 + 1.5 2

2/3

=0

yn=3.61 ft
iii) Compare yn and yc
The flow is subcritical as yn > yc .
4.21
Given:
Trapezoidal Channel
Q=15m3/s
B0=10m
S=2
yn=2m
Compute the flow depth for Q=20m3/s.
Solution:
Assuming steady-uniform flow and determine Mannings coefficient from the data for 15m3/s:
A=(B0+syn)yn=28m2

(B0 + sy n )
R=
y n =1.478m
B + 2 y (1 + s 2 )
n

0
1/2
1/2
2/3
n=AR S0 /Q=n/S0 =2.422
for, Q=20m3/s, AR2/3=nQ/ S01/2=2.422x20=48.44 or,
[(10 + 2 yn ) yn ]5 / 3 48.44(10 + 2 (5) yn ) 2 / 3 = 0
or, yn = 2.34m

56

Chapter 4

The flow depth yn for Q=20m3/s is 2.34m


4.22
Given:
Compound Channel S0=0.001
n=0.021(main channel)
n=0.039 (flood plains)
Compute i) Equivalent n (ne)
ii) Velocity-head coefficient ( )
iii) Slope of the energy grade line (Sf)
Assuming that the flow is 5m, use Eq 4.35 for ne and 4.47 for . Alternatively, Eq 4.36, 4.37 or
4.38 may be used to estimate ne.
The following Table shows the computations for the compound channel. It has been subdivided
into sub-sections 1, 2 and 3.
Computation of ne and for compound channel
Section
1
2
3

ni
0.021
0.039
0.039

Pi
30
7.236
7.236
44.47

Ai
106
6
6
118

Ri
3.533
0.829
0.829

Ki
11708.88
135.77
135.77
11980.42

Pini3/2
0.091
0.056
0.056
0.203

Ki3/Ai2
1.429x108
6.952x104
6.952x104
1.430x108

ne= ( Pini3/2/ Pi)2/3=(0.203/44.47)2/3


ne=0.028
= ( {Ki3/Ai2}) ( Ai)2/ Ki=1.16
The discharge should be known in order to compute Sf using Eq 4.48. However, if steadyuniform flow is assumed, the compound channel will have Sf=S0
Thus, Sf = S0 = 0.001
4.23
Given: Rectangular channel
B=12ft
y=3ft
n=0.035
So=0.001
Compute: i) Critical depth (yc) for the flow corresponding to y=3 ft
ii) Determine if the flow is critical, subcritical or super critical.
i) Compute the flow rate:
Q=(1.49/n)AR2/3S01/2=(1.49/0.035)(12x3){(12x3/(12+6)}2/3(0.001)1/2
Q=76.93cfs or q=76.93/12=6.41cfs/ft

57

Chapter 4

The critical depth is yc= 3

q2
g

6.412
yc=
=1.085 ft
32.2
As yc < y, flow is subcritical.
3

58

Chapter 5
GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW

5.1
Given:
Gradually varied flow equation:

dy S o S f
=
dx 1 F 2

Wide rectangular channel


Manning and Chezy formulae
Prove that:

1 ( yn y ) 3
dy
a)
using Mannings formula
= So
3
dx
1 ( yc y )
and
3
1 ( yn y )
dy
using Chezys formula
b)
= So
3
dx
1 ( yc y )
Solution:
The geometric properties for a wide rectangular channel can be approximated by,
A = by
P=b
R = by/b = y and
D=y
Therefore, AR2/3=by5/3 and the Froude number can be expressed as
Q2
F2 =
2 gb 2 y 3
a) Using Mannings equation the slope of the energy grade line for gradually varied flow is
nQ 2
nQ 2
(1)
Sf =
=
AR 2 3 b 2 y 10 3
Also, for uniform flow
nQ
S o = 2 10 3
b yn
or
n 2Q 2
3
(2)
S o y 10
=
n
b2
When the flow is critical, the Froude number is one. Thus,
Q2
2
Fc = 2 3 = 1
2b gy c
and
10

