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Smriti Mukta Phalam

Varnasrama Dharma Kandam


Canto on Varnasrama Dharma
By Sri Vaidyanatha Dikshitar
Translation by P. R. Kannan

Introduction

Vedas are many, varied and difficult to comprehend for ordinary men. In order for humanity to
understand and practise the injunctions of Vedas, Maharishis like Manu, Yagnavalkya, Parasara
et al, filled with compassion, wrote Smritis. Again Smritis became numerous and sometimes had
notable differences among themselves. Yudhishthira says in Yaksha Prasna in Mahabharata that
logic is uncertain, Srutis are contradictory and there is not one Rishi whose opinion is the final
authority. Hence a need arose to compile and present in one place the various views of Rishis and
arrive at a final conclusion suitable for practice in the present age. Such a Nibandhana book was
compiled by one Vaidyanatha Dikshitar and was titled SMRITIMUKTAPHALAM, meaning Pearl
of Smritis. This great work, also called Vaidyanatha Dikshitiyam, is divided into six Kandams, the
first being Varnasrama Dharma Kandam. Dharmas for people in the four Varnas and Asramas
have been dealt with in great detail here, citing not only the views of various Rishis, but also
Vedas, Puranas, Dharmasutras, previous Nibandhana books etc. together with the compilers own
explanation as required. It is bewildering to note that in those early times when modern day
facilities like printed books did not exist and sources of information were difficult to reach, one
individual could have compiled so much from so many varied sources and presented such an
easy - to - digest compilation.
Not much is known about this distinguished authors personal life history. It appears that he lived
about 300 years ago; was born in a place called Kandramanikkam in Chola country in Tamil Nadu
in Vadula gotra in brahmana community.

A free translation in English of the original work in Samskrit is attempted in the following pages.

Navi Mumbai
Mob: 9860750020

P.R.Kannan

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Smriti Mukta Phalam

Index
1. Mangalacharanam
2. Determination of the authorities for Dharma
3. Authority of Smritis
4. Determination of Dharma
5. Characteristics of the Virtuous
6. Fruits of practising Dharma
7. Praise of Achara (Good conduct)
8. Marks of Good Achara (conduct)
9. Praise of Smriti etc.
10. Determination of Fruits of Sruti, Smriti
11. Determination of the authors of Smritis
12. Determination of Dharmadesas (Areas appropriate for Dharma)
13. Censure of living in Prohibited areas
14. Yuga Dharmas
15. Benefits of describing the Efficacy of Yugas
16. Dharmas Prohibited in Kali Yuga
17. Definition of Karma
18. Process of Creation
19. Varna Dharmas
20. Performing Yagnam
21. Determination of Yaajanam (Performance of yagnas for others)
22. Study of Vedas
23. Teaching of Vedas
24. Discussion of Upakarma
25. Discussion of Anadhyaya (non - study of Vedas)
26. Danam (ceremonial giving with mantra)
27. Dana mantras
28. Persons suitable for Danam
29. Determination of persons Unsuitable for Danam
30. Determination of Acceptance of Danam (Ceremonial Gift)
31. Other means of livelihood
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32. Livelihood in Adversity


33. Kshatriya dharmas
34. Discussion of Vysya dharmas
35. Discussion of Sudra dharmas
36. Glory of Brahmanas
37. Explanation of Anulomajati
38. Explanation of Castes like Kunda and Golaka
39. Explanation of Pratilomajati
40. Rise and Fall of Anuloma and Pratiloma Jatis
41. Forty Samskaras
42. Discussion of Garbhadhanam
43. Pumsavanam
44. Seemanthonnayanam
45. Jatakarma
46. Namakaranam
47. Piercing the Ears
48. Nishkramanam (Taking baby out in open)
49. Annaprasanam
50. Discussion of Chowla
51. Jatakarma etc.of Women
52. Aksharabhyasam (Beginning of Study)
53. Dharmas prior to Upanayanam
54. Upanayanam - Proper Time
55. Upanayanam - Secondary Time
56. Upanayanam - Preparation of Sacred thread etc.
57. Upanayanam - Danda (Staff)
58. Upanayanam - Ajinam (Deerskin)
59. Upanayanam - Cloth
60. Upanayanam - Mekhala (Girdle)
61. Upanayanam - Bhikshacharanam
62. Upanayanam - Sandhyopakramam (Commencement of Sandhya)
63. Upanayanam - Samidhadhanam
64. Prayaschittas - Jatakarma etc. not done in time
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65. Number of Brahmanas to be fed


66. No Upanayanam in certain conditions
67. Upanayana Kartas
68. Upanyanam of Twins etc.
69. Upanayanam of Dumb, Mad etc. boys
70. Determination of Sons like Aurasa (12) et al
71. Svikara (ceremonial adoption of son)
72. Determination of Guru et al
73. Reasons for Respect
74. Those fit to be given Way
75. Abhivadanam (Reverential Salutation)
76. Pratyabhivadanam (Returning of Salutation)
77. Dharmas of Brahmachari
78. Veda Vratas
79. Repeat Upanayanam
80. Duration of Period of Brahmacharya
81. Determination of Godanam
82. Rules for Snathaka
83. Dharma of Naishtika (Perpetual) Brahmachari
84. Dharmas of Snathaka
85. Marriage
86. Marriage with Daughter of Mothers Brother
87. Lineages to be Rejected in Marriage
88. Marriage with Girl not from same Varna
89. Characteristics of Vara (Bridegroom)
90. Time for Kanyadanam
91. Rules in case of Girl going into menses in the midst of Marriage
92. Persons Eligible for Kanyadanam
93. Types of Marriage like Braahma etc.
94. Two auspicious observances at the same time are forbidden
95. Determination of seniority in twins
96. Bar on marriage etc. for the first - born in Jyeshta month
97. Months in which Marriage is forbidden
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98. Testing of Growth


99. Rules for time of Kanyadanam
100. Time for Commencement of Aupasana
101. Commencement of Sthalipakam
102. Adhivedanam (Marrying an additional Wife)
103. Parivedanam (Marriage of younger brother before the elder)
104. Method of Protecting Women
105. Dharma of Pregnant Woman
106. Widows Dharmas
107. Anugamanam (Joining Husband on Funeral Pyre)
108. Censure of unchaste woman
109. Dharmas of Grihasthas (Householders)

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SMRITIMUKTAPHALAM
VARNASRAMA DHARMA KANDAM
- CANTO ON VARNASRAMA DHARMA*

Mangalacharanam:
Let us take refuge at the wonderful elephant calf, which is satisfied with the mouthfuls consisting of
hordes of obstacles of devotees and which plays always at the lap of Parvathi.
May Sarasvathi, who is the pigeon in the palaces which are Brahmas faces, the swan in the Manasa
saras consisting of the minds of men free from Maya and who is sought by great yogis, decorate my
words with splendour.
I take refuge at that Deva (Sri Ramachndra), whose lotus feet annulled at once the separation of sage
Gautama from his wife; who is worthy of worship of the virtuous and who is compassionate.
May the wavering bee that is my mind not go away from the gentle lotus that is the feet of Sri
Ramachandra, whose dust, that is the powder meant to attract the woman called Mukthi (Liberation),
is worn in their bodies by even those who are rid of rajoguna (passion).
I pay obeisance to Dasarathakumara (Rama), who broke the bow of Siva, who removes the shackles
of samsara (cycle of births) and who is the enemy of Ravana.
Smritimuktaphalam, the compendium of the essence of Dharma sastras, being written by Vaidyanatha
Dikshitar, the scion of Vadula lineage, the devotee of Rama, now begins.
The virtuous should pay heed only to this Smritimuktaphalam, the pearl discovered with great difficulty
from the deep and wide ocean of Dharma sastra; of what avail are the rest?
Whither the Dharma sastras scattered here and there and whither my attempt to pick up from them.
Yet the wise and virtuous readers should bear with my audacity.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------Duty pertaining to Varna and Asrama; Varna: - refers to the four basic castes - brahmana, kshatriya,
vaisya and sudra; Asrama: - refers to the four stages of life - brahmacharya, garhastya, vanaprastha
and sanyasa.

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Determination of the authorities for Dharma:


1. I shall first explain the authorities for Dharma. Manu says: The authorities for Dharma are the
entire Vedas, Smritis given by knowers of Vedas and seela (character), achara (conduct) and self
- satisfaction of the virtuous. The term Veda refers to the group and hence includes all the four
Vedas - Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharvana. The term entire with reference to Veda refers not just to
that portion of the Vedas, which are in the form of instructions, but also to mantras and explanatory
remarks. Where direct evidence of Vedas is not available, one should follow the Smritis of knowers
of Vedas and their character and conduct. The term Smriti refers to Dharma sastras, Itihasas and
Puranas.
2. Seela is the Atmaguna (virtue of the soul) held in esteem by the righteous.
3. In Mahabharata - One should perform actions in such a way that he will be praised by the general
public, O scion of the Kurus! I have briefly explained seela to you. Example - Yudhishthira asked
the yaksha, who was in fact Dharmadeva, for boon to bring Nakula back to life instead of his own
brothers. The conduct of knowers of Vedas also constitutes the basis of Dharma. Purity,
Achamana (sipping water uttering the mantras) all go to make Achara. The inner satisfaction of
the good people is also the basis of Dharma. In the absence of other authorities, what appeals as
dharma to the good people is indeed Dharma.
4. It is estimated that portions of Vedas, unavailable to people like us, were known to Manu and such
sages. Aapasthambha - Portions of Vedas which are extinct are deduced through usage.
Therefore all the Vedas which they knew were the authority for the great sages in the matter of
Dharma. It means that for others Vedas and Smritis and the like are the authority.
5. Yagnavalkya - Sruti (Vedas), Smriti, Achara of the good, that which appeals to oneself, desire
arising from good thought are all authorities for Dharma. Here desire is that which is not against
the injunctions of sastras. Like - I must perform Jyotishtoma yagna as I desire heaven.
6. Vyasa - it is said that the mass of Vedas not authored by any human being, Smriti given by
knowers of Veda, character and conduct of the virtuous, that which appeals to oneself are all the
basis of Dharma.
7. Haaritha - Vedas, Smritis, explanations in consonance with the intent of Dharma are all the basis
of Dharma. Who will take as authority the words of one who does not take these as authority?
8. Aapasthambha - Opinions of knowers of Dharma and Vedas are the authorities.
9. Gautama - Vedas, Smriti given by knowers of Veda, seela are all the authorities for Dharma.
10. Hence, being based on the eternal and faultless Veda, Upanayanam etc. are Dharma;
Chaityavandanam (worship at Buddhist temple), kesollunchanam (plucking of hair) and the like,
based on agamas of Sakyas and the like, are not Dharma.

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Authority of Smritis:
1. Sankar - Smritis have as their basis Vedas alone.
2. Marichi - As there are many branches of Vedas, some of the Vedic sounds are hidden and not
directly known. Meanings of such sounds are understood by sages who have laid them down in
Smritis.
3. Manu - Rishis make Smritis based on their direct perception of Veda. Hence these two are the
authority in the world. The virtuous should boycott one who disrespects Veda and Smritis with the
help of anti - scriptural logic, as he who criticises Veda is a non - believer in God.
4. Haaritha - One, to whom Vedas, Dharma sastras, words of the virtuous are not authority, is sinner;
blind, evil soul. To him even his own soul will not be authority.
5. Devala - Manu and other sages wrote the Dharma sastras. Authors of Grihya sutras brought out
the contents of those Dharma sastras together with mantras (from relevant portions of Vedas).
6. Angiras - Knowers of authorities should protect those authorities with care. If not good authorities
will be destroyed by untenable authorities.

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Determination of Dharma:
1. Haradatta said: That Atmaguna is called Dharma which is clear from words and deeds, is the
cause of happiness in this world and the next and is rare to find.
2. Manu - Know that as Dharma which is followed by the righteous who are knowers of Vedas and
free from likes and dislikes and is accepted whole heartedly by them.
3. Manu again - The conduct of the righteous, the words of Vedas and the words of Smritis indicate
Dharma. Hence the brahmana desiring for good should be interested in all these three.
4. Yagnavalkya - Danam (gift) given in holy places like Kurukshetra, on holy occasions like
Grahanam (eclipse), given with faith to proper persons in the manner laid down and yagas and the
like are the root of Dharma.
5. Visvamitra - It is said that Dharma is the action which is praised by the knowers of Vedas and
Adharma is that which is criticised by them.
6. Vyasa - Speaking truth, control of sense organs, tapas (austerity), saucham (purity), contentment,
shyness, patience, straightforwardness, gnanam, control of mind, compassion, dhyanam
(meditation) - these are eternal Dharma.
7. Brihaspati - Gnanm, yaga, worship of the virtuous, knowledge of Vedas, absence of deceit - know
these as high Dharma capable of bearing good fruit in this world and the next. Sage Panchasikha
says that constant detachment from enjoyments and Self knowledge (Atmagnanam) are very
beneficial to humans.
8. Yagnavalkya - Seeing the Self through yoga (control of minds ways) is greater Dharma in
comparison with actions like yaga, achara, control of sense organs, ahimsa (non - injury), danam
(gift) and study of Vedas.
9. Aapasthambha - Dharmas and adharmas do not go about identifying themselves. Nor do Devas,
Gandharvas, Pitrus point out Dharma and Adharma in person. Hence that which is praised by the
high souled is Dharma and that which is criticised by them is Adharma.

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Characteristics of the Virtuous:


1. Bodhayana - The virtuous are those who are free from jealousy, conceit, desire, vanity, arrogance,
greed, delusion and anger and store foodgrains in a jar only for six days.
2. Bodhayana again - It is said that whatever is uttered even in play by brahmanas who are mounted
on the chariot of Dharma sastras and wear the sword of Veda is high Dharma.
3. Yagnavalkya - Parishad is an assembly of brahmanas, four or so in number, who know Vedas and
Dharma sastras. Whatever is pronounced by that Parishad is Dharma. Or, that which is
pronounced by a brahmana, who is well versed in Dharma sastras and is also Atmagnani (knower
of Self), is Dharma.
4. Parasara - Know that to be Dharma which is pronounced by four or three persons who know
Vedas in entirety. Even if a thousand people who do not know Vedas say it will not become
Dharma.
5. Aapasthambha - One should follow the conduct followed by the high souled, who possess
humility, maturity and control of sense organs and are free from miserliness and vanity and which
is practised uniformly in all provinces. One who practises Dharma in this manner gains control over
this world as well as the next.

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Fruits of practising Dharma:


1. Aapasthambha - By practising ones own Dharma, people of all varnas (castes) attain happiness
of the high and inexhaustible swarga (heaven). In the next birth also, owing to the balance merit he
gets high caste, appearance, colour, strength, intelligence, wisdom, wealth, opportunity to practise
Dharma etc. Thus he lives in happiness in both worlds like a rotating wheel.
2. Taittiriyopanishad - All this universe is stable because of Dharma. It is not impossible to practise
Dharma. Hence the righteous revel in Dharma.
3. Taittiriyopanishad again - Dharma is the foundation of the entire universe. People in the world
approach only the one who is established in Dharma. With the dharma got by practising the
karmas laid down, one gets rid of sin arising out of practice of prohibited acts. Hence knowers of
Dharma speak highly of it.
4. Chandrika - The Dharma based on ones varna alone is varnadharma, like Upanayanam. The
Dharma which is based on ones asrama is asramadharma, like bhiksha (living on alms) and
dandam (staff). Dharma based on both varna and asrama is varnasramadharma, like the girdle
made out of munja grass.
5. Manu - One should accumulate dharma slowly like the termite collecting mud without hurting any
being, for getting help in the next world. Nobody father, mother, son, wife, relative - is available for
help in the next world; Dharma alone is available. Man is born alone and dies alone; he enjoys
swarga alone; he enjoys naraka (hell) alone. Relatives leave the dead body on the floor like a
piece of wood or lump of clay and go indifferently. Dharma alone follows the dead. Hence one
should accumulate dharma little by little for help (at a later date). He crosses distress like naraka
with the help of dharma. Dharma leads quickly to the lofty worlds such a one, who practises
dharma alone, gets rid of sin by penance, is wise and is verily like Brahman. One should practise
without indolence good conduct, which is advised in Srutis and Smritis, is related to ones works
and is the basis of Dharma.

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Praise of Achara (Good Conduct):


1. Manu - Knowing thus the attainment of dharma through achara, sages absorbed achara which is
the basis of all penance. A brahmana who has swerved from achara does not obtain the fruits
mentioned in the Vedas. One who observes achara gets the fruits in entirety. Through achara, long
life, agreeable children and copious wealth are obtained. Achara removes weakness born of bad
signs in the body. Man of bad conduct is reviled in this world, ever distressed, diseased and is
short lived. Even if a brahmana is devoid of all (good) signs (in the body), if he observes good
achara, has faith and is free from jealousy,he will live for a hundred years.
2. Vasishtha - Vedas, even if learnt along with the six Vedangas, do not purify one who does not
observe achara. Vedas abandon him in his last moments just like birds leave their nest as soon as
they grow wings. Like water in a skull and milk in a bag of dog - skin, Veda in one who does not
have achara becomes evil due to blemish of association. The body of a brahmana is not for the
little enjoyments of this world. It is for going through great pain in this world and unending
happiness in the next world.
3. Parasara - Achara alone protects the dharmas of the four varnas. Dharma is indifferent to one
devoid of achara. It is said in Madhaveeyam that achara is good conduct which is accepted by the
virtuous and is accompanied by compassion, pity etc.
4. Brihaspati - A kshatriya without valour and prowess, a vysya without money and a brahmana
without austerity, gnanam and achara are said to be like the excrement of mother.
5. Bhagavan - I bless those who stick to the rules laid down by me for varnas and asramas.
6. Bhagavan in Asvamedhaparva - Sruti and Smriti are but my orders. One who transgresses them
violates my orders and hence he is my traitor. Even if he is my devotee, he is not a Vaishnava.
7. In another Smriti - As the water used for irrigating sugarcane crop wets the adjacent grass and
creepers, so also the man who follows the path of Dharma enjoys fame, fulfilment of desires and
wealth.
8. Narada - Life without achara and respect should be destroyed. Even in a sudra, if achara is seen
and in a brahmana if not seen, then the sudra becomes a brahmana; the brahmana becomes
sudra. Even if one is a devotee of Siva or Vishnu, if he swerves from the achara pertaining to his
asrama, then he is a fallen man. Veda and devotion to Vishnu and Siva do not purify the idiot with
no achara. Pilgrimage to holy places, bathing in holy waters and many types of yagas do not
protect the one without achara. Due to achara, heaven, pleasures and moksha are obtained. What
is not obtained by achara?
9. In Aanusanika parva in Mahabharata - Man obtains long life, wealth and fame in this and the
future worlds through achara. Those, who are non - believers in God, do not perform good deeds,
transgress Guru and sastras, are unaware of Dharma and are of evil conduct, lose long life.
10. In Parijatha - Men obtain the qualities of Deva and Rishi through achara. Without achara men
attain to detestable births.

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Marks of Good Achara (conduct):


1. In Vishnupurana - Both the worlds (the here and the hereafter) are won by men of good conduct.
Unblemished men are called sadhus (virtuous). The term Sat refers to Sadhus (the virtuous).
The achara of Sat is called Sadachara.
2. In Samskaramanjari - The achara, which, coming down from tradition in a particular area, is not
opposed to Sruti and Smriti is called Sadachara in that area.
3. Manu - In great men (sometimes) as transgression of Dharma is seen, audacity is also seen.
Seeing that, if one in present times follows it, he will be destroyed because of lack of strength of
tejas (spirit). The bodies and sense organs of the ancients were full of tejas. Hence they were not
subject to blemishes like water on a lotus leaf.
4. Kathaka and Bharadvaja exchanged their wives. Vasishtha united with Akshamali, a chandali
(outcaste). The four - faced Brahma lusted after his daughter. Transgression of Dharma as in these
instances is seen. On the direction of his father, Parasurama severed his mothers head without a
thought. Audacity like this is also seen. On seeing all this, if one were to follow them now, he will
incur sin.
5. Aapasthambha, Gautama, Bodhayana - That which is practised by Devas and sages is not to be
practised by man. He should only follow what is laid down in Sruti and Smruti.
6. Yagnavalkya - Dharma should be practised with diligence with mind, speech and body. Even if an
action is as per Dharma, if it is against the interest of the public, it should not be practised as it is
not conducive to heaven.

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Praise of Smriti etc.:


1. Manu - If a brahmana is learned in this sastra and observes the prescribed austerities, he is not
subject to blemishes from mind, speech and body. He is eligible for havya (offering made in fire to
devas) and kavya (offering made in fire to pitrus). He is in fact capable of buying this earth. By
learning Dharmasastras he reaches Brahmaloka. This should be learnt with effort by the wise
brahmana. He should teach this to his disciples; nobody else should teach. This will bestow
whatever is desired. This will sharpen intelligence. This will grant fame, long life and Moksha. The
brahmana, kshatriya or vaisya, who learns Dharmasastra purifies seven generations before and
after himself. To those who trod wrong path and have vacillating mind and sense organs, Dharma sastra is the rectifying means like medicine for diseases. For Dvijas (brahmanas, kshatriyas and
vaisyas) to proceed on the right path, Sruti and Smruti are like two eyes. People who do not have
these eyes leave the path and get degraded.
2. Haaritha - The brahmana who desires swarga should definitely learn this Dharmasastra like Veda.
3. Sankha and Likhita - To those who are burnt in the fire of desire and hatred and who have
consumed the poison of Agnana (Ignorance), Dharmasastras are the treatment like medicine for
diseases.
4. In Smritiratnavali - As objects are not seen in the absence of light, knowledge of Dharma is not
available to anyone without knowing Smriti.
5. Yagnavalkya - Puranas, Nyaya (Logic),Mimamsa (Investigation), Dharmasatra, four Vedas and the
six Vedangas - these fourteen are the sources of knowledge and the basis of Dharma. These
should be learnt by the three varnas. Dharmasastra as a part of this should be learnt.
6. Yama about sudra - Hence he is not entitled to Vedas and Smritis.
7. Manu - He alone is entitled to this Dharmasastra for whom samskaras (purifying ceremonies)
along with mantras are mandated from conception to death. None else is entitled.
8. Angiras - There is no more beneficial sastra than the high Dharmasastra propounded earlier by
Manu. As Manus sastra has been taken from the Veda, it is supreme. Smriti contrary to
Manusmriti is not eulogised.
9. Sruti - Whatever Manu said is medicine.
10. Vyasa and Haaritha - Brahmana should pay proper heed to Dharmasastras by Manu and other
sages, rules in Vedas, rest of Vedas and Vedangas. Like Vedas, brahmanas should study and
listen to Dharmasastras with pure mind. Danam, food etc. given to a brahmana not knowing Srutis
and Smritis will destroy the lineage of the giver. Hence Dvija should learn Dharmasastras with
immense effort. For brahmanas, Sruti and Smriti are two eyes. One who does not learn one of
these two is one - eyed. If both are not learnt, he is blind.
11. Vishnu - Puranas, Manusastra, Vedas with parts, Vaidyasastra (ayurveda) - these four are born of
Gods orders. Hence using anti - scriptural logic, one should not go against them.
12. Vasishtha - The cause of ones destruction is lack of faith in the authority of Vedas, criticism of
works of Rishis and absence of self - control in everything.
13. Vyasa - Hence for brahmanas desiring fruits of karmas, observance of karmas in Vedas without
observance of karmas in Smritis is not possible.
14. Prachetas - One should not do as told by those who do not know Vedas, Mimamsa (philosophy of
investigation) and Sastra. Dharma flows out of Veda only.
15. In Chaturvimsatimatha - The sayings of Aarhatas (Jainas), Charvakas (materialists), Buddhists
and cheats are to be rejected totally.

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Determination of Fruits of Sruti, Smriti:


1. Manu - Maharshis say that in a karma where there is difference between two Srutis, both the
implications are Dharma only. Manu himself gives an example - Srutis variously declare that
Agnihotram is to be performed before sunrise and after sunrise and in the time when stars have
disappeared and Sun is yet to rise. All these rules are proper authorities as a time is assigned for
each branch of Veda.
2. Sumantu - O Bharata! In karmas laid down in Srutis, if there are differences in the rules, like
sunrise (before and after) for homas, one should adopt the achara traditionally followed in his
family. Traditional achara of the family is higher than what all the sastras say.
3. Manu - One should follow the path adopted by his ancestors. He will then not be caught by
Adharma.
4. In case of mutual differences between Smritis and acharas, it should be understood as Vikalpa
(uncertainty).
5. Gautama - When there is disagreement between two authorities of equal strength, it is Vikalpa. In
case of differences among two Srutis or two Smritis, it is Vikalpa.
6. Lokakshi - In case of disagreement between Sruti and Smriti, Sruti is stronger authority. If there is
no disagreement in Sruti, one should do whatever is given in Smriti.
7. It should be known that Virodhadhikararananyayam in Mimamsa is beneficial. In yaga, in the
Mahavedi (altar), in the centre of Sadas (hall), a piece of fig wood is buried like a column. It is
called Audumbari. Sarvaveshtanasmriti directs that Audumbari should be covered completely by
a cloth. This is based on Anumitasruti (Extended Sruti) like the stipulation that Ashtakas should be
performed in that. Pratyakshasruti (Direct Sruti) stipulates that UdgAadanam should be
performed touching the Audumbari. If Sarvaveshtanam, completely covering with cloth is carried
out, direct touch, sparsa of Audumbari is not feasible. Here the stipulation of Pratyakshasruti on
sparsa is to be followed. Sarvaveshtanasmriti is to be discarded.
8. In Sangraha, in case of conflict between Sruti, Smriti and Purana, the former is stronger than the
latter as authority - so say the wise. Sruti and Smriti are greater authority than Purana and Sruti is
greater than Smriti and Puranas.
9. In Chaturvimsatimatha - Like we discard the words of Smriti which are opposed to Sruti, we should
discard common sayings which go counter to Smriti.
10. Vyasa - If one dharma affects another dharma, it is not dharma at all. The righteous say that
dharma is that which does not contradict another dharma. Hence in case of differences, dharma
should be determined with due consideration to higher and lower authority.
11. Similarly in case of difference between Smriti and achara, Smriti is stronger. Vasishtha has said:
Dharma is that which is stipulated in Srutis and Smritis; if they are not available, the conduct of the
virtuous is authority.
12. If Sadachara is of two kinds, one should follow principally the conduct of one in that area at that
time, whom he holds as righteous and free from desire and hate. With this view Taittiriya
Upanishad says in respect of teaching of Guru to his disciple - If you get a doubt in karmas and
acharas, you should adopt the achara of brahmanas who are wise, know sastras, are free from
anger etc. and have faith in karmas.
13. From whatever has been said here, in case of acharas of the righteous, one is held as more
important than the other; not that the other is completely wrong achara. In this context the sutras of
Bodhayana and Aapasthambha, though based on the same Taittiriya branch of Veda, are different.
Here one should follow the achara traditionally adopted in his family. If in a rare case one is unable
to follow his own achara, he should at least follow the achara of another group rather than
abandoning the karma entirely.

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Determination of the authors of Smritis:


1. Parasara - Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesvara are projected at the beginning of every Mahakalpam
and reach their end at its close. Manu and other sages who determine Sruti, Smriti and Acharas
are projected at the beginning of every Avantarakalpam (intermediate kalpam) and reach their end
at its close. Dharma also is projected similarly at the beginning of such kalpa and reaches its end
at the close of kalpa. This cycle has no beginning and no end.
2. Parasara again - There is no author of Veda. At the beginning of Mahakalpa, Brahma listens to
Veda from Paramesvara and makes Smritis to convey Dharmas as in Vedas. In the same way at
the beginning of each Avantarakalpa, Swayambhuva Manu writes down Smritis to convey
Dharmas as in Vedas. Here Manu includes Atri, Vishnu and other sages.
3. Yagnavalkya - Manu, Atri, Vishnu, Haaritha, Yagnavalkya, Usanas, Angiras, Yama,
Aapasthambha, Samvarta, Katyayana, Brihaspati, Parasara, Vyasa, Sankha, Likhita, Daksha,
Gautama, Sathatapa and Vasishtha are the authors of Dharmasastras.
4. In Smritiratnam - Manu, Brihaspati, Daksha, Gautama, Yama, Angiras, Yogisvara, Prachetas,
Saatatapa, Parasara, Samvarta, Usanas, Sankha, Likhita, Atri, Vishnu, Aapasthambha and
Haaritha - these 18 sages are the authors of Dharmasastras.
5. Angiras - Jabali, Nachiketa, Skanda, Lokakshi, Kasyapa, Vyasa, Sanatkumara, Santanu, Janaka,
Vyaghra, Katyayana, Jatukarni, Kapinjala, Bodhayana, Ganada, Visvamitra, Paitinasi, Gobila
these are the authors of Upasmritis.
6. Sankha - Manu, Yama, Daksha, Vishnu, Angiras, Brihaspati, Usanas, Aapasthambha, Gautama,
Samvarta, Atri, Haaritha, Katyayana, Sankha, Likhita, Parasara, Vyasa, Saatatapa, Prachetas,
Yagnavalkya are all authors of Smritis. Further Vasishtha, Narada, Sumantu, Pitamaha, Babhru,
Karshnajini, Satyavrata, Gargya, Devala, Jamadagni, Bharadvaja, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Atreya,
Sakaleya, Marichi, Vatsa, Bhaskara, Risyasrunga, Paijavapa - these 21 sages are also known as
authors of Smritis.
7. In Sangraha - Eighty eight thousand rishis born in each kalpa, who are the source of Dharma and
who are Grihastas (householders) are initiators of Dharmasastras, which are authorities. These
sastras should not be criticised using anti - scriptural logic. One who criticises thus will go to the
naraka (hell) called Andhatamas.
8. Agnivesya - Bodhayanam, Aapasthambham, Satyashadam, Drahyayanam, Aagastyam,
Sakalyam, Aasvalayanam, Sambhaviyam and Katyayanam are the nine Purvasutras (Earlier sets
of rules). Vaikhanasam, Sounakiyam, Bharadvajam, Aagnivesyam, Jaiminiyam, Matunyam,
Madhyandinam, Kaundinyam and Koushidakam are the nine Aparasutras (Latter sets of rules).
Thus there are totally 18 sutras; samskaras are also 18.

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Determination of Dharmadesas (Areas appropriate for Dharma):


1. Yagnavalkya - Know that the area where there is krishnamriga (black antelope) is suitable for
pursuit of Dharma.
2. Samvarta - The area where krishnasaramriga (black spotted antelope) moves about naturally is
Dharmadesa. It is suitable for karmas of dvijas.
3. In Smritichandrika - Dharmadesa is that area which is full of krishnasaramrigas, yava (barley),
darbha (kind of grass - kusa)
and people of all four varnas and asramas. The wise should
resort to this area only.
4. Manu - The area between the divine rivers Saraswati and Drushadvati is called Brahmavartam
created by gods. The achara traditionally practised there is regarded as sadachara for the four
varnas and those of mixed jatis.
5. Kurukshetra, Mathsya, Panchala, Surasena - these are Brahmarishidesas - slightly lesser than
Brahmavartam.
6. From the brahmana born in this Brahmavartam, all men on earth should learn their achara.
7. The area lying between the Himalayas and Vindhyas and east of Vinasana and west of Prayaga is
called Madhyadesa. Vinasanam is the place where river Saraswati disappeared. It is said that the
area lying between the eastern ocean, the western ocean, the Himalayas and the Vindhyas is
Aryavartam. It is to be known that the area where krishnasaramriga lives naturally is suitable for
yagnas; the rest is Mlechchadesa (area of the infidels). Dvijas should make effort to live in such
areas only. Sudra with no means of livelihood may live anywhere.
8. Haaritha - The brahmana who lives in an area where krishnamriga lives naturally will attain
fulfilment of dharma.
9. Vyasa - Brahmavartadesa is superior. Rishidesa, Madhyadesa and Aryavartadesa come next in
descending order of preference. Where the social structure of the four varnas is not maintained,
know that area to be Mlechchadesa - lesser than Aryavartadesa.
10. Vishnu - Sraadham should not be performed in Mlechchadesa. One should not go to
Mlechchadesa.
11. In Adityapurana - Even if one is a great brahmana and he performs many yagas in Adharmadesa,
he will not tread the pathway to swarga.
12. In Smritichandrika - A brahmana, who leaves Aryavarta for purpose other than pilgrimage or who
violates the orders of parents, becomes purified by Chandrayana (a Prayaschitta - expiation).
13. Aapasthambha - One should live in a village where firewood, water etc. are available in plenty. It is
dharma for a brahmana to live in a place where purification with water after urination, evacuation of
stools etc. is under his control.
14. Where water is available only in wells, even if a number of wells are available, one should not live
in such a place. Bodhayana - If a brahmana lives for twelve years in a place where well water is
the prime source, he becomes equal to sudra like the husband of a sudra woman.
15. In Sangraha - A brahmana who bathes in well water alone for twelve years attains sudrahood;
there is no doubt.
16. One should not live in a village where there are no followers of Dharma and where many diseases
are prevalent. One should not walk alone. One should not live long in a mountain. One should not
live in the kingdom of sudras, in area occupied by those who do not follow Dharma and Pashandas
(heretics) and in areas troubled by people like outcastes.
17. Vyasa - By reaching provinces like Kalinga, areas occupied by sinners, areas where the
meritorious do not live, one attains to all sins.
18. In Chandrika - Saurashtra, Sindhu, Sauvira, Avanti, Dakshinapadam, Kalinga - if a dvija goes to
these places knowingly he becomes degraded. Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Andhra, mountainous
areas, Kasha, Sindhu, Saurashtra, Sauvira, Bharata, Malava in these provinces dvija should not
live unless in adversity. A householder with no means of livelihood may live in these areas in
adversity.

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19. Bodhayana - Avanti, Anga, Magadha, Saurashtra, Dakshinapada, Uparvat, Sindhu, Sauvira these are the areas where those of mixed castes are born. Sindhu, Sauvira, Saurashtra, areas of
outcastes, Anga, Vanga, Kalinga - if one goes to these areas, he should perform Upanayanam for
himself again. Aarattam, Bharaskaram, Pundra, Sauvira, Vanga, Kalinga, Pragyuna - if one goes to
these areas knowingly, he should perform yaga called Punasthomam or Sarvaprushtya. Great
people say - One who goes to Kalinga incurs sin from his feet. Sages say that in expiation he
should perform yaga to Vaisvanara.

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Censure of living in Prohibited areas:


1. Vyasa - Areas where the meritorious and the greatest river, Ganga flows are indeed provinces,
towns, mountains, hermitages worthy of living. Prabhasa, Pushkara, Kashi, Naimisham,
Narakantaka, the banks of Ganga and Sarayu rivers - man interested in Dharma should live in
these areas. Antarvedi, Madhyadesa, Brahmavartam, Yagniyam, Misrakam, banks of Sarayu,
Pushkara, Naimisham - dvijas should live in these places.
2. In Dharmasatrasara - Prayaschittas (expiatory rituals) of Chandrayana and Mahasantapana are
advised only for those who live in places where Ganga does not flow. Kaveri, Tungabhadra,
Krishnaveni, Gautami, Bhagirathi - these five famous rivers are called Ganga.
3. Pitamaha - A province where Ganga flows is worthy of living even if it is a kingdom of sudras and
occupied by Anaryas (those who do not follow Dharmasastra).
4. Gautama - One should attempt to live in a place where firewood, water, grass, kusa (kind of
grass), flower and areas for walking around are available in plenty, where people of three varnas
are in large number, where people free from indolence and interested in Dharma live.

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Yuga Dharmas:
1. Manu - One year of men on earth is one day including one night of Devas. Uttarayanam is daytime
for them; Dakshinayanam is their night. It is said that Krita yuga consists of 4000 Deva years. It
has Sandhya lasting 400 years at the beginning and Sandhyamsa lasting another 400 years at the
end.
2. The other three yugas are each 1000 years less than the previous yuga; their Sandhyas and
Sandhyamsams are 100 years less than their corresponding periods of the previous yuga. Thus
Treta yuga lasts 3000 years; its Sandhya and Sandhyamsam are each 300 years long. Dvapara
yuga lasts 2000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyamsam are 200 years each. Kali yuga lasts
1000 years and its Sandhya and Sandhyamsam are 100 years each.
3. Parasara - Krita, Trea, Dvapara and Kali these four yugas are together called Chaturyuga. It is
said that Chaturyuga consists of 12000 Deva years.
4. Manu - In Krita yuga, men are free from disease, adept in kamya karmas (karmas desiring fruit)
and have a life of 400 years. In Treta and other yugas their lifespan decreases by a fourth. In Treta
it is 300 years, in Dvapara it is 200 and in Kali it is only 100 years.
5. Where we find in Itihasas and Puranas that men have lived for thousands of years, know that it
was achieved through their sraddha. In Mahabharata, it is said about men of Krita yuga: As long
as men had sraddha in retaining their bodies, they lived that long; they did not have fear of Yama.
6. Manu - Mens life, fruits of karmas, power of cursing and blessing are according to the yuga. They
are in turn superior, inferior, more inferior and most inferior in the four yugas.
7. As the time spans of yugas reduce, Dharmas also differ. In Krita yuga Tapas (austerity) is
supreme. In Treta it is Atmagnana (self knowledge). In Dvapara it is yagna and in Kali yuga,
Danam (ceremonial gift) is supreme. By supreme is meant that it is the most fruitful; the dharmas
of other yugas are not to be neglected.
8. Parasara - In Krita yuga, Manus dharmas, in Treta, Gautama, in Dvapara Sankha and Likhita and
in Kali Parasaras dharmas are paramount. In Krita, danam is given by going to the place where
the brahmana lives; in Treta the brahmana is called and given danam. In Dvapara, danam is given
to one who seeks and in Kali, to one who serves. This is as per the nature of yuga and not a rule.
Danam given at the place where the brahmana lives is the best; danam given by calling him is
mediocre; danam given to the seeker is the worst. Danam given to the one who serves is fruitless.
One should abandon the province where the fallen brahmana lives; in Treta, the village where he
lives; in Dvapara, his family and in Kali, himself. Abandoning his family means avoidance of
marriage, food etc. Abandoning the karta means avoiding talking etc. with him.
9. In Krita, one becomes fallen by even talking with a fallen one. In Treta it is by touch; in Dvapara it
is by eating his food. In Kali one becomes fallen by performing a deed which is cause for falling. A
cudse takes effect the same moment in Krita; after ten days in Treta; after a month in Dvapara. In
Kali it takes effect after one year. Prana is dependent on bones in Krita; on flesh in Treta; on skin in
Dvapara and on food in Kali.
10. Parasara expands on the efficacy of Kali yuga - In Kali yuga dharma is won over by adharma; truth
by untruth; kings by thieves; women by men. In Kali Agnihotras disappear; Gurupuja is destroyed.
Unmarried girls will deliver babies. Victory of adharma means that it moves about on three feet;
victory to dharma means that it moves about on one foot.
11. In Parasara Madhaviyam - In Krita with men the bull of dharma is complete and without deceit, on
all four feet. In Treta it loses one foot and is on three feet. In Dvapara it loses two feet and in Kali it
loses three feet, just surviving for names sake.
12. In Vishnu Purana, Parasara tells Maitreya - As Kali begins, all will engage in Brahmavada
(philosophical debate), but attached only to company of women and filling of ones stomach. They
will not perform karmas. Whenever there is shortage of the virtuous who follow the path of Veda,
the wise should understand that during those times Kali is on the ascension. In Kali, when the
brahmanas mouth is burnt by the food of others, his hands by receiving danam and his mind by
other women, how can his curse bear fruit? In Kali men will not be interested in following dharma of
varnasrama as laid down in the three Vedas. There will not be marriages as per sastras.
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Formalities for guru, disciples and couples will not be found. The procedure for performing Puja of
Agni, Devas will not be followed. Whatever one likes is sastra for him. All kinds of devatas will be
worshipped. All asramas will be present in all varnas. Whatever one likes to do is dharma. One will
feel conceited of wealth with very little money. Wives will abandon poor husbands. Only the rich
will be husbands. All wealth will be used only or ones own enjoyment. Women will desire sexual
enjoyments and will become prostitutes. Brahmanas will eat food without bathing. They will not do
Puja to Agni, devatas and guest. They will not perform sraadham and tarpanam. Grief - stricken
people suffering from famine, fear and other troubles, will migrate to areas where only wheat and
barley are available. The path of Vedas will disappear; heretics will increase; sins grow; hence
lifespan of people will reduce. Mans in - laws alone will be regarded as important; brothers - in law alone will be friends. Men will go and tell father - in - law, Father for whom? Mother for whom?
Man is always product of karma. In a world devoid of study of Vedas, yaga, homa, sraadha etc.,
Dharma will be prevalent in a small way in some places. The high merit earned during Krita yuga
by tapas (austerity) may be obtained in Kali by a little effort. This is the speciality of Kali yuga.
13. In Kurma Purana - Generally sudras will be kings. They will trouble brahmanas. Killing of foetus
and neglect of domestic fire will happen among people. They will criticise Siva, Brahma, Vishnu,
Veda, Dharmasatras, Puranas. Sudras will observe dharma, sporting white teeth, rosary, saffron
cloth and shaven heads. Sudras who are close to kings will beat brahmanas. Brahmanas will look
for opportunities for service and stand at the doors of sudras. When the sudras are seated in
vehicles, brahmanas who are dependent on them will serve them; also praise them. Brahmanas
will teach Vedas to sudras. Heretics will pronounce Vedic sounds. Brahmanas will sell off the fruits
of tapas, yagas for money. Sanyasis will multiply in hundreds and thousands. Brahmanas will
forget Vedas after learning them; some will not learn at all. They will pray to Devas using hymns in
local languages. Brahmanas and kshatriyas will become Saktas, Pasupatas and Pancharatris.
Brahmanas cursed by Dadhichi Maharishi in Dakshayaga In ancient times are born in the Kali age
in families of brahmanas. Afflicted with tamoguna (inertia), they will be critical of Mahadeva. Some
others burnt by the curse of Gautama are born in the families of brahmanas and criticise Vishnu
and brahmagnanis.

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Benefits of describing the Efficacy of Yugas:


1. Parasara - One should not criticise dharmas which change during yugas and the dvijas who follow
them as they act as per (the nature of) the yugas. They are under the power of time.
2. In Madhaviyam - Oh! If one should not criticise the sinners in Kali yuga, all sastras which
determine punyas and papas will be of no avail. The answer to this is: In Kali yuga if one, who has
the ability to follow the laid down rules and avoid prohibited acts and atone for sins committed
unknowingly, fails to do so, criticism in his case is called for. In case of one who lacks the required
power, he should not be criticised. Thus the import of sastras is to be maintained.
3. Parasara - The power of each yuga has been described by Manu and others. The expiatory acts
prescribed by Parasara are also followed. Hence criticising and not criticising depend on the ability
and lack of it in the concerned person.
4. Vyasa - The merit acquired by performing dharma for ten years in Krita yuga is obtained in one
year during Treta, in one month in Dvapara and in one day in Kali yuga. The benefit obtained in
Krita yuga by meditation is got by yagas in Treta, by poojas in dvapara and by Namasankeertanam
of Kesava in Kali yuga. This is a great merit of Kali which is otherwise full of defects. The
brahmana should therefore take refuge in Isvara. (With this one merit all defects may be removed.)
5. In Sivasarvasvam - As long as one does not chant Rama nama, so long does one suffer from the
fear of sins of Kali yuga; also the tendency to indulge in evil will persist.
6. In Chyavanasmriti - Rama nama has been prescribed in Sruti, Smritis and Puranas. Rama nama
is capable of removing the threefold afflictions (adhyatmic, adhibhoutic and adhidaivic).
7. Brihaspati - The dharma performed in one year in Krita yuga is accomplished in six months in
Treta, in three fortnights in dvapara and in one day in Kali yuga. In Kali yuga, good conduct is not
there; pure materials are not available; purity of mind is not there; hence truth alone can help
people.

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Dharmas Prohibited in Kali yuga:


1. In Parasaramadhaviyam - Womans remarriage, greater share (of wealth) for the elder son, cow
slaughter, uniting with the wife of ones brother, kamandalu (waterpot) - these five are not to be
practised in Kali yuga.
2. In Smrityarthasara - Getting son through brother - in - law after death of ones husband; adoption
of vanaprastha asrama (the third asrama of the recluse); remarriage of a girl who has not attained
puberty; travel across sea; carrying kamandalu; embarking on Mahaprasthanam (walking to
heaven); use of cow as sacrificial animal; consumption of liquor in yaga; licking with tongue of
Agnihotrahavani; intermarriage among the three varnas; limiting of pollution based on good
conduct, study of Vedas etc.; touching the impure after the collection of Asthi (bones); prescription
of expiation till death to brahmanas; association with those who commit grave sins (mahapatakas);
cow slaughter prescribed in madhuparka; acceptance as son of one other than datta (ceremonially
received) and aurasa (own); carrying out of samitram (tying of cattle for sacrifice) by brahmanas;
selling of soma; lifelong brahmacharya; conducting naramedha (human sacrifice) and aswamedha
(horse sacrifice) - these dharmas are considered by the virtuous as fit to be avoided during Kali
yuga.
3. In Dharmasastrasudhanidhi - Marrying in the gotra of ones mother; cow slaughter; getting son by
a widow through her brother - in - law; killing in a dharmic war brahmanas who are ready to kill;
admitting dvija back after expiation on travel across sea; performing satrayaga; carrying of
kamandalu by everyone; undertaking Mahaprasthanam; cow slaughter in the yaga gosavam;
consuming sura (liquor) in soutramani; committing the great sin of joining those who commit
great sins; expiatory acts for great sins; torture of cow for alliance, guest, Pitrus; joining great
sinners even after expiatory acts; abandoning the wife of guru for relation other than sexual; eating
by brahmana of food of dasan, gopalan, kulamitran, ardhasiri among sudras; undertaking of long
distance pilgrimage by grihastha; treating by disciple of the wife of guru like treating guru himself;
causing increasing danger to dvijas; living without saving for the next day; travelling always;
blowing Agni with mouth; acceptance of woman defiled by forceful molestation after expiatory acts;
seeking of alms by sanyasi from all varnas; use of fresh water for first ten days; giving dakshina as
desired by guru; preparation of food by sudra for the three varnas; death of old people by falling
from mountain, falling in fire etc.; achamanam in water left after drinking by cow; punishing
witnesses in disputes between father and son; staying at home by sanyasi in evenings - these are
prohibited for the sake of social order at the beginning of Kali itself by learned and wise mahatmas.
The conduct of the virtuous is as much authority as Veda.
4. Aapasthambha prohibits begetting of son through brother - in - law. One who is issueless should
not entrust his wife or daughter - in - law to others who are not of same gotra. The ancients say
that woman is given for growth of lineage; but it is prohibited in Kali. Being slaves of sense organs
will lead to the sin of prostitution. Brother - in - law and such sapindas are not same as ones
husband; if one transgresses this limitation, the couple will go to naraka.

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Definition of Karma:
1. Katyayana - Karma to be done in prescribed time, if not done, should at least be done in other
time (gouna kala). Other secondary time is equal to the prescribed time.
2. In Smritiratnavali - The time after the time prescribed for a karma is gouna kala (secondary time).
Some think that the prescribed time for the next karma should be treated as gouna kala similar to
the intermediate time. The prescribed karma should be done at least during these gouna kalas.
Prayaschitta should then be done as specified. Without Prayaschitta, karma should not be done in
gouna kala. If karma to be done during daytime has been neglected, it should be done in the first
yama of the night. In prescribed time, if required material is not available, is material important or
time important? Taking time as important, karma should be done with gouna (available substitute)
material. For the sake of prescribed material, one should not resort to gouna kala.
3. In Skandam - Self (Atma), son, Purohit, brother, wife, father, friend - these are representatives in
yagas and dharmas. Karma done by them is same as done by oneself.
4. In Sangraham - Karmas prescribed for daytime may be done till close of the first yama of the
night. But brahmayagnam and surya pooja cannot be done like this.
5. Katyayana - Where no body part has been specified for a karma, know that such karmas must be
done with right hand.
6. Manu - In unclean acts like soucham(cleansing), left hand should be used and in pure karmas
like achamanam, right hand shall be used. All karmas should be done in Pradakshina
(circumambulatory) manner wearing yagnopavita. Where it is not specified that karma should be
done standing, sitting or bending down, then it should done sitting only; not standing or bending.
7. Katyayana - Where direction is not specified for japa, homa etc., karma should be done facing
east or north or northeast (Isana).
8. In Chandrika - Karma should be done after purifying oneself with clarity of mind, truth, tapas, bath,
achamanam etc. Sankalpam is first prescribed for Vaidic karmas. Karma should be done after
declaring that he is going to do such and such karma.
9. Aasvalayana - if prime karma has been missed, it should be done properly. Or Prayaschitta should
be done. If karma begun has been changed midway due to negligence, it should be done properly
from the place where the change took place. On completion of a karma, if one comes to know that
he has done it incorrectly, the incorrect part should be done properly again. It is not necessary to
repeat all karmas.
10. Saatatapa - Whether brief or detailed, if karma is done as specified in ones Grihya sutra, it is
deemed complete. In Srouta karmas, whatever is specified in all branches is appropriate for
everyone. In Grihya karmas whatever is specified in all smritis is generally applicable to everyone.
Just as the rules for Srouta karmas are compiled from all branches, Grihya karmas are specified by
compiling from all smritis.
11. In Smrityarthasaram - Where direction is not specified, one should choose east, north or
northeast. If it is not specified that a karma should be done standing or bending down, it should be
done sitting. In case one who has the ability to follow prime kalpa (rules) adopts instead gouna
kalpa (secondary rules), then he does not get the benefit of that karma, so say Srutis and smritis.
Such a wrong - headed person will not get the benefit of that karma in the next world also. One
should follow dharmas at all places as appropriate according to time, conduct, caste, family
practices, village practices and yuga dharmas and dharmas not opposed to sastras.
12. Katyayana - Learned persons may follow karmas like Agnihotram, not covered in ones own
branch of Veda, but covered in another branch, if not opposed to his own branch of Veda. Only if a
karma is not covered in ones own sutra, it can be taken from another sutra.
13. Daksha finds fault with one who abandons karma covered in ones own sutra, but does karma
covered in another sutra. A dvija who does like this knowingly or unknowingly becomes a degraded
(fallen) dvija as he has abandoned his own sutra.
14. Vriddhamanu - If ones own sutra is not available, karma should be done as per another sutra. If
one follows Bodhayana sutra, he gets the benefit of following his own sutra. One who does karma
not in accordance with sastras does not get even a little benefit; his effort is in vain.
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15. In another Smriti - Karma done before the appointed time should be repeated during the
appropriate time. Karma done after the appointed time should be considered as not done.
16. Aasvalayana - Where the words of Sruti, Smriti or Puranam are authoritative and clear, it does not
lose strength by use of ones logic or conjecture. Where the words are not quite strong and clear,
logic and educated guess may be used. Where karma is specified, it should be done as instructed
therein. Even a learned person should not change using his conjecture.
17. Bharadvaja - For performing japa etc., asana like Swastikam, Padma or Vira is laid down. Sitting
erect with left foot in between right knee and thigh and right foot in between left knee and thigh is
called Swastikasanam. Sitting erect with left foot on right thigh and right foot on left thigh is called
Virasanam. While sitting in this posture holding the toe with the opposite hand is called
Padmasanam. This is the best of asanas.
18. In Smrityarthasara - When karma with secondary material has been commenced owing to non availability of primary material, the karma should be completed as it is even if the primary material
becomes available in between. While doing karma with secondary material, if that material is lost,
then new material equivalent to primary material and not to secondary material should be used. In
case a primary material is lost during karma, then one should accept material equivalent or even
not equivalent to that primary material; thus he gets the full benefit of that karma.
19. Bharadvaja - People of all the three varnas should wear upavitam etc. uttering Pranava (omkara)
or vyahritis (Om bhur bhuva suvah) in case they do not know mantras given in their Grihyasutras.
These two mantras are common to all.
20. Sandilya - During Pradakshinam, Namaskaram, Pooja, homam, japam, Darshan of Guru, Archana
to Devatas, one should not wear cloth around neck.
21. Bodhayana - Study of Vedas, ceremonial suspension of study of Vedas, Danam, Bhojanam,
Achamanam - in these five karmas, wearing uttariya (upper cloth) is a must. Homam, Bhojanam,
Danam, Pooja, Pratigraham (acceptance of Danam), Achamanam - these should not be performed
with hands outside knees.
22. Bath, Achamanam, Homam, Bhojanam, Devapooja, Study of Vedas, Pitru tarpanam - these should
not be performed being Proudhapada. One who has his feet on a seat or who has his knees or
ankles tied with cloth is called Proudhapada.
23. Homam, Pratigraham, Danam, Bhojanam, Achamanam, japa - these should not be performed with
hands extending outside knees; thumb should be included.