59

Chapter 5

F2
3
(3)
= F 2 = ( yc y )
2
Fc
Substituting Eqs 1, 2 and 3 in the gradually varied flow equation we get,
dy S o S o ( y c y )
=
3
dx
1 ( yc y )
dy S o (1 ( y n y ))
=
3
dx
1 ( yc y )
b) If Chezys equation is used, then
Q
AR 1 2 =
= (by ) y 1 2
12
CS f
10 3

or

Or, S f =

Q2
Q2
and
S
=
o
C 2b 2 y 3
C 2 b 2 y n3

Q2
C 2b 2
Combining the expressions for Sf and So we get
3
S f = So ( yn y )
Therefore, the gradually varied flow equation becomes
3
dy S o 1 ( y n y )
=
3
dx
1 ( yc y )
or, S o y n3 =

5.2
Consider the control volume:
The momentum equation establishes that the sum of forces acting on the control volume must be
equal to the net change in momentum inside the control volume, For the X-direction this is
expressed mathematically as,
(1)
(Q + dQ )(V + dV ) QV = F1 F2 F f + W sin
Where,
F1 =Pressure force at section 1
F2 = Pressure force at section 2
Ff = Force due to friction
W = Weight of the fluid inside the control volume
Assuming a hydrostatic pressure distribution, the pressure forces may be expressed as:
F1 = y A

F2 = y + dy A +

dAdy
y + dy A
2

and the friction force as


F f = o Pdx = RS f Pdx = AS f dx (see Eq 4.7)
60

Chapter 5

where,
= specific weight,
y = location of the centroid of the cross section perpendicular to the flow,
o= shear stress at the channel wall,
P=wetted perimeter and,
Sf= slope of energy grade line.
Substituting the expression for F1,F2 and Ff into Eq 1, simplifying and neglecting second order
terms like dx dV we get,
QdV Vq
+
dx = Ady AS f dx + AS o dx
(2)
g
g
Vqdx
Where, W sin was substituted by AS o dx and
is the contribution of the lateral flow to
g
the change in momentum inside control volume.
Further simplification leads to:
dy
qQ Q dV
= S o S f 2
dx
gA gA dx

(3)

AdQ QdA
But, dV =
; therefore, the last term on the right hand side becomes
A2

2
Q
Qq
Q dA
(4)
dV =
3
2
gA
gA
gA Dx
Recalling that for a prismatic channel
dA
dA dA dy
=B
=
and
dy
dx dy dx
Equation (4) becomes,
Q
Qq Q 2 dy
dv =

B
gA
gA gA 3 dx
substituting Eq 5 in Eq 3 and solving for dy/dx we get,
2
2
dy S o S f 2qQ gA
(6)
=
dx
Q2B
1
gA 3
2
dy S o S f 2qQ gA
or,
(7)
=
dx
1 F 2
where, F is the Froude number. When q is zero, Eqs 6 and 7 become the differential equation for
gradually varied flow at constant discharge without lateral flow.

61

Chapter 5

5.3
a)

Comment: At the upstream reservoir yRes>yc and in channel 1 y<yc There is a control section
near reservoir and channel 1 is steep.
Channel 2 is horizontal y n = and S o < S c The flow must go from supercritical to
subcritical through a hydraulic jump. At the free flow the critical depth must occur again.

b)

Comment: At the upstream reservoir yRes> yn >yc the control section is downstream and
channel 1 is mild with subcritical flow.
In channel 2, the flow becomes super critical after the slope changes from mild to steep. Because
the down stream reservoir is very high a hydraulic jump is formed to raise the water level over
the critical depth.

62

Chapter 5

c)

Comment:
Both channels are mild (yn >yc always)
The water profile crosses the critical depth just before the downstream reservoir.
d)

Comment:
Both channels are mild (yn <yc always)
There is a control section near the upstream reservoir.
A hydraulic jump forms close to the down stream reservoir.
5.4
Analyze a sluice gate as a flow control device from a lake.
Assume that the channel bottom slope is
i) Mild
ii) Steep
Notation: NDL=Normal depth line, CDL= Critical depth line
The problem will be illustrated with several possible combinations of channel slope and gate
openings close and far from the reservoir. The more appropriate location for the gate will be
suggested based on the analysis.