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Process of Creation:
1. Manu - The one, who is established in the worlds, Vedas, Puranas etc., who can be grasped only
with mind, is subtle, whose nature cannot be known, who has no beginning nor end, who is beyond
comprehension - that Paramapurusha became himself manifest in the form of the worlds (not due
to the orders of another, nor due to ones own karma).
2. That Pramatma, desirous of creating many types of beings, decided and created water first out of
his own body. He made his virya enter into that water. He himself entered through a part, this is the
meaning.
3. Water born out of the Paramatma called Nara is called Naaram. As that Naaram is his Ayana
(place), he is called Narayana.
4. That virya became bright like Surya and took the form of a golden egg. Therein Bhagavan himself
became Brahma, the progenitor of all beings.
5. That which is established in the worlds and Vedas, beyond the ken of sense organs, eternal and is
of the form of Sat and Asat is the causal substance, from which arose the Purusha called
Brahma. Here the word cause refers to Narayana; Sat refers to Prakriti and such causes; Asat
means the world (Prapancha), which is the effect. Purusha refers to the person subject to the
control of Bhagavan.
6. That Bhagavan, Brahma lived for one year in that cosmic egg and through meditation he broke that
egg into two parts by himself.
7. With those two parts, he created Swarga and such lokas, Bhuloka, Patala, Antarikshaloka
(intermediate worlds), eight directions and ocean.
8. To that Hiranyagarbha, who wanted to create all beings, part of his own body became the material
cause, so says Manu himself. Hiranyagarbha took out of himself the Mahat Principle consisting of
Prakriti and Vikriti, then the Ahankara Principle, the gross Antahkarana, the threefold Tanmatras of
the forms of Swarupa, Vishayarupa and Indriyarupa, the five sense organs of cognition to grasp
sound etc., the five sense organs of action, the subtle aspects of Mahat, Ahankara, Tanmatras,
mind, Gnanendriyas and karmendriyas and lodged them in Jivas who were his own part and
created Devas, humans and other creatures. The aspects of his own six principles including Mahat
became the material cause for all beings.
9. That Hiranyagarbha gave names and karmas and made arrangements for all the created beings
based on the sounds of Vedas. He set out dharmas and adharmas to indicate actions to be
performed and avoided. He united all beings with pairs of opposites like happiness and sorrow. For
the development of worlds, he created brahmana from his face, kshatriya from arms, vaisya from
thighs and sudra from feet. For the protection of all created beings, he established separate
karmas for the four varnas born of his face etc.
10. In Subalopanishad - Tamas came out of him. From Tamas came base elements, from base
elements came Space, Vayu from Space, Agni from Vayu, Water from Agni, and Earth from Water.
That earth became an egg. Purusha lived in that egg for one year and then split it into two halves.
He made the lower half into Earth and the upper half into Space and stayed himself in between.
11. In Taittiriya Sruti also - Brahmana came from his face, kshatriya from arms, vaisya from thighs and
sudra from feet.
12. In Mahopanishad - In the beginning Narayana alone was there. He meditated in order to create
beings. Drops of sweat formed in his forehead during meditation. They became Water. He planted
his virya in that Water. That became a golden egg. The four faced Brahma appeared therein.
13. In Narayanopanishad also - Narayana who was known as Purusha desired to create beings. From
him appeared Brahma.
14. Haaritha - First Narayana created worlds and slept on the bed of Adisesha in Water along with
Lakshmi. Then a lotus flower emerged from his navel. In the midst of that lotus Brahma, adorned
with Vedas and Vedangas, appeared. He was asked by Narayana to create the worlds. That
Brahma created all worlds with Devas, Asuras, humans; he created brahmanas from his face for
performing yagas, kshatriyas from arms, vaisyas from thighs and sudras from feet. He instructed
them on their respective dharmas.
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Differences in the accounts of creation between Srutis and Smritis is to be understood in the context
of difference in kalpas (various times).

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Varna Dharmas:
1. Devala - The son of a brahmana father born to a brahmana wife, who has undergone samskaras
(purificatory ceremonies) like Jatakarma etc. is called a brahmana. Similarly children born of the
father and mother of respective varnas will be kshatriya, vaisya and sudra.
2. Saatatapa - Tapas, control of sense organs, compassion, charity, truth, dharma, sastra, kindness,
vidya, wisdom, belief in God - these are the characteristics of brahmanas.
3. Yagnavalkya - Children born of parents of same varna belong to that varna. Children born of
blameless marriages like brahma go to develop the family.
4. Haaritha - A son born of brahmana parents is a brahmana. A brahmana has six duties to perform.
If he spends his time in those acts, he develops comfortably. Study of Vedas, teaching of Vedas,
performing yagas himself, performing yagas for others, giving danam, accepting danam - these six
karmas are prescribed for brahmanas.
5. Manu - Six karmas like study of Vedas etc. are meant for brahmanas.
6. Yagnavalkya - Yaga, study of Vedas and danam - these three karmas are meant for kshatriyas
and vaisyas. In addition, performing yagas for others, teaching of Vedas and accepting danam these three are meant for brahmanas.
7. Out of the six karmas, the three like yaga are meant for preservation of dharma; the other three are
meant for livelihood. Manu has mentioned that performing yagas for others, teaching of Vedas and
accepting danam from pure persons are meant for livelihood.
8. Therefore the three karmas like yaga etc. must be definitely performed. The other three like
acceptance of danam are not like that. Gautama - Study of Vedas, yaga and danam - these three
are meant for all the three varnas. In addition, brahmana should do teaching of Vedas,
performance of yagas for others and accepting danam. The first three must be certainly performed
properly.
9. Aapasthambha - Children born to woman of same caste, not married to anyone else, married as
per sastras in braahma - type marriage, born of union in time favourable for conception are entitled
to karmas.
10. He mentions the karmas also - study of Vedas, teaching of Vedas, performing yaga, performing
yaga for others, giving danam, acceptance of danam, dayatyam and siloncham are eight karmas
meant for brahmanas. Dayatyam is accepting ones due share. Siloncham: In fields foodgrains
found dropped loosely are called silam; collecting such grains with fingers or nails is called
uncham.

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Performing Yagnam:
1. Sruti on yagna - Yagna is for Devas. Devas attained swarga through yagna; they defeated Asuras
through yagna. Even enemies become friends through yagna. Everything is in yagna. Hence
yagna is regarded as great. Yagna is Aadanam, Agnihotram etc. (Aadanam is ceremonial
acceptance of Sroutha Agni; this is basic starting point for yagas). As it leads to the state of devas,
it is for devas. Sruti says elsewhere, Devas attained swarga through yagna. Even enemies
become friends through yagna as dakshina is given to ritwiks (priests) and sabhyas (assistants).
Danam is like the abode of yagnas, as yagnas are in danam. Without danam, where is yagna?
Yagna without dakshina is lifeless; the yagna performed without giving dakshina is weak and
lifeless - such passages show the necessity of danam in yagna. As all world is subject to the
control of yagna, it is said that everything is in yagna. Hence great people talk highly of yagna, this
is the import.
2. Vyasa in Bhagavadgita - Earlier Brahmadeva created humans together with yagnas and said: O
men! You develop through these yagnas. Let the yagnas grant you desired enjoyments. With this
yagna you worship Devas. Those Devas will also protect you. Thus helping each other you will
reap much benefit. Devas pleased with yagnas will grant you desired enjoyments. One who
consumes himself food given by them without offering to them is verily a thief.
3. Bhagavan says yagna is of three types. That yaga is satvika where it is performed as per sastras
with a sense of duty with a firm mind without expectation of results. That yaga is rajasic where it is
performed with expectation of results or out of vanity. That yaga is tamasic where it is performed
without following the sastras, without Annadanam, mantra, dakshina and faith.
4. Haaritha - With yagna pure worlds shine. With yagna Devas attained immortality. With yagna one
gets freed of all sins and reaches the realms of the supreme Vishnu. One who does not do yagna
has no world; he does not attain anything good. One who does not do yaga is a sinner and drops
off like a ripe withered leaf.
5. In Madhaviyam - One who has not performed Aadanam and yaga owing to disbelief or laziness
will go to many narakas. Hence a brahmana should somehow do Aadanam and worship
Paramesvara through yaga with pure mind.
6. Karshnajini - A brahmana should perform yaga after birth of son. If he gets money from a good
person somehow, he should do Aadanam.
7. Prajapati - Ahitagni is eligible for all yagas if he has money. Even if he has no money he should
surely do at least Aadanam out of fear of incurring sin.
8. Vasishtha - A brahmana should certainly do Aadanam. He should also do Darsam, Purnamasam,
Aagrayanam, Chaturmasyam, Pasubandham, Somayagam.
9. Haaritha - One who is interested in proper dharma should certainly do Pakayagnas, Haviryagnas
and Soumikayagnas.
10. They have been indicated by Gautama. Ashtaka, Parvanam, Sraadham, Sravani, Aagrahayani,
Chaitri, Aasvayuji these seven are Pakayagnas. Agnyodayam, Agnihotram, Darsa
Purnamasams, Chaturmasyam, Aagrayanam, Pasubandham, Soutramani - these seven are
Haviryagnas. Agnishtoma, Athyagnishtomam, Uktyam, Shodasi, Vajapeyam, Atiratram,
Abdoryamam - these sven are Somayagnas. Of these, Ashtaka is sraadham performed on Krishna
paksha Ashtami days in Hemantha and Sisira rutus. Parvanm is Sthalipakam. Sraadham is
monthly sraadham. Sravani is Sarpabali done on Sravana Pournamasa. Aagrahayani is Uthsarga
of Sarpabali and Hemantha Pratyavarohanam done on Margasirsha Pournami. Chaitri is Isanabali
done on Chaitra Pournami. Aasvayuji, Aagrayanam, Agnyodayam etc. are yagnas famous in
Vedas.
11. Bodhayana - Sruti says that when the hair on the head is still black, one should do Aadanam.
Families face downfall by non - performance of yagas, marrying in bad ways, not studying Vedas
and by disgracing brahmana.

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12. Gargya - Karma stipulated in Veda is primary. Others are gouna (secondary). One who does
gouna karmas without doing primary karmas will face downfall. One who ignores Vedic karmas
due to delusion and does karmas mentioned in smritis and itihasas does not get any merit. One
who is not capable of doing Sroutha karma should do smartha karma. One who cannot do even
smartha karma should at least follow proper Achara (conduct).
13. Sruti on Agnihotra and Darsa Purnamasa - Brahma created six yagas - Agnihotram,
Agnishtomam, Pournamasa, Uktyam, Amavasya, Atiratram. Of these, Agnihotram, Pournamasa
and Amavasya - these three require lesser mantras and kriyas and give lesser benefit. Uktyam,
Atiratram and Agnishtomam - these three require greater mantras and kriyas and give greater
benefit. Brahma considered this matter and blessed such that Agnihotra etc. have become equal to
Agnishtomam etc. in conferring benefit.
14. Sruti gives the fruit of knowing as above - One who knows thus and performs Agnihotram gets the
full benefit of Agnishtomam; similarly one who does Pournamasa gets the benefit of Uktyam; one
who does Amavasya yaga gets the benefit of Atiratram.
15. Sandokas say that karma performed with knowledge gets higher benefit. The karma done with
knowledge becomes more powerful.
16. Sruti again praises Darsa Purnamasa yagas - The four - faced Brahma performed Darsa
Purnamasa in the previous kalpa. As he performed that yaga without expecting fruit in mode of
surrender to Isvara, he got the state of Parameshti (Brahma). He made Prajapati (like Daksha)
perform this yagna in his previous birth. Thus Prajapati got that position. Similarly Brahma made
Indra perform this yaga and hence Indra got this high position. Similarly Brahma made
Agnishomas perform this yaga and hence Agnishomas got their high position. One who performs
Darsa Purnamasa yagas knowing thus certainly attains high position.
17. Sruti praises Agnihotram - Agnihotram performed in morning and evening acts as Prayaschitta for
sins for Grihasthas. Further it is the cause of good yagas and auspicious homas. It is the cause of
yagnas like Darsa Purnamasa and kratus like Agnishtomam. It makes lokas like Brahmaloka shine
brightly. Hence Agnihotram is considered very good.
18. Sruti in another place - Devas found that Agnihotram is the right Prayaschittam for Grihasthas. All
yagas are based on Agnihotram only.
19. Haaritha - There is no dharma, tapas, sreyas (spiritual benefit), fame, attainment, goal, state and
vow greater than Agnihotram. The three vyahritis (Bhur bhuvah suvah), svadha, swaha, namah,
vashat - The Grihastha in whose home karmas with these sounds are done verily lives in
Brahmaloka.
20. Satyavrata - Brahmanas who perform Darsa Purnamasa yagas attain that dharma, that loka
(realm) which is for those who live on Silonchavritti (living on foodgrains found lying in fields)
every day. They reach Brahmaloka, from where they never return.
21. Vriddha Manu - Nitya Agnihotram, Darsam, Purnamasam, Pitryu yagnam, worship of Atithi (guest),
Vaisvadevam - these are the cause of the deathless Brahmaloka.
22. Manu - One who has resources to protect his dependents for three years is eligible for
Somapanam. One who has faith can do punya karmas other than yagas with his senses under
control. He should not do yagas with meagre dakshina. Yaga performed with meagre dakshina will
destroy senses, fame, swarga, long life, good name, children and cattle wealth. Hence one with
meagre resources should not do yaga. One who has the wealth, but out of miserliness does not
give a horse as dakshina to Prajapati in Agnyadeyam does not get the benefit of Aadanam. He
continues as Anahitagni (non - performer of yaga; one who has not done Aadanam).
23. Vyasa - Yaga where food is not served properly will destroy the country; where mantras are not
proper it will destroy Ritviks (priests); where dakshina is less it will destroy the yajamana
(performer of yaga). There is no enemy like yaga.
24. Yagnavalkya - One who has foodgrains etc. enough to last a year should do yagas before
Somayaga.

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25. These statements of Manu and others refer to kamya yagas (yagas performed for fulfilling specific
wishes). Bodhayana says that daily karma should not be neglected even if resource is not enough
for dakshina. One who has not performed nitya (ordained to be performed compulsorily every day)
and naimittika karmas (ordained to be performed compulsorily on specified occasions) will not go
to swarga. He is fallen. Hence nitya karmas should be performed with at least bulbous and other
roots, fruits, honey, juice etc.; they should not be neglected.
26. In Smrityarthasaram - After marriage, one should do Aadanam and Aagnihotram and perform in
stages Darsam, Purnamasam, Aagrayanam, Somayagam. In order to rid oneself of serious faults
like qualities of heretic and evil brahmana, he should somehow perform at least the first Somayaga
(Agnishtomam) with maximum possible dakshina and completeness.
27. In Sangraham - A brahmana who does not perform Agnihotram, who buys and sells and who
mixes with other varnas (in prohibited manner) is equal to sudra.
28. Prajapati - The fruit of Veda with six parts, Padam and Kramam is Agnihotram only. There has
never been and there never will be dharma equal to Agnihotram. One who does not perform either
of Darsam and Purnamasam becomes purified by Padakrichram (part Prayaschitta); one who does
not perform both becomes purified by half krichram.
29. Manu - Even one who lives on silonchavritti should perform Agnihotram without break and do
daily Ishtis like Darsam, Purnamasam, Aagrayanam without expectation of fruit. This must be
done; more than this is not compulsory, this is the meaning.
30. Manu sets out the discipline for one who lives without any difficulty - Agnihotram in morning and
evening, Ishtis - Darsam and Purnamasam at the close of fortnights, Aagrayana Ishti on receipt of
new foodgrains, Chaturmasyams at the close of Ritus, Pasubandham at the end of Ayanam and
Somayagams at the close of year should be performed.
31. Aapasthambha - After marriage, it is necessary to perform Agnihotram, Pooja of guest etc.
32. In Aatharvanam - One whose Agnihotram does not have Darsam, Purnamasam, Aagrayanam,
and Somayagam, who does not perform homa in time, who does not perform Vaisvadevam and
who performs improperly he troubles seven generations including his father, grandfather, great
grandfather, himself, his son, grandson and great grandson and also the seven worlds.
33. Yagnavalkya - Somayaga every year, Pasubandham every Ayana, Aagrayaneshti, Chaturmasyam
should be performed. If not possible the Ishti called Vaisvanari should be done.
34. Manu - Agnis not worshipped with Pasu (sacrificial animal) and new foodgrains, being desirous of
them, wish to consume the very Pranas of the Ahitagni. Hence if not possible to perform the
stipulated Pasuyaga, Somayaga etc., then Vaisvanari Ishti should at least be done at the end of
year. If an Agnihotri brahmana neglects Agnihotram on his own, he should observe Chandrayanam
(a Prayaschitta) for a month, as that sin is equal to killing of son (veera).
35. Sruti also - One who neglects Agni is the killer of the sons (veera) of Devas.
36. In Smritibhaskaram - One who has no money should earn even by theft or other means for the
sake of daily yagas. In Solar eclipse at Kurukshetra, one should get goat, deerskin etc. even from a
chandala (outcaste) and perform daily yagas. These two passages are meant to convey that daily
yagas should somehow be performed by earning required money.
37. Yama - A brahmana who knows dharma should not take money from a sudra for the sake of yaga.
One who performs yaga with money from a sudra will be born a chandala in next birth. One who
performs Agnihotra with money from a sudra is called sudraagnihotri. He will be condemned by
knowers of Veda.
38. Vyasa - Only for the sake of family requirement one can accept money from a good sudra. For
himself and for yaga one should not ask sudra for money.
39. Manu - A brahmana who knows dharma should not ask sudra for money for yaga. If he performs
yaga with sudras money he will be born a chandala in next birth. The sudra who gives money
places his feet on the heads of those foolish persons who resort to sudraagni and crosses
difficulties in the next world. Those who perform Agnihotram with sudras money are beggars of
sudras and will be condemned by knowers of Veda.

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40. Sakaleya - One who performs Agnihotram with sudras money goes to naraka. The sudra who
gave money gets the fruit of the yaga.
41. Yagnavalkya - One who asks sudra for money for yagna is born a chandala.
42. These passages critical of accepting sudras money refer to karmas other than nitya (daily)
karmas. It is stated in texts like Smritiratnavali that nitya karmas are essential and hence one
should accept money even from a chandala for essential yagas.
43. Yama - The foolish one who has sought materials from others for yaga, but uses them for his
personal use, will be born in chandala caste.
44. Manu - One who has kept for himself part of materials sought for yaga will live as a monkey or
crow for many years.
45. Yagnavalkya - One who has not spent fully materials sought for yaga will be born a monkey or
crow.
46. In Smritibhaskaram - Some are of the opinion that in Vajapeya yaga if one cannot give all
dakshinas he should at least give 17 cows. Samavedis say that even if dakshina is given as per
rules, 17 cows should also be given. If cows as dakshina are not available, at least one nishkam
(gold coin) each or half of it, or quarter of it should be given. This rule is in regard to nitya (daily)
yagas.
47. Sankar - Feeding of 1000 brahmanas in Somayaga, 100 in Pasubandham, 100 in each parva of
Chaturmasya should be done. (Parva is the day of periodic change of moon).
48. In another Smriti - Feeding of 1000 brahmanas in Somayaga, 100 in Pasubandham, 8 in Darsam
should be done. If not capable at least Ritwiks should be fed in Ishti.
49. In Smritibhaskaram - One who is not capable of much Annadanam should perform daily Ishti and
Somayaga with materials and dakshina which he is capable of. During the time of yaga, yajamana
(the performer of yaga) should be there, sacrificing the fruit. If yajamana is not there, his wife
should at least be there. Adhvaryu (one of the four main Ritwiks) should perform the yaga based
on her instructions. In Darsa and Purnamasa Ishtis four Ritwiks should be there. If not available at
least three Rikwiks or two or one at least should be there. In that case yajamana should do
Prayaschitta for unknown transgression.
50. In Akhandaadarsam - One who is interested in his welfare should worship Vishnu with yaga with
faith with moneys obtained as his share or from agriculture or as gift from persons of good conduct;
not with other moneys.
51. Vyasa - It is certain that if the performer of yaga, Ritwiks, materials and tools are all pure, yaga
can be done. Devas will feel happy with such a yaga. If Devas are happy the yajamana will get the
benefit. Devas who are thus satisfied with yagas develop the worlds. With yagas everything is
good in both the worlds here and hereafter.
52. The importance of those who do Aadanam is mentioned in Chaturvimsati matam. When the father
without Aadanam is alive, the son should not do Aadanam. Similarly when the elder brother without
Aadanam is alive, the younger brother should not do Aadanam. The younger brother should also
not marry if the elder brother has not married.
53. If father, grandfather, elder brother are alive and have not done Aadanam, in the matter of tapas,
Agnihotram and mantram, there is no blemish of Parivedana (that is, doing Aadanam when the
elders have not done); the reference here is to the father who is widower, as it is stated that one
can do Aadanam with the permission of elder brother; but not even if father permits.
54. Saatatapa - When the elder brother has not married or has not done Aadanam, if the younger
brother marries or does Aadanam, he is called Parivetta; the elder brother is called Parivitti. An
idiot, one who resides abroad, a fallen person, sanyasi, yogi, hunch - back, dwarf, eunuch,
stammerer, one of slow learning, blind by birth, deaf, dumb - if one transgresses these persons
and does marriage and Agnihotram, there is no blemish of Parivedana. The Parivedana blemish
applies only to brothers born of same mother. This is common to all four varnas, so said Manu.
The Agni, Veda and tapas of Parivetta are of no use.

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55. Sumantu - If the elder brother is of evil bent of mind (involved in activities like liquor, gambling,
association with women, hunting etc.) or is a non - believer and if the younger brother is keen on
dharma, he can do Aadanam. Sankars opinion is that he has right to Agnihotram.
56. VruddhaVasishtha - Even if the elder brother has no Aadanam, the younger brother can do
Agnihotram with his permission.
57. Saatatapa - Agnis, Vedas and Tapas do not become the cause of Parivedana blemish.
58. Haaritha - Parivedana happens only due to marriage and not due to Agnihotram and yaga.
59. Parasara also - Children of fathers elder or younger brother, brothers born of different mothers,
sons who have been accepted as gift or bought - for these persons, there is no blemish of
Parivedana due to marriage and Agnihotram.
60. Parasara again - If elder brother has no Aadanam and is alive, the younger brother should not go
for Aadanam. But Sankar says that he can do Aadanam if permitted by elder brother.
61. In Madhaviyam - The younger brother can do Aadanam with the permission of his elder even
before him. But even with permission he should not do Aadanam before his father. If father and
others have limitations like being widower, then he can do Aadanam.
62. Vruddha Yagnavalkya says that even the elder brother will suffer the blemish of Parivedana in a
particular circumstance. That is, if he has done Aadanam in disregard of Aupasana Agni, but with
Nirmanthyagni (Agni freshly created out of firesticks by friction), then he remains Anahitagni (one
who has not done Aadanam) and is known as Parivetta.
63. Aadanam should be done by brahmana in vasantha (spring) rutu, by kshatriya in grishma
(summer) and by Vaisya in sarad (autumn) as stipulated by Sruti in the prescribed time and at least
in the prescribed star (asterism). Vyasa - Aadanam is important for brahmana in vasantha rutu, for
kshatriya in grishma and for vaisya in sarad ritu.
64. Aapasthambha explains the background for Punaraadanam (repeat Aadanam) - In the year in
which Aadanam was done, if the yajamana has not progressed further, he should do
Punaraadanam. The Agni taken in Aadanam wishes for Havirbhagam (share of oblations) and,
not getting it, he troubles the yajamanas family and cattle. Hence one should do Udvasana Ishti
(closing yaga) and do Punaraadanam. By doing like this the share for Agni is deemed to be given.
It becomes a Santi karma (auspicious) also.
65. He also gives other reasons - If after closing the Agni, the Arani sticks (firesticks) are lost; if the
Garhapatya Agni (one of the three Sroutha Agnis) gets put off before commencing the rituals; if the
Garhapatya and Ahavaniya (another of the three Sroutha Agnis) Agnis are put off after the rituals;
if sun sets or rises when representative is not kept; then Punaraadanam should be done.
66. Some say that even in absence of representative if Garhapatya Agni is put off, there is no need for
Punaraadanam.
67. Aasvalayana - If sun sets or rises when all Agnis are put off, Agnyadeyam or Punarodayam
should be done.
68. Katyayana - If one leaves the village with wife and does not return by the time of Homa, then
Punaraadanam is required.
69. Sounaka - If two occasions for Homa pass off after the Agni gets put off or if the couple are both
out of station, the Agni becomes loukika (non - Sroutha). If the wife has gone out of the village but
returns by the time of Homa, there is still no problem. If she does not return in time, the Agni
becomes loukika; so says Kataka Sruti. If both yajamana and his wife go out of the village and do
not return by the time of Homa, Punaraadanam is required.
70. In Sangraham - They say that if the wife crosses the village during sunrise or sunset or, even at
other times if she crosses a river which goes and meets the sea, then the Agni becomes loukika.
71. Sruti says that Agni where Homa is not performed for four days becomes loukika.
72. Aapasthambha - The Agnis should not be carried out of the village. If taken out, they become
loukika. While crossing the boundaries of villages or rivers, the couple should do
Anvarambhanam (touching each other); otherwise the Agnis will become loukika.

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73. Bodhayana - Paka (cooking) and Uddharanam done not as per rules will make Agni loukika.
Punaraadanam is required in that case. A brahmana with many wives should do Aadanam along
with all of them. If all wives do not do Anvarambham (touching the yajamana), then that Aadanam
is as good as not done. When the senior wife is blemishless, if one does Aadanam only with junior
wife, he suffers from the sin of Brahmahatti (killing a brahmana) in every Parva.
74. Manu - On the death of wife one should use the Agnis in her Apara kriya, then marry again and do
Aadanam. A brahmana who knows dharma should cremate his dead wife, who is of same caste
and is of good conduct, using Agnihotra Agni along with the yagna vessels.
75. Yagnavalkya - A husband should cremate his dead wife of good conduct with Agnihotra Agni,
marry again without delay and do Aadanam.
76. Katyayana - One can cremate with Agnihotra Agni the wife who is of dharmic conduct and chaste;
not if she is otherwise. He should marry again. Know that the brahmana who cremates with
Tretagnis (the three Sroutha Agnis) his dead second wife out of ignorance is Brahmojja (one who
has forgotten the Veda); no doubt in this. When the first wife is alive, cremating the dead second
wife with Srouthaagnis is equivalent to consumption of liquor. This is not there even in Aadanam saus Vignanesvariyam.
77. Kapardi - Out of many wives if one dies she should be cremated with Mathitagni (fire made by
churning of Arani sticks); Srouthaagni should be left untouched.
78. Out of many wives if one dies she should be cremated with Smartaagni; Bodhayana and others
have referred to Smartaagni. If remarriage is possible, the Sroutha Agni may be used for the wife
who dies earlier. If remarriage is not possible, the wife should be cremated with Nirmanthyaagni
and Srouthaagni may be preserved till end of life or till sanyasa is taken up. Bahvruchas say Even a man without wife should perform Agnihotram; if not he is called Anatta; that is, one who
does not worship Devas, Pitrus, humans. Hence even a man without wife should perform
Agnihotram.
79. Bharadvaja - One who has lost his wife should be cremated with both Aupasana Agni and
Agnihotra Agni; if wife dies the cremation will be with Nirmanthyaagni.
80. Jaimini - Ahitaagni should cremate his dead wife with Nirmanthyaagni or Santapana Agni.
81. Aasvalayana - Aharyagni should be used for cremating Anaahitaagni and wife.
82. Kapardi - One who has lost his wife can do with Srouthaagnis his daily and occasional kriyas. As
he is incomplete he should not do kamya (special wishes) kriyas. Ahitaagni should cremate his
dead wife with Srouthaagnis if remarriage is possible. If remarriage is not possible cremation
should be with Nirmanthyaagni.
83. In this matter the conduct of virtuous ancients like Kanva, Vibhandaka and Bhagavan Sri Rama
can also be seen. Hence even if wife is not there Agnihotra etc. should continue.
84. Vishnu - Even after death of wife Vaidikaagni should not be deserted. Even with representative the
karma should continue till end of ones life. Some Grihasthas perform Agnihotram without let, till
end of their lives with image of wife made in Kusa (darbha grass). Sri Rama also performed many
yagas with a golden image of Sita as wife.
85. Maitrayani Sruti also One who does post - death ceremonies of his wife with his Agnis will be
born a woman in his next birth. The wife will be born a man.
86. Trikandi - If wife is away in a faroff place, is dead, is diseased, is disinterested or is adversely
inclined, karmas can be done with her representative.
87. The statement of Aapasthambha: One who is not capable of marrying can do Aadanam,
Agnihotram, Darsam, Purnamasam. Aagrayanam for self - benefit; not the rest is related to
Vichinnaagni before death of hs wife. Kapardis commentary also - If wife dies when there is
Vichinnaagni, as Sruti enjoins Agnihotram for whole life, if remarriage is not possible, then for the
sake of self - benefit Aadanam should be done. Kapardi also says: If wife dies when there is
Nashtaagni or Uthsrushtaagni, then Pretaadanam should not be done for cremation; only
Mathitaagni should be used for cremation. Then he should do Aadanam for himself. The
yajamana alone has the Agnis from the time of Aadanam, as Sruti says Yajamana alone is the
cause of Agni.
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88. In case one dies before Aadanam after he has used Agnis for his wifes cremation, Pretadanam
should be done for him. If he is alive Agnyaadanam should be done. One who has used Agnis for
cremating his wife is equal to Vichinnaagni; there is no need to bother about Rutu (season) and
star (for Punaraadanam). - These words of Kapardi apply to one who has remarried. This is
because Manu and others have said that remarriage and Punaraadanam should be done. There
is Sruti passage: Aadanam should be practised for life. Hence the final principle is that one who
can remarry should cremate his dead wife with (Sroutha) Agnis, remarry and do Aadanam
immediately. One who cannot remarry should cremate dis dead wife with Nirmanthyaagni and
worship his Agnis till end of his life.
89. Some say that one who has used his (Sroutha) Agnis for cremating his dead wife should do
Aadanam again and do Agnihotram till end of his life. That is, even without wife he can do
Agnihotram; this is their view. The relevant Sruti passage refers to the one who uses his Agnis for
cremating his dead wife expecting to remarry, but is unable to remarry later. Passages like equal
right to wife in karmas through Panigrahanam appear to confer mastership on wife equal to
husbands. However both are not equal. In some places the mastership rests primarily with
yajamana; in passages like Jyotishtomam should be done singular has been used; hence it is
clear that yajamana has the complete power and wife is part as well as master. Sruti passages like
Wife alone is the owner of materials at home show that she is the master of some resources at
home. Hence it is said that With representative at least Agnihotram should be done for life,
mentioning the representative for wife. If wife is not part, but master, then with passage like
Mantra, yajamana, Devata, Agni, Karma - for these there is no representative negating the
representative for master, it is not appropriate that with representative Karma can be completed.
On the strength of passages if it is possible to establish representative for wife, it is also possible to
establish on the strength of passages that Agnihotra etc. should be performed even in absence of
wife. Kapardi also says that mastership is small for wife and great for husband. Yajamana alone is
important; all rules grant him only power.
90. With this logic on Aahitaagni, Anaahitaagni can cremate his dead wife with Aupasana Agni if
remarriage is possible and remarry. Know that if not possible he can do the ceremonies to his wife
with Nirmanthyaagni and keep his Aupasanam.
91. Aasvalayana mentions special point here - Anaahitaagni should cremate his dead wife with half of
his Aupasana Agni and use the balance half to perform Homas in morning and evening and
Sthalipakas and use the same Agni for remarriage. Without remarriage also he can do Homas till
the end of his life with that half Agni. Aahitaagni should cremate his dead wife with all three
(sroutha) Agnis, remarry, do Aadanam and perform Homas. If remarriage is not possible he should
cremate his dead wife with Nirmanthyaagni and do Agnihotram and Ishtis during Parvas till end of
his life.
92. Bharadvaja - If one among the married couple is dead, the survivor is called Vidhura. The
Aupaasana Agni which was consecrated commonly to both at the time of marriage is equal to both
of them. Hence the Agni reaches out and cremates the one who dies first - husband or wife and
comes back to the survivor. Hence Anaahitaagni can use his Agni fully or partially for his dead wife
and continue with Aupasanam till end of his life even if he does not remarry. Some say that the
dead wife may be cremated with full Agni and the husband can produce fresh Agni and continue
with Aupasana Homam.
93. The method of producing Agni is given in a book called Kriyakalpakarika - First taking Agni with
Pranava, bringing it down with the mantra Anvagnih, establishing with the mantra Prushtodivi,
Homa should be done with four parts. Ullekhanam etc. is not required. Mantras are: Tatsa,
Tamsa, Visvanidhe, Adyanah. Aaropanam and Avaropanam are also not here. This is the
procedure for Vidhuraagni. Vidhura should do Nitya, Naimittika and Kamya karmas in this Agni.
Producing Agni like this he should do Aupasana Homa in morning and evening. They say that at
the end of Karma the Agni becomes loukika.

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94. Bharadvaja in the same manner - The husband or wife should do Sandhanam as per rules and
do Homas with Oshadhis till end of life. In this Agni Sthalipakam, Aagrayanam should also be
done. Till the end of life this Agni does not leave him. After his death the Vidhura should be
cremated in this Vidhuraagni. After the death of husband, the wife should do Aupasanam in this
manner.
95. In Saarvabhoumiyam - In view of use of dual words in the sutra Vrata (vow) of Grihasthas after
Panigrahanam, mentioning that in case of death of one of the couple the survivor does not have
right to Smartha karmas; in view of the sankalpa (resolve) of both together at the beginning of
marriage, we both shall do the karmas, the Vidhura (widower) should do only Sandhyavandanam
for eligibility to enter the next asrama.
96. Hence Sounaka, on the basis of absence of Agni for Vidhura, says of attainment of fruit of
Aupasana Homa through mantrajapa - He should chant the sukta Mahattat daily five times.
Thereby the blemish of non - performance of Aupasanam does not approach Vidhura. If he chants
the Rik Agnenaya five times every day he will attain the fruit of performing with Agni.
97. Saatatapa - If a brahmana has no Agni, but of good Acharas, he can be invited for all karmas like
Sraadhas. For one without Agni, Veda is the Agni. Even with Agni if one has no Veda, he is same
as the one without Agni. If one has son, he does not suffer the blemish of Vidhura. If he is also
knower of Vedas, he is eligible for all karmas. If a Vidhura has son he is called Saagnika (one with
Agni). They say that son is himself Agni. Accepting a wife is for son only. In case of wifes death
the seen Agni is gone, but his own (internal) Agni is not destroyed. Hence he is eligible for all
karmas.
98. The question of Aupasanaagni being present or not present for Vidhura who is Anaahitaagni
should thus be understood based on the conduct of the virtuous.

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Determination of Yaajanam (Performance of yagnas for others):


1. Sruti lays down the rules for Yaajanam - Brahmana wishing to earn money should choose what he
likes out of acceptance of Danam, Yaajanam and teaching of Vedas. This is not a rule for daily
observance, in the absence of guidelines like if not done, blemish will accrue. This is wishful
action, as one wishing to earn money has right to these karmas. This is not the Apoorva rule, as
this is only as means of livelihood; not like Agnihotram must be done, Ashtakas must be done.
Apoorva rule is one which lays down the rule in the absence of other authority. This is also not
Parisankhya rule, as one karma does not lead to many fruits. If one karma leads to two activities,
in order to prohibit one of them, a rule is laid down and that is called Parisankhya rule. For
example, in a mantra, both the ropes of horse and donkey are mentioned; but in another mantra,
as only horse is cited, horse alone is final. Similarly, fox and dog are mentioned in a mantra; but
another mantra cites only fox. This is the rule for yaajanam in case of fallen persons. This is like
saying yaga should be performed on even ground; one should face east while taking food etc.
2. Santoka brahmanam says that the knowledge of Rishis in the mantras is ingredient of Yaajanam One, who does yaajanam, teaching of Vedas etc. without knowledge of the Rishi, chandas (Vedic
metre), Devata and Brahmanam of the mantra, becomes like a tree, falls in ditch, meets
destruction, becomes a great sinner, his Vedas become powerless - thus blemishes are attributed
to him.
3. The passages like if one does yaajanam or accepts danam, he should not eat and chant his Veda
three times apply to performing yagas for those who are not eligible. Devala also says - The
brahmana who for the sake of money does yagas for sudras or for the degraded persons or is
made to do yagas by them, is Ayaajya yaajaka (one who does yagas for ineligible persons).
4. Manu - Even high families become low by performing yagas for the undeserving, by sense of
disbelief in karmas and absence of study of Vedas. One becomes fallen in one year by travelling
in the same vehicle with the fallen, sitting in the same seat with him and eating with him in the
same row. By doing yaajanam to the fallen, teaching them Vedas and marrying the fallen, he
becomes fallen the same moment.
5. Devala - One who does yaajanam, marriage, study of Vedas and eating together with the fallen
becomes himself fallen the same moment; no doubt in this. Bodhayana - One who does
yaajanam, teaching of Vedas and marriage with the fallen becomes himself fallen the same
moment. By sharing bed and seat one becomes fallen in one year.
6. Aapasthambha - One should not have any contact with the fallen. Welcoming them with respect,
eating with them and marrying them should be avoided.
7. Vyasa - One who knowingly comes into contact with the fallen by sharing vehicle, bed, seat etc.
becomes himself fallen in one year. One who does yaajanam, marriage, teaching of Vedas and
eating together becomes fallen the same moment.
8. Samvartha - For ridding oneself of sin, one should do Prayaschitta prescribed for one who was in
contact with great sinners like killers of brahmanas.
9. Yama - Out of the three - acceptance of Danam, teaching of Vedas and yaajanam, they say that
acceptance of Danam is the best. The sin accruing out of acceptance of Danam can be got rid of
by japa, homam etc., whereas the sin arising from yaajanam is not washed away even by Vedas.

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Study of Vedas:
1. Sruti says - Veda should be studied; Brahmana should study Vedas along with six parts without
any reason. Hence it is clear that study including learning the meaning of Vedas is prescribed.
Mantras whose meanings are not understood are not good enough in highlighting observances.
Hence only the one who does karmas knowing the meaning of Vedas attains the desired fruits of
karmas; he does not suffer any blemish also. Hence Veda should be studied and meaning should
also be learnt.
2. Manu - A brahmana who follows many types of rules and vows like Prajapatya should study Vedas
along with its parts and Upanishads.
3. Manu again - The brahmana who performs tapas (austerities) should always recite Vedas. Study
of Vedas is the best tapas for a brahmana as stated in Veda. Sruti says - Study of Vedas is itself
tapas.
4. The brahmana who does not study Vedas, but studies other things, attains to sudrahood
immediately along with his family. Families are destroyed soon by Aasuric (non - Vedic) marriages,
non - performance of karmas like jatakarma and dishonouring brahmanas. Even families with
meagre resources are reckoned to be good if they study Vedas; they attain much fame. Study of
only the sounds of Vedas without knowing the meaning never shines like dry fuel without Agni.
5. Sruti - One who studies Vedas, but does not know their meaning is a pillar carrying weight. One
who knows the meanings attains all prosperity. With knowledge he washes away sins and attains
Swarga.
6. Manu - The knower of Vedas and sastras is eligible to lead an army, to run a country, to mete out
punishment and to head all people. The knower of Itihasas like Bharata and Ramayana and
Puranas and of Padam (word), Vakyam (sentence) and Pramanam (authority) and of Vedas and
their parts is eligible to understand the meaning of Vedas.
7. In Kurmapurana - A brahmana who does not study Veda, but puts in efforts for other things is
called Vedabahya (one outside the Vedas). Brahmanas should not converse with that fool.
Brahmana should not feel satisfied only with study of Vedas. One who has not picked up the
meaning will suffer like a cow caught in slush. One who studies Vedas as stipulated, but has not
enquired about their meaning will become sudra along with his family; he will not be a proper
brahmana.
8. Yagnavalkya - One should study that Veda with its parts,which has come to him traditionally. He
should observe the karmas given in that Veda only. One who leaves his Veda, but adopts other
persons Veda, is fit to be boycotted by the virtuous like a sudra in all karmas. After studying ones
own Veda (branch) one can study other Vedas (branches).
9. Manu - Brahmana without study of Vedas is like an elephant made of wood, deer made of skin.
These three carry only the name. Like eunuch with women, bull with bulls, danams with idiots are
useless, in the same way brahmana without Veda is useless.
10. Parasara - The brahmanas who study Veda, those who observe the five Mahayagnas take the
three worlds ashore even if they are subject to the five senses.
11. Samvartha - Veda should be studied in a pure place with steady mind.
12. Daksha - Study of Veda is fivefold - first learning from Guru, then enquiring the meaning,
practising, chanting in brahmayagna and teaching the disciples.
13. Vyasa - Brahmana should study Veda with diligence according to his ability. He should also teach
his disciples. He should practise dharana (steadying) in mind. He should also enquire the
meaning. One who forgets the Veda he has studied is called Bhrunaha (the killer of embryo). He
will be born in a low caste,
14. Manu - One who abandons the refugee without protecting him and who forgets Veda will get over
that sin by performing tapas for one year with only barley as food,
15. Yagnavalkya - It is only Veda which can do much good to brahmanas as it tells about yagas,
austerities, auspicious karmas.
16. Vyasa - The karma undertaken after pronouncing Harih Om and study of Veda cause power to
grow.
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17. Aapasthambha - Omkara is the way to swarga. Hence before studying Veda one should start with
Omkara. In case there is interruption of useless speech, one should start like earlier. If done like
this, Veda remains separated from worldly words.
18. In Aatharvana Sruti - Devas prayed to Omkara for defeating Asuras; they then told Omkara to ask
for a desired boon. Omkara then said, Brahmanas should not pronounce Vedas without
pronouncing me. If they do so, it should not become Veda. Hence Omkara is pronounced at the
start of Veda and also at the close.

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Teaching of Vedas:
In Smritiratna - Pure yaajanam, pure teaching of Vedas, pure acceptance of danam - these three are
said to be the means of livelihood of brahmana.
1. Yama tells the rules for teaching of Vedas - Always getting up early in the morning, after
completing cleaning of teeth, bath and homam, one should teach Veda to students.
2. Manu - The Acharya should without sloth always tell the student to start study at the beginning.
While stopping he should say let it stop. The son of Guru, attendant, teacher of some other
branch of knowledge, one who is attached to Dharma, a pure person, relative, one who is capable
of grasping and retaining, the giver of money, well - wisher, gnati (paternal relative) - these ten
people may be taught Veda as per dharma. If by teaching someone no dharma or money accrues,
service commensurate with knowledge is also not available, such a person should not be taught.
Even a good seed if sown in salty soil will be useless; same with knowledge. The teacher of Veda,
if he does not get a suitable disciple, may even die without teaching, but even in time of serious
danger he should not teach an unsuitable person. The Devata presiding over knowledge told
brahmana: I am your treasure. You should protect me. Do not give me to a jealous person. Then I
will become very powerful. Teach me to a disciple who is pure, has mastered sense organs and is
a brahmachari, who is attentive and protective of the treasure.
3. Manu - One who learns Vedas stealthily without the permission of Guru, that brahmana thief of
Veda will go to hell. Veda should not be taught to one who is not listening and to one who listens
without devotion. Even if one is very knowledgeable and wise, he should move about in the world
as if he does not know anything. One who listens to Veda without dharma and one who teaches
without dharma both are destroyed or at least become enemies.
4. Manu says that if knowledge, dharma and girl are very good, one can accept them even from low
places. The faithful person may accept good knowledge (mantra to remove poison and the like)
from a lowly person, high dharma from a person of low caste, superior girl even from a lowly family.
5. Manu explains this with example - One can accept nectar from poison, good word from a boy,
good conduct from enemy and gold from an unclean place. One can accept women, gems,
knowledge, dharma, purity, good word and different types of sculptures from all. In times of
distress brahmana can learn Veda from a kshatriya or a vaisya. Following the Guru and serving
him are limited till the time of learning Vedas only. Men of all the three varnas performing their own
dharma can study Veda. Brahmana should teach them; certainly not kshatriya and vaisya. People
of three varnas - brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya - are known as dwijatis. Sudra of the fourth
varna is known as ekajati. There is no fifth caste.
6. Haaritha - A brahmana who knows the meaning of mantras and who does japa, homa and
teaching of Veda reaches Swarga; if not he reaches naraka.
7. Narada objects to reading from books only Vidya learnt on ones own from books and not from a
Guru does not shine in an assembly; like pregnancy of a woman from a secret lover. One who
studies Veda without observing sounds through the lines in hand and with improper sound and
varna is burnt by the Rik, Yajur and Sama Vedas and is born in a lowly caste.
8. Haaritha - The benefit of teaching of Veda is dharma, money and desire. If even one of the three is
not there, then the disciple is called mrishaachari (one of false conduct). One who wishes well
should not teach him. One should teach suitable disciples; avoid the unsuitable.
9. Yagnavalkya - One can teach as per sastra the following - one who is conscious of the help
received, person of compassion, one who is capable of grasping and retaining, pure, free from
disease, free from jealousy, virtuous, attendant, relative, teacher of vidya (other), giver of money.
10. Vyasa - One can teach the six persons - man of gratitude,compassionate, wise, good in actions,
relative, person liked.
11. Aapasthambha - The way he learnt from his guru he should teach his disciple and also be
attentive in other rules. Such a person establishes in Swarga free from fear, his father, grandfather,
greatgrandfather, son, grandson, greatgrandson and himself.

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12. Bodhayana - Teaching one from whom one does not get dharma, money or service in accordance
with vidya, is useless like sowing seed in salty soil. Instead of teaching such a disciple, one can die
with his vidya untaught. Veda which is not honoured will burn away like fire would burn dry
vegetation. Hence Veda should not be taught to one who does not honour Veda. In times of
distress, Veda can be learnt even from a kshatriya or vaisya. Following the Guru and serving him
are limited till the end of learning only.
13. Gautama - One should have truth, dharma and conduct of the great and teach Veda to disciples.
Gautama again - Brahmana learning Veda from a kshatriya or vaisya is only for adversity.
Following the Guru and serving him are limited till the end of learning only. If one studies Veda in
early morning he should not sleep again.
14. Manu - One should not learn Veda with swara and varna not being clear and in the presence of
sudras. If one studies Veda in early morning he should not sleep again owing to tiresomeness.
15. Vyasa - It is said that learning on prohibited days, in the presence of sudra and for the sake of
receiving money are the cause of narakas.
16. Vyasa again - Cooking food only for self, indulging in sex only for pleasure and learning of Veda
only for livelihood will lead one to many narakas.
17. Saatatapa - One who uses Veda sounds for money he sells Veda and gets the sin of killing so
many embryos.
18. Saakaleya - Selling of Veda is sixfold - Pragnaapanam, Praadhyayanam, accepting of money,
performing yaga and teaching of Veda after demanding (bargaining) and argument.
Pragnaapanam is announcing in assemblies like the kings that he knows all the four Vedas.
Praadhyayanam is learning for the sake of spreading ones greatness. Prasnapurvam
(Questioning) refers to all the three - accepting of money, performing yaga and teaching of Veda.
Vada refers to indulging in argument for the sake of disgracing the opponent and highlighting
ones knowledge.
19. Saatatapa - One who gives danam to a brahmana because of demand will go first to naraka;
followed by the brahmana.
20. In Smritisangraham - One who inintiates another to Gayatri for a price becomes a chandala even
while alive; no doubt.
21. Saunaka - One who uses Veda sounds for money gets the sin of so many killings of embryos; no
doubt. Know that one who pronounces Veda sounds for money or food is chandala, unfit for all
karmas.
22. Yagnavalkya includes study of Vedas and teaching of Vedas for money among upapatakas
(second category of sins).

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Discussion of Upakarma:
Upakarma (commencement of Vedic study) is determined here. Manu - Brahmana should perform
Upakarma as per rules on Sravana Purnima or Proushtapada Purnima and then study Vedas with
effort in 4 months. In Pousha month he should do Utsarjanam (ceremony of suspension of Vedic
study) outside the village. Or on Sukla paksha prathama in Magha month in forenoon. The explanation
is: Sravani for Yajurvedis and Proushtapadi for Samavedis; utsarjanam for yajushas (yajurvedis) in
Pousha and for Samagas (Samavedis) in Magha month.
1. Aapasthambha - After performing Upakarma on Sravana Purnima one should not do study of
Vedas in the first part of the night for one month. Utsarjanam should be done on Pousha Purnima
or in Rohini star. Some say that study should be done for 4 months.
2. When the sun is in rasis like mesha, whichever Amavasya comes, the months ending on those
Amavasya days are months like Chaitra. Whichever Pournamasa comes in those months, it is
called Chaitri etc. The name comes because it is associated with that star on occasions. When
the sun is in simharasi, in the lunar month ending on Amavasya, the Purnima coming in between is
called Sravani. Whether sravana star is there or not, upakarma should be done on that day as per
rules in ones grihyasutra and as per Atris smriti in the time stipulated in the grihyam and Vedic
study should be commenced. For one month no study should be done in the first part of the night.
Utsarjanam should be done as per the Grihya rules on Pousha Purnima day or on the Rohini star
day coming before that day. Study should be done for 5 months; some say 4 months. As seen in
other branches of Veda (like Sama Veda), upakarma should be done on Proushtapadi or
utsarjanam should be done earlier.
3. Gautama in the same way - After doing upakarma on Sravani or on Proushtapadi, Vedas should
be studied for 4 or 5 months or for the period of Dakshinayanam at least; this study should be
done every year. Bodhayana - After doing Upakarma on Sravana Purnima or on Ashadha Purnima
day, utsarjanam should be done on Pousha Purnima or on Magha Purnima day.
4. Yagnavalkya - Upakarma should be done when the crops are fertile, as per Grihya, on Sravana
Purnima or on Sravana star day or on Panchami day with Hasta star.
5. In Smrityarthasara the position is clarified thus: Upakarma should be done as per ones family
practice on Sravana Purnima, on Sravana star in Sravana month, Panchami, Hasta star, day when
Panchami and Hasta star occur together, Bhadrapada Purnima, Sravana star of that month, Hasta,
Panchami, day when Panchami and Hasta star occur together.
6. In Kaladarsa also When sun is in Simharasi, persons of Taitriya branch should do upakarma on
Sravana Purnima day and Rigvedis on Sravana star day. If this does not happen, it should be done
on Hasta cum Panchami day. Upakarma should not be done on day of eclipse or day when sun
changes rasi (month beginning - sankramana). If sun is not in Simharasi, Taitriyas should do on
Proushtapada Purnima and Rigvedis on Sravana star day. They can also do on Hasta star day in
Bhadrapada month.
7. Gargya - Taitriyas should do upakarma on day when Purnima is there at sunrise; Rigvedis on day
when Sravana star is there at sunrise. In case of eclipse or sankramana, upakarma should not be
done on that day.
8. Gobila - Taitriyas should do upakarma in Sravana month on day when Purnima is there at sunrise;
Rigvedis on day when Sravana star is there at sunrise; Samavedis on Hasta star day. Samavedis
should do utsarjanam in forenoon in Pushya star and upakarma in afternoon in Hasta star.
Knowers of Veda say that upakarma should be done in afternoon and utsarjanam in forenoon. In
upakarma and utsarjanam in the prescribed time Rishis in darbha grass form should be
worshipped.
9. Samavedis do upakarma in Kanya month in Krishna paksha on Hasta star day, in case Simha
Bhadrapada month is defective with moudhyam etc. (Moudhyam refers to the travel of the planet
not in the prescribed path, but in a contrary path). Then the time of evening when Hasta star is
there for three muhurtas should be taken. In case there is no defect in Simha Bhadrapada, it is
done in Sukla paksha in Hasta star in sangavantam (end of period of three muhurtas since dawn).

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10. In Sangraham - In sukla paksha Hasta star should be there in early morning and in kishna paksha
it should extend three muhurtas in evening. In case Hasta star joins Chitra star, it should extend for
three muhurtas since dawn.
11. In Tithidarpanam also Rig, Yajur and Sama vedis should do upakarma in Sravana month
respectively in Sravana star at Oudayiki (dawn), Purnima till sangavantam and Hasta star till
sangavantam.
12. Vriddha Gargya - Knowers of tithi say that Oudayika (dawn) time is time extending at least upto a
ghatika beyond sangavam (3 muhurtas since dawn). Garga - If Purnima extends beyond
sangavam the next day, it is suitable for upakarma. In another Smriti, If the junction of Purnima and
Pratipada (prathama) occurs after sangavam before noon, upakarma and samidadhanam should
be done that day. If this junction occurs before sangavam, upakarma should be done on that day
and Samidadhana the next day. This is the rule for upakarma.
13. In another place it is stated about Yajushas - If Sravana Purnima extends beyond sangavam it
may be considered as Oudayiki; otherwise not.
14. Hence upakarma for Yajushas is in Purnima extending at least a little time beyond 12 ghatikas
(one ghatika is 24 minutes) from dawn. Upakarma for Samagas is in Hasta star extending at least
a little time beyond 12 ghatikas; in case of defects like moudhyam in Simha Bhadrapada, it should
be done in Kanya month in Krishna paksha in Hasta star extending at least 6 ghatikas in evening.
Upakarma for Rigvedis is in Sravana star extending at least 2 ghatikas from dawn.
15. In Sangraham the same way - Upakarma should be done in Sravana star extending at least 2
ghatikas from dawn; it will be fruitful. In Paddhati the same way - Aasvalayana sakhis should do
upakarma in Sravana star extending at least 2 ghatikas from dawn.
16. Gargya - If sankramana or eclipse occurs before midnight, upakarma should not be done that day;
if it occurs after midnight there is no defect.
17. Vasishtha - If Sravana Purnima occurs during malamasa (adhikmasa), pollution after birth,
pollution after death, eclipse, sankramana and Guru Sukra moudhya, upakarma should be done on
Proushtapada Purnima or Ashadha Purnima. If Sravani has defect, Proushtapadi should be
chosen; if Proushtapadi also is defective, Ashadhi should be chosen; if all three are defective, it
should be done on Sravani itself.
18. Vyasa - Out of Sravani, Ashadhi and Proushtapadi, if the former is defective, upakarma should be
done on the latter day. If all three are defective it should be done on Sravani itself. Due to
Aapasthambhas rule, as Sravani is important, it should be done on Sravani itself, leaving out
Bhadrapada and Ashadha Pournami. Bhargava said that for dvijas doing study of Vedas, as
upakarma is part of study, it should certainly be observed. If it occurs when the sun is in Kataka, it
should not be done. It should be done only when the sun is in Simha. The purnima occurring
before Amavasya of Simha month is called Sravani. Upakarma should be done on that day,
whether sun is in Simha or not. Such contradictions are to be resolved with different places in view
- In areas to the south of Narmada, upakarma should be done when the sun is in Kataka. In the
northern areas it should be done when the sun is in Simha. Andhras, Maharashtrians,
Kannadigas, Kayasthas these are in southern part; others are in areas north of Narmada,
according to the elders.
19. Vriddha Manu - The first upakarma should not be done during moudhya of Guru and Sukra and in
malamasa; if he does he will be destroyed.
20. Gautama says that as Manu has laid down upakarma as important, the first upakarma can also be
done. This means that it can be done by doing santhi.
21. Brihaspati - The first upakarma should be done in Sravanam, Proushtapadam or Ashadham, free
from defect. If all three months are defective, it should be done in Sravana itself after doing santhi
with homam, japa and danam with mantras as in Grihayagna.

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22. In Paddhatigrantha - In case of Guru moudhyam, santi homam should be done to Guru with the
mantra Brihaspate Adhiyat. In case of Sukra moudhyam, santi homam should be done to Sukra
with the mantra Pravachchukraya. In case of malamasa, santi homam should be done to
Chandra with the mantra Aapyayaswa. In case of solar eclipse and sankramanam, santi homam
should be done to Sun with the mantras, Chitandevanam, Udutyanjatavedasam, Suryodevim,
Udvayam, Aasatyena and Devovah. In case of lunar eclipse, santi homam should be done to
Chandra with six mantras including Somadhenum and mantra, Navonavah. After santi homam,
the upakarma homam should be done.
23. When sun is in Kataka rasi, the first upakarma should not be done; it should be done only when
sun is in Simha.
24. In Sarvabhoumiyam, it is stated that passage like even in case of moudhyam, balyam,
vardhakam for Guru and Sukra, upakarma should be done in Sravani like a nitya karma is to be
taken to mean that if the sakhadheesa (deity presiding over a sakha, branch of Veda) is strong,
upakarma can be done.
25. In Sarvabhoumiyam itself - Guru, Sukra, Kuja and Budha are the sakhadheesas for Rik, Yajur,
sama and Atharva sakhas. When the sakhadheesa is powerful, study of that sakha is auspicious.
Passages like: If either Guru or Sukra, who is not sakhadheesa is having moudhyam and if the
other who is sakhadheesa is in his own rasi, his favourable rasi or friendly rasi or if they have
attained moudhyam in their own rasi, moudhya defect is not there mean that if sukra is strong
Yajushas can do upakarma even in moudhya of Guru. Similar in case of moudhyam of Sukra etc.
Only if the sakhadheesa is powerless, upakarma should not be done in cases of defects like
moudhyam. Some say that even if sakhadheesa is strong and if defect is there in all three
months, upakarma should be done in Sravana month after doing santhi.
26. This upakarma is common to grihastha and brahmachari, as Manu and others have prescribed
upakarma among grihastha dharmas; Devala states, upakarma and utsargam are prescribed for
vanaprasthas also; also for grihasthas and brahmacharis studying Veda for retention; Vyasa
states, Grihastha should also do the study like a brahmachari with discipline; Sounaka states,
One who has completed samavarthanam (ceremony of completion of Vedic learning from Guru)
should do as per rules for brahmachari; one who has not had samavarthanam should do as per
common sense. Here as the word kalpa has been used, for grihastha, mekhala (girdle), deerskin
and staff are not necessary; but non - contradictory acts like wearing of upavita, tarpana and
homam etc. should be done.
27. Bharadvaja sets out the rule for wearing upavita - After bath, pure, after washing feet, in a clean
place, wearing pavitram in the hand, after achamanam, sitting on seat of darbha grass, silent,
after doing Pranayamam, chanting mantra with Devata, upavita should be worn in the neck.
Upavita should be lifted with right hand over the head. For grihastha and vanaprastha, mantra and
achamanam are prescribed for each upavita.
28. Sandilya - No action should be carried out with wet clothes on; if done it will be demonic act;
hence it should certainly be avoided. In upakarma new upavita etc. should be worn. Whether the
one worn earlier is new or old, it should be discarded.
29. In Smritisaram - In upakarma, mounjee (girdle of darbha), yagnopavita, katisutram (waistband),
cloth etc. - all these should be worn new.
30. In all the four vratas (vows), it is stipulated this way. Girdle, deerskin, staff, clth, yagnopavita these should be worn new in a vrata, discarding the old.
31. Kapardi - In Sravana Purnima Taittiriya sakhis should offer tarpanam of til (gingelly) water three
times to Prajapati and other devas.
32. In upakarma tonsuring of head is essential for brahmacharis, as Vaikhanasa sutra says: In
Sravana Purnima tonsuring should be done for the disciple; Smriti passages like: No tonsure for 3
rutus (6 months) after Choulam; in the same way no tonsure without upakarma in 6 months after
upanayanam. In this, defects of tithi, day of week etc. should not be considered, as Vasishtha
says: In karma laid down by sastra, tonsure should be done without consideration of defect of
time; in case of death of father and mother also it is the same way.
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33. Thus every year upakarma should be observed on Sravani. Katyayana - When brahmanas do
upakarma with utsarjanam every year, Vedas gain more power and completeness. When
brahmanas do anything even sportingly with Vedas full of power, it is cause for success in all their
activities always.

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Discussion of Anadhyaya (non-study of Vedas):


1. Manu - After doing Veda utsarjanam in this manner as per sastras outside the village, study
should not be done that day, that night and the next day; or at least that day and night. After this
non - study, Vedas should be studied in sukla paksha and Vedangas in Krishna paksha as per
rules.
2. Doing upakarma and study in this way is common to snathakas (those who have graduated from
Gurukul) and brahmacharis. The non - study periods, now going to be explained, must be avoided
by the disciple as well as the guru. No study in three days during upakarma and utsarjanam. No
study for one day during ashtakas and end of rutus (two - month seasons). Three days during
upakarma and one day in utsargam as per Vignaneswariyam. Non - study for one day on the day
of hoisting of Indras flag (Bhadrapada sukla dvadasi) and lowering of the flag (Aasvayuja sukla
dvadasi).
3. Vignaneswariyam says that Gautamas instruction, Non - study for 3 days if dog, mongoose, frog,
snake or cat crosses the path; also vipravasa (dwelling away from ones home) should be done.
refers to first study.
4. Manu - The knowers of Vedic study say that no study should be done during rainy season if there
is strong wind with high noise in the night or duststorm in the day. Manu also says that no study be
done in case of lightning, thunder, rain, comet for period of Aakalam. The time of 60 ghatikas from
the time of lightning etc. is called Aakalam. If lightning etc. occur during twilight in rainy season,
they become causes of Aakalika non - study.
5. Manu himself says that it is not in other times - If these happen during twilight then it is Aakalika
Anadhyayam. In seasons other than rainy season if there is a lot of cloud it will be Aakalika
Anadhyayam. Dropping of thunderbolt, earthquake, and trouble to planets if these happen in any
season, it will be Aakalika Anadhyayam.
6. One should not even think in mind about Veda in a village where there is corpse; in front of one
who is opposed to dharma; where there is weeping sound; in a crowd; in water; in midnight; while
passing urine or stools; in impure state and while taking food in sraadha. Three days of
Anadhyayana when accepting danam in Ekoddishta sraadham like Nava sraadham; when son is
born to the king and hence impure; during eclipse. Three days during eclipse is to be related to
the start and end of eclipse, as Smriti says, one day of Anadhyayana in eclipse of sun and moon.
7. Vedic study is prohibited while one is lying down, keeping one foot on the other, tying feet with
cloth and eating non - vegetarian food and is impure (due to birth of child) food.
8. Anadhyayana in snow, in noise of arrows, in the two twilights, in Amavasya, Chaturdasi, Purnima
and Ashtami, in dusty condition, when fire is burning in different directions, in the noise or presence
of fox, dog, donkey and camel. Anadhyayana close to cremation ground, near village, in cow - pen,
wearing cloth used during union and after accepting danam in sraadham. Anadhyayana if any
danam is accepted with hand in sraadham, whether alive or lifeless; as the hand is the mouth for a
brahmana, acceptance of danam with hand is same as eating food.
9. Anadhyayana in quarrel; fisticuff etc.; in army, in armed warfare; immediately after food; during
indigestion; after vomiting; in sour mouth. Anadhyayana when permission is not taken from guest;
when there is heavy wind; when blood flows from ones body; when injured with a weapon. When
the sound of Sama Veda is heard; after studying Upanishad, which comes at the end of Veda; after
studying Arunaketukam; one should not study Rik and Yajur Vedas.
10. Manu talks about Anadhyayana of Rik and Yajur Vedas when Sama Veda sound is heard - Rik
Veda is of Devas; Yajur Veda is of humans; Sama Veda is of Pitrus; hence the sound of Sama
veda is like incongruent.
11. Anadhyayana for one day if cow, frog, cat, dog, snake, mongoose or mouse cross between guru
and disciple. Anadhyayana if the place is unclean or if ones body is unclean. As Anadhyayana is
strictly mentioned in these two cases, it is clear that in other cases Adhyayana can proceed with
permission in adversity.
12. Narada - Anadhyayana during Ayanam, Vishuvam, Sayanadvadasi, Uthanadvadasi, Manvadis
and yugadis.
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13. Manvadis are mentioned in Matsyapurana - Asvayuja sukla navami, Karthika sukla dvadasi,
Chaitra sukla tritiya, Bhadrapada sukla tritiya, Phalguna Amavasya, Pushya sukla ekadasi,
Ashadha sukla dasami, Magha sukla saptami, Sravana Krishna ashtami, Ashadha purnima,
Karthika purnima, Phalguna purnima, Chaitra purnima, Jyeshta purnima - these 14 days are
Manvadis. Danam given on these days will bring complete benefit.
14. Yugadis are enumerated in Vishnupurana - Vaisakha sukla tritiya, Karthika sukla navami,
Proushtapada Krishna trayodasi, Magha Amavasya - these are the four yugadis.
15. Vyasa - No study in the shade of certain trees including kapitha.
16. Haaritha - No study on Mahanavami, dvadasi, Bharani, Parvas, Akshayatritiya and Rathasaptami;
also during application of oil on body and bath. Here dvadasi refers to Sravana dvadasi and
Bharani refers to Bhadrapada Bharani, as confirmed by Vriddhagargya - Two stars should be
avoided during study. They are - Sravana during dvadasi, Bharani in Mahalaya paksha.
17. Satyatapas - In sukla dvadasi of Ashadham, Bhadrapadam and Karthikam, if stars Anusha,
Sravana and Revathi join, no study of Vedas.
18. Gargya - In rainy season, on days of 16 stars from Anusha to Mrigasirsha, no study for 3 days in
case of heavy rain and 1 day in case of light rain.
19. Jabali - If one studies on Prathama day he will lose sharpness; if on Chaturdasi day his grasp of
Vedas will go down; hence these days should be avoided for Vedic study. Hanuman says in
Ramayana - Sita who is normally thin has become thinner due to separation from Rama, like the
knowledge of one who has the habit of studying Veda on prathama day.
20. Bodhayana - In the two twilights and in Maharatri, no study. The sandhya in morning - 3 ghatikas
and the sandhya in evening - 3 ghatikas; Maharatri is 4 ghatikas.
21. Vruddhagautama - Scholars say that no study should be done for one year if elephant or tiger
goes in between guru and disciple; if hare, the eater of dog and goat cross, then six months.
22. Gautama - One days sudy in time of duststorm during day; noisy winds in night; the sound of
cracker, beri, mrudangam, chariot and grieving person; the sound of dog, fox and donkey; red
rainbow, dew, sighting of clouds in unexpected time; passing of urine and stools; maharatri; two
sandhyas; in water; when country is in trouble; danger of fire; end of Veda; vomiting; food during
sraadham or seemantham.
23. Aapasthambha - No Vedic study in road junctions; not within samyaprasa distance from
cremation ground (if a peg used for tying is thrown, the distance it will travel before dropping on
ground is called samyaprasam). There is no prohibition if a land which was earlier cremation
ground is now a village or field. The actual place of cremation should be avoided and not a
distance of samyaprasam.
24. Aapasthambha again - Anadhyayana in entire night if thunder is heard during evening sandhya. If
lighting is there at that time, no study for the part of night till waking from sleep (3 yamas only). In
case of lightning in daybreak or in time when a cow in samyaprasam distance can be identified as
black or red, then no study the next day till Pradosham.
25. Aapasthambha again - No study in day till Pradosham if sound of thunder is heard in dahram time
of apara ratri. Some say that no study even if thunder sound is heard after midnight. (The third
part of night is apara ratri. The last third part of apara ratri is dahram.) This is in rainy season.
About other seasons, he adds - The season other than rainy season is called Apartu in that
particular area. Three days of Anadhyayana in case of lightning, thunder and rain occurring
together in Apartu. If one or two of these three occur, Aakalam (60 ghatikas) Anadhyayana.
26. In Smrityarthasara - Vedangas, Nyaya, Mimamsa and Dharmasastras should be studied on days
other than chaturdasi, ashtami, parvas and prathama. Scholars say that in case Anadhyaya tithi is
there either at dawn or dusk for 3 muhurtas (6 ghatikas), no study during that day and night. Some
people in some areas say that Anadhyayana bar extends only for the ghatikas of the Anadhyaya
tithi and not beyond that time. If Amavasya is found even for a short time in the day time of
Chaturdasi, Anadhyayanam in the previous Adhika trayodasi.

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27. In Smrityarthasara again There is no Anadhyaya for Pranava, vyahritis, Gayatri and Gayatri siras
and for mantras in nitya and occasional karmas, in vows (vratas), in yagna, in kratu, in karmas of
special intent (kamya karmas) and in Archana of Devatas.
28. Aapasthambha - Anadhyaya is for learning mantras only and not for using them in karmas.
29. In Sangraha - Mantras other than Sri Rudram, Pavamani and mantras with regulation should be
chanted little during Anadhyaya and very little in parva.
30. Manu - There is no Anadhyayana in Upakarma, Brahma yagna (in Vedanga) and in Homa
mantras.
31. In Kurmapurana - There is no Anadhyayana for Vedangas, Itihasas, Puranas and Dharma sastras.
They should not however be studied in Parvas.
32. In Kaladarsa - If there is sankramanam in the night, Anadhyayana during that night and the
previous and following day times. If there is sankramanam in the day, Anadhyayana during that
day and the previous and following nights. In case prohibited tithi is present for more than 2
muhuthams during the day, that tithi is Anadhyayana.; where there is doubt, follow Anadhyayana. If
the next tithi is prohibited, no study during the previous night.
33. Bodhayana - same as above.
34. Haaritha - No study in the night previous to the prohibited day and also in Chaturmasya dvitiyas.
Ashadha, Karthika and Phalguna Krishna paksha dvitiyas are called Chaturmasya dvitiyas.
35. Gautama - The three days from Purnami in Karthika, Phalguna and Ashadha months and in
Ashtakas, three days from saptami - Anadhyayana.
36. Vruddhagargya spells out Pradosha Anadhyayas - In case of saptami or trayodasi within two
yamas of the night, it is called Pradosha. That period is prohibited for all study. If chaturthi occurs
within 9 ghatikas of night, it is Pradosha. That is period prohibited for Vedic study. If the beginning
or end of trayodasi occurs at least for a short while in the evening, it is Pradosham. No sound
should be pronounced then. One yamam at the beginning of the night when trayodasi occurs is
Pradosham. The wise man should keep silent during that time. Taking food, uniting with woman,
travel, oil bath, darshan of Vishnu and other auspicious acts are prohibited during Pradosham.
37. Vruddhamanu - No study in the night before midnight on trayodasi, saptami and chaturthi days; if
what is studied is not to be forgotten. If trayodasi occurs in the night before close of two yamams,
no karma should be done. Except Sivapuja all karmas during that early part of night will get
spoiled.
38. In Skandam - On trayodasi day after sunset Pradosham is for three muhurtams. One should not
even think of desires during that time. Silence should be observed till midnight. During Pradosham,
on Sunday and in chararasi, even if a meagre part of loan is repaid, the balance loan will be settled
soon; no doubt.
39. Likhita - Anadhyaya periods for brahmanas are like holes (defects); if study is done during those
periods, the Veda learnt will drain away like water from a hole in a pot. Rakshasas take away his
wealth, Veda, fame, strength and the fruit of Veda.
40. In Smrityarthasara - No study in early night if chaturthi occurs for 9 ghatikas in early night or if
saptami or trayodasi occurs before midnight.
41. In different Smriti - No study during krishna paksha tritiyas of Phalgunam, Ashadham and
Karthikam and on Asvayuja sukla tritiya. Even a disciplined person should not study during
Anadhyayana period; if he does he becomes a thief. Yama takes away the intellect, life, wealth,
Veda, power and vigour of one who studies during Anadhyayana. Indra will hit with vajrayudha due
to fear of erosion of power of Veda. The breaker of rule will finally become brahmarakshasa; he will
certainly go to naraka. Knowers of ancient stories quote Yamas words - One who teaches Veda
being impure and one who learns Veda being impure, one who studies during Anadhyayana
period, his life I take away; or at least his intellect. Hence even a disciplined person should not
study during Anadhyayana period.

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Danam (ceremonial giving with mantra):


1. Sruti - All beings eulogise that danam alone is the way for liberation. There is nothing more difficult
than danam; hence great people sport in danam. Another Sruti passage - Danam becomes
dakshina for yagas; hence it is the best. All beings in the world live on the support of the giver.
Persons defeated enemies with danam. Through danam enemies become friends. Everything is
established in danam. Hence danam is said to be the best way for liberation.
2. Manu - One who is begged for danam should give at least a little without grumbling. It may so
happen that the requesting person may be able to release the giver from all sins.
3. Yagnavalkya - Every day danam should be given to a proper person as per ones ability. On
occasions like eclipse danam should specially be given. If anybody begs, danam should be given
with faith as per ability. A wise man who is keen on his welfare should give cow, land, til, gold etc.
to a suitable and worthy person; not to unsuitable person.
4. Devala - Brahmanas say that danam is described in four ways in Vedas - dhruvam, aajasrikam,
kamyam and naimittikam. Dhruvam is establishing drinking water fountain, flower garden, tank
etc.; this will confer all desired fruit. Danam given daily is called Aajasrikam. Danam given for
getting child, success, prosperity, woman, boys is Kamyam. Naimittikam is threefold - dependent
on time, action or money. It is either with or without homam.
5. Vyasa - Danam is fourfold - nityam, naimittikam, kamyam and vimalam. Danam given daily to a
brahmana who has not helped in any manner, as per ability without expectation of fruit is called
nityam. Danam given to scholars for removal of sins is naimittikam. Rishis call danam as kamyam
if given for getting child, success, prosperity, swarga. Danam given to Brahmavettas (knowers of
Brahman) with devotion for pleasure of God is Vimalam; this is auspicious. Danam is satvikam if
given for the sake of giving in holy place in auspicious time to a suitable person who has not
helped in any manner. Danam is rajasam if given as return help or with expectation of fruit and
given with trouble. Danam is tamasam if given without observing rules of place and time and
suitability of recipient and given without honour, with disrespect. The fruit of satvic danas is
enjoyed in state of Deva, that of rajasic danas in state of human and that of tamasic danas in state
of animal. It is proper to weep loudly as if lost to thieves, even if one day is gone without danam.
The wealth is useless if not spent for dharma, for enjoyment or for fame. Hence if money is
received with or without ones effort, it should be given to brahmanas. One should not proudly talk
about his dharma. If one has the ability, but still does not give to a brahmana who begs piteously,
that fool will go to hell. The two letters Naasti, Naasti (I dont have) uttered in previous birth reach
him again in changed form as two letters Dehi, Dehi (Give). One who stops others from giving to
cow, brahmana, agni and Devata will become cow etc.
6. Manu - The giver of water receives satisfaction; giver of food, unremitting pleasure; giver of til,
desired child; giver of lamp, good eyes; giver of land, land; giver of gold, long life; giver of house,
excellent houses; giver of silver, good appearance; giver of cloth, realm of Chandra; giver of horse,
the realm of Asvini devatas; giver of bull, a lot of wealth; giver of cow, the realm of Sun; giver of
vehicle and bed, good wife; giver of fearlessness, prosperity; giver of foodgrain, constant
happiness; giver of Veda, its equivalent. Of danas like water, food, cow, land, cloth, til, gold, ghee
etc., dana of Veda is the best. Whichever object is given with whichever desire, he receives that
object in the next birth, worshipped by it and with the desire fulfilled.
7. It is not enough if the giver of danam worships the recipient alone; both giver and recipient should
also worship the material given, says Manu. One who receives a holy material and one who gives
a holy material, both reach swarga. One should not be surprised at his own tapas; No lying after
performing yaga. Even in grief, one should not blame brahmanas. After giving danam, one should
not talk about it. Yaga is reduced in merit by lying; tapas by surprise; life by criticism of brahmana;
danam by talking about. Even water should not be given to paitala vratika, bhagavratika and one
who does not know Veda. Even if the money is earned by proper means, if given to these three
persons, it will trouble the giver and the recipient in the next world. The foolish giver and recipient
drown and are destroyed, like one who wishes to cross river in a raft made of stone.

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8. Manu describes paitala vratika and bhagavratika - Showing external symbols of dharma, ever
avaricious, treacherous, hiding faults behind cloak of goodness, deceiving everyone - this is paitala
vratika. Looking downwards, harming others deceitfully, ever keen on acting selfishly, with false
devotion this is bhagavratika.
9. Manu again - Brahmanas who are bhagavratikas and marjara vratikas go to hell called
Andhatamisram. One who lives wearing only the cloak of asramis like brahmachari, but breaking
the rules of that asram, incurs sin; gets animal birth also.
10. Yagnavalkya - Cow with golden horns, silver hoofs, cloth, bronze vessel and dakshina and of good
quality and milk - producing should be given in danam. One who gives thus lives in swarga for as
many years as the number of hair on the cows body. If it is lactating cow it enables upto seven
generations to reach good state. One who gives in danam ubhayatomukhi (pregnant) cow will live
in swarga for as many years as the number of hair on the body of cow and calf. When the head
and the two legs of calf are seen during delivery, that cow is called bhumi, till the calf drops to the
ground.
11. One who gives in danam cow even without golden horns etc., which is not diseased, not thin, with
young calf or not barren, attains high position in swarga. Assisting one who is in trouble or those
with disease, worshipping Devatas, washing the feet of brahmanas and cleaning their food
leavings are equivalent to danam of cow.
12. Yagnavalkya again - Giver of danam of lamp, horse, food, cloth, water, til, ghee, public resthouse,
kanya, gold, bull will go to swarga.
13. House, foodgrains, fearlessness, footwear, umbrella, garland, sandalpaste, vehicle, tree, desired
object, bed - one who gives these in danam will attain great comfort. Veda is of the form of all
dharmas. Danam of Veda is the best of danams. Giver of Veda in danam will reach Brahmaloka,
never to leave. The danam of Veda makes the recipient possess it, but Veda also does not leave
the giver, as it is not possible.
14. Danam of dharma is also mentioned in smritis - Danam of religious merit (punya) can be given to
Devatas, gurus and parents. Sin should never be given in danam; If given, it will increase. Because
of greed etc, the recipient also gets sin. The evil - minded one who receives sin knowing that it is
large, will incur so much sin; as smriti says, he will get sin equal to the giver, or twice or 1000 times
or immeasurable sin.
15. Saatatapa - One who gives til, is clean with bath of til, does til homam, or gives danam of til will
live for a hundred years.
16. Samvartha - Danam given to srotriya (brahmana well versed in Vedas), born in good clan and who
asks is of great strength. That which is most liked in the world, that which is abundant at home
should be given to person of good qualities, if the giver is desirous of having it without decline. One
who gives tambulam (betel leaf) becomes wise and handsome. The right disposal for wealth
obtained with great effort and more prescious than life is danam; rest is all danger. Wealth not
used in danam, enjoyment, fame and dharma is useless. When one has one handful of food, if a
beggar comes, why cannot half of it be given to him. Who is going to get wealth as desired and
when. One who gives agni with a lot of firewood during winter gets wisdom, good form and
improvement of agni in stomach (jatharagni). One who gives girl decorated with jewels and cloth
goes to swarga. Lactating cow, horse, til, elephant, chariot, maidservant, house, girl, gold, gems danams of these ten are called Mahadanams. One who gives oil, amla etc. gets happiness and
comfort always. One who gives two decorated and attractive bulls, along with plough and the bar
will become free from sins and live in swarga, with all wishes fulfilled, for as many years as the
number of hair on the bulls. One who gives the best and vegetated land and ubhayatomukhi
(pregnant) cow to a brahmana well versed in Vedas, will live in swarga for as many years as the
roots of the plants and the hair on the cow. The first product of Agni is gold; Land is Vishnus;
Cows are the children of sun. Hence one who gives these three in effect gives all three worlds. Of
all danams, danam of food is the best; as food is the life for all beings. The giver of mruttika
(mud), cowdung, darbha grass, upavitam and upper cloth to a good brahmana will be born in a
good family. The giver of tambulam (betel leaf) and adjuncts for cleaning of teeth, bath, cleansing
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of feet and cleansing of organs of excretion will get purity of mind. One who does tonsure and
cutting of nails for brahmacharis and sanyasis will get good eyes. One who lights lamp in temple,
houses of brahmanas and road junctions will get knowledge and good eyes. If a brahmana begs
another for some material, that material should be given. Even if that object is of meagre value,
equal to grass or piece of wood, that danam is equal to danam of cow.
17. Manu - They call danam of cow, land and vidya as Atidanam. Of danams, danam of food is very
good. Danam of vidya is even better. Of vidyas, Brahmavidya is the best. Hence the giver of
Brahmavidya gets the benefit of swarga and moksha (liberation). Danam of this whole earth is not
equal to the danam of knowledge and dharma to those who do not have them.
18. In Smritisara samuchchayam - All yagas performed with generous dakshinas on one side; saving
the life of a living being afflicted with fear on the other side; even if the fruit of the Mahayagas may
diminish at some time, there is no diminution in the fruit of granting security.
19. Sandilya - All danams should be given only to those who do not ask. Food, vidya and girl - these
three should not be given to one who does not ask. If what is promised is not given, or if what is
given is taken away, the punya accrued from danam right from birth will be destroyed. One who
stops giving to cow, agni and brahmanas will be born 100 times as animal and then gets the births
of chandala. The giver of food during famine and of gold and cloth during prosperous period lives
in swarga in a high position.
20. Devala - The quantity of the material given in danam is not the reason for greatness of danam.
Faith and devotion add to or detract from the danam. Cleanliness of body, purity of mind, kindness
to those who ask, respect and freedom from anger are called faih in danam. The six elements of
danam are the giver, recipient, faith, material given as per dharma, place and time. The giver is
eulogised if he is free from sin and disease, of a dharmic mind, desirous of giving, peaceful, pure,
not censured and of auspicious deeds. As food, vidya, girl, cloth, cow, land, gold, horse and
elephant are superior, danams of these are called uttama (superior) danams. Danam of cloth,
house, eatables and medicine is called madhyama (intermediate) danam. Danam of footwear,
servant, vehicle,umbrella, vessel, seat, lamp, firewood and fruit is called charama (low) danam.
By talking frequently and highly and regretfully of yaga, danam and Vedic study done by oneself,
he will lose the fruit; his lustre will diminish and he will come to grief. Hence one should not
unnecessarily talk about the punya he has done.
21. Brihaspati - Hence danams - santhikam, asisham and poushtikam should be given in a humble
manner.
22. Aapasthambha - All danams must be given with water. In yaga this rule does not apply.
23. The reasons for begging are Acharya, marriage, yaga, desire to look after parents, non performance of disciplines like Agnihotram etc. One should give considering the qualities of the
begging individual and as per ones ability, as there will be blemish if not given. Begging of garland,
sandalpaste etc. for pleasing the senses will not be reason for danam; if not given, there is no
blemish. Example - When wife with dharma and child is alive, second marriage cannot be reason
for begging; if there is no son, it can then be reason.
24. In Bhavishyottara Puranam - Those who give gold to the one who prays, vidya to urdhvaretas
(self - controlled) and girl to one who does not have a son reach high worlds.
25. Gautama - Danam is necessary to one who begs for gurudakshina, marriage and medicine, one
with no livelihood, one who does yaga daily, one who does Vedic study, wayfarer and one who is
poor after performing Viswajit yaga; this danam is given in yaga outside the yagnavedi (altar); if not
given, blemish attaches. For other persons who beg, danam of food should be done. Even if
promised, no danam should be given for adharma. Angry man, one who cannot distinguish
between good and bad owing to too much of pleasure, one who is afraid, sufferer, idiot, boy, old
man, intoxicated person, mad man - as the words of these people are false, there is no sin for the
giver for not giving even after promise.
26. Bodhayana - Beings are dependent on food. Veda says food is prana (life breath). Hence danam
of food should be done, as food is very good havis (oblation).

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27. Vyasa - Danam is giving with faith when a suitable person is available. That will give enjoyment
and liberation. One who gives land to Ahitagni brahmana, will reach very good position free from
grief. There is no danam higher than land. Danam of food is equal to that. Danam of Vidya is
higher than that.
28. In Bharatam in Aanusanikam - Devas and Rishis praise food. Worldly activities and yagas are
established in food alone. There is no danam equal to danam of food; there never will be. One who
wishes for wealth should feed high souled brahmana and bhikshu, even by troubling ones family.
Of danams, danam of water is very good, said Manu. Hence wells, tanks and lakes should be dug.
In summer the person, whose water supply is available without hindrance, will never undergo any
trouble. One who wishes for strength, fame and nourishment should be pure and good in mind and
give danam of ghee to brahmanas.
29. Upamanyu - One, who gives Sivalingam or figure of Siva in gold or silver to devotee of Siva after
performing Pooja with devotion, will get merit of the best of all danams; after the fall of body he will
become head of Sivaganas and be happy with them. One who gives the figure of Salagrama with
dakshina to devotee of Vishnu after performing Pooja with devotion will get merit of the danam of
land of 50 crore yojanas; after the fall of body he will go to Vishnuloka. One who gives danam, as
per his capacity, of figure of Vasudeva in gold, on the bed of Adisesha, along with Lakshmidevi and
wearing conch and discus will be honoured in Vishnuloka.
30. Vyasa - Danam of cow, land and gold and yama and niyama (control of internal and external sense
organs) is not equal to one - sixteenth of danam of house. One who builds matham with stones
near temple of Siva will go to Sivaloka and live for many kalpas. One who rescues cow from slush,
brahmana woman from service and brahmana from lack of livelihood and murder will be rid of sin
committed from birth to death. Performing ceremonies to unattended corpse, performing Pooja to
unattended Lingam and helping the poor and blind will remove all sins.
31. Yogisvara - One who looks at his reflection in cows ghee together with gold in vessel of copper
and gives it to brahmana will be rid of all sins and reach good state. One, who takes money from
evil persons and gives it to the good and helps them, releases himself and the owner of the money
from sins; this is certain.

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Dana Mantras:
1. In Smritiratnam - mantra for danam of kanya (daughter): I give this beautiful kanya with golden
jewels to you, who is in the form of Vishnu, with desire to attain Brahmaloka. Mantra for danam of
book: I give this book, the seat of all knowledge, the source of wisdom and having good writing.
May Saraswati be pleased. In danam of Salagramam: Please accept, O best among brahmanas!
this stone, born in the mountain of salagrama, remover of sin, along with golden flowers (coins). In
danam of figure of Narayana: O Narauana Kesava, wearing conch and discus, and lord of worlds,
with this danam please remove my great disease. In Uma Maheswara danam: May Maheswara,
wearing elephant skin, creator of worlds, together with Parvati and of auspicious form bless me. As
this world full of moving and non - moving objects is of the form of Siva and Sakthi, with this danam
Bhagavan may bless me with all auspiciousness. In Sivalinga danam: May Bhagavan, living in
Kailasa, the lord of Gauri and of the form of Linga, grant me my desires. In danam of food - Food
is of the form of all devas. Hence please remove my sins. In danam of sugar - Sugar, element of
nectar, essence of sugarcane, is pleasing to Sun. Hence please remove my sins. In danam of
ghee pot after seeing ones shadow: O ghee! Please remove sins from all my body parts for
elimination of Alakshmi. Please grant me Lakshmi and nourishment. In danam of peas: The peas
proected by Hari earlier in Govardhana hill are capable of destroying all sins. Hence remove my
sins. In danam of urid dal: As Mashas (urid dal) were born of Vishnus body while in Madhuvana,
they are pleasing to Pitrus. Hence please remove my sins. In danam of beans: Mudgas (beans)
are pleasing to Brahma. Hence remove my sins. In danam of rice: Annam (food) is got by cooking
of rice used for Vaisvadevam. Annam enables the retention of life (prana) in beings. In tambula
danam: Arecanut is Brahma. Betel leaf is Vishnu. Lime is Iswara. By giving these may I get
wealth. In danam of vegetables: I give vegetables which satisfy all devas and humans. May I get
all desires and auspiciousness. In danam of water; By giving life to all beings water is of the form
of all. Hence please grant me punya of the greatest of all danas and removal of sins. In danam of
woollen shawl: I give this woollen shawl, which will relieve the fear and troubles of cold winds and
which is praiseworthy. Please remove my sins. In danam of footwear: I give this footwear, which
will protect from thorns etc. and give comfort in all places. Please remove my sins. In danam of
medicine: Medicine is the means of survival of beings and is eternal. By danam of medicine one
gets release from all sins. In danam of pumpkin gourd: Pumpkin gourd is having til and ghee.
Please remove my sins so that my sons and grandsons will grow. In danam of Sun: May Sun, who
is seated in lotus and holds lotuses in both hands, shines like lotus, has seven horses as mount,
teacher of world and has a crown, bless me. You are punya among punyas, auspiciousness
among various items of auspiciousness and worn by Vishnu. Hence please remove my sins. In
salagrama danam: In the wheel of the salagrama stone, all 14 worlds are present. Hence may
Vishnu become pleased with this danam. In danam of iron: O iron! Implements like plough are
subject to you; hence remove my sins. In danam of goat: O goat! You are part of yagas; also
vehicle of Agni. Hence remove my sins. In danam of copper: Copper cleanses, pleases all devas
and protects all. Hence remove my sins. In danam of bronze: Bronze is clean in both worlds,
suitable as vessel, pleasing to mind and it removes sins. Hence remove my sins. In danam of
umbrella: Umbrella protects from rain, wind and sun and gives fame. Hence may bhutas give me
comfort with this danam. In danam of hand - fan: Fan has Vayu as Devata and gives comfort
during summer. Hence always remove my sins. In danam of fruit: Fruit always gives the desired
fruit for men. Hence remove my sins. May my sons and grandsons grow. In danam of buffalo in
Brahmanda Purana: By giving buffalo, with calf, with milk, of good quality, decorated with red
flowers and cloth to a peaceful brahmana, one will overcome death. The buffalo of the form of
timely death with red coloured jewels should be given in danam in tail region. Please remove my
sins by this danam made as per this rule. In danam of vessel containing til, in Padma Purana: By
giving copper vessel full of til and with gold to a brahmana, one will be glorified in Brahmaloka. O
Deva Deva! O Jagannatha! O giver of desired fruit! I am giving this vessel full of til. In your
presence may I be changeless.

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2. Ten danas - Cow, land, til, gold, ghee, cloth, foodgrain, jaggery, silver, salt these ten are called
dasa danas. The mantras for them are: All fourteen worlds are present in cows body. Hence with
the dana of this cow give me peace. 1. This earth is the repository of all crops, brought out from
Patala by Varahamurthy and giver of limitless foodgrains. Please give me peace with this danam.
2.The tils born of Vishnus body remove sins always. O Kesava! Destroy my unbearable sins by
this tiladana. 3. Gold, born of Brahma and Agnis seed, gives fruit of immeasurable punya. 4.
Ghee is born of Kamadhenu, present in all yagas and food for Devas. Hence please give me
peace. 5.Cloth protects from cold, wind and heat and guards shame and is a decoration for the
body. Hence please give me peace. 6. Foodgrain gets the giver punya in this and next worlds and
enables retention of life of beings. Hence please give me peace. 7.The juice of sugarcane is the
sweetest. O jaggery! Give me always high wealth. 8. Silver born of the eyes of Siva is pleasing to
Pitrus, Vishnu and Siva. Hence please give me peace. 9.Salt is the first of tastes, best and it
increases strength and created by Brahma himself. Hence please give me peace.
3. Yagnavalkya tells about the form of material suitable for danam - Except for wife and son,
remaining wealth may be given in danam without offence to family. When descendant is there, all
wealth should not be given in danam. Danam promised to one should not be given to others.
4. Brihaspati - One should give in danam material remaining after ones need of food and cloth.
Giving in violation of this rule will not get its fruit.
5. Sankha and Likhita tell about the place and time for danam - During twilight hours, food, sexual
union, sleep, Vedic study, danam and accepting danam should not be done. Danam given in holy
places like Kurukshetra, Gaya, Amarakantak etc. is imperishable.
6. Vyasa - Dana given in times like Ayana, Vishuvam, solar eclipse, solar eclipse, sankramanam (sun
changing rasi) is undecaying. Danam given in holy places like Prayag, sacred areas, temples and
banks of rivers is imperishable.
7. Samvartha - Dana given in times like Ayana, Vishuvam, Vyatipatam, dinakshayam, solar and
lunar eclipse is undecaying. Amavasya, dvadasi and sankranti are creditable times; Sunday also.
In these times bath, japa, homa, giving food to brahmanas, fast and danam are all purifying.
8. Danam given on day of Purnima associated with the star of that month is ten times more fruitful.
Sraadham etc. performed on Yugadi and Manvadi days is also similar in value.
9. Yagnavalkya - Danam in Amavasya is 100 times more fruitful, that in evening is 1000 times, that in
Viahuvam is one lakh times and that in Vyatipatams is limitless.
10. Bharadvaja - Danam in Vyatipatham and Vaidhruti will give imperishable fruit. If on oneday two
tithis end, that day is called dinakshayam. Danam, japa, homa and bath in that time will give
specially good fruit.
11. Sumantu - If one gives cooked food to vanaprastha, tambulam to brahmachari and gold to sanyasi,
he will go to naraka. Cow, cloth, bed, girl - these should not be given as one intending for many; if
given the giver will not get the fruit of danam.
12. Yama - By not giving as promised and taking away what was given, all punya earned from birth will
be destroyed. One who tempts, but does not give; one who stops the giver; and one who boasts of
what he has given, share great sin. If one month lapses after determining to give, but failing to
give, then it should be increased by 100 times. Upto one year, it should be added 100 times per
month.
13. Narada - In case of brahmana, the planned danam should be given immediately. In case of delay
by one day, the danam should be increased twice; if 3 days, 6 times; if 10 days, 16 times; if one
month, 100 times; if one year, 1000 times. There is no expiation beyond one year; the giver will go
to hell. The dana material intended for a brahmana should be given to his descendant if he is not
available; otherwise his relative; otherwise to person of same caste; otherwise to his disciple. If that
is also not possible the material should be dropped in water.
14. Aapasthambha - Danas should be given in holy places, on auspicious occasions, at the close of
Prayaschittas like kruchra, and to a suitable recipient.

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15. Valmiki - Even by flying in the sky, going into Patala and roaming all over the earth, one cannot get
what he has not given in previous births. In swarga also, he gets what he had given before. He
enjoys what was given earlier. In this world also, he enjoys only what he had given before. There is
nothing like getting what was not given earlier.
16. The words of Aapasthambha, giving son in danam and selling him is prohibited; of Yagnavalkya,
except for sons, rest can be given in danam apply to the eldest son or only son. This is because
Manu and others have included among 12 types of sons, the son received as gift or bought and
Smriti says, except for son received as gift or born to oneself, others should not be accepted in
Kali yuga. Vasishtha also - The eldest son should not be given away, nor accepted; same with
only son. He is for extending the lineage. Wife should not give away or accept son without
permission of husband. One who accepts son should invite relatives, inform the king, do homam
with vyahritis; he should accept as son only a near - relative, close at hand.
17. In Bahuvruchabrahmanam, in the story of Sunassepa, it is stated that the eldest son should not be
given away.

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Persons suitable for Danam:


1. Manu - Brahmana even from birth becomes great. He is capable of protecting the dharmas of all
beings. All wealth on earth belongs as if to brahmana. As he has the glory of being born from the
face of Brahma, he is eligible to accept all.
2. In Smritisaram - Brahmanas who are knowers of Vedas and sastras are the lords of all. Those
who practise are greater than those who know; those who have Atmagnana (self knowledge) are
even greater.
3. In Smrityarnavam - Those who have studied are greater than those who have not; those who have
not forgotten what they have studied are even greater; those who know the meaning are even
greater; those who practise are still greater.
4. Yama - That brahmana is a suitable recipient of Danam, who is a scholar, follower of dharma,
possessor of peace, self - control, patience, truth, gratitude and Vedic study, protector of
cows,giver of Danam and performer of yaga. He is suitable who has done Vedic study, born in
good clan, man of peace, Agnihotri, fearful of sin, highly knowledgeable, patient with women,
protector of followers of dharma and man of good conduct.
5. Yagnavalkya - Suitability for Danam does not come only from tapas or from vidya, but from
practice; brahmana who practises is alone suitable.
6. Saatatapa - Tapas of ignorant man is like horses without charioteer; vidya of undisciplined man is
like charioteer without horses. Just as food and honey together become good for health, tapas and
vidya together are good for man.
7. Vasishtha - One who is full of Vedas is a petty candidate; one who is full of tapas is also a petty
candidate. One whose stomach did not have food from sudra is the best candidate for danam.
8. In Brahmakaivarta - One who abandons those whom he worshipped, respected and paid
obeisance and shows devotion to others is a fallen man.
9. Devala - Eight types of brahmanas are mentioned in Vedas - Matra, brahmana, srotriya,
anoochana, bhruna, rishikalpa, rishi, muni; out of them, the latter is greater than the former in vidya
and conduct.
10. He describes their characteristics - One who is born as a brahmana, but is without upanayanam
and observanace is matra. One who has studied a little of Veda, possessor of conduct, peace,
truth and compassion and is firm is brahmana. One, who has studied at least one branch of Veda
with kalpasutra or six Vedangas, knows dharma and practises the six karmas like yajanam is
srotriya. Brahmana by birth, dvija by samskaras (purificatory rituals) and vipra by vidya, Srotriya
is by all the three. One who knows the truth of Vedas and Vedangas, pure - minded, sinless and
with qualities of a srotriya is anoochana. One who observes vratas (ritual vows) and has good
qualities, follows the discipline of yagas and Vedic study, eats the food offered to Devas, Pitrus and
the virtuous and is conqueror of sense organs is bhruna. One who has all Vedic and worldly
knowledge, lives in asram and is conqueror of sense organs is rishikalpa. One, who is celebate,
austere, follows discipline in food etc., has power in blessing as well as curse and wedded to truth
is rishi. One who has no attachment to objects, knows all truths, free from desire and anger,
established in meditation, actionless, conqueror of sense organs and views clay and gold equally is
muni.
11. Yama - Virtue can be examined by living together; purity by conduct; knowledge by talk; the
candidate for danam should be examined by all these three.
12. Bodhayana - One who has studied meagre parts of Vedas is brahmana. One who has studied
one branch completely is srotriya. One who has also studied Vedangas is anoochana. One who
has also studied kalpasutra is rishi. One who has studied explanations of sutras is bhruna.
13. Daksha - Danam given to abrahmana, brahmana, one who has studied Veda and Vedaparaga
confers the fruit respectively, equal, two times, 1000 times and limitless. Sin resulting from trouble
also should be understood in the same manner.
14. Gautama - Danam given to abrahmana, brahmana, one who has studied Veda and Vedaparaga
confers the fruit respectively, equal, two times, 1000 times and limitless.

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15. Haradatta says that Vedaparaga is one who has learnt Vedas along with Angas, Kalpasutras and
Rahasyas.
16. About Abrahmanas in another Smriti - Abrahmanas are of six types - employee of the king, one
who buys and sells, one who performs yagas for many, one who performs yaga for the unworthy,
servant of the village or city and one who does not worship Sandhya in the morning before dawn
and in the evening before sunset, so says Saatatapa.
17. Samvartha - One who knows the creation, destruction, going and coming of beings and vidya and
avidya is called Vedaparaga.
18. Brihaspati - Danam to srotriya will confer 1000 times benefit, to Acharya twice that, to Atmagnani
100000 times that and to Agnihotri unlimited benefit.
19. Vyasa - The best danam must be given to the Guru and danam to others as per their suitability.
Guru is one who teaches the disciple in Samskrit or local language and through means suited to
time and place. If Guru is not there, danam should be given to his son, wife, daughter, sons son,
his son, son of daughter or member of family; if order is changed it will lead to lower states for the
recipient.
20. Vyasa - Danam to mother, father, brother, sister, daughter, wife, son or brothers son will pave the
way for swarga. Danam given to father will confer benefit 100 times, to mother 1000 times, to
daughter unlimited, to direct sister imperishable, to sister, nephew, uncle, aunt, and poor relatives
one crore times.
21. Vishnu - The family priest (Purohita) is the most suitable candidate for danam. Some say that
sister, daughter, son and son - in - law are also proper candidates, though they may lack qualities.
22. Daksha - Danam given to mother, father, guru, friend, humble person, helpful person, poor man,
orphan and virtuous man confers undecaying benefit. During time of distress in country, danam
given to those who seek money, having lost money, wife etc. will give great benefit. Danam should
be given to matters of dharma like removal of danger, settling loan, for family and for good cause.
This is rule. If Agnihotri and man of penance die without repaying loan, their punya will all go to the
giver of loan. There is no limit to the punya accruing to one, who performs upanayanam, marriage
etc. and settles in life, person whose parents are not alive. The punya acquired by settling a
brahmana will not be acquired even by doing Agnihotram and Asvamedhayaga. Danam given with
compassion to poor man, blind, sufferer, orphan, boy, old man and troubled man will give limitless
fruit.
23. Vyasa - One who transgresses in food and danam, a brahmana who is near at hand and doing
Vedic study, will have his sin burn seven generations of his family. One who abandons those
whom he worshipped, respected and paid obeisance and shows devotion to others reaches lowly
state.
24. Manu Danam given for the next world while troubling son and wife, who must be protected, will
harm the giver while being alive and after death. One can think of a suitable person who is far
away as Vishnu, drop water on earth and give the material later.
25. In Hemadri - There are two damages to money rightfully earned - giving to unsuitable person and
not giving to suitable person.
26. Aapasthambha - One should earn money in ways not opposed to dharma, give to suitable person
and not give to unsuitable person. Bharatam says that those who examine brahmanas without
livelihood, who seek food, will go to naraka.
27. Saatatapa - One who transgresses a brahmana who is near at hand and doing Vedic study, will be
born a donkey 100 times. If the one near at hand is idiot, danam may be given to one of good
quality who is far away; there is no blemish of transgression of brahmana. One does not leave out
blazing Agni and perform homam in ash.
28. Vyasa - If one who is far away is better in conduct, vidya etc., danam should be given to him with
effort. There is no fault in transgressing an idiot who is near at hand. In danam of food, as it is
stated, Food should be given to all, it is certainly faulty to transgress one who is near at hand and
who is not a fallen man. In sraadhas etc., food should be given only to pure persons, who know
mantras. One smriti says, For food, a hungry man is the most suitable.
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29. In Aanusasanikam - Always water should be given to people of all castes; O best among
brahmanas! as this is difficult to get in my world - this is Yamas statement.
30. Vyasa - Danam given to sudra will give benefit of one; to vysya, two times; to kshatriya, three
times; to brahmana, six times; to Atmagnani, one lakh times; to Agnihotri, unlimited. Danam given
to karmayogis will last one birth; to men of penance, 100 births; to men of japayagna, 1000 births;
to Sivayogis, till Pralaya. Dana to cows will give benefit of one; to people of sankara (mixed) jati,
two times; to sudra, four times; to vysya, eight times; to kshatriya and inferior brahmana, 16 times;
to man of Vedic study, 32 times; to man of penance, 100 times and, to brahmana with mastery of
Veda, limitless.
31. The danam to sudras etc. is danam other than danam of cow etc. with mantra. It is stated, If
danam with mantra is given to man who has no mantra, the hand of the giver and the tongue of the
recipient are cut.

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Determination of persons Unsuitable for Danam:


1. Saatatapa - Danam given to devalaka will be destroyed. Danam given to vardhushaka is
useless. Danam given to a trader is useless in both this and the next worlds. One who does
Devapooja for three years for money is Devalaka. He is unfit for rituals connected with Devas and
Pitrus.
2. In Smritisangraham - A brahmana who does Devapooja for others with desire for money is equal
to chandala, even if he has studied all the four Vedas. Devalakas are of three types - Karma
devalaka, Kalpa devalaka and Sudha Devalaka. Karma devalaka is one who does Devapooja for
money and for a fixed period. He is unfit for all karmas. Kalpa devalaka is one who does
Devapooja as per rules of Pancharatra without diksha, even if he has studied all the four Vedas.
Sudha devalaka is one who worships ghost, Kali as per rules of Agama. He is unfit for all karmas.
If one does Pooja as per rules laid down by Rishis, there is no devalakahood attached; hence
Pooja should be done somehow as per Vaidic rules.
3. Yama - Vardhushika is one who gets money on proper interest, but lends at high interest and who
lives only on interest. He is despised by knowers of Veda. One who criticises others, but praises
his own qualities is also Vardhushika.
4. Vridhamanu - Nothing should be given to one who will use the danam material for bad purposes,
even if he is otherwise suitable. One, who accumulates by getting danam in many places without
using for dharma, is thief and hence he should not be given respect.
5. In Vishnu Dharmottaram - Danam given in place of others is waste, so it is stated. Danam given to
a man fallen from good state, danam given out of money wrongfully earned, danam given to
Abrahmana, fallen man, thief, hater of guru, ungrateful man, village priest, seller of Veda, one who
accommodates in his house adulterous person, one who is conquered by women, one who
catches snakes, inferior brahmana, husband of vrushali and cook - these 16 danas are wasted
danas.
6. Daksha on husband of vrushali - A girl who attains puberty before marriage in fathers home is
vrushali. Her husband is vrushalipati.
7. Devala - Vrushali is barren woman or one who has lost children born to her or girl who attained
puberty before marriage.
8. Vyasa - Even water should not be given by knower of dharma to unbeliever, disputant, heretics of
all types and one who does not know Veda.
9. Parasara - One who doubts even dharmas laid down in sastras with deceitful logic is called
haituka; he is worse than a heretic.
10. Prajapati - One who has abandoned swadharma is called pashandi; his associate is equal to
him; both are sinners. Those who consider Purushottama (Vishnu) as equal to others are
pashandis; they will go to naraka and they are the worst among men.
11. Narada - Danam given to eunuch, one without son, one of deceitful nature and astrologer is
useless.
12. Vyasa - One should always nourish the lame, blind, deaf, dumb and sufferer from disease; but no
danam is to be given to them. The giver of danam to bad persons will lose dharma, become sinner
and go to naraka. If one gives money to sanyasis, tambulam to brahmachari and fearlessness to
thief, both will go to hell. Without proper discrimination, if danam is given to unsuitable persons and
not given to suitable persons, the giver will be relieved of both money and dharma.
13. Yama - Danam should not be given to those, who do not observe vratas (vows) and who have not
studied Veda, but who are brahmanas only by caste. A stone cannot make another stone cross the
river. Danam should not be given to one who has abandoned Agnihotra, who does things not liked
by the guru and who always commits sin. Brahmanas who teach Veda to sudras are unfit for
danam. Brahmana becomes fallen if he teaches sudra; no doubt.

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14. Parasara on the characteristics of vrushala - Those who do not perform Agnikarmas and
Sandhyavandanam and who have not studied Veda are vrushalas. Cow, chariot, gold and land
meant for danam shed tears on seeing the hand of brahmana without study of Veda. Danam given
to the worst brahmana is waste like a city without people, well without water and homam offered in
ash.
15. Vyasa tells about blemish to one who gives to unsuitable person - Know him to be the worst of
men, who is praised by the worst brahmanas, prostitutes, sensualists, minstrels, artisans,
astrologers, thieves, goondas, golakas, seekers, sellers of flesh, those who live on bribes, fallen,
husbands of prostitutes and jesters.

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Determination of Acceptance of Danam (Ceremonial Gift):


1. Manu - A brahmana who cannot survive on his normal livelihood can accept silam and uncham
from somewhere. Silam is better than acceptance of danam; uncham is even better. Silam is
gathering ears of grains lying scattered in fields; gathering of grains is uncham. There are seven
ways of earning without violation of dharma: 1. Dayam - that which is got in the family (share). 2.
treasure etc. 3. Selling. 4. Success. 5. Increase through interest. 6. Agriculture, trade etc. 7.
Acceptance of good danam. Even if one is efficient in acceptance of danam, he should not resort
to it frequently. By acceptance of danam, the lustre of brahmana will diminish. One, who knows the
rules of acceptance and has vidya, is efficient in acceptance. Frequent acceptance is
Prasangam.
2. Manu again - Teaching of Veda, performance of yagas for others and condemnable acceptance of
danam do not cause blemish to brahmanas in emergencies. Because they are equal to Agni and
Surya.
3. Yagnavalkya says that non - acceptance of danam is better than acceptance of good danam - One
who is eligible for accepting danam, but does not accept, reaches all holy realms fit for those who
give danam.
4. Vyasa - Brahmana can accept money from good dvijas or dvijas who are only namesake; but
never from sudras. Brahmana should not be desirous of danam; he can accept only for living. If he
accepts more than that, he will be a fallen brahmana. One who desires more than hot food with
ghee, cloth not torn and not being slave to others is a fallen man.
5. Narada - As all dharmas are obtained through money, money should be earned. There are three
avenues in respect of money earned - growing, protecting and enjoying. The money is of three
types - suklam, chapalam and krishnam. Money obtained through sastra, valour, tapas, girl, one for
whom he performs yaga, disciple and his own clan is called suklam; as its source is pure. Interest,
agriculture, trade, brokerage, sculpture, following and return help - money from these seven
sources is chapalam. Servant, gambling, pleading, troubling, image, cruelty, deceit money from
these sourcs is krishnam. Benefit in this and next worlds will be in accordance with the kind of
money used in observance of karma.
6. In Saptarishi samvada - Earning wealth for dharma is praised. It is better to earn tapas. Depending
on brahmana not accepting bad danam, his lustre increases. Brahma once weighed poverty and
kingship. The poverty of the conqueror of sense organs weighed more than kingship. The fool who
gets danam from king and feels happy instead of regretting it will reach 21 narakas.
7. In another smriti - Sin as well as acceptance of danam should not be done in holy place. The sin as
well as acceptance of danam done in holy place cannot be erased.
8. Manu - Danam should not be accepted from king who is not kshatriya, seller of flesh, seller of oil,
seller of liquor, and pimp.
9. Manu gives the relative status of these - The trader is 10 times more sinful than seller of flesh,
seller of liquor 10 times the seller of oil, the pimp 10 times the seller of liquor and king 10 times the
pimp.
10. Manu tells about king - One who accepts danam from a miserly king, acting in transgression of
sastra goes to 21 narakas serially. Hence brahmanas who are knowers of Veda, interested in good
in the next world, do not accept danam from king.
11. Yagnavalkya - In the mateer of acceptance of danam, out of seller of flesh, seller of oil, seller of
liquor, prostitute and king, the latter is 10 times more sinful than the former in that order.
12. Yagnavalkya again - Even in hunger, one should not accept danam from king, disciple, one for
whom he performs yaga, vain man, disputant, heretic and bhagavritti (living on prostitutes
income).