63

Chapter 5

MILD CHANNEL
a) Gate located far from the lake outlet. Gate opening less than the critical depth.

The control section is located at the gate.


b) Gate far from the lake outlet. Gate opening greater than the critical depth.
In this case the outflow from the lake does not depend on the gate opening.

Cases (a ) and (b) will be the same for a gate near the lake. The water level at the gate position is
very close to the reservoir level, therefore; if the gate is located very far from the reservoir, the
size of it will increase considerably. From this point of view to locate the gate near the reservoir
is more convenient.
STEEP CHANNEL
a) Gate near the lake outlet. Gate opening less than the normal depth.

There is a control section at the gate.


64

Chapter 5

b) Gate near the lake outlet. Gate opening greater than the normal depth.

The control section is at the gate.


c) Gate far from channel entrance. Gate opening less than the normal depth.

There is a control section at the channel entrance.


d) Gate far from channel entrance. Gate opening greater than the normal depth.

There is a control section at the channel entrance.


From the cases presented before it can be concluded that the more appropriate location for the
gate in order to establish a control section is near the reservoir for both steep and mild channels.

65

Chapter 5

5.5
Given:
Mannings formula
Gradually varied flow equation
Show that dy dx as y 0
Solution
From,

n 2Q 2
A2 R 4 3
Q2
Q2B
Froude: F 2 = 2
= 2
A gD A g
For a wide rectangular channel, we have R y and A=By,
Then,
Mannings equation: S f =

Sf =

n 2Q 2
B 2 y 10 3

Q2
B2 y3g
Substituting the expression for Sf and F2 into the gradually varied flow equation we get:
dy
B 2 y 10 3 n 2 Q 2 g
=
dx
B 2 y 3 g Q 2 y1 3
Taking the limit when y 0 the result is
lim y 0 (dy dx ) =

and

F2 =

(
(

5.6
Given:
5m wide rectangular channel (concrete-lined)
So =0.004
n = 0.013
Ho= 2m (lake level)
Compute:
i) Q in the canal (neglecting head losses)
ii) Q if So is changed to 0.001 and head losses are 0.1V 2 2 g .
i)Compute Q
1) Assume steep or critical slope, then
2
y c = o = 4/3 m= 1.33 m
3
and q 2 = y o3 g
or, q =

y o3 g = 4.822 m3/m-s
66

Chapter 5

Q= qb = 24.111 m3/s
2) Compute the critical slope
1
Q = Ac Rc2 3 S c1 2
n
Qn (2 y c + b )2 3
or, S c =

53
(by c )

0.3134(8 / 3 + 5)2 3
Sc =

(5 4 / 3)5 3

Sc= 0.00266

3) Compare So and Sc
In this case So > Sc , then the canal is steep and the flow will be,
Q = 24.11m3/s
ii) If So =0.001 and K= 0.1 (minor loss co-efficient)
then,
1) Compute yc by using the energy equation at the entrance,
V2
V2
(assuming steep channel)
+ 0.1
H o = yc +
2g
2g
H o = y c + 1.1 y c 2
y c = 1.29 m
2) Compute Q for steep channel,
q = y c3 g

q = 4.589 m3/m-s
Q= qb= (4.589)(5) =22.945m3/s
Q=22.945m3/s This is the maximum discharge in the canal
3)
Compute the critical slope
n 2 Q 2 (2 y c + b )4 3
Sc =
(byc )10 3
(0.08897 )(12.577 )
Sc =
499.49
S c = 0.00224
4) Compare S o and S c
In this case S o S c , then the channel slope is mild and there is not control section
entrance. Therefore, the previous analysis does not apply.