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13. Katyayana - Money obtained through discourse and knowledge for the sake of competition, from
disciple, being ritwik, by resolution of doubts, by teaching sastras, argument and praadhyayana is
fit for dharma. One can live on money obtained, but not sought, silam, uncham, material given by
disciple and money got from family and by accepting danam from pure persons in observance of
karma. One can live by seeking with humility and begging a little from house to house. One should
not take from sellers of curd and milk, salt, cow and horse; from money - lender; one who eats food
in sraadha always; from performers of unworthy yaga, adulterers, traders, sudra and one who has
abandoned Agni.
14. Manu - If nothing is available after fast for six times, one can get from sudra material enough for a
day.
15. Manu again - Even by doing many despicable deeds one should protect old parents, chaste wife
and young son.
16. Haaritha - One should take only from a person who knows how to grow dharma at home.
17. Angiras - One can take from sudra foodgrains gathered in the field or store.
18. Vyasa - For the sake of family one can take from good sudra without seeking. One should never
seek for yaga or for himself. Brahmana should shrink his way of living and not desire for greater
wealth. If he desires he will lose brahmanya.
19. In Chaturvimsatimatam - A hungry brahmana can take danam from brahmana, kahatriya, vaisya or
sudra in that order of preference. Even if he is recluse, he can take uncooked flesh, honey, ghee,
foodgrains, milk, medicine, jaggery and juices from even sudra.
20. Yagnavalkya - One can take from all for worship of Devas and guests, for guru, for wife and
children and for his own livelihood. Yagnavalkya criticises taking from an evil king in time of no
emergency - One should not take from a miserly king, who transgresses sastras.
21. In Skandam - One who has grown due to gift from king will be born as a brahmarakshasa in an arid
place; he will not get any other birth again.
22. In Brahmandapurana - One does not swerve from dharma by taking for dharma from person for
whom he performs yaga or from his disciple even in ordinary times.
23. Manu on adversity - In adversity brahmana can accept from all with no blemish being attached. It is
against logic of sastra that pure article will attract blemish. Brahmana whose life is in danger will
not attract sin, if he eats food from anyone, like space does not from mud. Rishi Ajigarta, unable to
bear hunger, tried to kill his son in a yagna; still he did not attract sin. Vamadeva, who knew right
and wrong, in pangs of hunger, tried to eat the flesh of dog to save his life; he did not attract sin.
Rishi Bharadvaja, while in a forest with his children, suffering from hunger, accepted many cows
from Vrutu, a carpenter. Rishi Visvamitra, who knew right and wrong, in pangs of hunger, tried to
eat the flesh of rear part of dog from the hands of a chandala. They also did not attract sin.
24. Manu lists materials that can be accepted even in no emergency - Firewood, water, fruit, roots,
rice, honey, assurance of fearlessness these can be accepted from anybody. Brahma agrees
that food can be accepted even from a sinner, if it was not announced earlier and if it is brought
and kept in front by the giver. In the house of one who disrespects that food, Pitrus do not take
food for fifteen years; Agni also does not accept Havis (oblation). Manu permits that certain
materials obtained without seeking can be accepted - bed, kusa (darbha), house, sandalpaste,
water, flower, gem, curd, parched rice, fish, milk, flesh and vegetable.
25. Aapasthambha - Honey, Aamam (uncooked rice etc.), animal flesh, land, basics, fearlessness, way
of cow, house, grass etc. for cow - these can be accepted even from a ugra. Ugra is son born of
vaisya father and sudra mother or dvija full of sins.
26. Aapasthambha again - If the specified means of livelihood is not available, one can live through
other means; too much exertion should not be made; once the specified means is available, the
other prohibited means should be dropped.

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27. Gautama - Brahmana can eat in the house of dvijas who are very good in observing their dharma
of varna and asrama; he can also accept danam from them. Firewood, water, grass, roots, fruit,
honey, fearlessness, article which came without seeking, bed, seat, house, vehicle, milk, curd,
parched rice, fish, foodgrain, garland, way, vegetable - these can be accepted even from ordinary
dvijas. For sraadham, ritual for Devas and protection of gurus like father and dependents like wife,
one can accept all things from all dvijas. If there is no livelihood without acceptance of danam from
sudra, one can receive from sudra.
28. Aasvalayana - Never abandoning ones karmas, one should look after parents and chaste wife and
children well with any means of livelihood. For one who has abandoned parents out of ignorance,
for livelihood, desire for dharma or deceit, there is no higher world. For one who has abandoned
old parents with none to look after, chaste wife and children out of delusion, though capable, there
is no higher world. For the sake of gurus, guests and wife and children, one can accept even food
from sudra. He should not eat it himself. My view is that one can take from good sudras.
29. Yagnavalkya - One can accept from even person of evil livelihood certain things which are offered
to him without his seeking. But one should not accept from prostitute, eunuch, fallen person and
enemy.
30. Haaritha - Even if doctor, hunter, prostitute, eunuch, woman recently delivered and gambler offer
something by force, it should not be accepted.
31. Manu - For looking after gurus like parents and wife and children and performing Poojas of Devas
and guests, one can accept from everybody. One should not seek to satisfy himself with that
money. After the death of gurus or if they live separately even while alive, one should accept from
only good people for his own living.
32. In Hemadri - Undesirable acceptance is of five types - place, time, material, caste and karma.
Place is like Kurukshetra etc. Time is eclipse etc. Material is skin of black deer etc. Caste is sudra
etc. Karma is despicable occupation.
33. Further - Female sheep (ewe), buffalo, ghee, cow with two faces, deerskin, elephant, Kalapurusha,
mountain of til, goat, horse and first Masikam - these are called bad danams. One should not look
at the faces of those who accept these danams; if one sees, he should close his eyes immediately.
One who accepts danam of skin of black deer, buffalo, two - faced goat, and maidservant will not
get male birth again. One who receives food for preta (jiva of person who is just dead), bed of
preta, cloth for preta, utkranti (danam on death) and kalapurusha will not get male birth again.
Brahmana can overcome the sin of stealing wealth many times; he cannot overcome the sin of
receiving danam from a person about to lose life. One who has accepted decorations and cloth of
dead person and tiladhenu will not return from naraka. If the giver sees the recipient of danam of
kalapurusha, buffalo, ghee, and ekoddishtam within 6 months, his punya will be destroyed.
34. Manu - Wool, cloth, cotton, cotton cloth, gold, palanquin, cow, land, foodgrain, women,
maidservant, male servant, house, vehicle, liquids like milk etc., cows - the acceptor of these
danams will be fallen, even if he were yati (sanyasi); no doubt.
35. Jabali - The fool, who accepts money of a sanyasi knowingly, will take his 21 generations to
naraka.
36. Yagnavalkya - Danam should not be accepted from one who does not have vidya and tapas; the
recipient will take the giver as well as himself to lower state.
37. Manu - A wise man, even if suffering from hunger, should not accept without knowing the rules for
acceptance of different materials. He should chant the uthanastva mantra while accepting danam
of any material. This is the rule for accepting danam.

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38. Manu says that one, who is not aware of rules of acceptance, should never accept gold etc. - Gold,
land, horse, cow, food, cloth, til, ghee - if these are accepted by one, who does not know the rules,
he becomes like wood becoming ash. Gold and food will burn lifespan, land and cow burn the
body, horse burns eye, cloth burns skin, ghee burns lustre and til burns children. Burning means
causing disease. If brahmana without tapas and Vedic study accepts danam, he will drown in
naraka along with the giver, like one who uses a stone raft would sink in water along with the raft.
Hence the ignorant man should be afraid of acceptance of any danam. Even with accepting minor
things, he will suffer in naraka like bull in slush. Manu says that there is no blemish of theft in
accepting, even without asking, flower, fruit, roots, firewood for Agni and grass for cows.
39. In Smrityarthasaram - Wayfarers may take a handful of following from others fields without
hindrance - chana, paddy, wheat, barley, moong and urid dals.
40. Aapasthambha - There is no blemish of theft in taking grains like chana, moong and urid and
grass, hay etc. for the bull drawing the cart. The owner should also not stop the one who takes; but
there will be blemish if taken in large quantity. Haarithas view is that one should always accept any
materials only with permission of owner.
41. Gautama - Grass for cow, fitewood for homam, flower and fruit for devapooja from trees not fenced
- these can be taken from others places as they were his own.
42. Manu - If brahmana, walking and suffering from hunger, takes two sugarcanes and two roots from
others places, he is not to be punished. Smriti says that the hand of one who takes without
owners permission, grass, firewood, roots and fruit, should be cut.
43. Samvartha and Daksha - Brahmana, who always performs homam and japa and who shuns food
from others, does not attract sin, even if he takes the earth with all gems.
44. Vyasa - By accepting danam, brahmana becomes like milked cow (lustre diminishes). Just as cow
becomes well nourished with good grass again, brahmana becomes well nourished again with
homams and japas.
45. Manu - Sin accruing from performing yaga for others and teaching of Veda will be erased by japas
and homamas. Sin accruing from accetance of danam will go away by giving danam and observing
tapas.
46. In Vishnudharmottaram - One can accept saving of his life from chandala (outcaste) and pulkasa
(mixed tribe). The survivor will get everything; he can perform karmas. Body is the basis of
dharma; it should be protected somehow.

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Other means of livelihood:


1. Manu - Brahmana can live on rutam, amrutam, mrutam, pramrutam or satyanrutam; he should
never live on svavritti. Uncham and silam are both called rutam. That which is obtained without
seeking is called amrutam. That which is obtained by seeking is called mrutam. Ploughing and
sowing crops is called pramrutam. Trading is satyamrutam. Serving others is svavritti; as this is
life of dog, one should not live on it. Out of the above, if the former is not available, the next one
should be used in that order. Listing means like this, Manu describes the aims - One can live with
foodgrains stored to last for three years, one year, three days or for that day only. Out of these
four, the latter is better than the former; he conquers swarga with dharma. After listing the four
aims, Manu also classifies the means into four - one does six karmas (performing yagas for others,
teaching Veda, acceptance of danam, agriculture, trade, money - lending); the next does three
karmas (performing yagas for others, teaching Veda, acceptance of danam); the next does two
karmas (performing yagas for others, teaching Veda); the next does only one karma (teaching
Veda).
2. Even while adopting the specified means of livelihood, brahmana should live in ordinary times
without troubling other beings. Manu also says that if not possible, one should live with minimum
trouble to others. One should gather enough money only for doing essential acts without torturing
the body by doing good and specified actions. For livelihood, one should not adopt worldly means.
One should resort to brahmana means of livelihood, pure and free from falsehood and vanity. The
seeker of happiness should be humble and specially contented. For happiness, contentment is the
root; lack of contentment is the root of grief.
3. Yagnavalkya - One who lives on foodgrains gathered through silam and uncham is classified into
four types - having foodgrains to last for 3 years, 1 year, 3 days and that day only. Out of them, the
former is greater than the next in that order. This description refers to yayavara only and not all
brahmanas. If not, there will be contradiction with passages like one who has foodgrains to last for
more than 3 years can do soomapanam.
4. Devala says that there are two types of gruhasthas - yayavara and salina. Yayavara is one who
has abandoned performance of yagas for others, teaching of Vedas, acceptance of danam and
accumulation of money. Salina is one who does all the six permitted karmas, has servant, cattle,
village, house, money and foodgrains and lives in a worldly manner.
5. Vyasa - Gruhastha is of two types - sadhaka and asadhaka. For sadhaka, the main livelihood is
performance of yagas for others, teaching of Vedas and acceptance of danam. In adversity he will
do money - lending, agriculture and trade. For asadhaka, silam and uncham are the main means of
livelihood. In adversity he will do amrutam and mrutam. That which came on its own without
seeking is amrutam. That which came on seeking is mrutam.
6. Sandilya - It is not wrong to accept things which come on their own without seeking. Devas call it
amrutam; hence that should not be left.

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Livelihood in Adversity:
1. Manu - If a brahmana cannot live through means prescribed for him, he can live on kshatriya
means. That is the next in dharma for him. If he cannot live on both, he must adopt vysya means
like agriculture and cattle welfare.
2. Vyasa - Kshatriya means is better; brahmana should not do agriculture on his own, they say.
Hence in adversity he has to live on kshatriya means. If he does not get it he can adopt agriculture,
the vysya means.
3. Yagnavalkya - In adversity brahmana can live on kshatriya or vaisya means. After crossing
adversity he should become pure by doing prayaschitta and be in his prescribed path.
4. Gautama - If his own means of livelihood is not available, brahmana can adopt kshatriya means or
vysya means.
5. Manu - For kshatriya, carrying weapons including divine missiles is means of livelihood. For vysya,
trade, cattle welfare and agriculture are means. Danam, study of Vedas and yaga are
swadharmas.
6. Devala - For kshatriya the means of livelihood are yaga, study of Vedas, danam, divine weapons,
citizens welfare, fearlessness, principle of punishment and archery. For kshatriya, valour, lustre,
courage, force, not running away in war, danam and thought of God are natural. Study of Vedas
etc., money - lending, cattle welfare, agriculture and trade are karmas for vysya. The passages of
Manu and others like, Ones own dharma followed less than others dharma followed properly is
better.; One who lives on others professions becomes exiled from his caste immediately. refer to
availability of ones own means of livelihood at least in a limited manner in adverse condition. If his
own means is not available at all, in adversity, he can adopt the means of kshatriya and vaisya. If
that is also mixed with violence, it should be abandoned in Kaliyuga. There is prohibition in the
words, The emergency occupation of killing brahmanas, who stand for killing him, in war of
dharma and asvasthanika (not keeping provision for the next day) practice are prohibited in
Kaliyuga. Aasvalayana has said, In Kaliyuga, the means of vysya is better than that of kshatriya.
7. Aapasthambha - For brahmana trade is not prescribed. In distress he can do trade. He may trade
in permitted articles and avoid prohibited articles. Trade means buying and selling. This refers to all
means of livelihood of vysya.
8. Aapasthambha lists articles not to be traded - humans like servant, liquids like milk, jaggery, salt,
dyeing materials, perfume like sandalpaste, food, skin, barren cow, lac etc., water, sprouting
pulses, liquor, tippili, pepper, foodgrain, flesh, weapon and fruit of punya. Out of foodgrains, til
(gingelly) and rice should specially not be sold; they should not be exchanged also. Food can be
exchanged with food; humans with humans; liquids with liquids; perfumes with perfumes; vidya
with vidya. One should trade in permitted articles, which were brought by him. Munja (grass),
balbaja (grass), roots, fruit, grass and wood these can be traded without change of form. In
adversity one should not trouble himself too much. One may live at least on trading and
exchanging prohibited articles. After adverse situation is over, one should leave the emergency
means of livelihood, if the normal means is available.
9. Manu - One should not sell liquid materials like jaggery and milk, food, til, stone, salt, cow and
man. Also are prohibited all cloths, dyed and made of yarn; jute, silk and wool, even undyed; fruit,
root and medicine. Water, weapon, poison, flesh, soma creeper, all perfumes, milk, honey, curd,
ghee, oil, beeswax, jaggery, kusa grass, all kinds of wild cows, lion etc., birds, liquor, lac, all
animals with one hoof, brass, lead, iron, silver, skin, bone, fat, nerve, gorochana - these are also
prohibited for sale.
10. In Manus words, Agriculturist may grow and produce til himself and sell it without keeping for long,
to people who require the same for dharma, some say that selling here refers to exchange with
other foodgrains. Some say that there is no fault in selling til produced by himself.
11. Vasishtha - Liquids may be exchanged with liquids in equal or less measure; til, rice, food and man
can also be exchanged.

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12. Manu - If brahmana sells flesh, lac and salt, he will be a fallen brahmana. If he sells milk for three
days, he becomes sudra; if he sells other prohibited materials knowingly for seven days, he
becomes vysya.
13. Yama - One should not accept in danam even a cow; two cows should never be accepted. If one
sells cow received in danam, it will burn seven generations. The seller of cow will suffer in naraka
for years equal to a thousand per hair on the cow. The sinner who uses til in acts other than
danam, oil bath and homam will be born a worm in excreta. Til, even if purchased for a price or got
in danam, should not be sold.
14. Bodhayana - Seller of til sells Pitrus; seller of rice sells pranas.
15. Parasara - Til and liquids should not be sold. They can be exchanged with foodgrains of equal
measure. In selling grass and wood, the same rule applies to brahmana. The rule for til applies to
liquids like ghee.
16. Gautama - Things not to be sold to brahmana in vaisya livelihood - perfume, liquids, food, til, jute
cloth, silk, skin, dyed cloth, cloth cleaned by washerman, milk, its forms, root, fruit, flower,
medicine, honey, flesh, grass, water and poisonous material. Cows should not be sold to a killer.
Man, barren cow, young calf and pregnant cow should not be sold even if not subject to violence.
Some say that land, paddy, barley, goat, sheep, horse, bull, milk - cow and cart - bull are not to be
sold. Liquids may be exchanged with liquids and cows with cows. Til should not be exchanged with
anything other than foodgrain. Salt and food should not be exchanged with anything. While
suffering from severe hunger, cooked food may be exchanged with rice of proper measure. If not
possible, one may survive by selling or exchanging prohibited things. One should not live with
sudras means of livelihood. When there is danger to life, that can also be done. Sudrakarma is
eating the remnants.
17. Vyasa - One who kills pranas has killed everything, as they are the cause of dharma, artha
(wealth), kama (desire) and moksha (liberation); the saviour of pranas has saved everything.
18. Saatatapa - Brahmana becomes fallen immediately if he sells lac, flesh, and salt. If he sells milk
for three days, he becomes sudra. If he sells uncooked meat, liquor, soma, lac, salt and ghee and
other prohibited articles, he should observe chandrayana.
19. Parasara - Brahmana, along with six karmas, can get agriculture also done.
20. Manus words, One should somehow leave agriculture, which is quite violent and dependent on
others; the plough kills the land and beings on land refer to agriculture done on ones own. So also
Gautama says, agriculture and trade not done by himself.
21. Brihaspati has assented to agriculture done by oneself - Money - lending, agriculture and trade
may be got done by others; in times of adversity he can do himself; by doing so, brahmana will not
attract sin. It is logical and applies to one who is powerless to get itdone by others in adverse
condition. In other yugas, arranging to get the above done by others is dharma in adversity. In
Kaliyuga, arranging to get the above done by others is prime dharma; doing by oneself is dharma
in adversity. Parasara, who started to talk about dharmas in Kaliyuga by saying, Now I shall tell
about dharmas and acharas of grihastha in Kaliyuga, mentions by way of achara, Agriculture also
should be got done; hence getting it done is important. In Madhaviyam it is stated that as per
smriti, in times of adversity, one can do himself; hence it is dharma in adversity.
22. Yagnavalkya - The following are not to be sold by brahmana, even while living on vysya means of
livelihood - Fruit, stone, silk, soma creeper, man, eatables, creepers, til, food, liquids, salt - petre,
curd, milk, water, ghee, weapon, liquor, beeswax, honey, lac, kusa grass, clay, skin, flower, wool,
hair, buttermilk, poison, land, white silk, salt, flesh, one - hoofed animal, lead, spinach, green
medicines, food cakes for animals, cows, perfumes. Til can be exchanged with equal food grains
for dharma. One will become fallen by selling lac, salt and flesh. He will become sudra by selling
milk, curd and liquor. In adversity the means of livelihood may be agriculture, sculpture (including
cooking), servitude for hire, vidya, money - lending, cart, mountain, service, marshy place (with
grass and trees), king and begging. As it is said, in adversity, the normally prohibited means of
livelihood is permitted in adversity. Like agriculture done by himself is permitted for brahmanas and
kshatriyas in adversity, sculpture etc. are also permitted. Out of these, vidya given on salary is
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livelihood. Money - lending can be done on his own. Cart is included because it carries foodgrains
etc. Mountain is included because of firewood, roots etc.
23. Parasara on bulls to be included and excluded in agriculture - Bullock, which is hungry, thirsty and
tired, should not be tied. Bullock, which is handicapped, diseased and eunuch, should not be tied.
Bullock, which is strong - bodied, free from disease, satisfied, not tired and not eunuch, can be tied
for ploughing till midday; they should then be bathed.
24. Haaritha - Agriculture with eight bullocks is dharmic. Ploughing for livelihood is with six bullocks.
One who ploughs with four bullocks is cruel. One who ploughs with only two bullocks commits
crime same as killing brahmana. Prajapati has said that use of young calves, old bullocks and
weak animals for ploughing and carrying loads should not be done.
25. Parasara specifies that japas and homms should be done as per ability in order to rid of blemish
due to troubling animals - Mantrajapa, Devapooja, homam and Vedic study should be done. As per
capacity, brahmanas numbering one, two, three or four, should be fed.
26. Parasara talks further about increased sin in agriculture - The sin earned by a fisherman in one
year will be earned in one day by brahmana living on plough. One who catches animals with net,
fisherman, killer of animals with weapons, killer of birds and agriculturist who does not do danam these five are equal in sin.
27. Parasara gives reparation for the sin - Agriculturist gets rid of sins from felling trees, breaking earth
and killing worms and insects by kalayagna (doing yaga in field and giving alms). Agriculturist
does not gather sin by giving one - sixth to the king, one - twentyfirst to Devas and one - thirtieth to
brahmanas. The agriculturist, being close to the heap of foodgrains, who does not give danam to
brahmanas, is thief; sinner and killer of brahmana.
28. In Chandrika - I shall tell about the sin of the greedy man, who accumulates foodgrains in his
house without giving danam. That evil man will be a tree without flowers and fruits in arid place for
1000 Deva years. Then he will be born a poor, diseased and foolish man on earth in lowly clan.
29. Haaritha - Agriculturists, who incur sin of breaking earth, cutting plants and creepers and killing
worms and ants, become purified by kalayagna; no doubt.
30. For agriculturist, this kalayagna is nitya and kamya. If not performed, there is fault; hence nitya.
As it removes sin, it is kamya
31. Narada - Brahmana should not live on money - lending and trade even in difficult adversities.
Brahma weighed money - lending and killing of brahmana. Money - lending was heavier than killing
of brahmana.
32. Manu - One who lives on interest can collect every month one - eightieth part towards interest.
Kshatriya can also live on this means; in adversity all can live on this means.
33. Yagnavalkya - In conditional loan, one - eightieth part every month is dharmic interest. In absence
of condition in loan, interest should be of two, three, four and five percent for all the four varnas
respectively.
34. Parasara - The five mahayagnas and yaga dikshas should be performed with foodgrains collected
by him from the field he has tilled.
35. Bodhayana - Study of Vedas is opposed to agriculture. Agriculture is opposed to Veda. One who is
capable can do both; one who is not capable should leave agriculture.
36. Aasvalayana - Brahmanas should never resort to slavery for livelihood.

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Kshatriya Dharmas:
1. Manu - Out of the six karmas of brahmana, the three karmas of teaching of Veda, performing
yagas for others and acceptance of danam do not apply to kshatriya and vaisya.
2. Yagnavalkya - For kshatriya the important dharma is protection of citizens. For vaisya swadharmas
are money - lending, agriculture, trade and rearing of cattle.
3. He mentions the special dharmas of good kshatriya, who is ceremonially coronated - The king
should be highly enthusiastic, keen on danam, grateful, serving elders, humble, of satvic qualities,
born in good lineage, true in speech, pure, fast in actions, free from forgetfulness, generous, not
hard - hearted, dharmic, free from vices like gambling, of pure intellect, valorous, knower of
secrets, knower of his own defects and having capability in livelihoods like Atmavidya, economics
and cattle rearing and in three Vedas. He should be patient with brahmanas, straight with friends,
valorous with enemies and kind like father with servants and citizens. As protection of citizens is
the best dharma, the king, who rules righteously, gets one - sixth of the merit of his citizens. He
should be alert in protecting citizens from cheats, thieves, frauds, robbers and (false) astrologers.
The king should honour good people and punish the bad. He should seize the wealth of the corrupt
and throw them out of the country. He should encourage Srotriyas with danam etc. and make the
live in his kingdom. The king, who takes away wealth unrighteously from the kingdom and fills his
coffers, loses his wealth quickly and will be destroyed along with his relatives. The fire arising out
of grief of people, who are tortured, will not retract without burning the kings lineage, wealth and
life. He will succeed if he adopts the four means - sama (conciliation), dana (gift), bheda
(distinction) and danda (punishment). He should resort to danda when it is not possible with the
first three means. In accordance with place and time, he should adopt the practice of sandhi
(peace), vigraha (war), yanam (travel for war), asanam (ignoring), samsrayam (taking the help of
strong person) and dvaidhibhavam (splitting army into two).
4. Manu - The kings actions are the four yugas - kruta, treta, dvapara and kali. Hence king is himself
called yuga. If the king sleeps it is kali; if he is awake it is dvapara; if he tries to observe karmas it
is treta; if he keeps observing karmas it is krutayuga. The king should follow the nature of Indra,
Surya, Vayu, Yama, Varuna, Chandra, Agni and Earth. Like Indra pours rain in the four rainy
months, the king should pour fulfilment of the wishes of people in his kingdom. This is Indra vrata.
Like Surya drawing the water from the earth with his rays during eight months, the king should
draw tax from the people in his kingdom. This is Surya vrata. Like Vayu penetrates all beings, the
king should penetrate in his and enemies kingdoms through spies. This is Vayu vrata. Like Yama
punishes in time those who praise as well as those who abuse him without partiality, the king
should punish citizens impartially. This is Yama vrata. Like Varuna definitely binds his enemy with
Pasa (rope), the king should positively punish sinners. This is Varuna vrata. Like people become
happy on seeing Full Moon, the king should make people feel happy on seeing him. This is
Chandra vrata. He should be harsh with the guilty, lustrous and troublesome to enemy kings. This
is Agni vrata. Like earth takes care of all beings equally, he should nourish them. This is earth
vrata. The king, with the above mentioned and other means, should suppress thieves in his and
other kingdoms without sloth. Even when he is in grave danger, he should not make brahmanas
angry. If they become angry, they will destroy the king with his army and armoury in a second.
Who with wish to be alive will trouble brahmanas, on whom Devas and worlds are dependent and
for whom Veda is the wealth? Whether consecrated ceremonially or not, Agni is great Devata.
Likewise whether scholar or ignorant, brahmana is great Devata. Brahmanas are worthy of
worship, even if they indulge in despicable deeds sometimes; as they are highly placed Devata.
The king gets one - sixth merit of Vedic study, yaga, danam and Pooja performed by brahmanas
by looking after them well. They say that the king who takes one - sixth as tax from people without
proper care gets their entire sin.

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5. Bodhayana - What is known as poison in the world is not poison. Brahmanas wealth is poison.
Poison kills one who consumes it; brahmanas wealth will kill one who steals it, his son and
grandson. Hence the king should not steal brahmanas wealth, as it is severe poison. He should
appoint Purohita, who will guide in all matters; he should live under his order. If he goes to war, he
should not return with defeat.
6. Gautama - It is the kings dharma to protect all beings and punish righteously. He should protect
brahmanas who have done Vedic study and abrahmanas who are not capable of any occupation
for survival. He should take care of properties that do not fetch tax. He should take care of
brahmacharis doing Vedic study. He should find proper means for defeating enemies. When fear of
enemies is there, he should find greater means. He should travel on vehicles like chariots, armed
with weapons like bow. In war he should stand and fight and not run away. There is no fault in his
killing enemies in war. But he will incur sin by killing the horseless, the charioteerless, the
unarmed, one who joins hands in respect, one who has spread his hair, one who shows his back,
the seated, one on high ground, one mounted on tree, the emissary and one who calls himself cow
and brahmana.
7. Wealth found in buried treasure belongs to king. The king is the lord of everything, except for the
wealth of srotriya.
8. Vyasa - Poison is not poison; wealth of brahmana and Devatas is called poison. Hence that should
never be stolen.
9. Aapasthambha - Where there is no fear of thief in village or forest in a kingdom, that king has done
good to his people. One, who gives adequate land and money to brahmanas as per their
qualification, reaches undecaying worlds. If one sets out to restore the money stolen by thieves
and gets killed by thieves at that time, it is said that it is yagna, where his body is the sacrificial post
and dakshina is unlimited. Thus it is stated that the valorous persons, who die while fighting thieves
for getting back brahmanas belongings stolen from villages and cities, are considered as having
done great yagas.
10. Manu - The king should not collect tax from a srotriya even in times of emergency. Srotriya, living
in his country, should not suffer from hunger. The king, who does not look after his kingdom and
troubles the people, will lose quickly the kingdom and his own life along with his relatives.
11. Parasara - The king should punish the village, where brahmacharis without observance of vows
and Vedic study receive alms; as it is giving food to thieves. Armed, meting out punishment,
protecting people by defeating army of enemies, Kshatriya should protect earth with dharma. Just
as the maker of garlands plucks flowers from garden without troubling them, the king should collect
tax from people. He should not destroy citizens like the seller of charcoal uprooting trees. Both the
yogi - sanyasi and the kshatriya who gets killed in war go to upper worlds after tearing into
Suryamandalam. If the valorous man, who, surrounded by enemy in war, gets killed, does not
speak words of fear, he reaches worlds of undecaying merit. One, who goes to protect his army,
beaten and running here and there, will get the merit of yaga. The soldier, who dies of injuries from
arrow, mace and club, is taken and comforted by Deva women. The valorous man, who dies in
war, is met speedily by several Deva women, who invoke him as their husband. The realm reached
by many yagas and penance by brahmanas, desiring swarga, is attained by soldiers who die in
war. For the injured soldier, into whose mouth the blood oozing out of his forehead falls, that blood
is stated to be equal to somapanam in yaga.
12. In Vishnupurana - The king who punishes the evil men and protects the good and takes care of the
state of varnas will attain desired realms of merit.

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Discussion of Vysya dharmas:


1. Manu - Iswara has prescribed cattle rearing, danam, yaga, Vedic study, trade by travelling on land
and in water, money - lending and agriculture as occupations for vysya.
2. Haaritha - Vysya should do cattle rearing, agriculture, trade, danam as per his capacity, abd
feeding brahmanas.
3. Parasara - Vysyas occupations are said to be profit in money - lending etc., gem examination etc.,
cattle rearing, agriculture and trade.
4. Manu - After upanayanam, vysya should get married and always attend to agriculture etc. and
cattle rearing. He should know the relative prices of gems, pearls, corals, metals, clothing,
perfumes and liquids. He should know completely the rules for sowing seeds, the positive and
negative points of land, measures and weighments in balance. He should know the relative merits
of commodities and types of lands, gains and losses in commodities and development of cattle. He
should learn the proper salaries to employees, many languages of men, the methods of protecting
commodities, the things to be added to them and the methods of buying and selling. He should
make good effort to increase wealth with this dharma. He should specially give danam of food to all
living beings

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Discussion of Sudra dharmas:


1. Parasara - Service to the three varnas is stated to be the best dharma for sudra. It is useless to do
any dharma other than this.
2. Parasara again if livelihood not available by service - It is not wrong for sudras to earn livelihood by
selling salt, honey, oil, curd, buttermilk, ghee and milk. Parasara also lists things not to be sold
even in adversity - By selling liquor and flesh, by eating prohibited items and by uniting with
prohibited women, sudra becomes fallen immediately. By drinking fresh milk from cow, uniting
with brahmana woman and enquiring into meaning of Vedas, sudra becomes chandala (outcaste).
If sudras abandon the prescribed service of three varnas and do other things, their lifespan will be
reduced, they will die and go to naraka; no doubt.
3. Manu - The best dharma for sudra is service to brahmanas. Sudra, who is pure, does service to
higher varnas, is soft spoken, is free from arrogance and is dependent on three varnas like
brahmanas, will be born in high caste. One who cannot do service can live on karuka karmas (like
cooking etc.) when his family is in difficulty. The acts which will help dvijas and many types of
artisans work (carpentry, painting etc.) are called karuka karmas. If not possible to live on service
to brahmana, he can survive by serving kshatriya or rich vysya. Sudra should depend only on
brahmanas for attaining swarga and for livelihood. Sudras accomplishment consists in acquring
fame of being dependent on brahmana. Service to brahmana alone is said to be the best dharma
for sudra. If he does any other dharma, it is useless. By eating garlic etc. there is no sin for sudra.
He is not eligible for samskaras like upanayanam. He has no right to dharmas like agnihotram.
There is no bar in dharmas prescribed for him. Sudras, aware of dharma and desirous of dharma
and adopting the permitted achara (conduct) of the three varnas, will not incur sin by doing
dharmas like pakayagnas without mantra and only with namaskara mantra; they will attain fame in
the world. Sudra is at the top in this world and also attains meritorious realms like swarga to the
extent he observes dvijas dharma without jealousy. Even if he is capable, he should not earn
money more than necessary for his family. If he gets more money he will impinge on brahmanas
only. Leavings of food, worn out clothes, worthless foodgrains and decayed things should be given
to sudra. Leavings of food refers to left over food in the plate; this is regarding slave.
4. Manu on grihastha sudra - Food, which is not leavings of food on the plate, should be given to
grihastha sudra every day.
5. Devala - Leavings of food should not be given to abrahmana; this is about sudra, who is not a
slave. Some say that this refers to grihastha sudra. Vyaghra in the same manner - Leavings of
food should be given to sudra, who is not grihastha evey day and food, which is not leavings,
should be given to grihastha sudra.
6. Devala - Dharmas of sudra include service to dvijas without incurring sin, taking care of wife and
family, ploughing, cattle rearing, carrying load, trade, painting, dance, music and playing
instruments like flute, mridanga etc.
7. Yagnavalkya - The swadharma of sudra is service to the three varnas. If he is unable to survive on
that, he can resort to vaisya occupation. Or he can live on sculpture of many figures useful to
dvijas. Sudra, attached wifely only to his wife, pure, taking care of those whom he should and
performing sraadhas, should do the five yagnas regularly with the mantra, namah.
8. Gautama - Sudra is the fourth varna. As he has no upanayanam, he is called ekajati. Truth,
absence of anger and purity are dharmas for him also. Some say that washing hands and feet is in
lieu of achamanam. He should also do sraadham without mantra. He should also protect parents
and others. He should have wifely attachment only with his wife. He should serve all the three
varnas and look for sustenance from them. If the first varna is not available, he can serve the next
one. They should give him worn out footwear, umbrella, cloth and kurcham (seat) and also
leavings of food. Sculpture is also his occupation. When he is not capable of work, the person on
whom he was dependent earlier, should take care of him. If the person of the higher varna, on
whom he was dependent earlier falls on bad times, the sudra should give him wealth and take care
of him; his accumulating wealth should be only for this purpose. The mantra, namah has been
blessed for him by knowers of dharma in vaisvadevam etc. Some say that he can do pakayagnas
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on his own. For the other three varnas, the second birth called upanayanam is there. Since sudra
does not have it, he is called ekajati; jati means birth. Grihyakara refers to samskaras prior to
upanayanam - For sudra also, Nishekam, Pumsavanam, Seemanthonnayanam, Jatakarma,
Namakarana, Upanishkramanam, Annaprasanam and Chowlam are to be done without mantra in
prescribed times. Some say that nothing is required other than washing hands and feet in lieu of
achamanam. Manu says that woman and sudra should sip water once.
9. Usanas on daily bath - Good sudra should take bath; sudra, who is not good, should wash his
hands and feet. He should do Amasraadham without mantra on Amavasya etc. Swadara vritti
means that he has no right to other asrama. Kurcham refers to seat etc. Brahmana should give
his sudra servant, used cloth, footwear etc. The person on whom the sudra was dependent, should
take care of him even when he is unable to work. If that brahmana suffers without livelihood, the
sudra should take care of him. The sudras money should be used only for that. In Vaisvadeva of
sudra, knowers of dharma permit contemplating on the respective Devata (name with the fourth
case) and chanting namo namah. Another says - The sloka Devatabhyah Pitrubhyascha conveys
through the word namaskara; hence it is prescribed in Pitrukarmas. Aapasthambha also says that
in the homas mentioned in Gruhya, the word Pakayagna is famous; meaning is that sudra can
also do these Pakayagnas.
10. Aapasthambha - For the three varnas, not sudras and fallen brahmanas, upanayanam, Vedic
study, Agnyadanam and karmas like Agnihotram are dharmas. For sudra, service to other varnas
alone is dharma. Service to the earlier varna rather than the next in the order gives more strength.
11. Manu - Manus instruction is that whichever part of body sudra uses for troubling brahmana, that
part should be cut off. No teaching (Vedic) should be given to sudra. Leavings of food and havis
(offering in oblation) should not be given to him. Dharma and ceremonial vow should not be taught
to him. Brahmana who teaches dharma and ceremonial vow to sudra and the sudra receiving such
teaching, both go to naraka called Asamvrutam. The bar on teaching dharma to sudra relates to
dharma like Vedic Agnihotra etc.; as it is stated, with brahmana in front, Itihasas and Puranas can
be told to all the four varnas, listening to Itihasas and Puranas is permissible for sudra. Further, it
must be stated that there is no bar in teaching sudra about dharmas of sudra expounded in smriti.
If not, since they do not observe dharmas like Aasoucham (pollution), Aamasraadham etc.
prescribed in Gautama sutras etc., the sastras prescribing sudra dharmas may lose authority.
(Hence prohibition (on teaching Vedic dharma to sudra) should not be held to be useless on the
grounds: it is unsuitable dharma; It is not dharma common to all four varnas like non - violence,
non - stealing etc.; It is not also dharma prescribed for sudras like purity, achamanam, sraadham
etc.; one will not be interested in listening to dharma not to be observed by him. Further, there is
strength in listening to any dharma like in passages, listening and seeing dharma will also give
result. As there is no fault in listening to others dharma like listening to swadharma, as the first
three varnas have right to listen to dharma of all four varnas, as the first three asramis have right to
listen to dharmas of all four asramis, as women of the three varnas have right to listen to dharmas
of males, as males have right to listen to dharmas of females, sudra can also develop interest in
listening to dharma of others; hence the above prohibition is necessary.)
12. Gautama - If sudra speaks harshly and disrespects dvijas, his tongue should be cut off; if he
disrespects by beating with stick etc., his hand; if he unites with Arya (of first three varnas) women,
his generative organ; his wealth should also be confiscated. If he is the guard of Arya women,
killing him is extra punishment. If sudra listens wantonly to Veda, his ears should be filled with tin
and lac. If he pronounces Vedic words, his tongue should be cut off. If he retains them in his mind,
his body should be dismembered. One who wishes to be equal to Aryas in seat, bed, words and
path should be punished. Aapasthambha mentions the punishment - Beating him with stick is
punishment to one who tries to be equal in words, path, bed and seat.
13. Aapasthambha gives Prayaschitta for the brahmana who serves sudra for a living - Brahmana,
who serves sudra for a living, can get rid of his sin gathered in one day by observing with discipline
trishavanasnanam and chaturthakalabhojanam for three years. (Chaturthakalabhojanam is
eating midday lunch today, followed by night dinner tomorrow.)
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14. Parasara - Brahmana, who eats food of sudra, joins sudra, sits equally with sudra and obtains
knowledge from sudra is a fallen brahmana, though he is equal to Agni.
15. Narada - For sudras in the path of dharma, tonsure once in a month, purification like vysyas and
eating leavings of dvijas is prescribed.

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Glory of Brahmanas:
1. Aapasthambha - There are four varnas - brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and sudra. Out of these, the
latter varna is better by birth than the former.
2. Manu - Brahmana is the best because of birth from Brahmas face, his birth before other varnas,
his sustaining the Vedas and his teaching dharma to all. Brahmadeva did penance and created
brahmana first from his face for holding havya (oblation for devas) and kavya (oblation for Pitrus)
and for protecting the whole world. Which being is greater than brahmana, from whose mouth
Devas eat havya and Pitrus eat kavya? The birth of brahmana is the undecaying body of dharma.
He is born for dharma and attains moksha. Even at birth, brahmana is the best on earth, capable of
protecting all beings. All wealth on earth is that of brahmana only. Owing to the glory of birth from
Brahmas face, brahmana is fit to receive all this wealth. Brahmana eats his wealth only; wears his
wealth only; gives his wealth only. By the grace of brahmana, others enjoy. This is praise; as, in
theft etc., responsibility, punishment and prayaschitta have been specified.
3. Yagnavalkya - In the beginning of kalpa, Brahmadeva pondered and created bahmanas for
protection of Vedas, satisfaction of Pitrus and Devas and for protection of dharma.
4. Saatatapa - Brahmana is born a great soul at birth itself. Being the best among the varnas, he is
mother, father and guru for all beings. For them, there is none worthy of worship in the three
worlds. Because of knowledge of Vedas, they worship each other and are gurus, guests and
persons of help to each other; they do good to others and themselves reach good state. One, who
wishes to worship Devata of his liking, should please brahmanas by all means and efforts. In the
bodies of Devas, there is only one Devata in one body. All Devatas are in brahmanas body. Hence
one should always worship them properly.
5. Sruti also - Brahmana is all Devatas; All Devatas live in brahmana who knows Veda.
6. Manu - Out of all moving and non - moving things, the living beings are the best. Out of living
beings, those that live on intellect are the best; out of them, humans; out of them, brahmanas; out
of them, knowers of Veda; out of them, knowers of meaning of Veda; out of them, those who
observe karmas as specified in Vedas; out of them, knowers of Paramatma. It is conveyed through
this that even Brahmagnanis should observe karmas.

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Explanation of Anulomajati:
1. Manu - In all varnas, those born of wives, not held by others and of the same varna, through their
husbands, belong to their respective castes. In all three varnas, sons born of women of the next
higher varna, are equal to father and higher than mother. They will not be of the caste of father.
Names of their castes are: Moordhabhishikta, Mahishya and Karana.
2. Devala - Out of them, those born to persons of same varna are the best. Anulomajas are lower
than them. Those who are outside the varnas are called Antaralas. Pratilomajas are fallen
people.
3. Manu - Children born of higher - varna father and lower - varna mother are called Anulomas. One
who is born of brahmana father and kshatriya mother is called swarna brahmana. For him, study
of Ayurveda, Atharvaveda and Dhanurveda and mounting on elephant and horse are specified.
One who is born of a brahmana man and kshatriya woman in adultery is called nakshatrajivaka.
Those born to brahmana man and woman of other three varnas, to kshatriya man and woman of
other two varnas and to vysya man and woman of the last varna are called Apasadas.
4. Yagnavalkya - One who is born of a brahmana man to kshatriya woman is called Moordhavasikta,
born to vaisya woman is Ambashta and, to sudra woman is Nishada or Parasava. One who is
born of a kshatriya man to vysya woman is called Mahishya, to sudra woman is Ugra. One who
is born of a vysya man to sudra woman is Karana. This rule is stated to apply to women accepted
in marriage.
5. Sankasmriti says, One who is born of a brahmana man to kshatriya woman becomes a kshatriya
only; born of a kshatriya man to vysya woman is vysya; born of vysya man to sudra woman is
sudra only. If there is contradiction here to what was given earlier, it is clarified that the
Sankasmriti passage is more about specifying dharmas of kshatriya etc. to them than defining
varnas like kshatriya or rejecting the Moordhavasikta caste. Hence Vignaneswara says that
upanayanam should be performed with staff, skin and upavitam appropriate to that varna.
6. Manu - One who is born of brahmana man to vysya woman is Ambashta; to sudra woman, is
Nishada or Parasava. One who is born of kshatriya man to vysya woman is Mahishya or
Ambashta. He should study Ayurveda of eight parts for a living. One who is born of kshatriya man
to vysya woman in adultery is called Soundika. His occupation is rearing and selling of horses.
One who is born of vysya man to sudra woman is Ugraka. His occupation is selling of goats and
wool and guarding the womens apartments of kngs. If he is born of adultery, he is called
Ghatakara. His occupation is selling of mats. One who is born of kshatriya man to sudra woman is
Ugra of cruel nature. One who is born of brahmana man to vysya woman is Nishada. His living is
on mantra and medicine. If he is born adulterously he is called Ghatakara. His occupation is
shaving above navel and pottery. One who is born of brahmana man to sudra woman is
Parasava. His occupation is worship of Bhadrakali, dance and musical instruments. If he is born
adulterously he is called Nishada. He lives by torturing animals deceitfully and through music.
One who is born of kshatriya man to sudra woman is Doushyanta. His occupation is catching wild
animals and fishes and making weapons like sword etc. If he is born adulterously he is called
Sulika. His occupation is punishing the guilty with spear as per kings orders. One who is born of
Mahishya man to Karana woman is called Rathakara. His other names are Taksha, Silpi,
Vartaki, Lohakara and Karmakara. For him, upanayanam, Adanam and yajanam are there. Study
of Vastu sastra is also for him. His occupations are building temples, making idols of Devatas,
making vessels for yaga, making gold ornaments, making implements for tilling like plough and
painting.
7. Sankar - For Rathakara, occupations are samskaras of yaga, Adanam and upanayanam, and
study of Rathasutra and Vastuvidya.

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Explanation of Castes like Kunda and Golaka:


1. Manu - One who is born to a brahmana woman with brahmana paramour is called Kunda; born to
brahmana widow is Golaka. These two are unfit for sraadham. One who is born to a kshatriya
woman with kshatriya paramour is called Bhoja. He has no coronation. He can use the title of king
and look after citizens. One who is born to a vysya woman with vysya paramour is called
Manikara. His living is on making apertures in pearls, rectifying conches and dyeing. One who is
born to a sudra woman with sudra paramour is called Manavaka. His living is on feeding horses
with grass.

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Explanation of Pratilomajati:
1. Yagnavalkya - One who is born of brahmana woman to kshatriya man is called Suta; to vysya
man is Vaidehaka; to sudra man is Chandala. This chandala is unfit for any dharma. One who is
born of kshatriya woman to vysya man is called Magadha; to sudra man is Kshatta. One who is
born of vysya woman to sudra man is called Ayogava.
2. Manu - One who is born of kshatriya man to brahmana woman is Suta; he is the best of
Pratiloma jatis. His occupations are worship of Vishnu, knowing those dharmas, charioteering,
selling of mats and achara like brahmana. One who is born of vysya man to kshatriya woman is
Magadha. His occupations are praising kings and playing on instruments like veena etc. If he is
born of adultery, he is called Pulinda. His occupations are torturing wild vicious animals and
selling oil, flakes as cattle food and salt. Even sudras should not eat his food; nobody shoud touch
him. If he enters village etc. during afternoon, he should be punished. One who is born of vysya
man to kshatriya woman is Magadha; to brahmana woman, Vaideha. Those who are born of
sudra man to vysya, kshatriya and brahmana women are called respectively Ayogava, Kshatta
and Chandala. They are of sankara (mixed) jatis. Just as sudra man produces outcaste
(chandala) with brahmana woman, the outcaste man produces with the women of four varnas
further inferior outcaste persons. Those who are born of sudra man to vysya, kshatriya and
brahmana women are called respectively Ayogava, Kshatta and Chandala. They are
Apasadas. One who is born of vysya man to kshatriya woman is Magadha; to brahmana woman,
Vaideha; one who is born of kshatriya man to brahmana woman is Suta. They are also
Apasadas. One who is born of Nishada man to sudra woman is called Pulkasa. One who is born
of kshatta man to ugra woman is called Svapaka. Chandala and svapaka live outside the village.
They should live in manners identifiable by their means of living and actions; they should live in
large trees, cremation grounds, hills and forests. Their clothing is the clothing of corpses; food in
broken pots; ornaments of iron. They should always be on the move. One who wishes to be in
dharma should not join them. Even if anarya, who is outcaste, unknown and born to sinners, shows
himself outwardly as arya, one should surmise through his actions that he is evil. Severity,
speaking harshly, troubling others and observing no achara indicate that he is born in sankara
(mixed) jati. One who is born of people of evil castes behaves like his father, mother or both; he will
not leave that behaviour. Everyone should do actions prescribed for his jati; one who does not do
so becomes fallen from his jati.
3. Yagnavalkya - Pratilomajas are called bad and Anulomajas as good.
4. As Anuloma and Pratiloma jatis are innumerable, everything cannot be communicated by writing
here.

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Rise and Fall of Anuloma and Pratiloma Jatis:


1. Yagnavalkya - The rise of jati can be found in seven, six or five generations. If professions are
changed, the equality of jatis is also similar. The bad and good nature of Pratilomajas and
Anulomajas is also similar. Meaning - Jatis are actually the jatis of Moo
Moordhavasiktas.rdhavasiktas. They should be known to attain the jatis of brahmana etc. in
seventh, fifth or sixth generation. This is the practical arrangement. Daughter who is born of a
brahmana man to sudra woman is Nishadi. She marries a brahmana and begets a daughter. That
girl also does the same. The sixth (generation) daughter thus begets a son, who becomes a
brahmana. Daughter who is born of a brahmana man to vysya woman is Ambashti. If she follows
the track mentioned above, the fifth daughter begets a son, who becomes a brahmana. In the
same manner Ugra and Mahishya women marry kshatriya men and beget kshatriya son in sixth
and fifth generation respectively. In the same manner Karani woman marries vysya man and
begets vysya son in fifth generation. Similarly jatis like brahmana attain to lower caste by marrying
lower castes like kshatriya. By changing profession for the sake of livelihood first and by not
abandoning it later after the adversity is over, in seven, six or five generations, the equality with
that respective lower caste happens. Explanation - Brahmana adopts the occupation of sudra
continuously and begets a son. The son also does the same. This continues and in the seventh
generation he begets a sudra only. In the same way the brahmana who lives on vysya occupation
begets vysya in the sixth generation and the brahmana who lives on kshatriya occupation begets
kshatriya in the fifth generation. This rule applies to Pratilomajas also. Pratilomajas are: those who
are born of Moordhavasikta women with kshatriya, vysya and sudra men; those who are born of
Ambashta women with vysya and sudra men; those who are born of Nishadi woman with sudra
man. Anulomajas are: those who are born of Moordhavasikta, Ambashta and Nishadi women with
brahmana man; those who are born of Mahishya and Ugra women with brahmana and kshatriya
men; those who are born of Karani women with brahmana, kshatriya and vysya men. As before,It
is to be known that Pratilomajas are bad and Anulomajas are good.
2. Manu - If sons born of the three varna men with women of same varna have not been initiated into
upanayanam, they have not received savitri initiation and are called vratyas.
3. Bodhayana - If sons born of the three varna men with women of same varna have not been
initiated into upanayanam, they have not received savitri initiation and great men call them
vratyas.

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Forty Samskaras:
1. Manu - The three varnas should perform samskaras (purificatory ceremonies) of body like
Garbhadhanam in order that purification is possible in this and next worlds through meritotrious
karmas as given in Veda.
2. Yagnavalkya - There are four varnas - brahmana, kshatriya, vaisya and sudra. Of these, the first
three varnas are called Dvijas. Kriyas from Garbhadhanam till Aparakriya with mantras are
prescribed only for them.
3. Angiras - Just as a painting is completed by doing properly all the different parts, brahmanaism
attains fullness with samskaras performed as per rules.
4. Manu - For dvijas, the sin arising out of seed and stay in uterus is removed by homas performed
during stay in uterus and subsequent Jatakarma, Chowla and Upanayanam.
5. Yagnavalkya - By doing samskaras thus, the sin from seed and stay in uterus is destroyed.
6. Gautama mentions those forty samskaras - Garbhadhanam, Pumsavanam, Seemantonnayanam,
Jatakarma, Namakaranam, Annaprasanam, Chowlam, Upanayanam, Four Vedavratas,
Samavarthanam, Vivaham, Five Mahayagnas, Seven Pakayagnasamsthas - Ashtaka, Parvanam,
Sraadham, Sravani, Aagrahayani, Chaitri and Aasvayuji, Seven Haviryagnasamsthas - Aadanam,
Agnihotram, Darsa Purnamasas, Aagrayanam, Chaturmasyas, Nirudhapasubandham and
Soutramani, Seven Somasamsthas - Agnishtomam, Atyagnishtomam, Uktyam, Shodasi,
Vajapeyam, Atiratram and Abdoryamam. Then eight Atmagunas are mentioned - Compassion to
all living beings, forbearance, absence of jealousy, purity, absence of exertion, auspiciousness,
freedom from miserliness and lack of desire. Here a karma called Upanishkramanam has been
mentioned by Manu. He says, Upanishkramanam should be performed in fourth month. That has
not been supported here. As forty is mentioned, samskaras are forty only. Hence the rest of
Sroutha Smartha karmas are not part of these forty samskaras.
7. Brihaspati mentions the characteristics of compassion etc. - Compassion (daya) is protecting from
danger whosoever - other, relative, friend, enemy. Forbearance (kshanti) is absence of anger and
not troubling others, even when one is subjected by them to bodily or mental harm. Absence of
jealousy (anasuya) is not hating someone when he attains dharma, wealth, desire or moksha
(liberation). Purity (soucha) is avoidance of prohibited eatables, joining those who are free from
faults and remaining in ones own dharma. Absence of exertion (anaayasa) is avoiding action
which would result in pain to oneself even if the action is as per dharma. Auspiciousness
(mangalam) is doing the best deeds and avoiding despicable deeds. Freedom from miserliness
(akaarpanyam) is: even when what one has is meagre, giving others happily at least a little bit of
that. Lack of desire (aspruha) is being satisfied with wealth one has earned or got and not desiring
for others belongings.
8. Sankar says that one with these forty samskaras and eight atmagunas attains Brahmasayujya
(merging with Brahma) - Brahmana purified by Purvasamskaras and Uttarasamskaras and with
eight gunas attains to Brahmaloka from where there is no return. Garbhadhanam etc. are
Purvasamskaras; Ashtaka etc. are Uttarasamskaras.
9. Haaritha in the same vein - Samskaras are of two types - Brahmam and Daivam; From
Garbhadhanam till Samavarthanam is Brahmam; Pakayagnas, Haviryagnas and Somasamsthas
are Daivam. One who has received Brahma samskaras attains to equality and merger with Rishis.
One who has received Daiva samskaras attains to equality, living in the same realm and merger
with Devas.
10. Gautama says about one without Atnmagunas - Even purified with forty samskaras, the one
without the eight Atmagunas does not attain to merger and living in the same realm as Brahma.
Hence it must be understood that only the one who has forty samskaras and eight Atmagunas gets
the fruit of attaining to merger with Brahma.
11. Samskaras from Garbhadhanam till Upanayanam are a must for all dvijas. Bath etc. are not
necessary. If not, there will be difference with passage like One can take up the asrama of
interest; from brahmacharya one can go to sanyasarama.

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Discussion of Garbhadhanam:
1. Manu - Gruhastha should unite with woman in the Rtukala (period favourable for conception); he
should always unite with his woman only. For his womans pleasure, he can unite with her in period
unfavourable for conception and on days other than Parva. For women, the period favourable for
conception is sixteen days from the start of menstruation. In that period, the first four days are
prohibited. Eleventh and thirteenth days are condemnable. The rest ten days favourable for
conception are good. Union in even days will beget male child and that in odd days, female child.
Hence one who desires for son should unite with woman on even days in the period favourable for
conception. Even during the favourable period, he should observe brahmacharya on amavasya,
ashtami, purnima and chaturdasi days.
2. Brihaspati - Man should unite with woman during Rtukala definitely; in the rest of time, he can unite
on days other than Parva, as it is pleasing to women.
3. Yagnavalkya - Man should remember the boon given by Indra to women, be yathakami,i.e. uniting
in times when they wish and be attached only to his wife; as it is essential to protect women.
Yathakami is one who unites without transgressing wifes desire. About Indras boon, in Taittiriyam
- Indra reached the group of women and asked them to receive one - third of his sin of killing of
brahmana. The women said, We will conceive after menstruation and enjoy union till time of
delivery. Hence women conceive after menstruation and enjoy union till time of delivery, as they
asked for such a boon. Women accepted one - third of the sin of killing of brahmana. It became
malavatvasah (menses). The term vasah in the word malavatvasah conveys that from the time
of contact of menstrual blood on the dress, impurity has set in.
4. Yagnavalkya - For women, sixteen nights from the time of noticing menses is called Rtu. Out of
those, man should unite on even days. One who follows this rule becomes brahmachari himself.
He should avoid Parva nights and the first four nights, like a brahmachari only. The word nisha
means that union is not permitted during day. Hence Sankha and Likhita say - Uniting with woman
is prohibited during menses period and during daytime. If done, children of less virility and less
lifespan will be born. As the plural term yugmasu is used, one should unite in all permissible even
nights in Rtukala. One who unites thus is brahmachari only. Hence Vignaneswara says that where
brahmacharya is prescribed, man of this discipline does not suffer the deficiency of losing
brahmacharya. Sruti on avoiding Parva and the first four nights - One should not unite with woman
on amavasya and purnima days; if he does, he loses virility; One should not talk or sit with woman
in menses; One born in union during menses period is called Abhisasta.
5. Aapasthambha says that among even days, the latter is better than the former - Great men say
that in Rtukala, in the period from 4th night upto 16th night, among even nights, the latter is
preferable to the former. Here union in 4th night is permitted if menses flow has stopped.
Katyayana says with this in mind - Woman in menses becomes pure by bath on fourth day.
Haaritha - After bath on fourth day, on even nights. Gobila in the same vein - When the woman in
menses becomes free from the menstrual flow, that is the time fit for union.
6. Parasara - Woman in menses becomes pure on the fourth day after bath. Only after stoppage of
menstrual flow, she can do karmas for Devas and Pitrus. As long as there is menstrual flow, she is
impure. Only after its stoppage, she becomes fit for union and work at home. She is known as
chandali on first day, killer of brahmana on second day and washerwoman (rajaki) on third day.
The sin that would accrue by uniting with chandali et al will attach by union with woman in menses.
7. Sruti in the same vein - In the three days one should observe vrata (vow). The fourth night is
recommended for avoidance because of opinion that menstrual flow might persist or son would be
born who would be of short life and poor. Vyasa in the same manner - By union in the fourth night,
son would be born who would be of short life and poor; in 5th night, daughter who would beget son;
in 6th, son of medium quality; in 7th, daughter who would be barren; in 8th, wealthy son; in 9th,
beautiful daughter; in 10th, good son; in 11th, sinful daughter; in 12th, very good son; in 13th,
daughter who would mix castes; in 14th, son who would be knower of dharmas, grateful,
Atmagnani, of firm resolve and king of earth by good qualities; in 15 th, daughter who would be

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queen, enjoy many pleasures, beget many sons and be chaste; in 16th, son who would have vidya,
beauty, truth and victory over sense organs and be refuge for all beings.
8. Yagnavalkya - Thus, one, who unites once in one night with woman who has thinned due to rules
of woman in menses, on night excluding stars of Makha and Mulam and having strength of
Chandra, will beget male child of handsome marks.
9. Brihaspati - If the blood (sonitha) of woman is more, female child would be born; if the semen
(sukla) of man is more, male child would be born. Hence, for increase of semen, man should eat
food,0000 which would improve virility and is soft; woman should be made to eat less food; then he
will beget male issue.
10. Manu - If the semen of man is more, male child would be born; if the blood of woman is more,
female child would be born; if both are equal, eunuch, male and female would be born; If semen is
not virile and is less, pregnancy will not result. If male semen is divided into two, embryo gets
separated in two.
11. Yama - During union, if man deposits his semen in two ways, embryo becomes two.
12. In Sayaniyam - Auspicious days for impregnation: In sukla and Krishna pakshas, tithis other than
shashti, ashtami, panchadasi, chaturthi and chaturdasi; days of Chandra, Guru, Sukra and Budha.
Recommended stars: Sravanam, Rohini, Hastam, Anusham, Swati, Revati, Mulam, Uthirams and
Sathabhishak (Sadayam). Stars of medium result: Pushyam, Sravishta (Avittam), Mrigasirsham,
Asvini, Chitra and Punarvasu. The rest are useless. If Rushabha, Mithuna, Kataka, Simha, Kanya,
Tula, Kumbha, Dhanus and Meenam have purity in Ashtama and support of good Grahas, they are
auspicious.
13. Devala on union when many wives are present - When Rtukala of many women is at the same
time, one should unite in order of varnas starting from brahmana; or, unite first with woman having
no son; or, at least in order of marriage.
14. Parasara on sin in not uniting in Rtukala - Man who does not unite with wife after bath after
menstruation will get the blemish of killing embryo.
15. Bodhayana - Pitrus live in the semen of man for the month when he does not unite with wife who
has bathed after menstruation and is near at hand. There is no fault if wife is not nearby or if man
is incapable. Devala in the same vein - A healthy man, who does not unite with wife who has
bathed after menstruation, gets the blemish of killing embryo. Man, who does not unite for three
years with wife in periods favourable for conception, gets the blemish of killing foetus. One who
does not unite during Rtukala, unites during period other than Rtukala and discharges semen in
place other than wifes vagina are of equal sin. Forbidding during period other than Rtukala is in
the event of wife not being desirous. If not, it will contravene the word yathakami. Gautama in the
same manner - Union is right during Rtukala and also in period other than forbidden.
16. Aapasthambha - Sruti also says: Enjoying pleasures not opposed to dharma, one should protect
women Protect your lineage attentively; the seeds of others should not be laid in your wives.
17. Mahabharata - Agnihotram is the strength of Vedas; Danam and enjoyment are the strength of
wealth; Sexual enjoyment and son are the strength of wife; Good conduct and fame are the
strength of sastram.
18. Vyasa - There is no fault if man living abroad unites with wife anytime in Rtukala, other period, day
or night.
19. Vyasa again - For man who is diseased, in prison and abroad and for one who does not unite
during Parva, there is no fault of transcending Rtukala.
20. Bodhayana - Prajapati says that there is no prayaschitta for one who discharges semen in the face
of wife.
21. Vyasa - One should not unite even in mind with other mens wives. He should unite only with wife
during Rtukala, thinking that adultery is frightful in this world and the next. This rule of uniting
during Rtukala is for man who has no son.
22. In Kurmapurana in the same vein - Till son is born, man should unite during Rtukala.

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23. Vasishtha also - If one looks at the face of son, born and living, he is rid of Pitru debt; he gets the
state of Deva. Brahmana, even at birth, has three debts. By brahmacharya, he repays the debt of
Rishis; by yagnas, the debt of Devas; by getting son, the debt of Pitrus. Man becomes complete by
getting son. One without son is not praised in this world and the next. His birth is useless; his
lineage is destroyed. One with son attains undecaying worlds. For one without son, there is no
world. Passages in Sruti and Smriti like O man! You alone are born as son. That itself is
immortality for you are true with even one son.
24. Manu in the same vein - When the eldest son is born, man becomes Putravan (one who has son).
He becomes free from debt to Pitrus. Hence that son alone is eligible for all wealth. Passages like
Give ten sons to her. One should desire for many sons, as one at least will go to Gaya are in
praise of many sons. Hence man with one son is not at fault if he transgresses Rtukala with desire
for many sons.
25. Hence Manu - The first son, who is the cause of repaying the debt to Pitrus and for getting the
state of Deva, is Dharmaja (born of dharma); the other sons are called Kamaja (born of desire).
26. In Sayaniyam - Calculating from the star in which conception takes place, delivery will occur in 9 th,
10th or 12th star. Birth will take place in 12th star from the star of Garbhadhanam (impregnation).
Hence one should unite with knowledge of auspicious star. Decorating himself with things liked by
woman and with firm resolve, one should lie down in bed near his wife for two yamams (six hours).
27. In Apararka - One with diksha (ceremonial vow) should not sleep in place where women sleep.
One who has performed sraadha should not unite with woman.
28. Vyasa - One who wishes for long life should not unite with woman, who has not taken bath, is
diseased, in periods or pregnant. He should not unite with woman, who is unwilling, angry,
despicable, diseased, unfavourable, desirous of other man, not desirous of him, belonging to other,
hungry or has overeaten. He should also be free from these qualities. After bath, wearing garland
and sandalpaste, one should unite happily with woman.
29. Sandilya - One should not unite with wife who is pregnant, dirty, grey - haired, in periods or
diseased. A hungry man should not unite. There should be no discharge of semen in other places
(other than wifes vagina). One should sleep with wife, who has bathed, is wearing good dress and
ornaments, is of pure mind and free from disease; he should also be in the same condition. To
those who indulge in too much of intercourse, loss of virility, increase of disease, poverty
(Alakshmi), hindrance to good actions and loss of beauty, long life and fame will happen.
30. Samvartha - For one who unites with woman in periods or eight months pregnant, prayaschitta
(expiation) is Atikruchram.
31. Bharadvaja - If one unites with woman in period other than Rtukala, he should wear his Upaveeta
in his back in Niveeti (hanging like a garland) position.
32. Manu - One should unite with woman in Rtukala with upaveeta in normal position and at other
times, with upaveeta in Niveeti position. Man should be without clothing and woman with clothing; if
both are unclothed, they will attract sin. If one unites in Rtukala, he should take bath; at other times
he should do purification like after urination.
33. Gautama - If one unites with woman, he should do purification; it should not be delayed.
34. Aapasthambha - One should take bath. Or he should wash off all matter, do achamanam and
sprinkle water on limbs. After union, he should not sleep with her the whole night.
35. Gautama - One should unite with clothing kept separately for the purpose of union. Upto union, he
can sleep with his wife; after union, he should sleep separately.
36. In Kaladarsam - The period from 4th day after noticing menstrual blood until 16th day is called
Rtukala. Even days will generate male child and odd days female. In these two categories, the
latter day is better than the former day. One should avoid Moolam, Makham and five Parvas. In
both pakshas, the five days of chaturdasi, ashtami, darsam (amavasya), purnima and sankranti are
called Parva.
37. In Kurmapurana - Union with woman is not permitted on days of shashti, ashtami, amavasya,
purnima, dvadasi, chaturdasi and janmatrayam.

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Pumsavanam:
1. Aapasthambha - As soon as pregnancy comes to light, Pumsuvanam should be performed.
Pumsuvanam is the name of the karma; by doing this, the woman begets son. This is eulogy, as
begetting son is uncertain. The u after s is chandasam (Vedic usage). Aasvalayana read it as
A only. The meaning is that after pregnancy is confirmed, Pumsavanam should be performed in
third or fourth month in Pushya star.
2. In Kaladarsam - Pumsavanam should be performed in 3rd or 4th month. It should be done after
pregnancy has come to light; it is well known that pregnancy will come to light only at that time.
3. Yagnavalkya - Garbhadhanam in Rtukala and Pumsavanam before the movement of foetus in
uterus should be done.
4. But Brihaspati says: after the movement of the foetus in uterus - Garbhadhanam in Rtukala and
Pumsavanam after the movement of foetus in uterus should be done.
5. Paijavapa - In 2nd or 3rd month before movement of foetus in uterus.
6. Bhaskara - In 2nd or 3rd month on day of male star in association with Chandra.
7. In Ratnakosa, male stars have been listed - Hastam, Mulam, Sravanam, Punarvasu, Mrigasirsham,
and Pushyam are male stars.
8. Jatukarnya - Pumsavanam should be done in 2nd or 3rd month, or after pregnancy is confirmed, or
along with Seemantham.
9. In Dharmodyotam - Pumsavanam should be done in 3rd month and Seemanthonnayanam in 6th or
7th month. If Pumsavanam is not done before, it should be done first, followed by
Seemanthonnayanam. Some say that as it is a basic samskara, it is samskara for all pregnancies;
hence Pumsavanam is required only in the first pregnancy. Others say that Aapasthambha says
that the woman will beget son; his opinion applies to every pregnancy; this samskara is required in
every pregnancy for begetting son.

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Seemanthonnayanam:
1. Paijavapa - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 4th or 5th month.
2. Yagnavalkya - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 6th or 8th month and Jatakarma after
childbirth.
3. Lokakshi - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 3rd month.
4. In Kaladarsam - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 4th, 6th or 8th month.
5. Sankar - Seemanthonnayanam may be performed after movement of foetus or upto time of
delivery. Note that in case of obstacle in prime time, it can be done later upto time of delivery.
6. Kasyapa - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in 6th, 7th, 8th or 9th month or at least before
delivery.
7. As this is a womans samskara, it should be done only once. It need not be done in every
pregnancy. Aapasthambha in the same vein - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in first
pregnancy in 4th month.
8. In Sankhyayana Grihyam - Seemanthonnayanam should be performed in first pregnancy in 7 th
month.
9. Haaritha - For dvija women, who have undergone Seemantha samskara once, whatever be the
number of pregnancies, all of them are deemed to have undergone the samskara.
10. Devala - Woman, who has undergone the samskara once, remains with the samskara in all
pregnancies.
11. Some do it for every pregnancy, considering that it is a samskara of the foetus. Vishnu in the same
vein - Seemantham is said to be womans samskara. Some consider it as samskara of the foetus
and do it in every pregnancy. Respective Grihyas should be referred for details in this regard.
12. Satyavrata on woman who has delivered without Seemantham - In case woman without
Seemantham has delivered, Seemantham should be done to her and the baby.
13. Gargya - In case woman has delivered before Seemantham, the baby should be kept in a box and
Seemantham should be performed. If the pregnant womans husband has died or gone abroad,
her brother - in - law, Guru or Sapinda (husbands paternal relative) may do the Seemantham.

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Jatakarma:
1. Vishnu - Once the child is born, the father should take bath and perform Jatakarma as stipulated in
his Grihya.
2. Samvartha - Once the child is born, bath with clothes as worn is stipulated for the father.
3. Jabali - Naimittika (required by occasion) and kamya (desire - prompted) baths should be had in
cold water.
4. Vasishtha - In case of birth of child, Avabhruta (ablution at close of yaga), Surya sankramanam
and eclipse occurring at night, one can have bath at night; otherwise not.
5. Vyasa - Bath and danam should not be done at night; if they are required by occasion, they can be
done at night. Danam given during eclipse, marriage, sankramanam, pilgrimage, harti and delivery
is called naimittikam (required by occasion). There is no fault in doing it at night. Danam given on
birth of child and in pilgrimage, even at night, is of inexhaustible merit.
6. Sankhyayani on the speciality of bath at night - One should take bath at night in the presence of
Agni with water brought during day and kept with gold.
7. Manu - As soon as child is born, before cutting of umbilical cord, Jatakarma is stipulated. The baby
should be fed at that time gold, honey and ghee with mantra.
8. Paijavapa - Jatakarma should be done immediately on birth of the child. If it cannot be done for
reason beyond control, it should be done after the period of pollution is over. Pollution is not there
before cutting of umbilical cord; pollution occurs after cutting of umbilical cord.
9. Vyasa - At the time of birth of child, Naandi sraadham should be performed before the umbilical
cord is cut. If material is not available at that time, it should be done after the period of pollution.
10. This sraadham should be done as Aama foodgrains) or Hiranya (gold). Prachetas - Woman,
sudra, one who cooks his own food and one who wishes to do Jatakarma should do Aama
sraadham as per Paarvana rules.
11. In Jatakarma sraadham, cooked food is forbidden. In Adipurana - In Jatakarma sraadham, cooked
food should not be served even in case of brahmanas. Those who eat it become pure by
chandrayana (kind of prayaschitta).
12. Bodhayana - Brahmana can do Hiranya sraadha in absence of cooked food or brahmanas, in
pilgrimage, in childbirth and in eclipse. Sudra should always do Hiranya sraadham only.
13. Vrudha Yagnavalkya - On birth of child, whatever danam is given, be it gold, land, cow, horse,
goat, cloth, bed, seat, brahmana can accept; he should avoid only cooked food. If he eats, he
should observe chandrayanam. For gnatis (paternal relatives) alone, there is no bar, as Manusmriti
says so.
14. Sankar says that on this day danam may be given to gnatis also - To all gnatis should be given
male and female servants, cows, gold foodgrains etc.
15. Vyasa - As soon as the child is born, Devas and Pitrus come towards him; hence that day
becomes meritorious and praiseworthy. That day one should give gold, land, cow, horse, chariot,
umbrella, goat, cloth, garland, bed, seat and house. During birth of child, one can accept gold,
foodgrains, cow, cloth, mixed food, jaggery and ghee.
16. Parasara - Danam given in field and on the occasions of marriage, sankramanam, eclipse, death,
birth of child and vyathipatham is of inexhaustible merit.
17. Sankars statement: During childbirth, there is no harm in accepting danam of jaggery etc. before
cutting of umbilical cord and similar statements of Haaritha and Paijavapa imply that before
umbilical cord is cut, Jatakarma and Naandi sraadham should be done.
18. Satyavrata in the same vein - In childbirth, before umbilical cord is cut, Jatakarma and Naandi
sraadham should be done. In the matter of acceptance of danam, whole of that day is creditable in
view of many smritis. Vrudhamanu - Danam can be accepted during the whole of the day of
childbirth.
19. Yagnavalkya - The day of birth of child is free from defect, as the ancestors are born that day.
20. Haaritha - The day of birth of child is meritorious, owing to the happiness of the ancestors.
21. Gautama - The time before cutting of umbilical cord is meritorious; some say this about the whole
of that day.
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22. Sankar - There is no fault in accepting danam before cutting of umbilical cord; some say this about
the whole of that day.
23. In Sangraham - As the day of childbirth is meritorious, danam should be given; others can accept.
24. Jatukarnya - If child is born during the period of pollution of death, Jatakarma and Namakaranam
should be done after the period of pollution of death is over. If child is born during the period of
pollution of birth of some other child, Jatakarma and Namakaranam may be done immediately.
25. In Purnasagraham - There is no pollution in eclpse, Ganga and childbirth. Even if one had taken
food, one can take bath and give danam etc.
26. Prajapati - In case of childbirth when there is pollution, the karta becomes pure temporarily. In
Smrityarthasaram - After childbirth, father should take bath and perform Naandi sraadham,
whether it is night, sandhya time or eclipse; he can do this even in the middle of some other
pollution.
27. Sruti specifies Ishti in case of childbirth to Aahitagni - In case of childbirth, he should do Vaisvanara
Ishti with Purodasam (oblation of ground rice) in 12 kapalas (vessels). That child will be pure,
lustrous, eater of food, virile and have wealth of cows. This Ishti is kamya (desire - driven optional), as there is expectation from the child. This Ishti should be performed in Parvakala, after
pollution is over. Jatakarma should be done immediately after birth.
28. In Smritiratnam - On birthday (star) every year, all should take bath, wear auspicious things and do
Pooja to Guru, Devas, Agni and brahmanas. Every year on the day of birth star, one should do
Pooja to Pitrus, Devas and Brahma and also celebrate in a big way.

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Namakaranam:
1. Manu - On the 10th or 12th day from the day of childbirth, Namakaranam (naming ceremony) should
be done. If done afterwards, a day of good tithi, day of week and star should be chosen.
2. Gobila - Namakaranam should be done after 10 or 100 days or one year.
3. In Bahuvrichaparisishtam - Namakaranam should be done after 10 or 100 days or one year from
day of birth.
4. Yagnavalkya - Namakaranam on 11th day, Nishkramanam in 4th month, Annaprasanam in 6th
month and Chowlam as per family tradition should be done.
5. In Smritiratnam - Father should do Namakaranam on 10th day. If father is not there or not fit,
another person or elder in the clan should do Jatakarma etc.
6. Sankar - Father or elder in the clan should give the name of Kuladevata or related to star.
7. Vyasa - Some say that Namakaranam may be done on 10th day; some, 12th day, some, after one
month; some, on 18th day.
8. Bharaskara - On 10th day, the woman who has delivered should be got up and Naandi and
Namakaranam should be done.
9. Sankar - On 10th day, the woman who has delivered should be got up and Naandi should be done.
10. Manu - The name should be indicative of auspiciousness for brahmana, strength for kshatriya,
wealth for vaisya and criticism for sudra.
11. Surname of Sarma for brahmana, surname indicative of protection for kshatriya, indicative of well being for vaisya and slavery for sudra should be added to the name. Examples - Bhadra Sarma,
Sakti Pala, Dhana Pushta, Heena Dasa. Some accept meaningfulness for the surnames. In that
case examples are Sumati, Dhritarashtra, Nidhipala, Pasusakha etc.
12. Yama - Surnames are Sarma and Deva for brahmana, Varma and Trata for kshatriya, Bhuti and
Datta for vysya and Dasa for sudra. Name as per Manus instruction should be added first. Bhadra
Sarma and Bhadra Deva are names for brahmana; similar for others.
13. Aasvalayana - For all the four varnas, surnames of Sarma, Varma, Gupta and Dasa respectively
should be added after the name.
14. Aapasthambha - On 10th day, after the woman who has delivered has taken bath, mother and
father should do Namakaranam for the child. If Namakaranam is done thus on 10th day, the woman
who has delivered should take bath after getting out of the delivery room. For purity she should
take bath on 11th day also. Mother and father should do Namakaranam together; Sruti also says
this.
15. Aapasthambha - Name should have 2 or 4 letters, starting with word su; with kviafter that,
indicative of action; dirgham(long), visargam at the end; ghoshavat (soft consonant) letter at the
beginning; antastha (semi - vowel) letter in the middle. Example - Girda:, Varda:, Hiranyada: etc.
Another way without these characteristics - The word which has su as prefix is specially good;
Sujata:, Sudarsana: etc.
16. Paijavapa - Father should give a name, which has 1,2,3,4 or many letters, starting with ghoshavat
letter, antastha in the middle, long visarga at end and krudantam and not dattidantam.
17. Bodhayana - The name should at least refer to Rishis, Devatas and ancestors.
18. Sankar - Father should give name related to Kuladevatas and stars.
19. Manu on names for girls - For girls, name should be easy to pronounce, not cruel, with clear
meaning, attractive, auspicious, with dirgha (long) letter at end and benedictory.
20. Bharaskara - Name of girl should have odd number of letters and end with Aa.
21. Sankar - If name ending with e is given to girl, the clan gets purified.
22. Aapasthambha - For girl, name should have odd number of letters, like Sree:, Yasoda, Parvati.
23. Note the requirements as per Grihya and family tradition.

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Piercing the Ears:


1. In Sayaneeyam - Piercing the ears (Karna vedhanam) in Karthik, Pousha, Phalguna and Chaitra
months in Sukla paksha on auspicious day is creditable. The artisan should pierce the ear of the
baby on the lap of mother, who has not yet grown teeth, with needle having two threads.

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Nishkramanam (Taking baby out in open):


1. Manu - In 4th month of the baby, nishkramanam from the house of birth should be done.
2. In Smritichandrika - Nishkramanam should be done on 12th day. Some say that it should be done
in 4th month.
3. Sankar - In 4th month the baby should be made to have darshan of Surya.
4. Yama - In 3rd month the baby should be made to have darshan of Surya and in 4th month, darshan
of Chandra.
5. In Smrityarthasara - Nishkramanam and darshan of Chandra, Surya and Devas should be enabled
on 12th day or 3rd or 4th month.

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Annaprasanam:
1. Manu - Annaprasanam (first feeding of child with solid food) and auspicious activities of family
tradition should be done in 6th month.
2. Yama - Annaprasanam and auspicious activities of family tradition should be done in 6 th or 8th
month.
3. Lokakshi - It should be done in 6th month or after teething.
4. Sankar - It should be done before close of a year; some say, afterwards.
5. Aapasthambha - In 6th month from birth, after performing Naandi and Punyahavachanam,
Prasanam (feeding) with mantras should be done to the child, of mixture of curd, honey, ghee and
cooked rice. Meaning is that 6th month as calculated from the day of birth.
6. Brihaspati - He says that Annaprasanam should be done after 150 days within 180 days; Note
requirements from respective Grihyam.
7. Markandeya - In the presence of Devata, cooked rice with honey, ghee and gold from a golden
vessel should be fed to the decorated child on the lap of the mother; then payasam (sweet
pudding of rice) should be fed. Mother should then leave the child on the ground.
8. Markandeya on testing of livelihood - Then in the presence of child, the materials for sculpture and
weapons should be kept for testing. Whichever article is first touched by the child indicates the
future means of livelihood of the child.

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Discussion of Chowla:
1. Manu - The three varnas of dvijas should get Chudakarma (ceremony of tonsure) done in 1 st or 3rd
year as per family tradition, as stipulated in Sruti. A Sruti passage says: Where arrows fall like
boys with many tufts of hair.
2. Yagnavalkya - In 6th month, annaprasanam and tonsure as per family practice should be done.
3. Sounaka - Chowla (ceremony of tonsure) should be done in 3rd year or as per family practice.
Meaning is that the tradition of when and how Chowla is done in the family should be followed.
4. Yama - After the 1st year ends, either in 2nd or 3rd year, Chowla should be done as per family
practice and Veda.
5. Paijavapa - Chowla in 3rd year.
6. Sankar - Chowla in 3rd or 5th year.
7. Lokakshi - After most of 3rd year is over, Chowla should be done. The tuft of hair is on the right side
for Kamujas and Vasishthas; on the left for Bharadvajas; on both sides for Athreyas and Kasyapas.
Clean shaven head for Bhrugu gotra persons. Five tufts of hair for Angirases. Some have line of
hair; some say that for auspiciousness, tuft can be kept somewhere on the head. Tuft of hair may
be kept as per family practice.
8. Aapasthambha - The tufts of hair should be as many as the number of Rishis in ones Pravaram; or
tuft may be as per family practice.
9. Here number of years should be calculated from birth. Aapasthambha - Chowla should be done in
Punarvasu star after more than half of 3rd year from birth is completed. By Punarvasu all specified
stars should be considered.
10. Vyasa - It can be done in stars - Asvini, Sravanam, Svati, Chitra, Pushyam, Punarvasu, Sravishta,
Revati, Jyeshta, Mrigasirsha and Hastham. It should not be done in birthstar, Purvaproshtapada,
Uthiraproshtapada and Krithika stars. Tithis of Prathama, Chaturthi, Navami, Chaturdasi and
Shashti and days of Saturday, Sunday and Tuesday and nighttime are forbidden.
11. Garga - When mother is pregnant, chowlam of child should not be done, as death will occur from
tool.
12. Narada - Chowlam should not be done to child of less than 5 years, if mother is pregnant. After 5
years, it can be done even if mother is pregnant. If karmas from Garbhadhanam till Chowlam are
not done in prescribed times, Ajyahomam with vyahritis should be done, followed by Prayaschitta.
Out of these, for every lapse, pada (quarter) kruchram should be done; for lapse in Chowlam, half
kruchram is prescribed. If transgression has occurred knowingly, twice the Prayaschitta should be
done.

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Jatakarma etc.of Women:


1. Yagnavalkya - Karmas from Jatakarma till Chowlam should be done to female children without
mantra and marriage with mantra.
2. Manu - Jatakarma etc. should be done for girls entirely without mantra and in time as prescribed.
3. Gobila - In addition to performing these karmas for girls without mantra, homa should also be done
without mantra.
4. Katyayana says that Prayaschitta is specified if these karmas are not done for girls also in time - If
samskaras like upanayanam are not done in time, the Sarvaprayaschitta should be done after
homa. Homa done with five mantras separately is called Sarvaprayaschitta.
5. In Chandrika it is stated that for females also, if the time for upanayanam is exceeded,
vratyaprayaschitta should be done.
6. Manu says that for females, marriage alone is upanayanam - It is stated that for females, marriage
alone is upanayanam. Service of husband is living in Gurukula. Attending to household work is
Agnikaryam. Hence in case of females also, the rules, Before upanayanam, living, talking and
eating as one pleases are permissible, but not afterwards apply equally.
7. The statement of Haaritha, Women are of two types - brahmavadinis and sadyovadhus. Of them,
for brahmavadinis, upanayanam, Agnikaryam, study of Vedas and living on alms in their own home
are all there. For sadyovadhus, upanyanam should be done somehow at the time of marriage prior
to marriage ceremony refers to the dharma of previous kalpa.
8. Yama in the same vein - In the previous kalpa, for women also, upanayanam, study of Vedas and
Gayatri japa were prescribed. None other than father, his brother and her own brother should teach
Veda to women. They should do living on alms in their own homes. Deerskin, bark of tree and
matted hair should not be worn by them.
9. In Smrityarthasara - These samskaras should be done as per family practice for the sake of
eliminating the faults due to seed and living in uterus. They should be done without mantra for
females. Marriage should be done with mantra. If prescribed time is exceeded, vyahriti homa
should be done prior to the karma. If any one karma has lapsed timewise, quarter kruchram is
specified; if the lapse has occured knowingly, prayaschitta is twice.

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Aksharabhyasam (Beginning of Study):


1. Markandeya - After 5th year has set in, Vidyarambham should be done during the time Vishnu is
awake, eliminating Shashti, Prathama, Ashtami, Riktatithis, Parvas, Saturday and Tuesday, in
auspicious time.
2. In Sayaneeyam - Akshararambham should be done after 5th year has set in for the child, in
Uttarayana in month other than Kumbha masa, when Surya is in Kataka and in auspicious time as
per sastra. If it is day of Surya, Sukra or Guru (Sunday, Friday or ThursdaY), even a fool will
become scholar. If it is day of Chandra or Budha (Monday or Wednesday), loss of strength and if it
is day of Angaraka or Sani (Tuesday or Saturday), destruction will happen. The creditable stars
are: Sravanam, Punarvasu, Pushyam, Rohini, Sravishta, Swati, Sadayam, Anusham, Jyeshta,
Hastham and Chitra.
3. Markandeya - After performing Pooja to Vishnu, Lakshmi, Saraswati, authors of sutra for ones
vidya and ones vidya, Ajyahomam in their names, getting blessings of brahmanas with dakshina
and worshipping brahmanas, Guru facing east should perform Akshararambham to child facing
west. From then on, Anadhyayana days, two Ashtamis and Parvas should be avoided.

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Dharmas prior to Upanayanam:


1. Aapasthambha - Children do not become impure by touching woman in menses etc. prior to
Annaprasanam. Some say that this goes upto one year. Some say, till the child understands
directions. Some say, upto upanayanam. Only after upanayanam, the child is subject to dos and
donts of sastra. Upanayanam is the dividing line for this condition. There is Smriti on this matter.
2. Daksha - Child is considered as child only from birth till the age of eight. Till upanayanam, there is
no fault in food, drink, words and telling lies. After upanayanam, there is fault if he indulges in
forbidden acts. This should not lead to doubt that there is no bar in drinking liquor etc.; as Gautama
has said, brahmana should always avoid liquor. Always forbids liquor for one who has not yet
undergone upanayanam. One should not doubt that before upanayanam, there is no brahminhood;
as Haaritha and Yagnyavalkya identify caste from birth, brahmana is one born of brahmana father
and brahmana mother; Manu prescribes upanayanam only for brahmana, in eighth year from
conception, upanayanam should be done to brahmana.
3. Gautama - Before upanayanam, it is not faulty to behave as he pleases, tell lies and eat old food
etc. He should not eat offerings kept for oblation. He should not be attached to women. It is not
fault to pass urine and faeces without consideration of direction. He need not do achamanam as
per rules. Washing off leavings, cleaning of anus and sprinkling of water in case of touching
woman in menses etc. are required. When he is impure, touching him does not render others
impure. He should not be used in homa and baliharanam. He should not be asked to pronounce
Veda. He may be asked to pronounce Veda in Preta karma only. Rules operate from time of
upanayanam. Behaving as one pleases excludes mahapatakas (great sins). If he does
mahapatakam, there is Prayaschitta. Old man, 80 years, boy less than 16years, women and the
diseased should observe Prayaschitta of half the extent. If sin occurs to boy over 5 years and
under 11 years, his father or close relative/ friend should observe Prayaschitta for him. For boy
less than 5 years, there is no fault, sin or royal pumishment; hence no Prayaschitta also. It should
be noted that though it says prior to upanayanam here in a general manner, behaving as one
pleases should be only upto the age of 6 years. Thereafter father et al should make the boy
engage in varna dharmas. If they do not, they are candidates for Prayaschitta and punishment, as
given in Mitakshara. If the child takes away and eats the balance of Purodasam (oblation of ground
rice) from homa and of offering from Vaisvadeva, parents should stop it. Even if upanayanam has
not taken place in time, there should be no contact with women; he should remain a brahmachari.
There is no room for doubt that the term brahmachari indicates the dharmas applicable to
brahmachari; as he is equal to sudra till upanayanam, he has no karma till then as per Vasishtha
smriti. There is no fault in his passing urine and excreta while standing, in forbidden places like
public path and without regard to direction. As per the rule, woman and sudra should do
achamanam once, he should also do achamanam once. Even for boy less than 6 years, cleansing
with water the place of food leavings, cleansing the anus after passing excreta and sprinkling of
water on touching woman in menses etc. should be done for protection from spirits and ghosts.
4. Saatatapa also stipulates this - From the age of 6, he should do cleansing etc. on his own; bath is
required in case of touching woman in menses etc.
5. Gautama says that by touching him there is no impurity. Before the age of 6, for boy who has not
undergone upanayanam, there is no impurity on touching chandala et al. Hence touching him does
not require bath. Haradatta says that touching the boy after his eating or passing urine or excreta
does not require achamanam.
6. In Smritichandrika, special mention is made - There is impurity in touching the child after his
touching chandala et al; as there is no mention of age in the passage, Bath with clothes as worn is
required for one who has touched chandala, woman who has delivered baby, woman in menses
and corpse. He should not be asked to engage in Aupasana homa and Vaisvadeva baliharanam,
as he cannot pronounce mantra. He can pronounce mantra only in Preta karma.
7. Manu has also stipulated the same.
8. The above has been mentioned in Smrityarthasaram also.

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9. Aapasthambha also stipulates the same. Vasishtha - The boy should not pronounce mantra except
in Udakadanam, Pretakaryam and Pitrukaryam.

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Upanayanam:
Proper Time for Upanayanam:
1. Manu - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year from conception for brahmana, 11th year for
kshatriya and 12th year for vaisya. The idea behind the stipulation of age is as follows: Sruti says
that the three varnas of brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya are born with the three chandas, Gayatri,
Trishtup and Jagati. Upanayanam for the three varnas is prescribed with these three chandas.
Hence it would be creditable if the age of upanayanam is equal to the number of letters in the
respective chandas. Sruti says about the number of letters in chandas, Gayatri is of 8 letters,
Trishtup of 11 and Jagati of 12. This refers to each pada of the chandas, as Sruti says elsewhere,
Gayatri is of 24 letters, Trishtup of 44 and Jagati of 48. Haaritha - Upanayanam should be done in
years corresponding to the number of letters in the pada of their respective chandas. Hence
upanayanam in 8, 11 and 12 years respectively for the three varnas is significant.
2. Yagnavalkya - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year from conception or birth for brahmana, 11th
year from conception for kshatriya and 12th year from conception for vaisya. Some say that the
calculation of years should be as per family practice.
3. Sruti - Upanayanam should be done for 8 year old brahmana.
4. Aapasthambha - Upanayanam should be done in 8th years from conception for brahmana, 11th
years for kshatriya and 12th years for vaisya. The Rtus (seasons) should be Vasantham (spring),
Grishmam (summer) and Sarad (autumn) respectively. As the number of years is in plural here 8th years from conception, it is possible to do upanayanam in any of those 8 years. But in 3 years
from birth, there are samskaras upto chowlam; in 4th year even aksharabhyasam is not there;
owing to incapacity upanayanam cannot be done until then. Hence the plural here refers by
kapinjaladi nyaya to the three years of 6,7 and 8. Hence they say that these three years are
important according to Aapasthambha. Some say that 8th year from conception alone is proper
time; not the rest; the plural is chandasam. Guidance should be taken from respective family
practice.
5. Gautama - Upanayanam should be done in 8th year for brahmana, 11th year for kshatriya and 12 th
year for vaisya; calculation of years from conception.
6. Gautama on kamya (optional) upanayanam - Kamya upanayanam in 9th or 5th year.
7. Angiras - Upanayanam should be done in 5th year for brahmana desirous of lustre of Brahman and
in 9th year for one desirous of long life.
8. Manu - Upanayanam should be done in 5th year for brahmana desirous of power of Brahman, in 6th
year for kshatriya desirous of strength and in 8th year for vysya desirous of wealth.
9. Angiras - If upanayanam is done in 6th or 12th year for kshatriya, there will be growth of strength
and life. If done in 8th or 14th year for vysya, there will be growth of agriculture etc. and life.
10. In Smritiratnam - Through upanayanam in 7th or 8th year, brahmana attains power of Brahman and
long life; in 9th or 10th year, kshatriya attains brilliance and proper food etc.; in 11th or 12th year,
vysya attains vitality and cattle.
11. Bodhayana - To one desirous of power of Brahman, long life, brilliance, proper food etc., vitality,
cattle, sharp intellect, nourishment, brother and all of these, upanayanam should be done in
respective years from 7th to 16th.
12. Bharadvaja - Upanayanam may be done in spring for brahmana, in summer for kshatriya, in
autumn for vysya, in rainy season for rathakara and in inter for all.
13. In Chandrika - The auspicious seasons for upanayanam are spring for brahmana, summer for
kshatriya and autumn for vysya. Or 5 months starting from Magha are auspicious for all.
14. In astrology also - Upanayanam is creditable in 5 months starting from Magha.
15. In Dharmasara Sudhanidhi - Upanayanam can be done in spring for brahmana, summer for
kshatriya and autumn for vysya. Or 5 months starting from Magha are stipulated for all.

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16. VrudhaVasishtha - Upanayanam should be done in uttarayana for brahmana and kshatriya and in
dakshinayana for vaisya. It should not be done on day of Anadhyayanam and sankramanam.
Upanayanam demanded by occasion (naimittika) can be done even on Anadhyayana day. If
upanayanam is done in Jyeshta month for seemanthaja (eldest) son, he will become a simpleton;
he will die too.
17. Vrudha Gargya - In upanayanam done as Prayaschitta, days of Anadhyayanam and Krishna
prathama etc. are prescribed. Sukla chaturdasi In upanayanam done after prime time and Krishna
prathama in repeat upanayanam are creditable.
18. In Apararga - Upanayanam should not be done when Chandra is weak, Sukra is in 8 th house,
Surya is niramsa, day of Anadhyayanam and in kalagraha. Surya in the first part of Rasi is called
niramsa. Kalagrahas are nine tithis - the four tithis from trayodasi, three tithis from saptami and
chaturdasi and ekadasi. Guru, Sukra, Angaraka and Budha are respectively the lords of the four
Vedas - Rik, Yajur, sama and Atharva. Upanayanam should be done on the day of the lord of the
respective branch of Veda in the week.
19. In Sayaneeyam - Days of week of Guru, Sukra, Angaraka and Budha are creditable for
upanayanam of the followers of Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas respectively.
20. Vrudha Gargya - The 3 days of week from Wednesday and the day of Chandra are very good for
upanayanam. It is good to perform upanayanam on the day of the lord of the branch of Veda when
he is strong in centre. Knowers of sastras say that if he is not strong, mixture of varnas will take
place. Suitable for commencing and closing the vrata for the three varnas are: three stars from
Hastam, Pushyam, Sravishta, Revati, Asvini, Mrigasirsha, Punarvasu and Sravanam; good tithi;
time of strength of Chandra.
21. Yagnavalkya on the cause of brahmanaism - Brahmanas, kshatriyas and vysyas are called dvijas
as they are born from mother first and born through upanayanam for the second time.
22. Vasishtha also - First birth from mother and second birth in upanayanam.
23. Manu - First birth from mother, second birth in upanayanam and third in Yaga diksha. In the
second birth called upanayanam, Savitri herself is mother and the Acharya, the father.
24. Acharya is called father as he gives Savitri herself, who is of the form of all Vedas; as the boy has
no Vaidic activity prior to upanayanam.
25. Aapasthambha - Acharya gives birth to the student from Vidya. That birth is greater. Mother and
father give birth only to the body.

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Secondary Time for Upanayanam:


1. Manu - Upanayanam does not go beyond permitted time upto end of 16th year for brahmana, 22nd
year for kshatriya and 24th year for vysya. The age is twice the recommended age in prime time
kalpa.
2. Vyasa - The secondary time (gouna kalam) for upanayanam for the three varnas is upto 16, 22 and
24 years. Meaning is that thereafter even secondary time is not there.
3. Yagnavalkya - The secondary time for upanayanam for the three varnas is upto 16, 22 and 24
years.
4. Aapasthambha - Time for upanayanam does not get transgressed upto 16th, 22nd and 24th year for
the three varnas.
5. Gautama - Time for upanayanam does not get transgressed upto 16th year for brahmana.
6. Manu - Those of the three varnas, who do not undergo upanayanam even in secondary time, are
called vratyas as they have not received the initiation of Savitri; they are despised by disciples.
With them, who have not done Prayaschitta as per rules, relations like study of Vedas, teaching of
Vedas, giving girl in marriage and acceptance of danam should not be had even in adversity.
7. In Chandrika - For vratya, who has not done Prayaschitta, one should not do upanayanam,
teaching of Vedas, performing yagas and marriage.
8. Yama - Those of all varnas, who have not undergone upanayanam even in secondary time, are
fallen, vratyas; hence fit to be ignored by persons of good conduct.
9. Bodhayana - As they are fallen after secondary time, one should not do upanayanam, teaching of
Vedas, performing yagas and marriage for them; here, in absence of Prayaschitta should be
added.
10. Yagnavalkya stipulates Prayaschitta for one who has not undergone upanayanam even in
secondary time - After secondary time is over, he is fallen, not having right to any dharmas, not fit
for danam of Savitri and is called vratya. He has no right except to the Prayaschitta kratu called
vratyastoma. Though he has no wife, knowledge of Vedas and Adanam, he has right to that kratu
only, due to the support of sastra.
11. Vasishtha stipulates different Prayaschitta - One who has not undergone upanayanam even in
secondary time should observe Uddalaka vrata. The procedure for that - Taking only kanji (gruel)
of barley for two months; milk for one month; curd of milk and whey for half month; ghee for 8 days;
food obtained without begging, for 6 days; water for 3 days; fast without even water for one day.
Or, he should attend avabhruta (closing ceremony) of Asvamedhayga; or he should do at least
vratyastoma yaga. Food obtained without begging refers to havishyam (offering in oblation) in all
vratas; he can take it only once a day.
12. Aapasthambha - One should wait for getting the strength to observe the vrata of brahmachari and
then perform upanayanam soon. For a capable person, there is Prayaschitta for exceeding time
beyond 8 years. If capable, there is Prayaschitta even after exceeding the secondary time. He
should observe dharma of brahmachari for 2 months, except for Agni paricharanam, study of
Vedas and service to Guru. Upanayanam can then be done. For one year thereafter, he should
take bath thrice a day. One who is not capable may do as per his capacity. He should be made to
study Vedas thereafter.
13. Jaiminis statement, For one who is beyond 16 years, upanayanam should not be done; he is
vrushala (sudra) refers to one who has not done Prayaschitta.
14. In Smrityarthasara - Upanayanam should be done for the three varnas respectively in 8 th, 11th and
12th year from conception or birth. If not done, gouna kala (secondary time) is upto 16 th, 22nd and
24th year. He who has not undergone upanayanam even during that period is unfit for danam of
Savitri and is called vratya. If he does Prayaschitta, upanayanam etc. can be performed for him.

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Preparation of Sacred Thread etc.


1. Manu - Upavita (sacred thread) for brahmana is cotton thread, for kshatriya it is jute thread, for
vaisya it is thread of goats hair. It should have been folded thrice, kept in left hand and made into
thread with raised right hand.
2. In Grihyaparisishtam - Upavita has three srings; each string has three threads. Yagnopavita has
total of 9 threads.
3. Devala - Yagnopavita should be made of 9 threads; Sruti also refers to 9 threads - trivrut.
4. Katyayana - String of 3 threads should be prepared from downside and that of 9 threads from
upside.
5. Brihaspati - Cotton grown in clean ground should be used. Thread prepared by brahmana woman,
with husband alive, should be used.
6. In Smritisaram - In case of cut or loss of upavita, one should become pure by bath and receive
thread made by unmarried girl or widow.
7. In Madhaviyam - Upavita should be made of 9 threads. It should be twisted from below if 3 threads
and from upside if 9 threads.
8. In Chandrika - The string prepared with raised right hand by folding thrice and twisting is called
urdhva vrutam.
9. Devala on Devata for each thread - Devatas for the 9 threads respectively are Omkara, Agni,
Bhaga, Soma, Pitrus, Prajapati, Vishnu, Dharma and all Devatas. In temple outside village or
cowpen or riverbank or any other clean place, rolling thread 96 times in four fingers, making it into
three threads, washing with three Aapohishta mantras and folding thrice with Gayatri mantra, it
will become 9 threads. It should be made into three rolls. Pitrus are pleased with this. One should
clap thrice. This pleases Devas. Taking clay in left hand pronouncing Bhu:, leaf, flower or fruit
should be offeed to it pronouncing vyahritis. Then sanctifying with mantras, Bhuragnim, one
should prostrate to Hari, Brahma and Iswara. For wearing it, mantra yagnopavitam is prescribed;
with that mantra or vyahriti one can wear it.
10. This mantra is specified in Grihyaparisishtam. Bodhayana also specifies the same.
11. Devala on rule for knot - The string should be rolled 2 or 3 times and knotted only once.
12. Katyayana - Upavita has 9 threads. It has one knot. Upavita should measure such that if held
round the backbone and navel, it should touch the waist; it should not be higher or lower than that.
13. Vasishtha and Saatatapa - If upavita is above navel, there will be reduction in life; if below,
reduction in tapas; hence it should be worn at navel level.
14. Devala on the situation of non - availability of such upavita - Upavita should never be worn above
the level of breast and below the navel.
15. Bhrigu - Sastra says that upavita is one for brahmachari; two for grihastha and vanaprastha and
one for sanyasi.
16. Devala - Upavita is one for brahmachari; two or three for snathaka (one who has completed
Gurukulavasa). If uttariya (upper cloth) is not there, third upavita is specified for that purpose.
17. In Smritisara - Upavita is one for person who has studied one Veda; he can wear as many upavitas
as the number of Veda branches he has studied. They say that one who desires long life can wear
many upavitas.
18. Bharadvaja - Chanting Devatas name and mantra, upavita should be worn on the neck by
inserting the right hand and head through it. For grihastha and vanaprastha, chanting of mantra
and achamanam is prescribed for wearing each upavita. Two upavitas must be worn in Sroutha
and smartha karmas; third upavita for uttariya (upper cloth). That is prescribed in lieu of uttariya.
One upavita for brahmachari and sanyasi, eight or ten upavitas for grihastha and four for
vanaprastha are prescribed. If dvija is without upavita even one day, he becomes sudra. He will be
born a dog in next birth. One, who has cut upavita due to anger or greed, shold observe three
kruchras; incapable person should observe at least one kruchram.

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19. Bhrigu - One should always wear upavita, with hair tied in tuft. Any karma done without this is
equal to not done. This does not mean that this rule applies only during time of karma. Bhrigu
himself says: One must not remove from his body upavita, which is sanctified with mantra. If he
wishes well, he should wear it always. He should never remove it; even if he removes once, dvija
will require Prayaschitta.
20. Vyasa - Karma done without tuft of hair and upavita is Rakshasa (demoniacal). All karmas will be
useless. Hence upavita should be worn before Agnisandhanam etc. in upanayanam.
21. Bhrigu - In case hair is found in upavita, the hair should be removed, Gayatri mantra should be
chanted 10 times and upavita should be wetted with sanctified water. Upavita, which has snapped,
fallen on ground or prepared after food, must be discarded. Footwear, cloth, upavita, decoration,
garland and kamandalu (water pot), used by other must not be used.
22. Manu - In case of damage to mekhala (waist band), deerskin, dandam (staff), upavita and
kamandalu, they should be discarded in water and new ones taken with mantra.
23. Pitamaha - Karmas laid down in Veda like bath, danam, japam etc. by one, who does not know the
rules of upavita, are useless. The fool, who does not know the rules of upavita, wears heavy
upavita in vain, like a cow wears the rope.
24. If upavita as per rules above is not available, Devala - Dvijas should wear upavita of cotton, silk,
jute, threadlike portion of bark of tree or grass.
25. Gobila - Upavita may be of cotton thread, cloth or string of kusa grass. Only in the absence of
cloth, string may be used. Rishyasringa says, In absence of upavita, karmas may be done with
cloth on; if cloth is not there, string of three strands. Aapasthambha specifies string in lieu of cloth:
One should always wear uttariya (upper cloth); or, atleast string.
26. Haaritha - All varnas can wear, on occasions like Mahadanam, upavita made of pearls or gold.
27. In Smrityarthasara - When performing karmas,cloth or string of 9 threads should be used as
upavita. Being pure and sitting in clean place, taking four fingers of right hand together, rolling
thread 96 times in those fingers, making it into three threads, washing with three Aapohishta
mantras, twisting anti - clockwise upwards three times, folding thrice with Gayatri mantra, twisting
clockwise, it will become 9 threads. It should be made into three rolls and knotted properly, while
praying to Trimurtis.
28. Bodhayana - After bath and achamanam, taking thread from pure brahmana unmarried girl or
widow, going east or north outside the village, rolling 96 times in size of 4 inches, use that roll etc.
29. Bodhayana again - One who has studied four Vedas must wear four upavitas; three Vedas, three
upavitas; two Vedas, two upavitas; one Veda, one upavita.
30. Manu - Wearing upavita like a garland in the neck is called Niveetam. Taking right arm inside that
string is called upavitam. Taking left arm inside that string is called Prachinavitam.
31. Sruti also says the same. It also mentions karmas for upavita etc. - Niveetam in human - related
karmas like Rishi tarpanam, Prachinavitam in Pitru karmas like Pitru yagnam and Upavita in Deva
karyas like Agnihotram are creditable.
32. Vyasa - If upavita is on left shoulder and right arm has been taken out of that, it is called
upavitam. If upavita is on right shoulder and left arm has been taken out of that, it is called
prachinavitam. If it hangs on the neck, it is niveetam. Upaviti position is definitely required in
temple, cowpen, homa, japa, study of Vedas, food, presence of brahmanas, praying to Gurus,
sandhyas and association with the virtuous. This is ancient rule.
33. Aapasthambha - One must be in Upaviti position while praying to Gurus, elders and guests and in
homa, japa, food, achamanam and study of Vedas.
34. Some explain on the basis of these rules that on other occasions upavita is not required. Others
say that this explanation cannot be supported because it would contradict many smritis and
conduct of the virtuous. Some smriti passages are: Upavita should never be removed; it should
remain on the body; One should always wear upavita, with hair tied in tuft.
35. They say that in case of damage to upavita within four days after upanayanam, Sarvaprayaschitta
homa and Anagnatadi mantra japa must be done and yagnopavita must then be worn again.

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Determination of Danda (Staff):


1. Manu - Brahmana should use danda made of bilva and palasa; kshatriya, banyan and teak; vysya,
peepal (asvatha) and fig (udumbara), based on compatibility of nature. Brahmana has relation with
lustre of Brahman; bilva is a form of lustre of Brahman, as Sruti says, Bilva came up at the place
from where Surya came up. Brahmana is connected wih Gayatri; as Sruti says, Palasa is
connected wih Gayatri, both have the connection with Gayatri. Hence brahmana is eligible to use
them both. Banyan and kshatriya are of same varna, as Sruti says, Of trees, banyan is kshatriya;
king is kshatriya. Teak strong; kshatriya is also strong. As both are strong, kshatriya is eligible to
use them both. Peepal and vysya have relation with vigour. Sruti says, Asvatha (peepal) is vigour
of Maruts; Maruts are vysyas among Devas. Fig and vysya have connection with cattle. That
vysya looks after cattle is well known. Fig is form of cow, as Sruti says. Hence vysya is eligible to
use them both. Though dual phrase is used, option is the intent. Witness - 1. Yama - The danda for
brahmana is bilva or palasa; for kshatriya, banyan or teak; for vysya, fig or ichi; because of
commonality of nature. If these are not available, all can take danda of any tree, which is fit for
yagna.
2. Gautama - For all varnas, any tree fit for yagna can be used as danda.
3. Aapasthambha - Danda of Palsa for brahmana; dandamade from branch of banyan tree and
upside down for kshatriya; Ilandai or fig for vysya. Some specify that tree fit for yagna is danda for
all irrespective of varna.
4. Manu - Danda is specified of height upto head for brahmana; upto forehead for kshatriya; upto
nose for vysya. Dandas should be straight, undamaged, attractive, not frightful for men, with skin
and unspoilt by fire.
5. Gautama - Dandas should be undamaged by creepers etc., bent down from top like sacrificial post,
with flat faces and measuring upto head, forehead and tip of nose.
6. Vyasa - Dandas must be measuring upto head, forehead and tip of nose and bent down from top
like sacrificial post.
7. Sankar - For the three varnas, dandas should measure upto head, forehead and shoulder.
8. Vasishtha - For the three varnas, dandas should respectively measure upto chest, forehead and
head.
9. In Kurmapurana - Dvija should have danda made of bilva or palasa and measure upto head. Or he
can have danda made from tree fit for yagna, beautiful and undamaged.
10. Bodhayana - Dandas must measure upto head, forehead and tip of nose and made from tree fit for
yagna.

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Determination of Ajinam (Deerskin):


1. Gautama - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths) for
the three varnas.
2. Manu also prescribes the same.
3. Aapasthambha - Skin must be used as uttariya.
4. Bharaskara - The skin of Ena (kind of black antelope) is uttariya for brahmana; ruru (kind of deer)
skin for kshatriya; goat or cow skin for vaisya. Or all can have cow skin as uttariya.
5. Brihaspati - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths)
respectively for the three varnas. Or all can have cow skin as uttariya.
6. Sankar - The skins of black antelope, ruru (kind of deer) and goat are uttariyas (upper cloths).