67

at the

Chapter 5

We can assume that the flow will reach normal depth near the lake then; Q is given by
Mannings uniform flow formula. The flow depth can be obtained combining the energy and
Mannings equation.
Doing this we get:
H = y+

1+ k 4 3
R So
2
2 gn

43
by

So
2y + b
Substituting H = 2m,
k = 0.1
b = 5, n = 0.013
And solving for y we get the normal depth as
y n = 1.668m
Q is obtained from Mannings equation and the answer is
1+ k
H = y+
2 gn 2

Q = 20.33 m 3 s
5.7
Lakes A and B are connected by a 10m-wide rectangular channel.
n = 0.013
S o = 0.001
L = 2000m
Sketch the water surface profile in the channel if:
i)
Lake B is at EL. 155
ii)
Lake B is at EL. 161
Computation of critical depth
2
(Wide rectangular channel)
Ho
3
H o = 168 (158 (0.001)(2000 )) = 8m
yc = 5.33m
Unit discharge for critical flow:
q = gy c 3 = 9.81(5.33)3
q = 38.58 m 3 s m
yc =

Total discharge:
The critical slope is:

Qc = Bq = 3.77 m 3 s
nQc 2
(0.013)(385.77 )2
Sc =
=
23
A2 R 2 3
(10 5.33)2 53.3
10 + 10.67
68

and

g = 9.81

Chapter 5

Given that

S c = 0.0025
S c S o the channel is classified as MILD.

To get the uniform flow conditions we solve for y n


From:
1
(Mannings equation)
Q = AR 2 3 S o1 2
n
V2
V2
Ho = y +
+k
And
(energy at the entrance)
2g
2g
Assuming k = 0 (zero entrance losses) and using V = Q A
We have
R 4 3So
Q2
Ho = y +
= y+
2 gA 2
2n 2 g
R 4 3So
y = Ho
Solving for y:
2ng
Or

43
So
By

y = H o
B + 2y
2 gn 2
Solving for y (by trial and error or by numerical methods) one gets
y n = 6.77 m
The flow profile is now sketched knowing the normal and critical depths in the channel.
In both cases, a M2 curve is produced.
For EL. 155 a free-fall condition at the downstream end exists.
5.8.
Given: Concrete-lined channel
N = 0.013
B = 15m (rectangular shape)
L = 15000m
Reservoir Elevations: Water surface = 129.65m
Bottom = 121.4m
i)

Determine Q, sketch and label the water surface profile.


S o = 0.001 , Water elevation at downstream reservoir (y) is 109m
yc = 2 3 H o
H o = 129.65 121.4 = 8.25m
69

Chapter 5

yc = 5.5m
q = g y c3

(Critical depth)
=

9.81(5.5) 2

3
q = 40.4 m

sm
Qc = qB = 606 m 3 s

(unit charge for critical depth)


(Critical flow)

The critical slope is

Sc =

n 2 Qc
AR 4 3

n 2 Q c2 p 4 3
=
A10 3

where, p = wetted perimeter = 26m


A = area = 82.5 m 2
Sc =

(0.013) 2 (606) 2 (2 5.5 + 15) 4 3


(15 5.5)10 3

S c = 0.00196
S c S o = is a mild channel

Or

Combining Mannings equation for uniform flow and the energy equation between the
reservoir and the channel entrance we get:
R 4 3 So
(Equation 5.18 neglecting entrance losses)
H o = yn +
2n 2 g
0.001
43
15 y n

8.25 = y n +
2 9.81 0.013 2
15 + 2 y n
Solving for y n we get
y n = 6.634m
1
12
Then, Q = A(R )2 3 S o
n
2
99.52 99.52 3
12
Q=
(0.001)

0.013 28.27

Q = 560 m 3 s
ii).

S o = 0.008
70

Chapter 5

In this case the channel slope is STEEP, S c S o . Thus, the discharge is given by
Qc = 606 m 3 s the normal depth is obtained directly from Mannings equation
nQc
AR 2 3 =
So
15 y n
15 y n =

15 + 2 y n

Or

23
= 88.08

y n = 3.35m

5.9

And

Start with the total energy equation:


V 2
H = + y+
[1]
2g
The change in energy along the channel is:
d V 2
dH d dY

[2]
=
+
+
dX dX dX
2 gdX
d
Recall that
= S o (channel bottom slope)
dX
dH
= S f (Energy grade line slope)
dX
Q = VA
Then for L=1, equation 2 becomes:
d Q 2 A 2
dY

[3]
S f = So +
+
dX
2 gdX
For constant discharge along the channel we have:

Or

d Q 2 A 2
d 1 A 2
2

=Q

2 gdX
2g
dX
d 1 A 2

= 2 A 3 dA
dX
dX
But A = f ( y, x ) (the cross-sectional are is also a function of y)
Therefore,

71

Chapter 5

dA dA dA
=
+
dY dX
dX dX dY

(Chain rule)

Also

B = dA dY Then, equation 3 becomes:


Q 2 dA dA dY
S f = S o + dY dX
+

gA3 dX dY dX
Or:

dY
=
dX

V 2 dA
gA dX
BV 2

So S f +
1

gA

5.10
For a wide rectangular, derive expressions for the channel bottom slope to be mild, step and
critical.
By definition a mild channel satisfy S c S o and a steep channel satisfy
Sc So
Therefore, we look for an expression for S c in the terms of the critical flow conditions and
determine the channel type (mild or steep) using these inequalities.
For a wide rectangular channel the hydraulic radius can be approximated as:
R y
From Mannings equation we get,
1.49
Where
AR 2 3 S c1 2
n
For critical flow conditions
1.49
(Byc ) yc 3 2 S c1 2
qc B =
n
2
q n
c

Finally,
Sc =
1.49 yo 5 3
Q=

Q = qB

The critical flow depth and discharge may be computed using the methods of chapter 3.
5.11
Given:
Chute spillway blasted through rock (not lined) S o = 0.075(1.5 ft 20 ft )
Water level at the entrance 10ft above the channel bottom.
Compute: Flow depth and discharge in the chute.
72

Chapter 5

Solution:
Assume control at channel entrance, then:
yo = 2 3H o = 6.667 ft

(Critical depth)

qc = gy c 3 = 97.68 ft 3 s ft

23
By

Qc = qc B = 1.49(By )
S c1 2
2 yc + B
Simplifying and solving for S c we get:

q n
c

Sc =
1.49 yc 5 3
S c = 0.0094 S o

2
( See problem 5.10)
(Using n=0.035 for blasted rock).

The normal depth is given by Mannings equation as:


23
By n
nqB
(By ) =

1.49 S o
2 yn + B
The result is y n = 1.147 f = y n y yc

The channel is STEEP the flow is supercritical and the profile type is S2.
5.12
a.

b.

73

Chapter 5

c.

d.

74

Chapter 5

e.

5.13

5.14.
Given:
Trapezoidal channels
Q = 800cfs
N = 0.028
S=1
B = 15 ft
Compute: y c and
y n sketch the water surface profile.
For the channel 1: S o = 0.0005

75

Chapter 5

Use Mannings equation to get the normal depth:


(0.028)(800) = AR 2 3
nQ
= AR 2 3
1.49 S o1 2
1.49(0.0005)1 2
Or
AR 2 3 = 672.32
Enter the design curve with
AR 2 3 672.32
=
= 0.491
(15)8 3
b8 3
To get y n b = 0.6 y n = 0.6 15 = 9 ft
Or solve for y n from:

23
672.32 = [(15 + y n ) y n ]5 3 / 15 + 2 z y n
The result is: y n = 9.09 ft
To compute the critical depth, solve for y c from:
[(15 + yc )yc ]3 2 [15 + 2 yc ]1 2 = 800 = 140.98
32.2
The solution is: yc = 4.05 ft
(Alternatively, you can use design curve for critical depth).
For channel 2 S o = 0.05
(0.028)(800) = 67.232
nQ
Normal depth: AR 2 3 =

1.49 0.05
1.49 S o1 2
Solve for y n from:
[(15 + y n )y n ]5 3 / 15 + 2 2 y n 2 3 = 67.232
y n = 2.46 ft
In channel 1 the flow is sub critical and in channel 2 the flow is supercritical.

76

Chapter 5

5.15
y n for channel 1 was computed in problem 5-14
y n For channel 2 is obtained from:
23
nQ
[(15 + y n )y n ]5 3 15 + 2 2 y n
=
1.49 S o
nQ
In this case,
and
y n = 10.40 ft.
= 867.96
1.49 S o

Channel 1 has supercritical flow and channel 2 has subcritical flow.

77