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Determination of Cloth:
1. Gautama - Sanam, kshaumam, chiram, kutapam and undyed cotton cloths are suitable for all.
Sanam is woven from jute. Kshaumam is woven from bark of tree, atasi or kshuma (linseed).
Chiram is woven from darbha grass etc., some say it is white silk. Kutapam is wool woven from
hilly sheep hair.
2. Gautama again - Some say that dyed cloth is also suitable. In that case, dye of tree is suitable for
brahmana; dye of manjishta (madder plant) for kshatriya; yellow dye for vysya.
3. Aapasthambha - Sanam, kshaumam and ajinam are the cloths respectively for the three varnas.
Some say that cotton dyed with kashayam is for brahmana; dyed with manjishta for kshatriya;
yellow dye for vysya.
4. Manu - Sanam, kshaumam and avikam are specified for the three varnas. Avikam is woven from
sheeps hair.
5. Vasishtha - Cotton cloth, white and ahata (new, unwashed) for brahmana; kshaumam with dye of
manjishta for kshatriya; silk of yellow dye for vysya.
6. Prachetas - Ahata is slightly white, new, with borders and unused cloth. It is pure in all karmas.
7. In upanayanam, as per procedure, first the loin cloth (kaupina) should be worn; then ahata cloth;
then uttariya of skin of black antelope.
8. Yama in the same vein - One of the following should be worn: cotton cloth, kshaumam, kutapam,
skin, balbajam (kind of coarse grass), wool. Undergarmaent must be white cloth.
9. Aapasthambha sutra says, Cloth cut from the weaving loom the same day must be tied with
mantras; hence it must not be concluded that a part of used cloth can be used as kaupina. This
principle also comes up in the statement, On fourth day a different cloth must be tied and the
previous cloth removed with mantra. Hence meaning is that the cloth should be worn above the
kaupina.
10. In Sarani - Smritisangraha - Seating on the right side boy wearing kaupina and pure.
11. In Trikandi - For the boy, wearing kaupina, achamanam, parishechanam, aposanam, pranahuti etc.
are there.
12. Bharadvaja - Brahmachari must wear upavita, ajinam, mekhala, danda, kamandalu, cloth of his
varna and kaupinam. On fourth day, mekhala, danda, skin and upavita should be worn new,
discarding the old. Cloths may be retained.
13. Saatatapa - On the fourth day, after bath and doing auspicious things, Guru, along with three
brahmanas and the disciple, should go east or north of the village; not in other directions. If palasa
tree is not there in east or north directions, he should go in the direction where it is there, reach the
tree, perform punyahavachanam with the brahmanas, sprinkle holy water on the foot of the tree,
spread water with cowdung in that area, worship Brahma in the tree, go round and prostrate. He
should then make the disciple wear new kaupina, danda, ajinam, upavita and mekhala, make him
discard the old kaupina etc. and get them tied properly on the tree branch. The disciple should give
danam of cloth to Guru and dakshina to brahmanas. This balasakarma is mentioned in smritis and
written about in Grihya bhashyam etc.
14. In Smrityarthasara also - The three varnas must have dandas respectively of palasa, banyan and
peepal or tree fit for yagna, measuring upto head, forehead and nose. They should also wear
kaupina and katisutra (waistband). They must be new. For three days after upanyanam, the boy
must avoid food of salty and pungent taste, sleep on ground and observe vrata (vow) with
brahmacharya. On fourth day, he should discard kaupina, danda, skin, mekhala and upavita. There
is no rule for discarding cloths.
15. As wearing kaupina on the day of upanayanam is established from many smritis, it appears
necessary. Authority for wearing kaupina from a part of the cloth above is rare.

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Determination of Mekhala (Girdle):


1. Manu - For brahmana, mekhala must be rolled from munja grass, of three strings, equal and soft.
For kshatriya, mekhala is bowstringmade of moorva grass. For vysya, mekhala is rolled from jute
threads. If munja grass is not available, kusa, asmantaka or balbaja grass may be used; after
rolling of strings three times, it will have knots - 1, 3 or 5; this is suitable for all varnas. The
statement, If munja grass is not available includes moorva and jute also. The alternatives of
grass do not specify in the order of varnas. Asmantaka is a tree; balbaja is a kind of grass.
2. Vyasa - Mekhala for brahmana must be made from munja grass. If munja is not available, kusa
can be used. Knots can be one or three.
3. Yama - (as per Manus statement), 3.Paitinasi, 4.Vasishtha, 5.Prachetas, 6.Gautama,
7.Bodhayana and 8.Aapasthambha have prescribed the same.
4. Samvartha says that katisutra (mekhala) should be worn - Sroutha smatha karma performed
without katisutra is entirely useless. Sruti says that he is naked.
5. This is same for brahmachari and grihastha; as it is known that in the absence of katisutra, any
karma is fruitless and even if wearing cloth, he is naked.

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Bhikshacharanam (Begging for Alms):


1. Manu - Taking his favourite danda, after performing Surya upasthanam and going round Agni,
brahmachari should do bhikshacharanam (wandering about begging for alms). Brahmana, who has
been initiated into upanayanam, should beg saying, Bhavati bhiksham dehi; kshatriya, Bhiksham
bhavati dehi; vaisya, Dehi bhiksham bhavati.
2. Gautama - The three varnas should use the term bhavati respectively at beginning, middle and
end.
3. Bodhayana - Brahmana should beg saying, Bhavati bhiksham dehi; kshatriya, Bhiksham bhavati
dehi; vaisya, Dehi bhiksham bhavati.
4. It should be known that though bhikshacharanam has been specified as part of upanayanam, this
rule applies always.
5. Manu on rules of bhiksha (alms) as part of upanayanam - The first bhiksha must be begged from
mother, sister, mothers sister or whichever woman would give without disrespect.
6. Gautama - The first bhiksha must be begged from mother or whichever woman would give without
disrespect or that kind of brahmana. First bhiksha must be begged from woman; not from pregnant
woman or widow.
7. Author of Karika - The first bhiksha must be begged from mother or whichever woman would give
without disrespect; then from father, outsiders, Acharya and relatives.
8. Vasishtha - First bhiksha must be sought from man who would not disrespect; or similar woman.
He should say to man, Bhavan bhiksham dadatu and to woman, Bhavati bhiksham dehi. He
should first beg from mother. Upto close of mounjikarma, he should beg for Aamam (uncooked
grains); later, upto samavartanam, he should beg for cooked food.
9. It is also mentioned in Grihya tatparya darsanam about Aama bhiksha - For three days, Aama
bhiksha every day and later, Anna bhiksha must be sought.
10. Vyasa on the rules for brahmacharis daily bhiksha - Wearing uttariya (upper cloth) as per Grihya,
taking danda and vessel and prostrating to Surya and Guru, he should go silently for bhiksha to
dvijas homes.
11. Manu - Brahmachari should be pure and seek bhiksha every day from the homes of those who
have knowledge of Veda and are performing yaga and those who are excellent in performing their
karmas. He should not beg in the houses of Guru and his gnatis (paternal relatives) and relatives.
If other houses are not there, he can beg in relatives homes; if relatives are not there, in gnatis
homes; if they are also not there, homes of gnatis of Guru. If those who are well versed in Vedas
and yagna are not there, he can then beg from others homes. He should not beg in homes of
those who are blighted by mahapatakas (great sins).
12. Yagnavalkya - For his basic requirement, brahmachari should beg from faultless brahmanas. The
three varnas should use the term bhavati respectively at beginning, middle and end.
13. In Gautamas statement, Bhiksha can be had from all varnas except the cursed and fallen and
Vyasas statement, The three varnas can beg from homes of same varna or all varnas, the term
all refers to the natural three varnas; that too, if people of same varna are not available.
Bhavishyapurana in the same vein - Bhagavan said that if people of same varna are not available,
one can beg from all except for sudra.
14. If bhiksha is not available one can beg from all four varnas refers only to emergency. Vishnu in
the same vein - One can beg only from kshatriyas and vaisyas, who observe achara and karmas
and are virtuous; in emergency one can beg from all four varnas.
15. Angiras - If one does not get food, he can take from sudra only aama (grains) enough for one
time.
16. Parasara - If dvija, who is studying Veda, eats food from sudra, the sudra will get the strength of
Veda; the dvija will become sudra.
17. Yagnavalkya - Brahmachari brahmana should not eat somebodys food except in emergency. Only
in sraadham he can eat without harm to his vow of brahmachari (discarding liquor, meat etc.).
Manu also Brahmachari should eat only food from bhiksha every day; food not from only one
person. Eating food from bhiksha is said to be equal to fasting. If requested in karmas for Devas
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and Pitrus, he can eat like a sanyasi, discarding liquor, meat etc. This does not affect his vow of
brahmacharya.
18. Atri - The greatness of saints engaged in austerities and eating only vegetables, drinking only
water and drinking only gruel of barley is not equal to one - sixteenth of that of brahmachari who
eats only food from bhiksha. The austerity of taking only the urine of cow, boiled to golden colour,
for 12 years is not equal to eating food from bhiksha.
19. It is not correct to say that as bhikshacharanam is credited with strength, it is not compulsory, as
Manu has laid down prayaschitta if it is not done.
20. Manu - If brahmachari, free from diseases, does not do bhikshacharanam and samidhadhanam for
7 days, he should observe Avakirni vrata (vow).
21. Yama - One should not take bhiksha more than required for his food. One who takes more bhiksha
due to desire attracts the sin of thief. One who gives to brahmana the food from bhiksha attains to
terrible naraka; the one who eats also attracts sin. Hence one must not take bhiksha more than
required.
22. In Smritisangraha - Brahmachari must not make all of food from bhiksha as leavings (uchishta). If
he cannot eat whole of the food in the plate, he should bury it in ground; or leave it in water.
23. Aapasthambha on if the food from bhiksha is more by chance - One must not make all of food from
bhiksha as leavings (uchishta). If he cannot eat whole of the food in the plate, he should bury it in
ground; or leave it in water; or give it to Arya (not sudra); or give it to sudra servant of Acharya.
24. Aapasthambha again - In evening and morning he should take bhiksha in a bowl. He should not
take bhiksha from Pratiloma jatis and fallen persons. The dharma from yaga, danam and homa
and the children, cattle, Brahmic lustre and food of women, who refuse bhiksha to good
brahmachari, will be jeopardised by that brahmachari; hence brahmacharis asking for bhiksha
should not be refused.
25. This refers to brahmachari who observes vows and studies Veda. Vasishtha and Parasara - The
king should punish the village where brahmacharis without observance of vow and Vedic study
take bhiksha and live on it; because it is giving food to thieves.
26. Atri - If one eats bhiksha, salt and vegetable dishes given direct from hand (without spoon), the one
who eats becomes impure; the giver also does not attain to swarga.
27. Manu - After taking bhiksha and giving that food to Guru as much as required and doing
achamanam, the brahmachari should purify himself, sit facing east and eat.
28. Gautama - If Guru is not near at hand, the disciple should inform his wife, son, co - student or
srotriya and then eat.
29. Aapasthambha - The disciple should keep the food from bhiksha near the Acharya and inform him.
He should eat whatever Acharya gives. If Guru is not near at hand, the disciple should inform his
wife or son; if they are also not there, he should inform other srotriyas and eat whatever they give.
Bhikshacharanam should not be done for oneself. After eating, the disciple must wash the plate
himself. Others may wash the bhiksha bowl. Some say that he should wash both himself.
30. Haaritha - If one does Paryagnikaranam (carrying fire round the food) to the required quantity of
food from bhiksha, show it to Surya and takes the permission of Guru, that food is equal to Amruta
(nectar); the brahmachari who eats it will get Brahmasidhi (knowledge of Vedas).
31. Yagnavalkya - After informing Guru of Bhiksha food, taking his permission, doing Agnikaryam
(Samidhadhanam) (if not done in morning) and doing Aaposanam, he should eat the food with
respect and without criticism.
32. In Chandrika - One should eat in plate of metal or clay; he should then wash the plate himself.
33. Vasishtha - Sanyasi must only eat 8 kavalas (mouthful) of food; vanaprastha, 16; grihastha, 32.
Brahmachari may eat as much as desired.
34. Aapasthambha - Aahitagni, bull and brahmachari must eat as much as desired; then only they
reach their goal; if not, they do not attain.

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Sandhyopakramam: (Commencement of Sandhya)


1. Vyasa - Learning Gayatri from Guru, the brahmachari must begin Sandhyavandanam from that
evening. He should do Samidhadhanam and Bhikshacharanam both times (morning and evening).
Even if he were to take food in sraadham, he should do bhikshacharanam for Guru.
2. Gautama - No Sandhyavandanam till upanayanam. After upanayanam, he should do
Sandhyavandanam from that evening every day three times.
3. Prachetas - On the day of upanayanam, the disciple must learn Gayatri from Guru. He should do
Sandhyavandanam after Sunset. Learning Gayatri from Guru, he should do Sandhyavandanam
from that evening properly with all mantras of Sandhyavandanam.
4. In a different Smriti - From the evening of the day of upanayanam, he should do worship of
Sandhya. Brahmayagna should be started the next day at noon. In case of one who has not
commenced study of Veda, in Brahmayagna, he should chant Gayatri in place of Veda; rest is
same.
5. Jaimini - No Sandhya etc. till Brahmopadesam. After Brahmopadesam, he should do all karmas
starting from Sandhyavandanam at noon.

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Samidhadhanam:
1. Yagnavalkya - Then he must do Samidhadhanam (placing of wooden sticks as oblation in fire) both
times.
2. Manu - Dvija, who has been initiated into upanayanam, must do Samidhadhanam,
Bhikshacharanam, sleeping on ground and service to Guru till Samavarthanam. He should bring
samit (fuel sticks) from a distance and keep them at a height. He should do homa in mrning and
evening with the samit without sloth. In order to see that beings on the ground do not attach to the
sticks, the sticks should be kept on a rope etc. at a height.
3. Sumantu - Brahmacharya, tapas, bhikshacharanam and Agnikaryam in both Sandhyas must be
done.
4. Some say that worship of Agni is only in the evening. Aapasthambha on that - Samidhadhanam
must be done both in morning and evening as instructed in Grihyam. Some say that it is only in the
evening.
5. Lokakshi - Some say that Agnipooja is only in evening.
6. Paijavapa on the rules for bringing Samit - Samit should be brought before Sunset from the forest
in the northeast direction without hindrance.
7. Aapasthambha - One should not go after Sunset for bringing Samit.
8. Vyasa - Samit should be from palasa tree. If not available, teak, vanni, rohitakam, peepal, Arka or
vanji may be used.
9. Katyayana on the size of Samit - Samit should not be thicker than thumb. Samit, which is without
skin, with worms, broken lengthwise, with two branches, without knot and not strong, should not be
used in homas. Samit, which is broken haphazardly, broken lengthwise, short, crooked, with holes,
thin, long and thick and damaged, will spoil attainment of aim.
10. Aapasthambha - Samit, not sprinkled with ater, should not be used in homa in Agni.
11. Haaritha - In former times, Mrityudeva caught hold of brahmachari for persecuting him. Agnideva
released the brahmachari. Hence brahmachari must worship Agni. The day brahmachari does not
do Samidhadhanam, Mrityu will catch hold of him; hence he should do Samidhadhanam.
12. Bodhayana - Iswara, the cause of the world, gave the people to Mrityu; He did not give
brahmachari alone. Then Mrityu asked for a share of brahmachari also. Iswara said, The night
when he did not do Samidhadhanam is the time for you. Hence on the day brahmachari does not
do Samidhadhanam, Mrityu draws away his life in the night. Hence brahmachari must do
Samidhadhanam.
13. Gautama - If Samidhadhanam and bhikshacharanam are not done for 7 days, Ajyahoma must be
performed.
14. Brihaspati - One, who does not observe vow of brahmacharya for 7 days, must do Avakirni vrata
(vow).
15. Manu - If an unhindered brahmachari does not do Bhikshacharanam and Samidhadhanam for 7
days, he must observe Avakirni vrata (vow).

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Prayaschitta in case of not doing Jatakarma etc. in time:


1. Katyayana - If the time for certain karmas has arrived when certain other karmas have already
been delayed and not done, the delayed karmas should be done first, followed by the rest.
Prayaschitta is prescribed for any karma not done in its due time. After doing the prescribed
prayaschitta, the delayed karma must be done. In case karmas from Garbhadhanam till Chowlam
are not done in time as prescribed, quarter kruchram in case of adversity and half kruchram in
normal time for each lapsed karma is specified. For brahmana, if upanayanam has not been done
from 8 years within 16 years, Ajyahoma must be done with 8 mantras starting from Imam me and
vyahritis. Naandi may be done together. After doing Jatakarma etc. properly, upanayanam is to be
performed. If not, he will be equal to sudra.

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Number of Brahmanas to be fed:


1. Bhaskara - In the first Rtu (season), 10 or 12 brahmanas must be fed; in each Rtu, 2 brahmanas;
in Seemantham, Pumsavanam and Namakaranam, many brahmanas; in Chowla, 50; in
upanayanam, 100; in marriage, according to ones ability; in Aadanam, 100 brahmanas must be
fed. If not capable, one must feed as per his capability and then do the karma. If money is taken in
danam for performing upanayanam and brahmanas are fed with that money, the fruit of brahmana
nature goes entirely to the person who gave the money. One who takes money in danam from
sudra will go to naraka.

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No Upanayanam if Mother is in menses or pregnant:


1. In Prayogaparijatham - When mother is pregnant or in menses, marriage or uanayanam for son
should not be done. If done, there will be danger to the embryo, the son and the parents.
2. In Varadarajiyam - The opinion of knowers of Smriti is that if mother is in menses before Naandi
sraadham, upanayanam should not be done. If done in violation of this rule, the vatu
(brahmachari) will become a vratya (heretic), not fit for karmas. He will not be fit for study of
Vedas, vrata (vow) and marriage. If upanayanam is repeated with brahmanas permission and after
taking Brahmakurcha panchagavyam, he will be fit for karmas; no doubt. If the mother is pregnant,
Chowlam for son should also not be done. It can be done before fifth month of pregnancy; not
later. Saunaka says that if the wife is pregnant, karta should not perform house construction and
upanayanam for son after sixth month. If wife is pregnant, upanayanam may be done before five
months; not later.

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Upanayana Kartas:
1. Vyasa - Upaneta (preceptor who performs upanayanam ceremony), who is brahmana, attached to
Vedas, knower of dharma, born in a good family, has a family and is free from sloth, anger and
restlessness, should be chosen; sanyasi should not be chosen.
2. Vishnu - Upaneta should observe three kruchras (kind of penance) and the disciple also three
kruchras. Upaneta should chant Gayatri every day. He should chant purificatory mantras.
3. VrudhaVasishtha - Father, grandfather, brother, gnatis and brother - elders can be upanetas; out of
these, the latter is fit if former in order of preference is not there.
4. Aapasthambha - The ignorant man who performs upanayanam and his disciple, both move from
darkness to further darkness. Hence in upanayanam, Acharya should be sought out, who is born in
good family, knower of Vedas and attentive to dos and donts.
5. Bodhayana - Father is the best for performing samskaras (purificatory ceremonies) like Jatakarma.
In absence of father, one born in own family, relative from other gotra, one who is of the same
sutra born in Aryavartam, brahmana for all varnas and srotriya of same varna are suitable. In all
varnas grihastha is the best. Widower is the worst. Brahmacharis of same gotra, called upakurvana
and naishtika are of medium suitability. Vanaprasthas and sanyasis have no right to perform
upanayanam. One who has conquered sense organs, tolerates heat and cold etc., has done tapas
and danam, truthful, scholar, person of great memory, observes discipline, pure, free from doubt,
born in good family, observes Sroutha karmas, capable of punishing and blessing, free from
defects and good in Gayatri mantra is called Acharya. If upaneta is not there in both families
(fathers and mothers), the boy, on reaching the age of eight from conception, should approach for
upanayanam, one who is from the same branch of Veda, or from same gotra or of same Pravara
(line of ancestor rishis) or from different gotra.

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Upanyanam of Twins etc.:


1. In Sangraham - To twins born from same pregnancy, upanayanam should be done in the same
altar in the same lagnam by the same Acharya. Chowlam, upanayanam, Jatakarmam,
Namakaranam, the four Vedavratas and upakarmam should be done at the same time for twins.
2. In Kaladarsam - If the twins are both male, both female or one male and the other female,
Jatakarma etc. should be done at the same time. Even If the mothers are different, if the babies
are born in the same lagnam, Jatakarma etc. should be done in the same lagna for the two babies.
3. Details if mothers are different - Upanayanam for both babies in the same lagnam is auspicious.
But two Acharyas must do it in two altars separately. One should worship his Pitrus in Naandi. To
two babies, who are brothers born of two different mothers in the same lagna, upanayanam should
be done in the same lagna. Acharya may do for one and father for the other. Or, brother or fathers
brother amy do.

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Upanayanam of Dumb, Mad etc. boys:


1. In Smritiratnam - Suitable samskaras are prescribed for eunuch, blind, deaf, paralysed, senseless,
one who has garbled speech, lame, hunchback, dwarf, long - sick, thin, limbless, mad, insane,
dumb, one who lies down always, one who lacks vital organs and the impotent person also. Some
say that there are no samskaras for dumb and insane persons. As they have no right to karmas,
they are not bound to undergo samskaras. Their progeny is fit for samskaras and yaga. Some say
it differently.
2. In other Smriti - Upanayanam should not be done for dumb and insane persons, as they have no
right to karmas. Sruti says that their progeny is fit for samskaras and yaga. As Sruti says,
brahmana is one who is born of brahmana woman and man, the implication of Sruti is that though
dumb and insane persons are not entitled to do karma, they have a right to samskara. Acharya
should do everything in the case of upanayanam of dumb or insane person. He should see him in
auspicious time. He can chant Gayatri, touching the disciple. In the case of marriage of dumb or
blind boy etc., rituals other than accepting the girl, Panigrahanam and Saptapadi should be done
through brahmana. Saptapadi for a lame boy can be done through a brahmana. Some say that
kunda and golaka, born of dvija, are also eligible for samskaras. Kunda is one who is born of a
woman from a man in adultery when husband is alive. One who is born after the death of husband
is golaka. Some knowers of puranas say that Pratiloma jatis of dvijas have also got samskaras.
3. Vyasa - One who is capable of absorbing Vedic knowledge and performing homa is fit for
upanayanam. One may or not do upanayanam for the dumb etc.
4. Aapasthambha - Upanayanam is samskara prescribed in Veda for one who desires to learn Vedas.
Hence it is not applicable to the dumb etc. It is not correct to say that just as vratas (vows) are
observed separately in the study of each Veda, upanayanam should also be observed separately.
Sruti says that Gayatri is taught for all Vedas. Hence by teaching Gayatri, all Vedas become
taught; the same upanayanam applies for all Vedas. Upanayanam should be done separately only
for Atharvana Veda, as Sruti says so clearly.
5. Aapasthambha says that there is no upanayanam for the fallen - Upanayanam is only for those
who are not sudras, nor patitas (the fallen). It was mentioned earlier that the statement in
Gautama sastram that prior to upanayanam, one can live as desired does not include
mahapatakas (great sins).
6. In Smrityarthasara - Samskara should be done suitably in the case of eunuch or the blind. Some
say that the dumb and the insane are unfit for samskara. As they have no right to karmas, they are
not bound to undergo samskaras. Their progeny is fit for samskaras, as Smruti says, brahmana is
one who is born of brahmana woman and man. Some say that another person should do
samskara (in the case of dumb and insane). Homa should be done by Acharya. The basis is that
upanayanam is taking the boy to the Acharya following the rules or taking him to Savitri or making
him pronounce Savitri; the remaining acts can be done as per ones capability.
7. Bodhayana et al have instructed on the rules for upanayanam of the senseless, deaf, dumb et al.
Note the same from those references.

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Determination of Sons like Aurasa (12) et al:


1. In Smritiratnam - The twelve categories of sons, who are eligible for samskaras like upanayanam if
they are from the three varnas, are - Aurasa, Putrikaputra, Kshetraja, Gudhaja, Kaneena,
Pounarbhava, Dattrima, Kritha, Kritrima, Dattatma, Sahodha and Apavidhdha.
2. Manu on the marks of Aurasa et al - Son born to wife of same jati, married while she was still in pre
- puberty stage (kanya), is Aurasa son. He is the best of sons. Kshetraja is son born to wife of
dead, eunuch or diseased husband through niyoga (intercourse) of Gurus. Dattrima is son of the
same jati, taken ritualistically with water from natural father or mother of the boy in emergency,
when the recipient has no son. Kritrima is son of the same jati, who knows good and bad and has
qualities of service like a son and who is adopted as son. Gudhaja is son, born to wife living at
home, but to another man, not identified, but known to be of same jati. This son is regarded as the
son of the husband of the mother. If the son of some other parents is abandoned by both or one of
them and if he is adopted as son, he is called Apavidhdha. If a unmarried woman begets a son
secretly while at her fathers home, the son is called Kaneena. He is regarded as the son of the
man who marries that woman later. If a woman, who is known or not known to be pregnant, is
given in marriage and boy is born later, the boy is called Sahodha; he is regarded as the son of
the man who married that woman later. If a boy is bought from his parents to satisfy the buyers
desire, he is called Krithaka, whether he is eqal or not in qualities to the buyer. If a woman,
abandoned by husband or after husbands death, marries another and begets son, that boy is
called Pounarbhava. If a boy has lost his parents or is abandoned by them without reason and if
he entrusts himself to another, he is called Svayamdatta.
3. Yagnavalkya - Aurasa is son born to legitimate wife of same varna. Putrikaputra is equal to him.
(Putrikaputra is the daughters son, who by agreement becomes the son of her father). Son born to
wife through brother - in - law (husbands brother) or sapinda (paternal relative of husband) is
kshetraja. Gudhaja is son, born to wife living at home, but to another man of same varna. Son
born to unmarried girl is kaneena. He is regarded as the son of his maternal grandfather. If this
son is born after marriage of the girl, he is regarded as the son of the husband who marries her.
Son born to woman through her second marriage is pounarbhava; this is same, whether she was
violated or not. If both parents or one of them give their son in danam, the son is datta. Son sold
by parents is kreetha. If a boy is regarded as son by another person by himself, the son is
svayamkruta. If a boy gives himself in danam to another person, saying he is his son, the son is
called svayamdatta. If woman is pregnant before her marriage, son born to her after her marriage
is sahodhaja. If a boy, abandoned by his parents, is adopted by someone, who has no son, he is
then called apavidhdha.
4. Manu - The wise say that the 11 sons mentioned earlier are in lieu of son so that karmas like
sraadham do not lapse.
5. The passages supporting adoption of secondary sons and performing their upanayanam etc. refer
to dharma of a different yuga. They have been forbidden in Kaliyuga, as it is stated, Many types of
sons were accepted by the sages of yore; in this Kaliyuga the powerless dvijas cannot accept
those sons.
6. Manu explains the procedure for getting kshetraja son and the slander involved and prohibits it
finally - In absence of son, a woman, with the permission of elders like husband, can obtain
favourite progeny from her brother - in - law (husbands brother) or sapinda (paternal relative of
husband) in niyoga. The male in niyoga should apply ghee all over his body and he can produce a
son silently in the night. He should not produce a second son. If that woman becomes pregnant,
that male and that woman should behave like father - in - law and daughter - in - law. Niyoga has
not been mentioned anywhere in mantras of marriage. In the rules of marriage also, there is no
mention of remarriage for a woman. This has been denigrated as animal behaviour unsuitable for
humans. This started in Venas rule as king. That king, who enjoyed the entire earth, lost his
judgement due to lust and caused mixture of varnas. From that time the virtuous despise one who
allows a woman with no son to unite with brother - in - law et al.

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7. Brihaspati on the above view of Manu - Manu mentions niyoga and then prohibits it himself. In
Kaliyga, owing to reduced power, this cannot be done by others. In Krita, Treta and Dvapara
yugas, men had a large stock of tapas and wisdom. Men in Kaliyuga face reduction in that power.
Maharishis in previous yugas regarded many as sons as per their wish. In this Kaliyuga the men,
who are denuded of power, cannot assume sons in that manner. The virtuous despise kshetraja
and pounarbhava sons. They also criticise kaneena, sahodha, gudhaja, putrikaputra, data,
apavidhdha, krita, kritrima, and dattrima sons.

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Matter of Svikara (ceremonial adoption of son):


1. The prohibition of datta here pertains to one who is not of the same gotra. Saunaka - Brahmanas
should adopt sons from sapindas (paternal relatives). If not available, adoption can be from
person of the same gotra; not from others. Kshatriyas should adopt from the same jati or from
gotra same as that of Guru. Vysyas should adopt from vysya jati and sudras from sudra jati. All
varnas should adopt only from gnatis (paternal relatives); not from others. Sudras alone can adopt
daughters son or sisters son in emergency. Hence sages, while talking about dharmas in
Kaliyuga, refer to adopting sons other than datta and aurasa and say further that secondary sons
other than datta should not be adopted. Hence datta should be adopted from brother only, if
available.
2. Manu - Manu said that out of many brothers born to same mother and same father, if one has son,
the other brothers also are deemed to have son. Manaviya commentary says that when brother
has son, son should not be adopted from outsider. Vignaneswara on this - The statement of Manu,
Bhratrunam ekajatanam is meant to prohibit adopting outsiders son when brothers son is
suitable for adoption and is meant not to talk about the status of son.
3. In Kaladarsam also - The implication of Manus instruction is that one, who has no son, should
adopt brothers son if available; not others. If not, the principle, patni duhitarah will not match.
4. It is stated, One who has entered into a different gotra loses affinity, impurity (as per rules) and
status of gnati of his gotra; these three accrue to him in accord with his new gotra. Manu has
stated, Dattaputra, though coming from another gotra, if having all good qualities, will inherit
wealth of the father who has adopted him. He will not get the gotra or wealth of his natural father.
He cannot do sraadham etc. of his natural father. Danam of Pinda follows inheritance of gotra and
wealth. Another Smriti states, For one who has entered into another gotra, Jatakarma etc. should
be done as per his new gotra of entry. By giving in danam, the gotra of birth retreats. Datta gets
Parivettas status, role, impurity (as per rules) and Sroutha smartha karmas as per his new gotra of
entry. All the references in these statements to a different gotra apply to one who is unable to get
from his own gotra.
5. Smriti in the same vein - In absence of sons in ones own lineage, sons in mothers lineage are
good. If not available there also, an outsider can be adopted as dattaputra. The progeny in ones
own lineage is the best; in mothers lineage, of medium value; in another gotra, worst. Dattaputra
must be adopted as per rules in ones sutra.
6. Katyayana - The girl, not yet married, but only given in danam, does not have the status of wife;
she becomes wife only after saptapadi. Likewise dattaputra becomes a son only after performing
Jatakarma etc. Even if he has been given in danam by the natural father, datta, for whom
Jatakarma etc. have not been done, does not get the status of son; how can he get the right to
wealth.
7. Prajapati - One, who is of age suitable to be father to the son being adopted, can adopt him and
give him name, gotra etc. as for Aurasaputra. At the age of 5, 7, 8 or 9 years, the parents should
give the son; the couple should adopt.
8. In Sangraha also - To adopt within 12 days of birth is best; upto Chowlam, it is of medium value;
after upanayanam, worst. Adopting a married person will destroy the lineage. One with asrama
should not be given. In emergency one without asrama can be given; in emergency second son,
who is brahmachari, can be given.
9. In another Smriti - A widow is not entitled to give away her son or adopt a son. As per Bodhayana,
father is also not entitled to give the eldest son.
10. Daksha - Even in great adversity, the eldest son must not be given. A widow also must not give;
one who gives will go to naraka. Widow without issue can adopt son with permission of father,
brother et al; if she does otherwise, she will go to naraka. In adversity, mother following dharma
can give, if she wishes, her son, like Sunassepa, who is not the eldest, is a brahmachari and within
12 years of age.

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11. Aapasthambha says, Giving and accepting son in danam and selling and buying son must not be
done. Yagnavalkya says, Things other than wife and son can be given in danam without affecting
family. These statements refer to eldest son and only son.
12. Vasishtha in the same vein - Eldest son should not be given, nor accepted in danam; same with
only son. He is for the growth of the lineage of ancestors. A woman must not give, nor accept son
without permission of husband. One who adopts son must call relatives, inform the king and
perform homa with vyahritis at home and adopt son, who is a close relative and near at hand.
13. In Bahvruchabrahmanam in Sunassepakhyanam - Eldest son must not be given.
14. Saunaka - Man having only son must not give danam of son; one having many sons can only give.
15. Bodhayana also - Parents are entitled to give in danam or leave or sell their son, born of their
semen and blood. In the case of only son, he should not be given, nor taken. He is for the growth
of the lineage of ancestors. A woman must not give, nor accept son without permission of
husband.
16. Manus statement, In emergency, the son given with sanctified water by mother or father is datta
refers to mother giving the son with permission of her husband and not to widow. After adopting
dattaputra, if aurasa (biological) son is born, datta is entitled for one - fourth of wealth.
17. Jabali talks about the merit of adoption of son - The dattaputra protects the father who adopted him
because of the adoption. Datta becomes true son. The father who adopted him also becomes free
from debt of Pitrus. The mantra of adoption indicates this: I adopt you for dharma and growth of
lineage.
18. The passage, One who abandons his own lineage and goes into anothers lineage is called
kandaprushta due to that sin; he is unfit for all karmas as he has left the lineage of his father
refers to svayamdatta or one who has been given after marriage. The rules for adoption of son
have been given by Saunaka, Bodhayana et al.

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Determination of Guru et al:


1. Manu - Father, who does karmas like Garbhadhanam as per rules and nourishes with food, is
called Guru. One who performs upanayanam for disciple and teaches him Vedas with Kalpasutras
and Upanishads is called Acharya. One who teaches at least a part of Veda or Vedangas like
Vyakarana for a living is known as Upadhyaya. Acharya is higher in greatness than 10
upadhyayas; Father greater than 100 Acharyas; Mother greater than 1000 fathers.
2. Yagnavalkya - After doing samskaras like Garbhadhanam, one who teaches Veda is Guru. One
who does only upanayanam and teaches Veda is Acharya. One who teaches some parts of Veda
is Upadhyaya. One who guides in performance of yaga is called Ritvik. Out of these, the former
is greater than the latter in order of preference; Mother is greater than all of them.
3. In performing upanayanam, father is the most important; if father is not there, elder brother, being
equal to father, is important. If both of them are not there or are not capable, another can perform
upanayanam. Brihaspati - Father should perform upanayanam for his son wearing danda etc. and
teach him Veda and sastras like Manus.
4. Manu on elder brother being equal to father - As father takes care of children, elder brother should
nourish hs younger brothers, who in turn must treat the elder brother like father.
5. Yama - Father, who has not learnt and taught Veda and does ignoble acts must not perform his
sons upanayanam.
6. Aapasthambha - One from whom the disciple learns dharmas is Acharya. The disciple should
never act with malice against him.
7. Sankar - One who teaches Veda for a salary is called Upadhyaya.
8. Vishnu - Upadhyaya is one who teaches after taking the price.
9. manu - Ritvik is one who is chosen to do Aadanam, Pakayagnas and yagas like Agnishtomam.
10. Devala - Among men, upadhyaya, father, elder brother, king, mothers brother, father - in - law,
protector, mothers father, fathers father, person of upper varna, and fathers brother are known as
Gurus. Among women, mother, mothers mother, wife of Guru, fathers sister, mothers sister,
mother - in - law, fathers mother, elder sister and foster - mother are Gurus. Thus Gurus are
mentioned in two categories through mother and father. Of all Gurus, five persons are the
worthiest: one who protects, the father, one who teaches vidya, elder brother and one who
nourishes with food. Of these, the first three are more worthy. Mother is wothier than all of them.
11. In Smritiratnam - Father, mother, Acharya, wife of Acharya, elder brother, fathers father and
fathers mother are the worthiest Gurus. One must treat as Guru the person from whom he learnt a
Rik, half a Rik, one word or even one letter.
12. Vyasa - Mothers father, mothers brother, fathers brother, father - in - law, Acharya, elder brother,
snataka (one who has graduated from Gurukulam) and Ritvik are worthy of respect like Guru. One
must behave like with mother with mothers sister, wife of mothers brother, elder sister, foster mother, fathers sister, fathers mother, wife of fathers brother and wife of Guru.
13. Manu - One must behave with respect like with mother with fathers sister, mothers sister and
elder sister. Mother is greater than these persons.
14. Vyasa on the cause of greatness of mother - Even if one serves his mother for many ears, who is
capable of returning the debt of mother, who carries him for 10 months in her stomach, suffers
from pains and troubles, becomes unconscious, delivers and then likes her children more than her
own life.
15. Sankar - Unless one does the yaga Soutramani, the son does not get relieved of the debt to his
father and mother till he is alive.
16. The Puranic passage, Mother and father are Gurus of man by dharma; of them, father is greater,
as seed is important; if father is not there, mother; if mother is also not there, elder brother is in
respect of Mahaguru. Smriti in the same vein - One who produces son, performs his upanayanam,
teaches him Veda and arranges his livelihood is called Mahaguru. He is the best among those
deserving of worship.

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17. Manu says that for brahmachari, Acharya is greater than mother and father - Biological father and
Acharya are both fathers. Of the two, Acharya is the greater father. The birth called upanayanam
performed by him is eternal in this and the next world for brahmana. Know that it is ordinary like for
animals that after mother and father generate the child out of lust, the child grows limbs in the
womb of mother and is born. The birth given through Gayatri as per rules by Acharya, who is well versed in Vedas, is the true birth. That is the birth without old age and death.
18. Manu talks about the greatness of Acharya in a different manner - It should be known that one who
helps in a large or small way by teaching sastras is also Guru. The implication of Manus words is
that if one who has taught only meagre sastra is to be regarded as Guru, what about one who has
taught in a large way.
19. Gautama - Acharya is the best of Gurus; some say it is the mother.
20. Vishnu says that even if the preceptor is young, he is greater - Whether the preceptor is younger or
of equal age, the behaviour with him must be like with Guru.
21. Manu tells this with a story - The brahmana, who performs upanayanam and teaches dharma,
even if younger in age, is like father to the disciple who is older. A young brahmana scholar, son of
Angiras, taught vidya to his pitrus (fathers brother et al). Accepting them as disciples, he called
them children!. The elders became angry and asked Devas about this matter. Devas said: What
the boy called is but right. The ignorant man is child; the preceptor of mantra becomes father.
Sages have also said thus - By being old, greying of hair, wealth and closeness in relation, one
does not become great. One who has studied Veda along with Vedangas is great for us. Devas
came to know that one is not old due to grey hair; though young, one who has studied Veda is old.
Brahmana, though suffering himself, should not disrespect Acharya, father, mother and elder
brother. Acharya is form of Paramatma. Father is form of Hiranyagarbha (Brahma). Mother is form
of earth. Brother is form of ones kshetra (place). Sons can never compensate even after many
years for the suffering undergone by parents for the children. One should always do things
pleasing for parents and Acharya. All penances fructify only if these three persons remain happy.
The best penance is said to be serving these three persons. One should not observe another
dharma without their permission. These three are the three worlds, three asramas, three Vedas
and three Agnis. One who does not commit any sin to them will conquer all three worlds. With a
shining body, he will shed lustre in swarga like Deva. This dharma is not only for brahmacharis, but
also for grihasthas, as indicated by the word grihi.
22. Manu again - By devotion to mother, one wins this world; by devotion to father, the intermediate
region; by service of Guru, Brahmaloka. To one who respects these three persons, all dharmas
bear fruit. To one who does not respect these three persons, all dharma karyas are fruitless. As
long as they are alive, no other dharmas should be performed (without their permission). One
should keep serving them. He should be attentive to doing things that are liked by and good for
them. By serving these three persons, all other dharmas are deemed to have been observed. This
is the best dharma; others are inferior dharma.
23. Vyasa - Those, who work with malice against upadhyaya, father and mother in mind or in action,
commit the sin of killing of foetus. There is no sinner worse than him.
24. Devala - As long as father and mother are alive, one should leave everything else and keep
serving them. If parents become very pleased with the qualities of their son, the son will get (the
fruit of) all dharmas.
25. There is no god equal to mother; no Guru equal to father; there is no way their help can be
compensated.
26. Vyasa - Those, who leave or disrespect upadhyaya and Guru due to attachment or delusion, go to
many narakas. One who disrespects elder brother, who is equal to father, goes to terrible naraka in
the next world due to that sin.
27. Manu - One should not act against Acharya, Pravakta (teacher of meaning of Veda), father,
mother, Guru, brahmana, cow and one in penance. Manu gives the exception - If Guru is arrogant,
ignorant of dos and donts and follows evil path, he can be left.

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28. Yama says that father, even if faulty, must not be left - Upadhyaya and disciple can be left if they
have become impure through sin and performing yagas for unqualified persons; father must not be
abandoned.
29. Manu - Though the son of Guru, who has studied Veda, is younger or of equal age or is disciple,
he must be respected like Guru, if he is Ritvik in yaga or is seen directly.
30. Vyasa - Agni is Guru of dvijas. Brahmana is Guru of varnas. Husband is Guru of women. Guest is
Guru of all.
31. Manu - Know that ten year old brahmana and hundred year old kshatriya are father and son
respectively. Of them, brahmana is father. The kshatriya should treat him with respect.

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Reasons for Respect:


1. Yagnavalkya - One should properly adore those who possess vidyas like Sruti and Smriti, karmas
like yaga, ripe age, relation and wealth. Even sudra over 90 years of age and possessing these
characteristics in a large measure is worthy of respect.
2. Manu - Wealth, relation,age, karmas like yaga and vidya - these five are reasons for respect. Of
these, the latter is superior to the former in that order. In the three varnas, one who has these five
qualities, some of them in large and good measure, is fit for adoration. Sudra over 90 years old is
also worthy of respect.
3. Gautama - Wealth, relation, jati, karma, vidya and age are reasons for respect. Of these, the latter
is stronger than the former in that order. Knowledge of meaning of Veda is stronger than all else,
as it is at the root of dharma.

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Those fit to be given way:


1. Manu - One should give way to the person, mounted in a wheeled cart, chariot etc., aged over 90
years, diseased, carrying load, woman, grihastha brahmana (recently graduated from Gurukula),
king (and exemplary person and one who is proceeding for marriage). If all of them join together on
the road, out of them, the snathaka (graduate) and king are worthy of respect. If these two come
across, the king should give way to the graduate.
2. Yagnavalkya - Old man, carrier of load, king, snathaka, woman, diseased, one who is proceeding
for marriage and one who is in cart should be given way. Of them, king deserves respect;
snathaka deserves greater respect than king.
3. Sankar - Boy, old man, mad man, intoxicated man, diseased, carrier of load, woman, king,
snathaka and sanyasi should be given way. Brahmana should be given way first. Some say that it
is the king who should be given way first; that is not correct. Brahmana, who is Guru and great, is
superior to king; hence it is brahmana, who should be given preference. If brahmanas come in a
group, one should behave in accord with their vidya etc.
4. Vyasa - Brahmana, pregnant woman, king, blind man, old man, carrier of load, diseased and weak
person must be given way.
5. Bodhayana - Brahmana, cow, king, blind man, old man, sufferer from carrying load, pregnant
woman and weak man must be given way.
6. Gautama - One should give way to the person, mounted in a cart, chariot etc., old man, diseased,
newly married woman, snathaka (recently graduated from Gurukula) and king. King should give
way to brahmana.
7. Aapasthambha - Coronated king must be given way, if he does not come across brahmana. If he
comes across, brahmana should be given preference. Everyone should give way to carriers like
chariot, elephant and cart, sufferer from carrying load, diseased and woman. Lower varnas should
give way to higher varnas. All should give way to idiot, the fallen man, mad man and intoxicated
man in order to protect themselves; not for dharma.
8. The space to be left free in cross direction while giving way is also stated - 5 aratnis for chariot, 4
aratnis for elephant and 2 aratnis for small cows and humans. One aratni is one cubit less two
inches (about 16 inches).

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Abhivadanam (Reverential Salutation):


1. Yagnavalkya - (After Agnikaryam), one should do Abhivadanam to elders uttering his name.
Prostration done for getting blessings is called Abhivadanam.
2. Manu - Brahmana, prostrating to an elder, should mention his own name, (Devadatta)
namaahamasmi after Abhivadaye. Finally, he should say, Bho:. Calling by name the elder to
whom prostration is offered being not proper, he should be called with Bho:. This sound has the
power of all names,. Abhivadaye (devadatta) naamahasmi Bho: is the salutation.
3. Gautama - If one meets a known person, he should give out his name, followed by Ahamayam
and do Abhivadanam. Haradatta explaining this - If one meets a person, who knows the rule of
blessing, he should pronounce his name loudly, followed by Aham and Ayam. Some say that
instead of Ayam, the term Asmi may be used. They use Bho: at the end. The phrase they use
is: Abhivadaye Haradattohamayamasmi Bho:; some say, Haradattanamaham; some others
Haradattasarma namahamasmi Bho:, as per the statement, the name of brahmana ends with
sarma. Know that the practice as per family tradition must be used.
4. Bharadvaja - Scratching cow on its back, prostrating to peepal tree, prostrating to all Gurus, one
should do Abhivadanam to brahmanas.
5. Manu - Abhivadanam should be done first to one from whom worldly knowledge, Vedic knowledge
or Brahmasastra knowledge is received.
6. Aapasthambha - In the morning, one should stand and do Abhivadanam to Guru, saying (Yagna)
sarmaham Bho:. Abhivadanam should also be done to other elders in the village in forenoon
before lunch. When one returns from outstation trip, he should do Abhivadanam. One who wishes
for Swarga and long life should do Abhivadanam to elders. Brahmana should keep his open right
hand to his ear; kshatriya with hand to his chest; vysya with his hand to his waist; sudra with his
hand to his foot. They should do Abhivadanam with folded hands.
7. Vishnu - By doing Abhivadanam with one hand, the entire dharma done with mind right from birth
becomes fruitless.
8. This applies to dvijatis. Vishnu has himself said, Blessings should be given to disciples;
Prostrations to Guru should be done, touching his feet; Prostrations to scholars should be done,
touching ones ears; Abhivadanam to idiots should be done with one hand.
9. Aasvalayana - Touching the Gurus left foot with left hand and right foot with right hand, touching
ones ears with hands, keeping right hand over left hand, uttering ones name, touching the Guru
from knee down to foot, prostration should be done at the feet.
10. This Abhivadanam should be done standing opposite the person who is being offered sautations.
Aapasthambha - When a person who is elder in age, vidya etc. arrives, the pranas (life - breath)
of the younger person try to go up and out. By getting up and doing Abhivadanam, the younger
person regains the pranas.
11. Aapasthambha again - When many persons meet, if their ages are known, Abhivadanam should
be done first to the eldest of them; then, to the remaining people in the order of seniority of age.
Abhivadanam should not be done to person in a higher or lower ground, if he is not Guru;
Abhivadanam should be done if he is Guru. Abhivadanam should be done to a person, who is
not Guru, on a higher ground by climbing up to the same level ground. By the same principle he
should get down and do Abhivadanam if the other person is on lower ground. Abhivadanam to
anybody should be done after getting up from ones place. An impure person should not do
Abhivadanam; Abhivadanam should not also be done to an impure person. An impure person
should not utter blessings. Women are regarded as equal in age to their husbands; hence
Abhivadanam should be done to elder brothers wife et al. Abhivadanam should not be done
wearing footwear or turban or carrying in hand samit (firewood for homa), kusa (darbha) etc.
12. Manu - One should not sit on bed, seat etc. used by Guru et al. If Guru et al arrive while one is on
bed, seat etc., he should stand up and do Abhivadanam.
13. To one who is in the habit of doing Abhivadanam to elders always and serving them, lifespan,
wisdom, fame and strength swell.

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14. Bodhayana - Abhivadanam should not be done by as well as to one who is sitting, lying down or
unclean. If possible, one should not be unclean even for a short time. Abhivadanam should not be
done by as well as to one who carries Samit, water - pot, flower and food. A young man should not
do Abhivadanam from close quarters to the young wives of Guru, elder brother, fathers brother et
al.
15. Sankar - Abhivadanam should not be done with water - pot, flower and ghee in hand, while doing
bhikshacharanam, in unclean condition, doing Devakaryam or Pitrukaryam and lying down.
16. Aapasthambha - Abhivadanam should not be done with Samit, flower, kusa, ghee, water, clay,
food and rice in hand and also to one doing japa and homa.
17. Manu - The wives of Gurus of same varna are worthy of reverence like Guru. If they are of different
varna, they are to be revered only by standing up and doing Abhivadanam. Disciple, knowing
good and bad and over 20 years of age, should not do Abhivadanam to young wife of Guru by
touching her feet.
18. In Smrityarthasara - Abhivadanam should not be done to woman in periods, woman who has
delivered, woman who murdered her husband, woman who destroyed her embryo, heretic, fallen,
one who has lost jati, great sinner, atheist, gambler, thief, ungrateful person, intoxicated,
inattentive, mad, one who is walking, unclean person, one who vomits, one who yawns, one who is
washing teeth, one who is applying oil, one who is bathing, one who is doing japa or yaga or is in a
crowd and one who carries Samit, flower, kusa, Agni, water - pot, offering to God or food got in
alms. If he does Abhivadanam to such a person, brahmana gets purified by observing fast for one
day. If he does Abhivadanam to one in darkness, in bed, wearing footwear, unclean and engaged
in japa, pooja and homa, he should observe fast for three days. Abhivadanam should not be done
to these six people - one at a distance, in water, one who is walking, arrogant due to money,
diseased and intoxicated. If brahmana does Abhivadanam to kshatriya and vaisya, fasting for one
day is prescribed; to sudra, fasting for three days; to washerman, chandala, observance of
chandrayana.
19. Saatatapa - Kshatriyas et al interested in wealth should do Abhivadanam to brahmana with
respect, bending his head down and prostrating in full. Even if kshatriya et al possess knowledge,
karmas, qualities, sastric observance etc., brahmana should not do Abhivadanam to them. If
brahmana does Abhivadanam to kshatriya or vysya, what is the prayaschitta for him? He gets
purified by prostrating to eight or ten brahmanas. If brahmana salutes sudra, he gets purified by
taking bath with clothes on and doing Abhivadanam to a hundred brahmanas. He should worship
Vishnu or Siva (the three - eyed God). By doing Abhivadanam to an excellent brahmana also, he
becomes purified.
20. Vishnu - Prostration can be offered to brahmanas in all assemblies, yagas and in residences of
kings; but no Abhivadanam. By having darshan of a group of brahmanas, masses of sins get
destroyed; by prostrating, auspiciousness is obtained; by doing pooja, undecaying state is attained.
21. In Smritiratnavali - One who is 81 years and 4 months of age is worthy of prostration; worthier of
worship than Vishnu. This applies to men of same varna. Reason: Manu - Giving daughter in
marriage, prostrating and invoking in sraadham, one, whose country and place and family including
three earler generations are not known, should not be done.
22. In Chandrika - Even an elder should do Abhivadanam to a younger person during Sandhya time;
except for son, disciple, daughters son, son - in - law.
23. In Smritibhaskaram - One can prostrate to all persons of same jati at all times; the persons to
whom prostration is offered should bless; one of equal age should reciprocate by prostrating.
24. Vrudhamanu - Whenever Abhivadanam is done, the feet should be touched. For brahmanas, at
least folding of hands is required; it is considered as prostration.
25. In Smrityarthasaram - It is not a must that feet should be touched in Abhivadanam; it is optional.
In Abhivadanam and prostration, return salutation is required. The persons to whom prostration is
offered should bless; one of equal age should reciprocate by prostrating. Elder and chaste women
are fit for prostration. Prostration should be offered to idol of God and Tridandi Yati (sanyasi with
three staffs), if one comes across. If not, one gets purified with one days fast.
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26. In Smritiratnam - Abhivadanam should not be done to one holding sruk (spoon used in yaga),
unknown person, weak person, enemy, diseased, one in yoga, one in tapas and younger person.
27. Manu - One of those who live in the same town and not having qualities like vidya, even if elder by
10 years, will be considered as friend. If he is older, he will be considered as Jyeshtha (elder). If a
person has vidya like music and is older by 5 years, he is friend. Among srotriyas (brahmanas well
versed in Vedas), one who is older by three years is friend. Brother et al, older by a few years, are
friends. If older, Abhivadanam can be done.
28. Aapasthambha - When one comes across brahmana who is younger and is friend, he should
enquire about his well being; if kshatriya, enquire about health; if vysya, absence of loss; if sudra,
health. If one comes across srotriya on the way and a woman in a fearful forest etc., he should not
proceed without talking to them. The woman should be asked, Sister, what should I do for you; do
not fear respectfully like addressed to mother or sister.
29. Manu - When one comes across brahmana who is younger or of equal age, he should enquire
about his well being; if kshatriya, enquire about health; if vysya, happiness; if sudra, health.
Anothers wife and unrelated woman should be addressed as Bhavati (respectful you), Subhage
(blessed woman) or Bhagini (sister).
30. Yama - Brahmana should say svasti; kshatriya, Ayushman (long life); vysya, vardhatam (may
grow); sudra, svagatham (welcome).
31. Bhavishyatpurana also says - It is proper that brahmana should say svasti to men of all varnas.
Yama explains the meaning of the term svasti - That which is pleasure free from disease and
distress in all the three worlds and in which all desires reside is called svasti.
32. Vyasa - The armour may perhaps be destroyed by arrow or javelin; the blessing of brahmana
cannot be destroyed even by many thunderbolts.
33. Manu - When mothers brother, fathers brother, father - in - law, Ritvik, Gurus come, even if they
are younger, one should stand up and announce I am (Devadatta); Abhivadanam should not be
done.
34. In Smritiratnam in the same vein - If Ritvik, fathers brother, father - in - law and mothers brother
are younger, one should stand up and talk first.
35. Bodhayana also lays down the same.
36. Gautama also lays down the same and says, Abhivadanam should not be done.
37. When Vasishtha and Aapasthambha lay down Abhivadet, it has been explained in
Smritichandrika that it only means that one should stand up opposite and talk. Haradatta explains
that when younger Ritvik et al salute, the elder person should stand up and return the salutation;
he should not just sit as he likes as with others.
38. Gautama on the importance of Abhivadanam to Guru et al - Abhivadanam should be done to
Guru in the morning. When one goes to father et al, he should prostrate every day touching their
feet. If returning from outstation, one should go to their place and prostrate. To whom - Mother,
father, their relatives, elder brothers, upadhyaya et al who teach vidya, their Acharyas. If all of them
are met at the same place, first prostration is to thue best of them.
39. Aapasthambha - When one goes after sunrise to the Acharya for Vedic study, he should do
upasangrahanam (respectful salutation by touching feet); at other times he should do
Abhivadanam. One who has completed Samavarthanam (completion of Gurukula course) should
also do upasangrahanam to all his Gurus every day. If one returns from outstation also, he should
do upasangrahanam to them. When Acharya and Pracharya (Acharyas Acharya) are together,
one should do upasangrahanam to Pracharya first and then to Acharya; Acharya should stop him
at that time.
40. Manu - If Acharyas Acharya comes, one should behave with him in the same way as with Guru.
When one is in Gurus home, he should not prostrate to mother and father, if they come there,
without Gurus permission.
41. Aapasthambha - One should behave in the same way as with Guru with the person, who, though
not the Acharya, is respected for vidya and achara.

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42. Aapasthambha on the form of upasangrahanam - With ones right hand, one should catch the
right foot of the Acharya on the top as well as the palm along with ankle (some say, with the toe finger). This is called upasangrahanam. Some say that with both hands, one should catch both
feet.
43. Manu on this matter - One should catch the feet of Guru with opposite hands; left foot with left
hand and right foot with right hand.
44. Bodhayana - Touching ones ears and then touching from below the knees upto feet of Acharya is
called upasangrahanam.
45. This should be done to the wives of Gurus also. Manu also - The wives of Gurus of same varna are
worthy of adoration as Guru. Mothers sister, wife of mothers brother, mother - in - law and fathers
sister are worthy of adoration as the wife of Guru; they are equal to the wife of Guru. One should
prostrate with upasangrahanam every day to brothers wife of same varna. Upasangrahanam
should be done to the wives of other relatives on ones return from outstation. No
upasangrahanam should be done to the wife of Guru, if young.
46. In Smrityarthasaram - Announcing ones gotra and name and saying Aham bho abhivadaye,
touching ones ears, catching the right foot of Guru with right hand and his left foot with left hand
and bending down ones head is upasangrahanam. The term Guru here includes mother, one
who brought up with breast milk, father, fathers father et al, provider of food, protector from fear,
Acharya, one who performed upanayanam, teacher of mantravidya and their wives.
Upasangrahanam should be done to them. One who has completed Samavarthanam should
behave as with Guru with the person who teaches Veda, though he may be younger or of same
age.

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Pratyabhivadanam (Returning of Salutation)


1. Manu - If a brahmana does Abhivadanam, the person who receives it should say, Ayushman
bhava sowmya - Nice one! Have a long life. Commentary on Manusmriti says that the name of
the prostrating person should be uttered with plutam (lengthened sound) at the end and a be
added, e.g. Ayushman bhava sowmya Devadattaa,a.
2. Aapasthambha - When men of the first three varnas do Abhivadanam, the name of that person
should be uttered ending with lengthened sound and extra a in the Pratyabhivadanam, e.g.
Champaa,va; Vishnaa,va;, Pinakapanaa,ya;, Agnisii,u;. This is mentioned in the commentary of
Haradatta.
3. Haradatta et al are of the opinion that the last sound of the name must be lengthened and extra a
added.
4. In Smritichandrika and Parasaramadhaviyam, the explanation differs from the statement of Manu.
As per this, Ayushman bhava sowmya Devadattaa is to be used. But the virtuous agree that
adding extra a at the end is proper.
5. Manu - A well read man should not do Abhivadanam to one who does not know
Pratyabhivadanam, as the latter is equal to sudra. A wise man should say Abhivadaye aham to
one who does not know how to utter Pratyabhivadanam immediately after the former announces
his name; the same with all women.
6. Patanjali - One should say Devadatta aham to a person, like the case of woman, who does not
know plutam (lengthened sound) of name while uttering Pratyabhivadanam.
7. Yama - The brahmana who does not know how to say Pratyabhivadanam or blessing will go to
naraka; this is certain. One who does not say Pratyabhivadanam to the person who does
Abhivadanam will be born a tree in which eagles and crows live. One who does not say blessings
to the person who does Abhivadanam immediately shares the sins of the latter. Hence one should
bless immediately. Even in the case of a chandala, one should bless like Dring liquor; if done like
this, there is no decline in dharma.
8. Manu - One should not utter the name of a Dikshita, even though he is younger. If he is opposite,
one should say, Bho yajamana; if he is away, tatra bhavan yajamana:.
9. In Smritiratnam - One should not utter the names of Acharya, his son, Acharyas wife, Dikshita,
Guru, father, fathers brother, mother, mothers brother, well - wisher, scholar, father - in - law, yati
(sanyasi) and mothers sister.

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Dharmas of Brahmachari:
1. Samvartha - Brahmachari should do Vedic study looking constantly at the Gurus face. He should
do bhikshacharanam (asking alms) both in morning and evening with discipline. After showing the
food obtained in alms to Guru, he should eat facing east silently and with purity.
2. Daksha - Both vanaprastha and grihastha should take bath both in morning and at noon. Bath is
specified in the three sandhyas for sanyasi and in morning only for brahmachari.
3. Vishnu - One should bathe like a staff. This means that no scraping the body to remove dirt is to be
done.
4. Aapasthambha - One should not scrape the body to remove dirt while bathing.
5. In Chandrika - Brahmachari should always wear mekhala (girdle), deer - skin, staff, upavita, loin cloth and katisutra (waist - band).
6. Yama - Brahmachari living in Gurus home should wear staff, kamandalu (water - pot), Veda and
mekhala. He should eat food got by him in alms. Veda here means handful of darbha grass.
7. Yagnavalkya - He should serve the Guru. He should be attentive for his Vedic study to remain with
him. He should go for Vedic study only when called by Guru. He should inform Guru of things he
got.
8. Manu - He should utter Omkara before and after Vedic study. If not pronounced at the beginning,
Veda will slip away; if not pronounced at the end, Veda will be destroyed. He should prostrate at
the feet of Guru at the beginning and end of Vedic study.
9. Angiras - He should do Abhivadanam to Guru at the beginning and end of Vedic study and on
return from outstation.
10. Manu - He should make effort in Vedic study and in acting to do good to Guru, whether instructed
by Guru or not. He should stand looking at Gurus face with folded hands and with control of body,
speech, intellect, sense organs and mind. He should sit in front of Guru when told so by him, with
the hands not concealed in cloth, with good achara and being attentive. He should always use
lower quality food, cloth and decoration in the presence of Guru. He should get up from bed before
Guru and go to bed after him. While in lying down position, he should not hear Gurus words, nor
talk to him. Hearing Gurus words and talking to him should not be done sitting, eating, standing
and looking elsewhere.
11. Method - Hearing Gurus words and talking to him should be done by disciple standing with Guru
sitting, following Guru with Guru walking, standing opposite if Guru comes in opposite direction,
walking fast behind Guru while Guru walks fast, standing opposite if Guru is looking elsewhere,
going near Guru if he is far and standing with head bent down if Guru is lying down or in lower level
ground. In the presence of Guru, the disciples bed, seat etc. should be at a lower level; he should
also not sit as he likes. Here Nityam refers to other asramas also. The disciple should not utter the
Acharyas name separately even in his absence. He should utter along with words of eulogy like
great man etc. He should not mimicry the walk, talk and actions of Guru for fun.
12. The disciple should close his ears if he is at a place where parivada or ninda of Guru is talked;
he should go to another place. Parivada is speaking about fault which does not exist in a person;
ninda is speaking about fault which exists in a person. One who indulges in parivada will be born
a donkey; one who talks ninda, a dog. Paribhokta (one who enjoys more than his Guru) will be
born a worm; one who has jealousy towards his Guru will be born an insect.
13. Further - One should not worship the Guru from a distance or with anger. He should not adore the
Guru while he is himself beside a woman, nor while Guru is beside a woman. If he is in a vehicle or
seat, he should get down and do Abhivadanam. He should not stand in such a manner that the
wind blowing on him blows on the Guru, whether it is wind from the front, back or sides. When he
is standing at a distance from where Guru cannot hear him, he should not speak.
14. Further - The disciple should not sit together with the Guru in a vehicle drawn by bull, horse or
camel, in upper floor, on floor spread, mat, stone seat, wooden plank or boat. When Acharya is
busy with some other work like yaga, if his disciple or son teaches Veda, even if he is younger or of
same age, he is deserving of same respect as the Guru.

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15. But he should not do to the son of Guru the following: massaging limbs, bathing, eating
uchchishta (left - over), washing the feet. He should not do to the wife of Guru the following:
applying oil, bathing, massaging body, decorating hair. Women have the power to sway a man to
be controlled by desire and anger and leading him down the wrong path, whether he is an idiot or
scholar. A man should not be alone even with mother, sister or daughter; as the sense organs are
powerful, they pull even the wise. Guru should teach the disciple in a simple manner and for his
good. One who is interested in dharma should speak pleasing and soft words. One, whose speech
and mind are always pure and well controlled, will attain to all fruits found in Vedanta (Moksha).
16. Further - Even while in trouble, one should not utter words hurtful to others. One should not act in
malice against others, nor think maliciously. One should not utter words, which will cause distress
to others, as it will hinder attaining to good realms. Brahmachari living in Gurukula should obey the
following rules with sense organs under control for developing his tapas. Every day he should take
bath, be pure and do tarpanam to Devas, Rishis and pitrus, Pooja to Devatas, and
Samidhadhanam. He should avoid honey, meat, perfumes, flowers, liquids, women, eatables
turned sour, troubling living beings, applying oil, applying collyrium to eyes, using footwear and
umbrella, desire, anger, greed, music, instrument, gambling, quarrel, criticism of others, telling lies,
looking at women with desire, embracing them and harming others.
17. Yagnavalkya - The disciple should avoid honey, meat, applying oil, applying collyrium to eyes, left over food, cruel words, company of women, harm to living beings, seeing Sun during sunrise and
sunset, telling lies, criticism of others etc. Left - over food here refers to food left by those other
than Guru. Vasishtha also - Left - over food of those other than Guru is not fit to eat; If disciple is
diseased, he can eat the entire left - over food of Guru.
18. In Madhaviyam - The disciple should not look in mirror; wash teeth; he can eat the left - over food
of Guru as medicine, not out of desire.
19. Aapasthambha - One can eat the left - over food of father and elder brother.
20. Gautama decries eating the left - over food of the wife and sons of Guru in view of the common
rule that one should treat Gurus wife and sons like Guru himself - The disciple should not do the
following: - eat the left - over food of Gurus wife and sons, bathe them, decorate them, wash their
feet, massaging the body and touch their feet while prostrating.
21. Gautama again - He should avoid honey, meat, perfumes, flower, sleep during day, applying
collyrium to eyes, applying oil, cart, footwear, umbrella, desire, anger, greed, delusion, talking too
much, instrumental music, bathing in hot water etc., washing teeth, glee, dance, singing, speaking
of others faults and fear. He should also avoid within the sight of Guru, wrapping cloth etc. around
neck, sitting with one leg on top of the other thigh, leaning against wall, pillar etc., sitting with legs
stretched, spitting, laughing, yawning and clicking fingers.
22. Manu - He can be with head tonsured, matted hair and tuft, or matted hair only.
23. Katyayana - Brahmacharis should tonsure hair along with tuft till Samavarthanam (completion of
Gurukula course). This applies to Samavedis.
24. Sumantu - Brahmacharis dharmas are brahmacharya, tapas, bhikshacharanam, Agnikarya in both
sandhyas, study of Vedas and service to Guru. He should do all that a disciple can do and a
servant can do and then stand beside Guru. He should be a servant, doing everything for Guru,
being capable in all activities. One cannot attain swarga only by bath, homa and service to Agni,
but only with worship of Guru.
25. Yama - Brahmachari should not be self - ruled, but under the control of Guru; he should get up
before Guru in his home; go to bed after him. He should conquer the generative organ, stomach,
sleep, laziness, anger and (lure of) money. He should avoid perfume, flowers, umbrella, bed,
washing teeth, old food etc., artificial salt, scraping off dirt while bathing, talking with sudras and
disrespecting Guru.

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26. Vyasa - He should not eat if Guru has not eaten; not drink if Guru has not drunk. He should not sit
while Guru is standing and sleep when Guru has not slept. He should not step on flowers cast off
by Guru, his bed, ceremonial footwear, ordinary footwear, seat and shadow etc. He should learn
Veda in time till Guru is satisfied. He should never sit on Gurus seat of darbha, plank, ceremonial
seat and bed.
27. Samvartha - If brahmachari sleeps during day when he is not diseased, he should worship Surya in
Parva time after bath and chant Gayatri 108 times. One who eats the same food without doing
bhikshacharanam while he is healthy or eats without taking bath should chant Gayatri 108 times.
There is no rule regulating the number of handfuls of food for brahmachari. For other asramas,
there is regulation of 32, 16 and 8 handfuls of food. If brahmachari eats without doing Aaposanam
(sipping of water with mantra) when there is no emergency, or if he talks while eating, he should
chant Gayatri 108 times.
28. Haaritha - The disciple for whom upanayanam has been performed should stay in Gurus home.
He should not do anything disagreeable to Guru with mind, speech or body, while in Gurus home.
He should observe brahmacharya, sleeping on ground and worship of Agni. He should make
available to Guru water - pot, grass for cow and firewood. He should learn Veda as per rules; one
who studies without rules does not get the fruit of his study. The evil man, who does any dharma
without observing the rules, does not get the fruit of the dharma. Hence for obtaining the fruit of
study, brahmachari should observe Vedavratas. He should learn from Guru all achara like
soucham (purity). Getting up from bed before the Guru, he should give him clay, toothstick, cloth
etc. and after Gurus bath, he should bathe like a staff.
29. Narada - The disciple should serve the Guru with a pure heart till he learns all vidya. He should
behave with Gurus wife and sons as with Guru.
30. Haaritha - He should not mount horse, elephant, chariot, and bull; not cross large rivers; not do any
big act of bravado or disagreeable act.
31. Aapasthambha - He should be under the full control of Acharya. Even if ordered by Acharya, he
should not do despicable acts. He should do acts good for Guru; he should not speak against
Guru. In Gurus presence he should sit on the floor. He should lie down on the floor. He should not
eat food kept for Devatas or Pitrus. He should not consume salty, caustic food, liquor and meat;
not sleep during day; not see drama; not go to place of gambling, crowded places in utsavas
(religious feativals) etc.; not carry tales among people. He should stay in place not crowded by
people. He should not act as per his wish in places where Guru moves about more. He should
speak only necessary words to women. He should have patience, control of sense organs,
freedom from sloth, shame and firm courage.
32. Sankar - Without learning Vedas and Vedangas, he should not learn other vidyas.
33. Haaritha - The vidya for brahmana is Veda alone; Vedangas are meant for understanding the
meaning of Vedas.
34. Laghuvyasa - To one who does not know the meaning of Veda, learning Veda and Sastras is a
waste like eating rice - husk. The animal carrying load does not enjoy the benefit of it; so also
brahmana not knowing meaning of Veda does not get the benefit of Veda. Like Gnana and Karma
jointly becoming a good means for mukti (liberation), knowledge of Veda and meaning of Veda
together is the best; if they are separated, it is not good. Better than learning all four Vedas without
knowing their meaning is learning only a small portion of Veda along with its meaning.
35. In Chandrika - One should always listen to Dharmasastra, Sabdasastra (grammar), Puranas,
Itihasas and stories of Gods and great souls.
36. Vasishtha - One should learn that Veda, as stipulated in which his samskaras like upanayana were
performed. If he leaves that Veda, he will be fallen. He should not do karma mentioned in another
Veda. One who does like that is called Sakharanda.
37. Narada on the means of getting vidya - One who is afraid of debt as snake, satisfaction of sense
organs as naraka and women as Rakshasis will get vidya. The cause of termites building a large
pit out of small particles of clay is not their strength; but their effort. Vidya must be learnt gradually;
distance covered gradually; hill climbed gradually.
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38. Narada on impediments in getting vidya - Gambling, interest in listening to stories, attachment to
drama, desire for women, laziness and sleep - these six are impediments to vidya. Service to
Guru, giving much money and teaching vidya known to him - these three are the means of getting
vidya; fourth means is not seen.
39. Yama on rules for teaching vidya - Guru should always get up in the morning, wash his teeth,
bathe and do homa and then teach his disciples.
40. Gautama - Guru should teach without beating the disciple. If it is not possible to teach by warning
with words, he should beat with thin rope or piece of bamboo.
41. Manu - If wife, son, servant, disciple or own brother commits mistake, they should be beaten with
thin rope or piece of bamboo. Beating can be on the back and never on the head. One who beats
contrary to this will get the sin of a thief.
42. Yama - Guru, who does not teach his disciple even after his stay for one year, gets the disciples
sin.
43. Manu - Tapas (penance) in the form of performance of his prescribed karmas and Brahmagnana
are the best means for Liberation for a brahmana. He removes his sins by tapas; he attains
Liberation through Brahmagnana. Brahmana, who has been given samskaras like upanayana,
should live in Gurukula as prescribed and earn tapas in the form of discipline. Brahmana should
observe many rules and vratas (ritual vows) like Prajapatya and learn Veda together with
Upanishads and Vedangas.
44. Aapasthambha - In the rules laid down in this Discussion of Dharmas of Brahmachari, the term
tapas has been used. If one transgresses these rules, Veda slips away from him and also his son.
Even if used in Brahmayagnam etc., it becomes useless; this is the meaning. It causes hardship; it
becomes the cause for naraka. It reduces lifespan also. As men in Kaliyuga transgress rules, no
Rishis (seers of mantras) come up; meaning is that this is because transgression of rules is
unavoidable.

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Veda Vratas:
1. Aapasthambha - To retain Vedas in oneself , vratas (religious vows) must be observed.
Prajapatyam, Soumyam, Aagneyam and Vaisvadevam are the vratas.
2. Bharadvaja - We explain the commencement and completion of vratas. In Uttarayana in
Suklapaksha in Parva in auspicious star, vratas, viz. Hotruvratam, Upanishadvratam, Sukriyam
and Godanam must be done.
3. Bodhayana - There are four Vedavratas: Hotruvratam, Sukriyavratam, Upanishadvratam and
Aaranyavratam. In Uttarayana in Suklapaksha, Sukriyavratam must be commenced. Godanam to
be done in 16th year.
4. Aasvalayana - There are four Vedavratas: Mahanamni, Mahavratam, Upanishad and Godanam; to
be done in Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in auspicious star. Godanam to be done in 16th year.
5. Garga - Savitravratam, Aaranyakavratam and Vedavratas must be done as per rules; Veda should
be studied after that. To be done in Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in auspicious star on Adhyayana
day. The stars prescribed for Chowla apply to this also.
6. Bharadvaja - In Uttarayana in Suklapaksha in Parva in forenoon, four Vedavratas must be done. In
Dakshinayanam in Sravana month in Parva, Soumyavrata may be done. Vratas like Prajapatyam
may also be done.
7. Dattatreya - All four Vedavratas must be done. The stars prescribed for Chowla apply to this also;
some think it is as for Upakarma; the same in other vratas.
8. Aapasthambha - Soumyavratam, also called Sukriyavratam must be done as per rules. The four
vratas starting with Prajapatya may be done in one day. After commencing Prajapatyavratam,
doing Vedic study and completing that vrata, one should commence Soumyavratam and complete
the same; followed by commencement of Aagneyam and its completion; finally commencement of
Vaisvadevam and its completion.
9. In Smrityarthasaram - From upanayanam till upakarma, Savitrivratam must be observed; then,
Vedavratas and Aaranyakavratam. In every vrata, tonsuring of head is required. If not done, 3,6 or
12 kruchras must be observed and then the vrata again.

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Repeat Upanayanam:
1. Aapasthambha - One who has left deerskin, mekhala (girdle), staff or bhikshacharanam (begging
alms) is fit for repeat upanayanam as per rules.
2. Parasara - One who has left deerskin, mekhala (girdle), staff, bhikshacharanam (begging alms) or
vratas is fit for repeat upanayanam.
3. Vyasa - One who goes to Sindhu, Souviram, Saurashtra, Chandala desas, Anga, vanga or Kalinga
must undergo repeat upanayanam. If one goes to Himavatdesam, Kausika, Vindhya or western
part of traditional desa for reason other than pilgrimage, repeat upanayanam is prayaschitta
(expiation) for him.
4. In Adipurana - If brahmana goes to Saurashtra, Sindhu, Sauvira, Avantya or Dakshinapada, he
should undergo repeat samskara.
5. Bodhayana - The following will spoil the vrata of brahmachari: He should not eat left - over food of
anyone other than father or elder brother. He should not eat along with woman. He should avoid
honey, meat, food in sraadham, food in place where baby has been delivered, milk of cow which
has delivered within the last ten days, milk of pregnant cow, mushroom, resin, the burnt part of
clarified butter, food in crowd, food from sudra and food from prostitute. If these are used, the
previously performed upanayanam becomes null and void; repeat upanayanam is required.
6. Men of all three varnas have to undergo repeat upanayanam if they consume unknowingly liquor or
urine or excreta.
7. If brahmachari does obsequies (Pretakarya) to anyone other than mother, father or Acharya,
repeat upanayanam is required.
8. Manu - Men of all three varnas have to undergo repeat upanayanam if they consume unknowingly
human urine, excreta or liquor. If brahmachari does obsequies (Pretakarya) to anyone other than
mother, father or Acharya, he will lose brahmacharya.
9. Parasara - If he has consumed excreta or urine, he should observe Prajapatya kruchra for purity.
By taking Panchagavyam after bath, he becomes pure. Know that this is prior to repeat
upanayanam.
10. Vishnu in the same vein - If man of any of the three varnas consumes meat of pig, chicken or cow,
he should undergo repeat upanayanam after Prayaschitta.
11. Yama - If brahmana consumes liquor or cows meat, he becomes pure by doing taptakruchram and
repeat upanayanam.
12. Saatatapa - If brahmana consumes different forms of garlic or milk of camel, human, elephant,
horse or ass, he should do taptakruchram and repeat upanayanam.
13. In Sangraham - If brahmana eats food from chandala unknowingly, he has to observe
chandrayana. If he eats knowingly, he has to observe Abdakruchram. Repeat upanayanam is
required in both cases.
14. In the matter of Aparakriya - In case one for whom Aparakriyas have been done returns from
abroad, he has to be immersed in a pot of ghee, bathed and Jatakarma etc. must be done.
15. In Grihyaratnam - If brahmana goes to Anga, Vanga, kalinga, Saurashtra, Avanti and Mathsyam,
he has to undergo repeat upanayanam. If it is for purpose of pilgrimage, there is no folly. If he
consumes excreta or urine or liquor or if he crosses sea, repeat upanayanam is required. If he
does obsequies to anyone other than father, mothers father, Acharya, Upadhyaya or mothers
brother; or, if he consumes the left - over food of anyone other than father, elder brother and
Acharya; or, if he consumes liquor, meat, food for corpse, polluted food, food from prostitute or
food from sudra, brahmachari should undergo repeat upanayanam. If upanayanam has been
performed for younger brother before elder brother, repeat upanayanam is required for him after
the upanayanam of the elder is performed. If brahmachari unknowingly commits acts leading to his
downfall as indicated by Maharishis, repeat upanayanam is required.
16. Manu says certain things have to be avoided in repeat upanayanam - Tonsure, mekhala, staff,
bhikshacharanam and vratas must be dispensed with in repeat upanayanam. One need not also
await suitable time like vasanta rtu etc.

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17. In Samskaramanjari - Now we shall tell about repeat upanayanam. There is special feature in
Samidhadhanam: it is done with mantra, Punastvaditya:. Then vratya prayaschitta homa with the
two mantras, yanma atmana:, punaragni:; then Pakvanna homa with mantra, saptate agne. From
svishtakrut upto Denuvarapradanam, all the rest is same as first upanayanam.
18. Now another method - Gurus left - over food should at least be consumed. Dakshinadanam,
mekhala etc. are dispensed with. The rest should be done as told in ones Grihyam. Different rule After doing upto paridi and doing Aadanam of palasa samit, vratya prayaschitta should be done.
19. Yet another method - If one consumes ghee, sanctified by chant of Gayatri 100 times by
brahmanas, he is deemed to have observed prayaschitta.
20. Among all these various views, understand the regulation that repeat upanayanam has to be done
with due regard to the severity of the cause of it.

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Duration of Period of Brahmacharya:


1. Manu tells about the end of the period of brahmacharya in accord with the efficiency of the
brahmachari in study of Veda - Brahmachari should observe the vrata (vow) of studying three
Vedas from Guru for a period of 36 years, 18 years, 9 years or till study is complete.
2. Yama - He should live in Gurukula for 12, 24 or 36 years; for each Veda, he should observe vrata.
3. Yagnavalkya - He should observe 12 or 5 years for each Veda. Some say that the period is till end
of study of Vedas. Godanam should be done in 16th year.
4. Bodhayana - Brahmacharya should be observed for 48 years, 24 or 12 years or one year per
Kandam. As lifespan is uncertain and Aadanam is to be done befor greying of hair, Brahmacharya
has to be observed at least till absorption of Veda.
5. Aapasthambha - Brahmachari, having undergone upanayanam, should live in Gurukula for 48, 36
or 12 years. The minimum is 12 years; this is for person who is not capable.
6. Devala also Brahmacharya vrata should be observed for 48 years. If not capable, the period
should be 24 or 12 years.
7. Gautama - Brahmacharya has to be observed for 12 years for learning one Veda. In the case of
learning many Vedas, period of 12 years is required per Veda or at least till completion of study of
that Veda.
8. Bharadvaja - Elders say that brahmacharyam is for 48 years after upanayanam. Some say that it is
till completion of study of Veda. Some say that it is till Godanam.
9. Daksha - Brahmacharya should be observed till Veda is absorbed from Guru and Vedavratas are
in force. Then snanakarma (ritual bath at Samavarthanam) should be done and he should
become grihastha.
10. Vyasa - Brahmachari should learn Veda as per rules with meaning, observe vratas properly and do
Samavarthanam. After studying one Veda, observing Vedavratas and offering dakshina to Guru,
brahmachari should take leave of Guru if not capable (of further study) and do Samavarthanam
and marry; or take sanyasa.

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Determination of Godanam:
1. Garga - Godanam should be performed in 16th year from birth in Uttarayana in Purnima on tithis
and days suitable for Chowlam. If Vedic study is completed before 16 th year, Godanam can be
done at that time, followed by Samavarthanam.
2. Prachetas - Godanam should be performed in 16th year or earlier; or in any year as desired. It
should be done before snanam (ritual bath at Samavarthanam).
3. Bharadvaja - Godanam should be performed in 16th year, followed by brahmacharya for one year.
In Godana vrata, Agni is Devata.
4. Aapasthambha - Godanam may be done in different star; it should be done in 16th year. In Godana
vrata, Agni is Devata.
5. Laghuvyasa - After having learnt Vedas like Rik, knowing their meaning and observing vratas as
per rules, one should do Samavarthanam.
6. All this is in respect of one who is capable of achieving all of this at the same time. If not capable,
he can complete vratas at least and do Samavarthanam. Yagnavalkya also - After completing
study of either Veda or vrata or both and offering dakshina to Guru, snanam should be done with
his permission.
7. Hence it is clear that snathakas are of three kinds. Haaritha also - Snathakas are of three kinds vidyasnathaka, vratasnathaka and vidyavratasnataka. One who does snanam after completing
Vedic study without completing vratas is vidyasnathaka; One who does snanam after completing
vratas without completing Vedic study is vratasnathaka; One who completes Vedic study as well as
vratas and then does snanam is vidyavratasnataka. It may therefore be seen in Smritichandrika
that vratasnataka should complete Vedic study and understand meaning of Veda after marriage.
8. Garga - After observing brahmacharya vrata for 36 years, 12, 6 or 3 years, or 1 year and 6 months,
or 3 months or 12 days or at least 3 days and doing Godana vrata, Samavarthanam should be
done.

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Rules for Snathaka:


1. Vyasa - Brahmana must serve Guru, attain vidya and offer cow as dakshina to Guru and, with his
permission, do snanam as per rules. The Godana mentioned here includes also anything, which
pleases the Guru.
2. Manu - Offering one or more of the following as far as possible - land, gold, cow, horse, umbrella,
footwear, foodgrains, clothes, vegetables - to Guru, brahmachari should earn his pleasure. There
is no compulsion to give anything to Guru before snanam. While doing snanam, he should
certainly give dakshina to Guru as per his capacity.
3. Laghu Haaritha - There is nothing in this world, which will rid the disciple of his debt to Guru, even
if Guru had only taught him only one letter from Veda.
4. This danam of dakshina to Guru is necessary for one who enters another asrama; as Smriti says,
One should be in the asrama of his choice after giving dakshina to Guru.
5. Gautama says that in case one is incapable of giving dakshina, he can do snanam with Gurus
permission - After completing education, one must ask Guru as to what he should offer as
dakshina. He should then do as Guru instructs or, with his permission, do snanam.

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Dharma of Naishtika (Perpetual) Brahmachari


1. Daksha - Brahmachari is of two kinds according to Dakshasastra - the first is Upakurvana and the
second, Naishtika.
2. Of them, the dharma of Upakurvana has been explained. Now the dharma of Naishtika will be set
out. Yagnavalkya - Brahmachari, who is Naishtika, should live with the Acharya only. In Acharyas
absence, he should live in the presence of Acharyas son or wife or Agni. If he follows this rule,
keeps his body under control and conquers the sense organs, he will go to Brahmaloka. He will not
be born again on earth. Naishtika is one who observes these rules till death. He should live
throughout his life with the Acharya et al without exercising any freedom.
3. Manu - If he wishes to live in Gurukula throughout his life, he should serve the Guru with discipline
till his death. One who serves this way will go to the undecaying Brahmaloka. In the event of death
of the Acharya, he should live with Gurus son, who has vidya, or with Gurus wife or Gurus
Sapinda (paternal relative), as if he were living with Guru. In the absence of any of them, he should
always be engaged in bath, seat and walking around and serve Agni with homa and ready his body
for union with Brahman. One who observes brahmacharya this way without fail will reach high
state; he will not be born again on earth.
4. Haaritha - Brahmana, whose tongue, generative organ, stomach and hands are under control,
should spend his life in brahmacharya with his Acharya in a way similar to Sanyasi. In the absence
of Acharya, he should live with his son, disciple or family man. For him, marriage or Sanyasa is not
prescribed. If he observes these rules without indolence, he will not be born again on earth after
his death. One, who serves the Guru with proper observance of Naishtika brahmacharya, will
receive Brahmavidya and Liberation as its fruit.
5. Brihaspati - The Naishtika brahmachari, who observes Sandhyavandanam, Agnikaryam, study of
Veda, bhikshacharanam, sleeping on ground and compassion till death, will go to Brahmaloka.
6. Vasishtha - He should have his speech under control, eat the food from alms in the 4 th, 6th or 8th
kala, be subservient to Guru and wear matted hair or at least matted tuft. When Guru walks, he
should walk behind him; when Guru is seated, he should keep standing. He should be keen on
Vedic study, inform Guru of the alms got and eat with his permission. He should refrain from lying
down on cot, washing teeth, applying collyrium to eyes, applying oil and lying down in daytime; he
should take trishavana bath.
7. Yama - Those, who observe Naishtika brahmacharya till death, reach Brahmaloka; they are not
born again on earth.
8. Haaritha - Brahmanas, who observe brahmacharya, become immortal after death.
9. This statement refers to Brahmanishtha - one who is intent only on Brahman. Because Sruti says,
All the four asramis reach meritorious world; of them, one who is Brahmanishtha, attains
immortality from which there is no return to earth.
10. Vishnu says that this Naishtika brahmacharya is compulsory for hunchback et al - Brahmacharya is
a must for hunchback, dwarf, blind by birth, eunuch, lame and the seriously ill till the end of their
lives; no doubt.
11. in Chandrika - As the lame et al lack limbs and efficiency, they have no right to karma; hence
sastra prescribes Naishtika brahmacharya for them.
12. It is not that Naishtika brahmacharya is prescribed only for hunchback et al and not for others.
Because if it is so, the following statements of Vyasa et al setting out options will face
contradiction: Brahmachari may marry if he wishes to become grihastha; or, he may spend his life
in brahmacharya, making sankalpa (resolve) accordingly; or, he may become vaikhanasa or
sanyasi as he wishes. Naishtikatva is not prescribed for hunchback et al with partiality. One should
not entertain doubt that in case Naishtikatva applies to others also, it will contradict the Sruti
statement, Agnihotram should be done till the end of life. This staement of Sruti is not in this
context. There is indeed no contradiction because the Sruti passage applies to those who enter
Grihasthasrama because of desire for wife etc.
13. Jabali also - If one desires Grihasthasrama, he should do Agnihotram throughout his life.

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14. One should not think that the Naishtikatva specified in Smriti is adversely affected by the
requirement of Agnihotra in Sruti. Because Naishtikatva also is rooted in the Sruti passage, The
second type of Brahmachatri should spend his life in Gurukula only.
15. It is incorrect to say that if there are two kinds of brahmacharis, the asramas become five in
number and this will result in contradiction to the statement, Asramas are four by Aapasthambha
and others. Just like Agnihotra is of two kinds, nitya (compulsory every day) and kamya (as
desired), the difference being based only on sankalpa (resolve), here also the difference among
brahmacharis is relevant, being based on resolve only. Hence Aapasthambha explains certain
dharmas - Naishtika should stay till his death in Gurukula with the discipline of upakurvana,
performing Samidhadhanam etc.
16. Gautama - The discipline of Samidhadhanam, bhikshacharanam etc. prescribed for upakurvana
applies to Naishtika also. Gurukula stay is till death. He should serve the Guru and spend rest of
his time chanting Veda. If Guru is not there, he should live with Gurus son; if he is also not there,
he should live with Gurus disciple, who is old in age and vidya, or Agni. Naishtika, living thus and
having conquered sense organs, will go to Brahmaloka.
17. Manu on conqueror of sense organs - He is said to have conquered sense organs, who is not
affected by happiness or sorrow respectively on hearing praise and criticism, touching silk and
wool, seeing agreeable and disagreeable forms, tasting sweet and bitter food and smelling
pleasant and unpleasant things.
18. Manu again - If brahmachari discharges semen in dream state not under the influence of lust, he
should bathe, worship Surya and chant the Rik Punarmam three times. He should sleep alone
everywhere; he should not discharge semen. If he does so knowingly, he is said to have spoiled
his brahmacharya vrata. I shall now mention the eleven sense organs listed by the wise ancients.
Out of ears, skin, eyes, tongue, nose, organ of excretion, generative organ, hands, feet and
speech, the first five are sense organs of cognition; the balance five are sense organs of action.
The eleventh sense organ is called Mind. By its nature of sankalpa (resolve), mind drives both the
above kinds of sense organs to act. By conquering mind, all the ten sense organs are conquered.
Like a charioteer controlling the horses, one, who knows the faults inherent in things, should strive
to control the sense organs, which tend to move among worldly things that carry him away. If the
sense organs are allowed to attach to things, he commits folly; if they are controlled well, he attains
the goal.
19. Samvartha - If brahmachari spills semen purposely, he should do Avakirni prayaschitta; if it is not
done knowingly, he is purified by bath.
20. Bodhayana - If brahmachari unites with woman, he is called Avakirni. He should do homa of a
donkey. Devata for the animal and Purodasa (oblation) is Nirruti or Rakshas or Yama.
Prachidravadhanam must be done from generative organ. Heart etc. should be offered in water in
homa. It means that the rest should be done in Loukikagni.
21. Vasishtha - If brahmachari unites with woman, he should do homa of donkey with Rakshas as
Devata in Loukikagni in forest or cross - roads. Or he should do homa of charu (oblation of rice) to
Nirruti as Devata.
22. Aapasthambha - Avakirni should do homa of donkey to Nirruti as Devata as per the rules for
Sthalipaka. The balance of Havis (material offered as oblation) should be eaten by sudra.
23. Avakirni should do homa of donkey, blind in one eye, to Nirruti as Devata as per rules of
Sthalipaka in the night in cross - roads.
24. Haaritha - Avakirni should do homa of donkey as per rules of Sthalipaka to Nirruti as Devata in
cross - roads. Srapanam (placing) on ground of animal and Purodasa. Avadhanas should be
offered in water in homa; then homa with ghee.
25. Gautama - Avakirni should do homa of donkey to Nirruti as Devata in cross - roads. He should
wear its skin as dress with the hairy side on top, carry red coloured pot of clay and beg alms in
seven homes saying Give alms to me, Avakirni. He becomes purified if he observes this
procedure for one year.

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26. Manu - If he eats that food from alms from seven homes only once a day and bathes thrice, he
becomes pure after one year.
27. Samvartha - If brahmachari unites with woman out of the passion of lust, he should observe
Prajapatya kruchram for the whole of one year with discipline. He should also do homa with
Purodasa in Parva days. He should also do homa of ghee in Agni with all homa mantras.
28. Sandilya - Avakirni brahmachari becomes pure if he does yaga with donkey and eats food from
alms with discipline for one year. This is the same for all the three varnas. The period of one year
applies to union with vaisya woman.
29. Sankha and Likhita - Brahmachari should take trishavana bath for one year if he has united with
vaisya woman; if it is with kshatriya woman, the period is two years; if it is with brahmana woman,
the period is three years.
30. The rest of Prayaschitta will be covered in Prayaschitta Prakaranam.

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Dharmas of Snathaka (one who has taken ceremonial bath after completion of Gurukula study):
1. Manu - If snathaka suffers from hunger, he can ask for money from kshatriya king, yajamana who
performs yaga or disciple; not from others. This is the restriction of sastra. A capable snathaka
brahmana should for no reason suffer from hunger. If he has money, he should not wear dirty or
torn clothes. He should shave his head and moustache, cut his nails, keep his sense organs under
control, wear white clothes and be attentive to Vedic study and actions beneficial to him. He should
also wear bamboo staff, water - pot, upavita, handful of darbha grass and gold ear - rings.
2. Vyasa - He should wear bamboo staff, undergarment, upper cloth, two yagnopavitas, water - pot,
umbrella, turban, footwear, gold ear - rings and handful of darbha grass. He should keep his hair
shaved, be clean and attentive to Vedic study. He may wear flower on the outside of tuft of hair.
Wearing white cloth and perfume, he should have presentable appearance.
3. In Smritiratnam - He should decorate himself as per his capacity by wearing white clothes, sandal paste, flowers, perfumes, tooth cleaning and ornaments.
4. Bodhayana - He should wear undergarment, upper cloth, bamboo staff, water - pot, two upavitas,
turban, footwear of leather and umbrella.
5. Gautama - Snathaka should always be clean, of good smell and take regular bath. By prescribing
good smell, wearing of flowers with no smell is forbidden.
6. Gobila also - Garland with no smell should not be worn, except for golden garland.
7. Vridha Vasishtha - O King! Everything mentioned for Chowla in snanakarma should be followed. It
should be done in auspicious day and lagna. He should do homa to Agni of samit (fuelwood sticks)
of trees fit for yagna, or paddy, barley etc. with vyahritis or all homamantras. He should go to holy
tirthas, eat little food and refrain from eightfold intercourse with woman. The eight parts are:
thinking of women, speaking of them, playing with them, looking with longing at them, talking
secrets with them, resolving in mind (to do these things), attempting (to do these things) and
deriving pleasure in actual intercourse.
8. In Katakagrihya - Snanakarma should be done on the day before the marriage. It can be done on
any day before marriage. If done on the day of marriage, bath with water and sakalahoma are not
there. This is upto seeing the stars. Marriage should be done only at night. No marriage in daytime
on the day of snanam.
9. In Sangraham - If one who has done snana dies before marriage, he will not reach good state.
Hence one whose marriage is imminent should do snanakarma.
10. Daksha - Brahmana should not be without asrama even for one day. If he does so, he should do
prayaschitta.

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Discussion of Marriage
1. Vishnu - One should study Veda with effort, know its meaning, do samavarthanam and marry a girl
of auspicious marks.
2. Manu - Brahmana should do snanam with Gurus permission, do samavarthanam as prescribed
and marry a girl of same varna and with auspicious marks. He should not marry girl of tawny hair
and eyes, with extra parts, with prolonged disease, hairless on body, with too much hair on body,
of severe speech and red coloured. He should not marry girl with name of star, tree, river, lowly
person, mountain, bird, snake and dasa or of terrible name. He should marry girl of parts not less,
sweet name, walking like swan and elephant, having thin hair on body and head and thin teeth and
soft features.
3. Yama - He should not marry girl who is very short or tall, very thin or fat, of red eyes, too white in
complexion and who will be cause of husbands death.
4. Narada - Girls with prolonged disease, serious disease, less parts, one who has united with man
earlier, bold and one who loves another man are defective. Hence one should not marry them.
5. Vyasa - One should not marry girl with moustache, manly appearance, hard tone of speech, very
thin, voice of crow, uncontrolled eyes and round eyes. One should not marry girl with hairy legs,
raised ankles and having depression in cheeks while laughing. One should not marry girl with cruel
shine, white nails, red eyes, fat hands and legs, is too short or tall, with joined eyelashes, teeth with
too much gap, terrible face, fat calf areas of legs, is very hairy on body, one of twins, with bad
teeth, depressed eyelashes and is cat - eyed. One should not marry girl who has no relatives, is
diseased from birth, born in lowly family, with too much hair or no hair, too black, red coloured, with
extra parts, less parts, impure, hairy on body, hunchback, diseased, evil - natured, evil - speaking
and having no parents.
6. Saatatapa - One, who marries a girl with the voice of swan, colour of clouds and eyes like honey,
will grow.
7. Manu on the rules of marriage with girl of same varna - The girl eligible for marriage with brahmana
should not be sapinda of mother and not of same gotra as of father and not have united with men
earlier. One who has equal pinda is sapinda; one who does not have equal pinda is asapinda.
Pinda is body; Sapinda nature comes through contact of body part. How - For son, sapinda
nature with father exists through contact of body part. In the same way sapinda nature exists with
fathers father et al through contact with fathers body part. In the same way sapindyam (sapinda
nature) exists with mother through contact with her body part.; also with mothers father et al
through mothers contact. In the same way sapidyam exists with mothers sister, mothers brother,
fathers brother and fathers sister et al through body contact. This also applies to husband and
wife as they produce a new body. This extends to the wives of brothers because of commonality of
body contact. Hence wherever the term sapinda is used, commonality of body contact, either
direct or through family history, is to be understood. The commonality of body contact is known
from Srutis also. In Kathopanishad - This body has five sheaths. Bone, tendon and bone marrow
are got from father and skin, flesh and blood from mother. Sruti passages like Angadangat are
also evidences.
8. Aapasthambha - Father appears as if he were produced separately.
9. Vignanesvariyam states: If sapindyam is to be established through pindas given in sraadhams,
sapindyam will not apply to mothers family, brother, fathers brother et al. Hence if we go by the
overall effect and accept traditional meaning of the term, we would have missed the effect of part.
10. In Smritichandrika - In the karma of dana of pinda, sapindyam comes to the giver and the
recipients of pinda and the recipients of Lepa (offering of remnants of food sticking to hand). The
three ancestors starting from the fourth from father are recipients of Lepa; the three starting from
father are recipients of pinda. The giver of pinda is the seventh. Sapindyam exists among these
seven persons mutually. If sapindyam is taken based on pinda, one should not think that
sapindyam will not happen with brother, fathers brother et al. It is only that the commonality of
karma is associated with commonality of aim.

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11. Sarvabhouma on this - By saying thus, even if sapindyam is accepted with brother, fathers
brother et al, sapindyam will not come for ones daughter, sister, mothers brother and his daughter
because commonality of karma does not exist. Then passages like Panchamat saptamat will
become meaningless. Hence sapindyam by mentioning Lepabhaja: refers to the nature of
sharers of wealth (dhanabhagis) and doers of Aparakriyas et al described by Manu, Gautama et al
in passages like Anantarassapindoya: and Putrabhave.
12. There could be an extension of this saying that if sapindyam is determined based on commonality
of contact of body part, either direct or through family history, everyone may somehow have
commonality of contact of body part with everyone else in this beginningless samsara (cycle of
births and deaths). This faulty argument has to be dismissed thrugh the words of Manu et al.
13. Manu also - Sapindyam stops with the seventh person in the line.
14. Gautama - One who is going to be grihastha should marry a girl, who is equal to him in jati and
family, has not been given to anyone else and is younger than him. One should marry from family
not having the same Pravara (line of ancestors). One should marry beyond seven generations in
line of father or the actual progenitor and five generations in line of mother.
15. Sankar - One should marry girl who is equal to him, does not have the same Pravara and is
beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.
16. Vasishtha - One should marry girl who does not have the same Pravara, has not united with a man
earlier, is younger and is beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.
17. Paitinasi - One should marry girl who does not have the same Pravara and is beyond five and
seven generations in the lines of mother and father.
18. Vishnu - One can marry girl who is not of same gotra, who does not have the same Pravara and is
beyond five and seven generations in the lines of mother and father.
19. Yagnavalkya - One who followed brahmacharya without violation of rules, should marry girl, who
has good distinctive marks, has not been accepted by another man before, who is pleasing to the
mind and the eyes, not sapinda, is younger in age and eats lesser food, is free from disease, has
brother, does not have the same gotra and Pravara and is beyond five and seven generations in
the lines of mother and father. Aapasthambha stipulates: If one marries a girl, with whom mind and
eyes get attached, dharma etc. will grow.
20. Brihaspati on lesser age - A 30 year - old brahmana can marry a 10 year - old girl; a 21 year - old
boy can marry a 7 year - old girl.
21. Angiras - One should not accept a girl, who is older in age or of larger body build. One should
accept a girl younger by 2,3 or 5 years.
22. Vishnu - One can accept a girl three times younger; 24 year - old boy can accept 8 year - old girl.
One should not accept a girl younger only by one year; hence it is clear that accepting girl younger
only by months is forbidden.
23. Narada - A boy, wishing for long life, should not marry a girl of lesser parts, extra parts, taller than
him, older than him and diseased. Free from disease refers to eight major diseases: Wind, spleen
enlargement, bladder - stone, leprosy, dropsy, fistula, archas and diarrhoea. The qualification of
having brother is due to fear of dharma of putrika (daughters son).
24. Manu on this - One should not marry a girl, who has no brother or whose father is unknown, due to
the doubt of putrikadharma. This shows that even due to the sankalpa (resolve) in fathers mind,
the girl becomes putrika. Hence Gautama says that some opine that even due to the sankalpa
(resolve) in fathers mind, the girl becomes putrika. Manu on putrika - A father who has no son,
while giving away his daughter in danam, should make sankalpa that the son to be born of this
daughter of mine shall do my sraadham etc., do danam accordingly and make her putrika.
25. Vasishtha also - The father should say, I am giving you this decorated daughter of mine, who has
no brother. The son to be born of her should become my son or, This daughter herself is my son.
26. Meaning of one whose Arsha and gotra are not the same - Arsha is Pravara; gotra is well known.
Hence it means that the girl should not have equal Pravara or gotra, as smriti says so.

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27. Bodhayana - Pravaras where the same Rishis name appears are equal Pravaras; except for
Angiras and Bhrigu. Bodhayana also talks more about Bhrigu and Angiras groups - Marriage
should not be done by people with three Pravaras if two Pravaras are equal; Marriage should not
be done by people with five Pravaras if three Pravaras are equal.
28. Here as it states Asapindam, daughter of fathers sister or mothers sister or mothers brother is
forbidden. Asagotram means that even if Sapindyam is not there and she is born in a different
lineage, equal gotra is forbidden. Asamanapravaram means that even if Sapindyam is not there
and gotra is not equal, equal Pravara is forbidden; e.g. though there is difference in gotra of Yaska,
Vadula and Mounamoha, there is equality owing to Pravaras - Bhargava, Vaidahavya and
Savedasa.
29. Meaning of Panchamat saptamadurdhvam - Add: Sapindyam ceases beyond 5th generation in
line of mother and 7th generation in line of father. Hence the term sapinda determines meaning
based on the power of part like the word pankaja. Hence 6 ancestors starting from father are
sapindas. Future 6 generations starting from son are sapindas. Himself is the seventh. If there is
difference in child, calculation has to be done from the person from whom difference arises. Add
everywhere: till 7th. There is no sense of wife with a girl who is sapinda or of equal gotra or
Pravara. Vignaneswara says that even if sense of wife is there with diseased etc. girl, it is useless.
Vignaneswara et al have determined that the statement of Vasishtha, For unmarried women,
sapindyam is known to be for three generations refers to Aasoucha (impurity).
30. Some think that the girl born in the gotra of ones mother also should not be married, based on
Saatatapasmriti, If one marries daughter of mothers brother, girl born in mothers gotra and girl of
equal pravara and unites with her, he should observe chandrayanam and Vyasasmriti, Some say
that girl from mothers gotra is not to be married.
31. In Akhandadarsam - Keeping kutastha in the centre and counting from him on both sides, one can
marry the 8 th generation girl beyond 7 generations in fathers line. In the same way, keeping
kutastha in the centre, one can marry 6th generation girl beyond 5 generations in mothers line.
32. As it is acceptable thus to many smritis, it ie established that marriage is suitable only beyond 5
and 7 generations and not within that limit. Narada also - Girl within 5 and 7 generations in
mothers and fathers lines respectively, or girl of same gotra or of equal Pravara is not to be
married.
33. Vishnu - One who marries girl within 5 and 7 generations in mothers and fathers lines
respectively, or girl of same gotra is considered to have united with Gurus wife.
34. Vyasas statement, Girl of the 5th generation in mothers line and 7th in fathers line can be married
as per rules means that girl beyond that limit can be married. Hence Marichi - Though those who
marry girls of the 5th and 7th generations observe good karmas, they become fallen and get sudra
nature.
35. Manu - If one unites with daughter of fathers sister, his own sister, or daughter of mothers sister or
brother, he should observe chandrayanam. A wise man should not marry these three persons; as
these three are gnatis, one should not unite with them; one who unites will become fallen.
36. Vyasa - If birth and name are unknown, one can marry without doubt. One must attentively avoid
sapindas of mother. (In Kaliyuga) Brahmanas will lose wisdom and sinfully marry daughter of
mothers brother, daughter of fathers sister and girl who has been purchased.
37. Saatatapa - I shall tell the prayaschitta for the fool, who marries girl of same gotra or of equal
Pravara. Not considering her as wife, he should protect her as mother. If he abandons her, he
should observe atikruchra.
38. Aapasthambha - If one unites with girl of same gotra or of equal Pravara, he will lose his brahmana
nature. The son born of her will be chandala (outcaste).
39. In Kalpasara - One who has married girl of same gotra unknowingly, should nourish her as mother.
After observing chandrayanam, he should marry another girl. If son is born of girl of same gotra
due to ignorance, he should observe Abdakruchram and padakruchram and, at the end of vrata, he
should peform two oblations of mindahuti. The son born of her is free from fault; he will belong to

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Kasyapa gotra. One who marries the above girl knowingly should observe the prayaschitta for one
who united with his Gurus wife. The son born of her is chandala; not fit for any karma.
40. In Smrityarthasara - One who marries and unites with girl of same gotra knowingly should observe
the prayaschitta for one who united with his Gurus wife. The son born of her is chandala. The man
should nourish his wife as mother. If the marriage and union occur due to ignorance, purity occurs
from chandrayanam. The son born of her will belong to Kasyapa gotra.
41. Aapasthambha - One should not give his daughter in marriage to boy of same gotra; also not to
relatives of her mother like the son of mothers brother et al.
42. In Parasara Madhaviyam - The sons and daughters of sister of ones fathars father or mother and
brother of fathers mother are known as Pitrubandhus (Relatives of father). The sons and
daughters of sister of ones mothers father or mother and brother of mothers mother are known as
Matrubandhus (Relatives of mother). Marriage with these Pitrubandhus and Matrubandhus is not
in accord with sastras.
43. Sumanthu - If one marries daughter of fathers sister or mothers sister, or daughter of mothers
brother or girl of same gotra as mother, he should observe chandrayanam. He should nourish her
like mother.
44. Paitinasi - Daughter of fathers sister or mothers sister or mothers brother are equal to ones
sister; hence one should not marry them. One, who marries girl of same gotra or daughter of
mothers brother, should observe chandrayanam, even if he were equal to a Rishi.
45. Gautama - One who kills brahmana, drinks liquor, unites with Gurus wife, unites with daughter in
mothers line within 5 generations or daughter in fathers line within 7 generations or ones own
sister, steals gold (wealth), is atheist with no belief in existence of God, who frequently does
forbidden karmas knowingly and who does not abandon the fallen and abandons those who are
not fallen due to hatred are all known as fallen persons. Those who instigated others in evils are
also fallen.
46. In Chandrika - The offsprings in the lineages of mother and father are not fit for marriage. One can
marry girls beyond 5 generations in mothers line and beyond 7 generations in fathers line.
47. Statements like one can marry the fourth are in respect of other jatis.
48. Sankar - Children born of a brahmana, but with women of different jatis or different women of same
jati are sapindas. They have separate impurity (aasoucham). Aasoucham will be covered
separately in Aasoucha Prakaranam. Sapindyam for these persons continues only for 3
generations.
49. Author of Akhandadarsa also says - Paitinasis statement, beyond three generations in mothers
line and 5 generations in fathers line should be explained as applicable to kshatriya girl. It has
been established in Varadarajiyam that the above passage of Paitinasi applies to kshatriya girl on
the strength of Kanvas statement, One can marry kshatriya girl beyond 3 generations in mothers
line and beyond 5 generations in fathers line. One can marry girl of the same varna only beyond 5
generations in mothers line and beyond 7 generations in fathers line.
50. In Vignanesvariyam also - The contradiction among smritis is denied by saying that Vasishthas
statement on beyond 5 and 7 and Paitinasis statement on beyond 3 and 5 are meant only to
prohibit generations within those limits and not to prescribe other requirements. The limits of 5 and
7 refer to same jati. Sarvabhoumiyam states that as per Sankhas statement cited earlier, in case
of different jatis, sapindyam is only upto 3 generations.
51. The reason for people trying to marry the fourth girl et al is only delusion, due to ignorance of what
applies to girl of same jati and of the fact that the passage, one can marry the fourth (generation)
girl applies to girl of different jati. The reason may be wrong tradition; there is no other basis. Even
if a statement of Rishis is found with effort and if it contradicts the established smritis of Manu and
Yagnavalkya, it is to be abandoned; it is stated, Smriti opposed to Manusmriti is not praiseworthy
and All munis are on one side; Yagnavalkya on the other side; hence know that the dharmasastra
propounded by him alone is authority. If there is contradiction with sastra, even lokachara
(practice followed by many) is to be abandoned.

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52. Katyayana in the same vein - Like we abandon Smriti opposed to Veda, lokachara opposed to
Smriti should be abandoned.
53. Vasishtha also - What is prescribed by Sruti and Smritis is dharma. If these are not available,
sishtachara (conduct of the virtuous) alone is authority. The meaning is that sishtachara opposed
to sastra is not authority.
54. Gautama also - Dharmas followed in Desa (country), jati and family (race) are authorities if they
are not opposed to sastras.
55. Hence as marriage with girls of different varna is forbidden in kaliyuga and as Manu, Yagnavalkya
et al have permitted marriages only beyond 5 and 7 generations and as faults have been
mentioned in respect of marriage within those limits, marriage within 5 and 7 generations is
forbidden.
56. The relatives on the side of stepmother until 5 generations are also forbidden in the same manner,
as sapindyam extends there also.
57. Sumantu also - All the wives of father are mothers. Their brothers are mothers brothers; their
daughters are the daughters of mothers brother; their sisters are mothers sisters; their children
are the children of mothers sister. Hence one should not unite with them; if united, he would have
committed mixing of varnas.
58. Sapindyam is mentioned in Smriti also - As father has sapindyam with his wife of producing a
body, sapindyam extends to son et al with stepmother and her sapindas through contact of body
part of father. Hence in the statements cited earlier, the ordinary term, matru has been used (for
mother); the term janani (mother who gave birth to him) has not been used. Hence it is necessary
to avoid the relatives of stepmother like those of mother.
59. (One should avoid the sister of brothers wife and her daughter, and the sister of fathers wife and
her daughter.)
60. As the term pitru has been used (for father) and not janaka (father who gave birth to him), the
line of father other than janaka should also be avoided upto 7 generations. Gautama also - One
should marry those who do not have equal Pravara. In fathers line, beyond 7 generations; in case
of true father, the same way. Yagnavalkya smriti says, Son born of anothers wife through niyoga
by her husbands brother, who has no son, is eligible to inherit the wealth of both the fathers and
do sraadham for both; another Smriti says, he is the son of two fathers - actual and nominal; the
descendant of two families.
61. About datta (given in danam) son Smriti says: The datta son does not inherit the gotra and
wealth of his original actual father. One, who underwent upanayanam and then became datta son,
has two gotras. One, who does not know his gotra, receives the gotra of the person who does
upanayanam for him. If he knows his gotra, he receives two gotras like datta. Paitinasi also Datta, the son who was sold (kreeta), kritrima (adopted son from same jati) and putrikaputra
(daughters son, agreed as own son) have two gotras; they are known as dvyamushyanas. Hence
it has been determined in Vignanesvariyam, Akhandadarsam, Varadarajiyam etc. that marriage is
to be done only beyond 5 and 7 generations in both families.
62. But some like the author of Chandrika - Only those who are connected in Ekakriya (single kriya)
with Ekoddesya (single purpose) are said to be sapindas. Markandeya also - Three generations
starting from father are recipients of pinda; three above them are recipients of lepa; yajamana is
the seventh. Thus connection is only upto seven persons.
63. Thus since daughter of mothers brother et al are not in the ambit of ekapinda (common pinda),
they become asapindas; hence marrying them is proper. Statements like Beyond 5 generations in
mothers line; girl of same gotra as mother not allowed apply to putrikakarana (making daughters
son as own son) and progeny of woman accepted in marriages like Aasura. This is because
mother has the same gotra as father and determination of same gotra based on previous gotra of
mother is not correct. Smritis say that mother has the same gotra as father.
64. Lokakshi says that Putrikaputra has the same gotra as mother - Prajapati says, Putrikaputra has to
perform danam of pinda and water to mother with the gotra of mothers father.

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65. Markandeya on marriage like Aasura - Uttarakriyas (post - death ceremonies) to woman who has
been married as per Brahma system etc. have to be done with the gotra of her husband.
Uttarakriyas to woman who has been married as per Aasura system etc. have to be done with the
gotra of her father. Hence know that as ceremonial danam with water in Putrikakaranam and
marriages like Aasura is not there and as fathers sapindyam and gotra are not cancelled and as
sapindyam etc. continue for mother with her father, the matters relating to Asapindasayamatu:
etc. relate to Putrikaputra. We shall now answer the question: As son is sapinda with mother and
as sapinda of mother is sapinda of son also, why the term Matu:? If at any time mothers father
and mother abandon Putrikaputra, their sapindyam will then get cancelled and marriage with girl
who is sapinda of mother becomes possible. This is not allowed; hence involvement of father. For
the son of woman whose sapindyam with her mother and father stands cancelled owing to
Braahma etc. type marriage, marriage with daughter of mothers brother and others within 5 and 7
limits is acceptable. It is settled that the statements forbidding marriage with the daughter of
mothers brother et al refer to the sons of women taken in marriages like Aasura etc. and to
Putrikaputra. The passages supporting marriage with the daughter of mothers brother et al refer to
the sons of women taken in marriages like Braahma etc.

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Marriage with daughter of Mothers brother:


1. Narada - In some provinces, they abridge sapindyam and marry the 3rd in mothers generation and
5th in fathers generation. The fourth can marry the fourth or fifth generation girl; not the 6 th
generation girl.
2. In Shattrimsanmatham - The view of Paarasara, Angiras and Yama is that one can marry a girl, 3rd
in mothers or fathers line.
3. In Chaturvimsatimatham - The view of Paarasara, Angiras and Yama is that one can marry a girl,
3rd and 4th in mothers or fathers line.
4. In Smritisaram - In some provinces some people abridge sapindyam and marry daughter of
mothers brother and fathers sister.The 4th can marry 5th generation girl; the 6th can marry 5th; the
5th can marry 4th and not 5th. The prohibition of 5th in marrying 5th girl refers to fathers line and not
mothers.
5. In Smritiratnam - Eating along with one who has not undergone upanayanam and marrying
daughter of mothers brother et al are said to be faultless in Southern areas. Crossing the seas,
eating meat, living on use of weapons and drinking liquor are not prohibited for those in Northern
areas.
6. Brihaspati - Dvijas in Southern areas marry daughter of mothers brother. In Central areas,
carpenters and masons eat cows meat. All people eat fish. Women are not chaste. In Northern
areas, women drink liquor. They touch women in menses. The husbands brother marries woman,
who has lost her husband, if she has no son. Thus acharas and dharmas relating to area, jati and
family (race) have been set by our ancestors. They should be safeguarded in the same way. If not,
people will face disturbance. Nowadays contrary acharas are noticed in Southern areas. Marriage
with daughter of mothers brother is criticised because of relationship with mother. Uniting with
brothers wife, who has lost her husband, is also criticised heavily. This achara is seen in other
areas. Contrary acharas of this type should not be dispensed with. In Persia, marrying a girl, who is
sisterly relative, is seen. Some say that one who has eaten in ekoddishta sraadham should not be
nominated for another sraadham again. While collecting back foodgrains loaned in spring season,
some take twice the quantity in autumn. In case the amount of money given in loan grows to twice,
some enjoy the land kept in mortgage with them without paying compensation. Some say this is
not allowed. As Dharma relating to the province, jati etc. also is authority if it is not opposed to
sastra, the king should consult sastras and guide all activities.
7. Hence in marriages like Braahma etc., as mother has lost her sapindyam with her gotra, daughter
of mothers brother can be married as she is asapinda. The same applies to the daughter of
fathers sister. But the reason why marrying the similarly - placed sister of mother is not allowed is
that it is opposed to common practice, though it is not opposed to sastra. Even if it is as per
dharma, what is opposed to common practice should not be done. Manu on that - Even if it is as
per dharma, what is opposed to common practice should not be done, as it will not bestow good
state in future.
8. Varahamihira also - First one should consider achara prevalent in the area. What is right in a
particular province should only be done in that province. Scholars prohibit what is opposed to
common practice. Hence a wise man should follow the path commonly followed in that area.
9. In the midst of Andhraites among the residents of Southern provinces, the best among those who
have learnt three Vedas and the virtuous who follow the stipulations of Vedas marry the daughter
of mothers brother et al. Among Dravidas (Tamilians) also, the virtuous like them marry the fourth
et al. They do not marry the sister of mother, her daughter et al. Many says that the conduct of the
virtuous is also authority - The conduct of the virtuous, Smriti and Veda are the three authorities for
Dharma. The practice to be adopted should be determined based on achara of dvijas who are
virtuous and followers of Dharma and not opposed to the province, family (race) and jati practices.
10. Aapasthambha - Whichever acharas have come down traditionally from ancestors of a particular
group, those acharas do not spoil that group; but not others.

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11. Devala - Bhrigus view is that whichever acharas have been practised as right in a particular
province, those acharas can be pracised in that province alone. Whoever are Devas, or
brahmanas; whichever is water, or clay; whichever is soucham (purity measure), or dharmachara
in a particular province; they should not be disregarded in that province. It is Dharma in that
province. Whatever is laid down as dharma in a particular province, city or village or the place of
residence of knowers of three Vedas, that should not be changed.
12. Bodhayana - In Southern provinces (south of Narmada river and north of Kanyatirtham), contrary
achara is of 5 types. In the same way in the Northern provinces (south of Himalayas and north of
Vindhyas) also. We shall first talk about the Southern provinces. Eating with one who has not
undergone upanayanam, eating with woman, eating old cooked rice, uniting with daughter of
mothers brother and uniting with daughter of fathers sister are the five contrary acharas. We shall
now talk about the Northern provinces. Selling woollens, drinking liquor, selling horse etc., living on
use of weapons and crossing the seas are the 5 contrary acharas. If one adopts the achara of
Southern provinces in the North or the achara of Northern provinces in the South, he will get
blemish. Those acharas have authority in the respective provinces. Hence adoption and
abandonment should be as per local practices.
13. Gautama says that this is false. Bodhayana says next, As there is direct opposition to Smriti; this
is not to cancel what is stated earlier; but because of Gautamas statement. It has been explained
in Chandrika that marrying the girl who is mothers sapinda is not acceptable to Gautama, as it is
opposed to the Smritis of the virtuous.
14. Aapasthambhas statement, In actions done for ones own pleasure, there is no sastra. One who
acts that way will go to naraka amounts to prohibition of marriage with daughter of mothers
brother, who is sapinda to mother. Vasishthas statement, If dharmas of provinces and family
(race) are not opposed to Vedas, they are authorities favours this stand, as there is no
contradiction with Veda. Favourable Sruti is also there, i.e. O Indra! Come to this yagna of ours by
the best routes. Come and accept the Havis offered by us. That is why those who are performing
this yaga have offered to you homa of the fat cooked in ghee etc. Here two examples - This fat is
ssuitable for you just as the daughter of mothers brother or fathers sister is suitable for marriage
for a man. Hence marriage with daughter of mothers brother et al is upheld by
Devanabhattopadhyaya, the author of Smritichandrika saying that this marriage is right based on
Sruti, Smriti and achara; also by other wise persons in line with the achara of their provinces.

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Lineages (Families) to be rejected in Marriage:


1. Manu - The following ten families must be rejected in marriage, though they might be very good
and richly endowed with cows, goats, money and foodgrains. They are - Devoid of achara spelt out
in Srutis and Smritis; devoid of male progeny, due to fear of the cessation of lineage; devoid of
Vedic study; too hairy on body, as it is the form of Nirruti - Sruti says, Body which is uncouth and
too hairy must be offered in homa to Nirruti Devata, as that is the body of Nirruti; having piles;
having tuberculosis; having diseases like dropsy; having epilepsy; having white leprosy and having
other leprosy. Due to fear of contracting the disease, these are to be rejected.
2. Yagnavalkya - Girl should be taken from a large family of srotriyas, famous for 5 persons in fathers
line and 5 in mothers. One should not take girl from family having communicable diseases like
leprosy, epilepsy etc., though the family may abound with sons, grandsons, cows, servants and
villages.
3. Yama - One should reject family whose Pravara is unknown, family of Ritviks, handicapped family,
family of persons having extra body parts, family having dropsy, or white leprosy, family too lusty,
too hairy on body, having epilepsy, or jaundice, too tall, too short and too coloured.
4. Manu - One who looks for raising the greatness of his family should always establish relations with
superior people; discard the lowly. One should establish marital relations with those purified by
good deeds, knowers of Srutis and Smritis, those who observed brahmacharya as per rules, those
born in great families, those with marital relations with great families, those who are generous,
happy, doing good to the righteous, righteous themselves, those with equanimity of vision, free
from anger and graceful. Those unfit for marital relations are thieves, tale - bearers, eunuchs,
atheists, those who live on abhorrent means, those with uncouth appearance, those who have
enmity with the valourous, those who offend the king, those who take away and enjoy brahmanas
wealth and miserly people. One should also attentively reject families with no progeny, or begetting
only females, and having adulterous relation with other men. Man follows the conduct of father or
mother or both. One born in evil family cannot give up his nature.
5. Haaritha - Son may take after the quality of his mothers brother; daughter, the quality of her father.
Man adopts the conduct of his mother.
6. Vishnu - One should examine horse through its male progenitor, girl through her mother, land
through the grass and family through achara.

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Marriage with Girl not from same varna:


1. Manu permits marriage with girl not from the same varna with some restrictions - For men of all
three varnas, girl from the same varna is the best in the first marriage. For those who marry again
due to lust, the following are the best. For sudra, girl from the same varna alone is suitable. For
vaisya, girl from the same varna and sudra girl are suitable. For kshatriya, girl from the same varna
and vaisya and sudra girls are suitable. For brahmana, girl from the same varna and kshatriya,
vaisya and sudra girls are suitable. First one should marry girl from the same varna only. Later if
there is desire for enjoyment, one can properly marry girls not from the same varna. Thus, girls
from four varnas are suitable for brahmana; for kshatriya, three varnas; for vaisya, two varnas and
for sudra, one varna.
2. Manu adds that in case brahmana and kshatriya are unable to wed girls from the same varna first,
they can marry girl not from the same varna; but never sudra girl first - No dharmasastra says that
even in danger, brahmana and kshatriya can marry sudra girl; they can accept only due to desire.
3. Manu about the blemish of marrying sudra girl first - Dvijas, who marry sudra girls due to
infatuation, make their progeny and the families get sudra nature.
4. Manu says that marrying only sudra girl and begetting child through her are sins for brahmana Brahmana who marries and unites with sudra girl without marrying girl from the same varna will go
to naraka. If he begets child through her, he will lose brahmana nature.
5. Manu establishes his opinion after quoting others views - The view of Atri and Gautama is that one
who marries sudra girl becomes fallen. Saunakas view is that he becomes fallen by begetting
child through sudra girl and not by uniting with her alone. He feels that he should not unite with her
during Rtukala (period favourable for conception). Bhrigu opines that without begetting child
through girl from the same varna, if brahmana begets child only through sudra girl, he becomes
fallen. As Manus dharmasastra is told through the mouth of Bhrigu, Bhrigus opinion is all Manus
opinion also.
6. Yagnavalkya - No need to write separately, as it is same as Manus view. In Chandrika also, it is
the same.
7. Paitinasi - If brahmana girl is not available, girls from other varnas may be accepted. For sudra girl,
man from all three varnas can become husband as Pratiloma.
8. Jatukarni - Brahmana can observe snathaka vrata if he does not get brahmana girl. He can get
sons through girl of kshatriya or vaisya varna.
9. Narada - For brahmana, girls from the other three varnas can become wives. This is Anuloma.
For sudra girl, men from the upper three varnas can become husbands. This is Pratiloma. For
kshatriya, girls from vaisya and sudra varnas can become wives. For vaisya, sudra girl can
become wife. For vaisya girl, man from upper two varnas and for kshatriya girl, man from the upper
one varna can become husband.
10. Vishnu - For dvija, sudra girl can never become wife suitable for dharma. She will be there only for
pleasure for the brahmana who has lost discrimination due to lust.
11. Vyasa - The semen of dvija, which drops in the organ of a sudra woman, wails shouting Ha,ha
and curses him: I fell in a sinful pit; this sinner who lost discrimination due to lust will push me into
naraka; may this fellow go to naraka soon.
12. Vasishtha - Some say that one can marry sudra girl without mantras. That should not be done. The
family will go down quickly; it will stop one from attaining swarga.
13. Manu - There is no prayaschitta for one who drinks from the lips of a sudra woman, lies down with
her in the same bed and begets son through her. He becomes fallen. Even high families go down
by resorting to painting, sculpture etc., lending money on interest, begetting sons through sudra
woman alone, selling cow, horse, chariot etc., doing agriculture, service to king, performing yaga
for the fallen et al, atheistic intellect and not studying Veda.
14. This marriage with woman not from the same varna pertains to different yuga, as it is prohibited in
Kaliyuga.
(This entire chapter therefore is not applicable to Kaliyuga).

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Characteristics of Vara (Bridegroom):


1. Manu - If a vara, who is superb in family etc., handsome and of the same varna is available, the
wise father of girl should marry her off even if it is prior to the marriageable age (8 th).
2. Yama - Wise persons should give girl in marriage after examining seven qualities of the vara family, virtuousness, health, age, vidya, wealth and relations; the rest need not be examined.
3. Vishnus statement, In danam of girl, the brahmanas family (lineage) should be investigated;
Vedic knowledge and wealth need not be examined. The same in sraadham also; vidya is not
important only signifies that lineage is prime; it is not for rejecting vidya. Hence Aasvalayana said
that lineage must be investigated first.
4. Aapasthambha - Vara, with relatives, good conduct, good look and proficiency in sastra and who is
free from disease is the best.
5. Gautama - Daughter should be given to vara with vidya, observance of prescribed karmas,
relatives and good conduct.
6. Saatatapa - Vara should be one, who likes the girl and who has good lineage, conduct,
appearance, scholarship, wisdom and youth.
7. Yagnavalkya - Vara should have qualities mentioned above, be of same varna, should have
studied Veda, have been examined for potency, be youthful, wise and popular among people.
8. Katyayana - Women have been created for bearing child. Woman is called kshetra (field); man has
bija (seed). Kshetra should be given to one who has bija; hence bija should be examined.
9. Narada on the method of testing bija - One, whose bija floats in water and urine has sound and is
bubbly, is man. One who is contrary is shanda (eunuch). Scholars have found in sastras that
eunuch is of 14 types. Some of them can be treated; some cannot be. We shall discuss them. The
14 types are - Nisarga shanda, baddha, paksha shanda, Gurusapa shanda, roga shanda,
Devakopa shanda, earshya shanda, sevya, vatharethas, mukhepaka, aakshipta, moghabija,
saalina and anyaapati. Nisarga shanda is one who by nature is without penis and testicles. Badha
is one who has lost testicles by being cut off. Pakshashanda is one who is capable of uniting with
his wife only once in a fortnight. Those who lost potency owing to curse of Guru, disease or anger
of Devas are respectively Gurusapa shanda, roga shanda and Devakopa shanda. One who gains
potency in jealousy is earshya shanda. One who gains potency owing to service of a woman is
sevya shanda. One who lost semen due to vata (wind) is vatarethas. Mukhepaka is one who has
manliness only in face, but not in sexual organ. Aakshipta shanda is one whose semen is
restricted. Moghabija is one whose semen is not capable of impregnation. Saalina is one who lost
manliness due to lack of courage or disturbance. Anyaapati is one who is manly with women other
than his wife. Of these 14 types, the first two are incurable. Paksha shnda is also to be rejected.
The next three can be tested upto one year. Mature girl can abandon the four starting from earshya
shanda like a fallen man. Woman can test aakshipta and moghabija for six months after marriage
and if he is still impotent, she can abandon him and remarry. Saalina improves when he unites with
a courageous woman; his wife should instruct him secretly. Anyaapati can be abandoned and the
woman can remarry. These are the words of Brahmadeva. The statement that a woman can
remarry thus applies to different yuga, as Kaliyugadharma states that woman cannot remarry.
10. Katyayana - Mad man, fallen, one who has leprosy, eunuch, one of same gotra, blind, deaf and
epileptic are defective; they cannot be varas. The defects of girl were also told earlier. Wise people
should not give daughter to people at a long distance, those who have not learnt vidya, those who
adopt the route to Liberation, the valourous and the poor.
11. In Aparargam - Severity, harsh words, troubling and non - observance of prescribed karmas show
that the man is born in mixed jati.

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Time for Kanyadanam:


1. Bodhayana - Daughter, who is nagnika, should be given to brahmachari of good qualities. If such
a person of good qualities is not available, kanya should be given to one of lesser qualities.
Marriage should not be postponed till her attaining puberty (going into menses).
2. Vasishtha - When daughter is nagnika, she should be given in danam with the fear of arrival of
Rtukala (period of menses). If unmarried girl has attained puberty, the father will get sin.
3. Vasishtha on the characteristics of Nagnika - Girl is called Nagnika till the time she does not
conceal her parts to be concealed with shyness in front of men. Till the time she does not wear
(regular) dress, plays in dust and does not know faults, she is called Nagnika.
4. Samvartha - Daughter should be given in marriage while she does not feel shy, plays in dust and
stands in the route of cows. Eight year old girl is called Gowri; 9 year old, Rohini; 10 year old,
Kanya; beyond this, she is called Rajasvala (mature - going into menses).
5. To say that beyond 10 years of age, girl is Rajasvala is the opinion about some people, because
there is no rule that every girl will go into menses at that age. He says also - If the father does not
give his daughter in danam even after she attains 12th year, he gets every month the sin of drinking
her blood. If unmarried girl becomes rajasvala, her father, mother and elder brother, all three go to
naraka. One who gives in danam, girl who is Gowri attains swarga; Rohini, Vaikuntha; Kanya,
Brahmaloka; Rajasvala, naraka called Rorava. Hence daughter should be given in marriage before
she becomes Rtumati (going into menses). It is praiseworthy to give daughter in marriage in her
8th year. Somadeva enjoys the girl when hair starts growing on her body, Gandharva enjoys at the
time of seeing menstrual blood and Pavaka enjoys at the time she starts developing breasts.
6. Yama - Girl is called Gowri in 8th year; Nagnika in 9th year; Kanyaka in 10th year; Vrishali in 12th
year. Vrishali is same as Rajasvala, as Devala says, Barren woman is called vrishali; woman
whose all children have died and is childless is also vrishali; girl who has become rajasvala before
marriage is also vrishali.
7. Aapasthambha - Eight year old girl is called Gowri; 9 year old, Rohini; 10 year old, Kanya; beyond
this, she is called Rajasvala (mature - going into menses). In 12th year, girl goes into menses; this
is based on general observation; not to say that girl goes into menses only in 12 th year, as sighting
of menstrual blood happens even before 12th year in case of some.
8. Yama and Samvartha - 10 year old girl is Kanya; beyond that, she is Rajasvala.
9. Hence it is established that till the girl goes into menses she is Kanya. That is why Yama says,
Before girl attains puberty she should be given in marriage.
10. Manu also - Thirty year old man should marry 12 year old girl.
11. Know that this is with reference to not having gone into menses. That is why Brihaspati - If
unmarried girl living with her father attains puberty, her father gets the sin of killing of embryo. She
will be called vrishali. One who marries her due to infatuation is called vrishalipati. He is unfit for
conversation and sitting in row together (pankthi). He is always impure (aasoucham). Every day
he gets the sin of killing brahmana. He can expiate the sin of uniting with her for one day, by taking
food from bhiksha (alms) for three years and doing japa. If he unites with vrishali for one month, he
will become sudra in this birth itself. He will be born a dog after death.
12. Narada - The number of Rtukalas (periods favourable for conception between menses periods)
gone by for unmarried girl, that many Brahmahatyas go to her father.
13. Yagnavalkya - The father, who does not give his daughter in marriage, gets the sin of killing of
embryo in every Rtu (menses period).
14. Vyaghrapada - The time specified for upanayanam of boys is suitable for marriage of girls. In place
of upanayanam of girls, Manu prescribed marriage.
15. Yama - Grandfather (Brahma) said that marriage is the upanayanam for girls. Hence 8 th year from
conception or from birth is most recommended. If there is doubt that adharmic marriage may result
in the absence of favourable place and time or equal vara may not be available, marriage of girl
can be performed even in younger age. When the girl is younger, if a vara of good qualities is
available, marriage can be done due to fear of place and time, though the age for marriage has not
yet arrived.
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16. Prajapati accepts the marriage of young girl and mentions the speciality of samskara - In case girl,
married before completion of 2 years of age, dies, she should not be buried; cremation with mantra
should be done.
17. Manus statement, Even if girl has attained puberty, she may live in her fathers home till her
death; daughter should never be given to man of no good qualities is meant to discourage giving
daughter to vara of no good qualities when vara of good qualities is available and not to impose
blanket ban on giving daughter to vara of poor qualities.
18. Yama and Bodhayana in the same vein - In case vara of good qualities is available, girl may be
given even when she is nagnika. If superior vara is not available in proper time, daughter should
be given to ordinary vara at least. One should not keep her unmarried till she attains puberty.
19. Yama says that in case father does not get his daughter married even after she has attained
puberty, she can pick up on her own equal vara - In case daughter not given in marriage lives with
her father in her 12th year, her father will get the sin of killing of embryo. That girl may choose her
husband on her own.
20. Know that choice by girl like this can be made after 3 years from the time of sighting of menstrual
blood. Bodhayana also - The father who does not give his daughter, who has attained puberty, in
danam for three years, will get the sin equal to killing brahmana; no doubt. This is in case nobody
has asked him for his daughter. Manus view is that in case the father does not give his daughter
even when asked by vara, he will get the sin of killing of brahmana for every occurrence of menses
individually. The daughter, who has attained puberty, should await her fathers order till completion
of 3 years. In 4th year, she on her own can get equal vara. If equal vara is not available, inferior
vara should at least be chosen by her.
21. Manu - The daughter, who has attained puberty, should await her fathers order till completion of 3
years. Later she on her own can get equal vara. By getting vara on her own in this manner without
being given by her father, she does not get any sin; nor does the husband get any sin. The
daughter, who chooses her own husband, should not take ornaments given earlier to her by her
father, mother or brother. If she takes, she becomes a thief. Husband, who accepts girl in this
manner, should not give any dowry to her father. Her father loses relationship with her because he
spoiled the girls Rtus (menses periods, followed by periods favourable for conception).

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Rules in case of Girl going into menses in the midst of Marriage:


1. Atri - During marriage when the time for homa is approaching, if the girl gets her periods, what to
do? Making the girl bathe and worshipping Agni, ahuti (oblation) should be done with yajana:
mantra and then homa is to be performed. If the girl gets her periods after completion of Pradhana
homa, the rest of the activities are to be performed after 3 days.
2. In Smritibhaskaram - If the girl gets her periods while commencing the vivaha homa, the souple
should have separate bed, seat, food etc. After she takes bath on 4 th day, vivaha homa should be
performed in that Agni as laid down; this is the summary of Smritis.
3. Yagnavalkya says that the king should punish the father who first gives the girl in danam and then
takes her away - Daughter can be given in danam only once. One who steals the girl who has
been given in danam is to be punished like a thief.
4. Manu - Dividing wealth is only once. Giving daughter in danam is also only once. Giving other
things in danam is also only once. These three are only once for the righteous. After giving
daughter to a person, one should not give her to another person. One who gives that way will get
the sin of Purushanruta dosha. The meaning is that he will get the sin mentioned in the sastra,
One who speaks untruth in the matter of horse will get the sin of killing a hundred people. One
who speaks untruth in the matter of man will get the sin of killing a thousand people.
5. Kasyapa - Kanyas of 7 types called Punarbhu should be rejected, as they are from inferior
lineage. These 7 types are: girl given in word; girl given in mind; girl who has undergone kankana
bandham (fastening of marriage - string around the wrist); girl who has been given in danam with
ceremonial water; girl who has undergone Panigrahanam (clasping hands); girl who has gone
round Agni; girl born of Punarbhu. These girls will burn away the lineage like fire. Tree burnt in fire
comes to life sometimes after a long time. The lineage burnt by relation with Punarbhu will never
come to life.
6. Manu - The virtuous of ancient or present times never have given girl to a new person, after
agreeing earlier to give to another person.
7. Bodhayana - Punarbhu is of 7 types: girl given in word; girl given in mind; girl who has gone round
Agni; girl who has walked seven steps (saptapadi); girl who has been enjoyed; pregnant girl; girl
who has delivered. If one accepts her, he will not get child or dharma.
8. Aapasthambha - Girl who has been given to another in word or with ceremonial water, girl who
covers her body with shirt etc., girl with reddish hair, girl who walks like a bull, girl with no shine,
hunchback, girl with wide knees, girl with no hair, girl with small body, girl who became daughter of
another lineage, girl who has sighted menstrual blood, girl who guards field etc., girl friend, girl
born after vara, but in the same year and girl older than vara should be rejected.
9. Statements like the above rejecting girl already given to another person refer to girl who has been
given to vara free from blemish. Because Narada - The king should punish like a thief, one who
has given his daughter to a person as per rules and later not actually giving him.
10. Gautama - Even if committed, girl should not be given in adharma.
11. Yagnavalkya - Even a girl already given can be given to another very good vara if he is available
afterwards.
12. Kasyapa - Girl already given to vara not from good lineage, not having good conduct, eunuch et al,
the fallen man, epileptic, vara in evil occupation, diseased, pretender and vara of same gotra can
be given to another vara, if she has not undergone samskara with vivaha mantras. A person who
gives the girl to another person without the above reasons should be punished. He should be
made to pay the expense incurred by the previous vara with interest.
13. Saatatapa - If the vara to whom word was given is devoid of good qualities and conduct, the girl
can be given to another vara who has good qualities and conduct. There is no fault in rejecting
vara who has no good qualities and conduct.
14. Katyayana - If the vara originally chosen is from different jati, fallen, eunuch, in evil occupation, of
same gotra, slave or diseased for long, the girl already given can be given to another vara with
dress and ornaments. If girl who has been accepted with per proper rituals is condemnable,
diseased, living in far away place and given in deceit, she can be abandoned.
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15. Narada - One should not criticise faultless girl falsely; also faultless vara. If the fault is genuine,
there is no sin in leaving these two.
16. Know that these statements apply to leaving before Saptapadi. In Chandrika - If the varas fault
comes to light or if he dies after danam in word, but before Saptapadi, the girl can be given to
another; not after Saptapadi.
17. Manu - The status of Patni (wife) comes through the mantras uttered in marriage. Scholars should
know that this has its finality in Saptapadi. The meaning is that even if the fault of girl or vara
comes to light, the girl or vara should not be abandoned.
18. Yama - By danam in word or with ceremonial water, the vara does not become husband of the girl.
He becomes husband after Panigrahanam and Saptapadi.
19. Vasishtha - In marriage which binds man and woman, first varana (choice) and then samskara
called Panigrahanam is done. In between these two, if fault (of Vara) comes to light the choice
(and agreement) is not in force. The girl can be given to another. The meaning is that the man
does not become husband merely by danam.
20. Vyasa - If vara dies after danam in word or before Saptapadi, the girl can be given to another. The
same is in the case of vara of same gotra. If the samskara of marriage is not done, the girl can be
given to another.
21. By this it is clear that even if vara dies before Saptapadi, there is no widowhood for the girl.
22. Vasishtha in the same vein - After giving the girl by agreement in word and with ceremonial water,
if vara dies before samskara is done with vivaha mantras, that girl belongs to her father and not to
the vara.
23. Katyayana - After choosing and agreeing about the girl, if vara goes abroad and does not return,
the girl can wait upto three sightings of menstrual blood and then marry a different vara.
24. Narada - After choosing and agreeing about the girl, if vara goes abroad and does not return, the
girl can wait upto three sightings of menstrual blood and then marry a different vara.
25. Manu on the speciality of sulka dana (offer of money by boy to girls father) - If vara dies before
marriage, but after giving sulka, the girl should be given to her brother, if she agrees. If the vara
who gave sulka and dowry for the girl does not come back, the girl can be given to another as per
rules after waiting for a year. If vara dies after danam in word, his brother should marry the girl.
26. Katyayana - If the original vara to whom danam in word was given does not come back, the girl is
given in danam in word to another and before marriage the first vara comes and if he has better
qualities than the second, the girl should be given to him only. If the girl is given in danam to many
and if all of them come before marriage, the first intended vara should get the girl. If others come
after marriage, they should receive their money back.
27. Vasishtha says that the girl can be given to another even after Panigrahanam - Even after
Panigrahanam, the girl who has only undergone the vivaha samskara, can be given in marriage to
another if she has not attained puberty. In another Smriti - If vara dies before Saptapadi, the girl
can be given to another. Some say that this applies upto union with the boy. Some say that this is
even after sighting of first menstrual blood. Some say that this is upto becoming pregnant.
28. Narada - Even if a girl is married, if she has not united with the boy, she is like Kanya only. She
can be given in marriage to another. Bodhayana - Even after danam and vivaha homa, if the boy
dies, the girl can be given to another in marriage if first menstrual blood has not been sighted.
Manu - Girl can get different husband in 5 conditions: if the boy goes abroad and does not return,
dies, becomes sanyasi, is eunuch or fallen.
29. These statements referring to remarriage even after Saptapadi apply to marriages in earlier yugas.
Because 30. Vyasa - Remarriage of girl already married, greater share for elder son, killing of cow, begetting
son through brothers wife and carrying kamandalu (water - pot) - these five are prohibited in
Kaliyuga.
31. Kratu - Begetting son through husbands brother, remarriage of girl, killing of cow in yaga and
carrying kamandalu should not be done in Kaliyuga.

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32. Bodhayana - Rule followed in earlier yuga should not be followed in this yuga. That was the
dharma of the previous yuga, like husbands brother begetting son through widow.
33. In Chandrika also - Begetting son through husbands brother, killing of cow, carrying of kamandalu,
remarriage of girl who has not attained puberty and making man into sacrificial animal and doing
yaga - these five must be avoided in Kaliyuga. The statement of Yagnavalkya and others, Brother
- in - law, sapinda or person of same gotra can unite with widow who has no son, in her period
favourable for conception, with elders permission, after applying ghee on his body; he can unite till
she becomes pregnant; if he unites afterwards, he will be fallen. The son born this way is called
kshetraja, should be discarded in Kaliyuga. Gomedham is torturing the cow. Kamandalu refers
to carrying kamandalu (water - pot) made of clay. Bodhayana et al have said, Brahmadeva and
sages have prescribed kamandalu for brahmanas purity. Hence it should always be carried.
Akshata refers to girl who has not attained puberty. Purushamedham is a yaga. The meaning is
that these should not be resorted to in Kaliyuga.
34. Narada says that even Akshata girl is not allowed - Even Akshata (girl who has not attained
puberty), if she has undergone Panigrahanam, will be called Punarbhu in remarriage and she
should not be married.
35. Yagnavalkya also - Whether the girl is Akshata or kshata (girl who has not or has attained
puberty), she will be called Punarbhu if she goes for remarriage.
36. Narada says that the king should punish one who gave the girl without disclosing her defect - The
king should levy the penalty of Purvasahasam on one who gives a defective girl without disclosing
her defect in advance. Purvasahasam is 750 coins.
37. Yagnavalkya says, One who cheats by giving girl without disclosing her defect should be levied a
penalty of Uttamasahasam. One who rejected a girl with no defect should also face the same
penalty. One who defames falsely should also face a penalty of 100 coins. Chandrika says that
this statement of Yagnavalkya refers to severe defect in the girl. Uttamasahasam is 1800 coins.
38. Narada - One who rejects a girl free from defects, after accepting her, should be punished. He
should marry that girl only.

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Persons Eligible for Kanyadanam


1. Yagnavalkya - Father, fathers father, brother, relative in same lineage and mother are eligible for
Kanyadanam (giving girl in danam) in the order of preference. If they do not give danam in time,
they will get the sin of killing of embryo in every monthly menses occurrence. If nobody is there, the
girl can choose an eligible vara (bridegroom).
2. Narada - Father can give his daughter in danam on his own. Those eligible for Kanyadanam are:
with fathers permission, brother, mothers father, mothers brother, relative in same lineage and
other relatives; if none of them is there, mother who is able; if she is not there, persons from the
same jati. If none of them is available, the girl can inform the king and choose on her own vara,
known to her, of the same varna and equal to her in lineage, conduct, strength and sastra. She can
observe dharmas with him and beget children. Action taken by one who has lost control of himself
through intoxication etc., though independent, is deemed to have been taken (complete).
3. Manu - To whomsoever father, or brother with his permission, gives in danam, the girl should serve
him throughout his life. After his death also, she should not transgress the ordinary rules. The
choice of only two persons in this context (for Kanyadanam) is only to establish their primacy and
not to reject others.

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Types of Marriage like Braahma etc.


1. Manu - There are 8 types of marriages for all the four varnas, which will do them good here and
hereafter. I shall briefly tell about them. Braahmam, Daivam, Aarsham, Praajapatyam, Aasuram,
Gaandharvam, Rakshasam and Paisacham are the 8 types. Of these, Paisacham is the worst.
Mention of Praajapatyam after Aarsham instead of before it is due to fear of loss of metre in the
verse.
2. Manu tells their characteristics in 8 verses - Braahma dharma is calling on his own vara, learned in
Vedas and observing karmas and giving girl in danam to him after decorating her with special
dress, ornaments etc. Here dharma means marriage, as marriage is means to dharma. Brahma
means dharma; As dharma is in large measure, this marriage is called Braahmam.
3. Giving girl in danam to Ritvik in yaga like Jyotishtomam as per rules is Daivam. As danam is given
to one who is entitled to acts related to Devas, it is called Daivam.
4. A Gomithuna is a cow and a bull together. Aarsham is taking one or two Gomithunams from
vara for dharma and giving the girl to him in danam as per rules. While teaching vidya, Rishis used
to do so without specifying remuneration for fear of sale of vidya and they used to accept minor
service etc. from the disciple. The marriage is called Aarsham because of commonness with this.
5. Telling the vara and the girl to do dharma jointly, getting vara to say also, worshipping him and
giving him the Kanya is Praajapatyam. As Prajapati has the nature of grihastha primarily and here
also grihastha nature is primary, it is called Praajapatyam.
6. Getting vara to give money beyond capacity to girl or her relatives and giving Kanya in danam to
him in violation of sastras and prevalent practices is Aasuram. As it is the practice of Asuras to
snatch others belongings improperly, this marriage is called Aasuram due to commonness with
that practice.
7. When Kanya and vara, owing to mutual liking, join right upto sexual union, it is called
Gaandharvam. This is Gaandharvam as it is based on passion. Gandharvas are well - known for
passion. Sruti also says so. Bhagavan Valmiki said, Gandharvas are highly passionate; Nagas are
highly furious.
8. While carrying the girl away by force, breaking and slaughtering those who come in the way and
appropriating the wailing girl is Rakshasam. As this is primarily based on violence, it is called
Rakshasam.
9. Uniting in a secret place with girl, who is in sleep, intoxication and inattention is the most sinful
Paisacham, the 8th type of marriage. As this is similar to the action of goblins, it is Paisacham.
10. Manu tells about the fruit of marriages like Braahmam - If the son of girl who was married in
Braahmam is doer of dharma, he will release from sin twentyone generations - the previous ten
generations, the succeeding ten generations and himself. The son of girl, married in Daivam will
release from sin 15 generations - previous 7, succeeding 7 and himself; son of girl in Aarsham, 7
generations - previous 3, succeeding 3 and himself; son of girl in Praajapatyam, 13 generations previous 6, succeeding 6 and himself.
11. Manu also tells about the fruits of the four types of marriages in this world after mentioning the
fruits in the world hereafter - In all the four marriages like Braahmam, sons born will have the lustre
of a great brahmana, be liked by the virtuous, have good appearance, virtue and good qualities,
have wealth, fame and objects of enjoyment and be mindful of dharma. They will also live a
hundred years.
12. Manu now tells about sons born after marriages like Aasuram - Sons born in the four balance
marriages will be violent, given to falsehood and haters of Veda dharmas. Through irreproachable
marriages, irreproachable children will be born. Through blameworthy marriages, blameworthy
children will be born. Hence one should refrain from blameworthy marriages. Here blameworthy
means forbidden; if not, the rule that marriages like Gaandharva are acceptable for kshatriyas will
look futile.

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13. Yagnavalkya - Calling the vara and giving him in danam girl decorated as per ones capacity is
Braahmam. The son born of her will purify 21 generations of the giver - the previous 10, the
succeeding 10 and himself. Giving in danam to Ritvik in yaga is Daivam. Getting two cows as fee
and giving girl in danam is Aarsham. Son born in Daivam marriage will purify a total of 14
generations including previous and succeeding. Son born in Aarsham marriage will purify a total
of 6 generations including previous and succeeding. Giving Kanya in danam and saying, Both of
you observe dharma jointly is Praajapatyam. Son born in this marriage will purify the previous 6
generations, the succeeding 6 and himself. Getting money and giving girl in danam is Aasuram.
Gaandharvam is vara and the girl making signal and uniting. Rakshasam is stealing the girl in
war. Paisacham is taking the girl deceitfully.
14. Manu - The first six types of marriage are as per dharma for brahmana; the four from Aasuram
are as per dharma for kshatriya; the same except Raakshasam are as per dharma for vaisya and
sudra. Scholars say that the first four marriages are exemplary for brahmana, Rakshasam for
kshatriya and Aasuram for vaisya and sudra. Manu also on other opinion - Three out of the five
starting from Praajapatyam are as per dharma. Paisacham and Aasuram should never be done. It
is clear that this opinion is common to all.
15. In Chandrika - The first four are good for brahmana; Gaandharva and Rakshasa for kshatriya;
Aasuram for vaisya and sudra. Paisacham is not good for anyone.
16. Vatsa says that if other marriages do not happen, Paisacham can be resorted to If all other
methods fail, one can get a girl, who is alone, at least by stealthy marriage.
17. Aapasthambha - The first three are good; of them the former is better than the latter. Progeny is
born in accordance with the type of marriage.
18. Bodhayana - Marriages are of 8 types. After examining (adherence to) sastra and good conduct,
giving the girl to brahmachari, who likes her, is Braahmam. Decorating the girl with good dress and
ornaments and giving her to vara saying, Do dharma with her is Praajapatyam. Out of Lajahomas,
after the first homa is over, giving to the father of Kanya, a bull and a cow is Aarsham. While giving
dakshinas in yaga, giving the girl along with dakshina to Ritvik at the altar is Daivam. Uniting in
mutual love of girl and vara is Gaandharvam. Influencing the relatives of the girl with wealth and
getting her is Aasuram. Appropriating the girl using force is Rakshasam. Taking away girl
overcome by sleep, intoxication or inattention is Paisacham. Of these, the first four are appropriate
for brahmana. The former of them is better than the latter. The latter four are for kshatriya et al. Of
them, the latter is inferior to the former. Of the eight, the sixth and seventh are suitable for
kshatriya, as wealth and strength are primary for kshatriya. The fifth and eighth are suitable for
vaisya and sudra, because they will have wives who do not follow many rules as they work in
agriculture and service. Some say that Gaandharvam is commendable for all, as the union is
based on mutual love. Progeny is born in accord with the type of marriage.
19. Gautama - The eight marriages are as before. The first four are good; some say that six are good.
20. Some say that Aarsha marriage is also not commendable, as fee is collected in that. Manu also - In
Aarsha marriage, some say that Gomithuna can be collected; but this is not appropriate. Whether
the fee is small or large, it amounts to sale.
21. Some explain this verse in a different way - In Aarsha marriage, some call Gomithuna as fee; this
is falsehood. Purchase suitable for trade will be small or large, depending on place and time. In
Aarsha marriage, as the Gomithuna is laid down, it is not purchase.
22. Devala also - The first four marriages do not deviate from dharma, as danam is given with
ceremonial water and there is no fee. They are suitable for brahmanas. They protect both the
lineages (of girl and vara).
23. Aapasthambha also - Giving danam to father of the girl in Aarsha marriage is also seen in a Veda.
That Sruti - Hence vara should give a chariot and 100 cows to girls father. Accepting them, the
girls father should give gifts in the form of land, ornaments etc. to vara and the girl and falsify that
it is purchase. This danam is driven by desire, for begetting sons like Rishis. Hence this danam is
for dharma and not for purchase. As Srutis say, One without wife is not eligible for yaga, one with
wife alone is eligible for dharma. As marriage is for doing dharma, the danam for that is for dharma
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only. The word kraya (purchase) found in one Smriti is actually in praise; it does not mean actual
purchase. Why? As the relation of the couple is for dharma only. Hence as danam is meant for
dharma, and as Smriti says that all danas should be given with ceremonial water, vara should give
danam to girls father with water only. The girls father also should give danam of the girl with
ceremonial water only.
24. As it is stated that 100 cows are to be given, it is as per dharma if, after receiving in excess of one
Gomithunam from the vara, the girls father returns it in the form of house, land, ornaments etc. It
should not be doubted that as money is taken, the marriage is Aasuram. If girls father takes
money for his enjoyment, it is Aasuram. Gautama also - To influence the girls relatives through
money is Aasuram. Haradatta says that if the money is given to girl and marriage conducted, it is
not Aasuram.
25. Manu says that taking money from vara for the girls dress, ornaments etc. is not faulty - If the girls
relatives do not enjoy the money received from the vara for the girl, but give it to her, it is not sale.
It will be honouring girls.
26. Manu confirms the same in 8 verses - Father, brother, husband and brother - in - law, desirous of
auspiciousness, should honour women and decorate them with dress and ornaments. Devatas are
pleased with the family where women are honoured. All dharmic acts are fruitless in the family
where women are not honoured. The family, where daughter, sister, woman in family et al feel
grieved, will be destroyed soon. If they are happy, that family will always grow. The homes where
female relatives curse, not being honoured, are fully destroyed like through Abhichara (black
magic). Hence people, desirous of wealth, should honour these women with dress, ornaments and
food on festive days etc. Auspiciousness will continue in the family, in which husband is happy with
his wife and wife is happy with her husband. If woman is not happy, she will not make her husband
happy. If husband is not happy, the growth of progeny will not happen. If woman is happy, that
whole family will shine. If she is unhappy, that entire family will not shine. The meaning is that
accepting money from the vara for the girls decoration is therefore not flawed.
27. Manu says that if girls father et al accept money for their use, it is faulty - The girls father should
not accept any fee. One who accepts out of greed is said to have sold the girl. If girls relatives
enjoy money meant for the girl, or servants, dresses or vehicles received as fees, those sinners go
to naraka.
28. Even if he is sudra, the giver of girl should not accept any fee. One who accepts fee indeed sells
the girl indirectly. We have not heard even in previous births about sale of girl on receipt of money
hidden in the name of fee.
29. Samvartha - The foolish sinners who sell the girl fall into terrible naraka and remain there till the
time of Pralaya. The girl purchased with money cannot become wife. She is not eligible for karmas
for gods or Pitrus, as she is equal to servant. As the man who married her is vrishalipati, he is not
eligible to sit in (brahmanas) row or conversation.
30. Yama - One who receives money by sale of human being, will live on the urine and excreta of that
person in his next birth. The foolish sinners who sell girl fall into terrible naraka. They burn their
lineage upto seven generations. One who sells the girl for his living actually consumes the urine
and excreta of that girl as well as the vara.
31. Question: Devala says that accepting girl as per rules by giving fee is the sixth type of marriage
called Aasuram. How is it that Manu et al also accepted this? Answer: If the previous marriages do
not happen, then Aasuram can be resorted to as emergency measure.
32. Narada also - In the marriages well known as 8 types, the former is better than the latter. If the
former does not happen, the latter is also creditable.
33. In Chandrika also - The remarks of Kasyapa and Manu critical of Aasura marriage are meant to
reject the inferior marriage if better marriage is possible.

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34. Here some opine - Gautama et al have forbidden sale of land, saying, Land, paddy, barley, sheep,
horse, bull and cow should not be sold and There is no sale of non - moving objects. Still
Vignaneswara says that since danam of land is praised saying One who gives land in danam and
one who receives the same acquire merit and certainly go to swarga, land should be sold, even if
sale were necessary, in the form of danam along with gold and ceremonial water. In the same
manner, here sale of girl and Aasura marriage are forbidden. Also danam of kanya is praised
through passages like: One who gives kanya in danam does not go to naraka; Danam of kanya is
giver of great strength and equal to yaga called Visvajit; One who gives girl in danam as per rules
gets the fruit of performing 100 times 100 yagas like Jyotishtomam, Atiratram etc.; Danas of these
ten - Kanya, horse, til, elephant, female servant, house, land, chariot, girl and milch cow - are
Mahadanas.; Danam of a thousand chariots is equal to the dana of girl; Danas of food, vidya, girl,
abhaya (fearlessness), cow, land, gold, horse and elephant are superior. As right to Sroutha and
Smartha karmas like Agnihotra etc. is obtained only after Panigrahanam, marriage is essential for
observing karmas. Hence, in case it is not possible to get the girl without giving money, as Smriti
says For brahmanas, marriage with ceremonial giving of water is the best, money should be given
with ceremonial water and girl should also be accepted with ceremonial water.
35. It should not be doubted that as Saptapadi etc. are absent in marriages like Aasuram, the religious
status of husband and wife is also absent, as the samskara of marriage is laid down after
acceptance of the girl even in those marriages. Devala also - In marriages like Gaandharva, the
marriage rituals must be gone through with Agni as witness afterwards.
36. In Grihyaparisishta also - In Gaandharva, Aasura, Paisacha and Rakshasa marriages, the
acceptance of girl first, followed by homam is laid down.
37. Hence Vasishtha says that the religious status of wife is not obtained only by kidnapping the girl by
force - The girl, who has been kidnapped by force, can be given to another man, in case marriage
rituals have not been undergone; she is like unmarried kanya only.
38. Manu on a particular part of marriage - Catching hold of the hand of kanya by the bridegroom is
called Panigrahanam. This samskara has been prescribed in the marriages of women with men of
same varna. In the case of marriages of women with men of different varna, the following is the
rule: If a lower varna woman marries a man of higher varna, she should catch hold of an arrow if
she is kshatriya; a whip if she is vaisya; the edge of the dress of the bridegroom if she is sudra.

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Two auspicious observances at the same time are forbidden:


1. Sangrahakara on two auspicious observances coming together - Marriage of boys, born of same
mother, in the same year is forbidden. If they are born of different mothers, there is no bar. For girls
also, the same rule applies; no doubt.
2. Varahamihira - As per Gargyas instruction, marriage of children, born of same mother, in the same
year is forbidden.
3. This is about performing the two marriages within 3 ritus. Garga also - marriage of children, born of
same mother, in the same year within 6 months is forbidden. The marriages can be performed in
another village; they should not be done in the same house.
4. Angiras - Marriage of children, born of same mother, in the same year is forbidden. Both
auspicious ceremonies should not be done within 6 months. If the year differs, marriage can be
done after 3 months. In Phalguna and Chaitra months, as the year differs, there is no need to have
a gap of 6 months for performing marriage and upanayanam. After marriage of son, marriage of
daughter should not be celebrated within 6 months. Upanayanam should not be peformed after
marriage. Marriage can be performed after upanayanam.
5. Saatatapa - Mandanam and mundanam should not be performed in the same year. Mandanam
means marriage and mundanam means upanayanam. Mandanam should be perormed first and
mundanam later.
6. In Sridhariya - Daughters marriage within 6 months of sons marriage, upanayanam within 6
months of marriage and chowlam within 6 months of upanayanam should not be done.
7. Garga - Marriage of son and daughter, born of same mother, should not be performed at the same
time; nor upanayanam.
8. In Smritiratnam - After one auspicious ceremony is performed in the family, another one should not
be done. If done without taking care, inauspiciousness will happen.
9. Angiras - After performing marriage of daughter, marriage of another daughter should not be
performed within 4 days; afterwards it can be done.
10. Garga - People who know opine that after performing marriage of daughter, marriage of another
daughter should not be performed within 4 days. In one home, only one auspicious ceremony
should be performed. One who does many will be destroyed. In one home two auspicious
ceremonies should not be done; a gap of 90 days should be maintained. If essential ceremony has
to be performed, it can be done with another Acharyas guidance.
11. Narada - Bhargava says that on the same day in different lagna, sons marriage can be performed
after daughters marriage. Manu, Vasishtha, Parasara et al say that marriages of son and
daughter, born of same mother, can be performed in different months. Garga et al say that they
can be performed on the same day in different lagnas. Vasishtha, Atri and Parasara say that these
marriages can be performed even in the same lagna on the same day, but in different amsa; or in
another village or in a different hall.
12. Brihaspati - Performing marriages of brothers on the same day in the same lagna, but in different
amsa, is auspicious. These dharmas are laid down in accordance with different areas and family
acharas. If two auspicious ceremonies are performed in the same house, whether in same or
different lagnas, one of them will be destroyed; the other will prosper. One person should not
perform the marriage and upanayanam of children, born of the same mother, on the same day.
The same person should not perform the auspicious ceremonies for two sons or two daughters.
Keeping a gap of 6 or 4 months or one year is auspicious.
13. Saatatapa - Two Agnikaryams (rituals in front of Fire) should not be done for children born of the
same mother. This rule does not apply to children born of different mothers. After sons
upanayanam, marriage of daughter should not be performed within 6 months. After daughters
marriage, upanayanam of son should also not be performed within 6 months.
14. These statements apply to children other than twins. In Kaladeepam, it is mentioned about twins In the case of twins, auspicious ceremonies can be performed for two brothers, two sisters and
brother and sister at the same time. The ceremonies can be done even if mothers are different.
Among twins, the child born earlier is the elder.
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Determination of seniority in twins:


1. Manu - As there is no difference among children born of different wives of same varna, seniority is
not determined based on mother. Seniority is based on birth. This rule is also mentioned for
Subramania Ahvanam performed in Jyotishtoma yaga. Among twins, the one born earlier is elder.
2. In Sangraha also - Among twins, the one born earlier is said to be elder. As some foetuses are
born after a long gestation period, senirity and Aadanam are dependent on birth only.
3. The Smriti passage, In the case of babies in the same womb, be it male or female, the baby born
first is younger and the one born later is elder refers to foetuses in up and down positions in the
womb and not to those in side - by - side positions. Badarayanasmriti says that in the case of two
foetuses in side - by - side positions, the one born earlier is the elder in Jatakarma etc.
4. Another Smriti on Datta - If Aurasa (own son) is born after adoption of Datta son, it is not correct
that Datta is elder. The meaning is that Aurasas marriage can be performed before Dattas. Datta
cannot marry in his Janakas (biological father) gotra with homa. There is no bar for his son et al.
One, born in the family of person who adopted the issue, can marry girl in the family of person,
who gave the issue in danam after ten generations. Gautama says that this should also not be
done.
5. For sons born of different mothers, marriage should be performed based on seniority determined
by birth till the father is alive. Some say that after fathers death, this rule does not apply.

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Bar on marriage etc. for the first - born in Jyeshta month:


1. Angiras forbids celebrations in the month of birth and in Jyeshta month in respect of son born after
Pumsavana samskara - Upanayanam, vrata, choulam, first marriage, snanam etc. are forbidden
for the son born in the first conception in the months of birth and Jyeshtha.
2. In Kaladarsam also - Marriage should not be done for the son or daughter born in the first
conception in Jyeshtha month.
3. In Ratnamala also - Marriage should not be done for the son or daughter born in the first
conception in the month of birth, in the star of birth, on the day of birth and in Jyeshtha month.
4. Atri - Auspicious ceremonies should not be done for the son or daughter born in the first
conception in the star of birth, on the day of birth, in the month of birth and in Jyeshtha month.
Some perform upanayanam, marriage, Pratishtha etc. in those months/ days also.
5. Narada - Marriage should not be done for the son or daughter born in the first conception in the
month of birth, in the star of birth, on the tithi of birth and day of birth. Marriage should not be done
in Jyeshtha month for couple born in first conception. It is better if one of them is alone eldest;
otherwise it is forbidden.
6. Garga - It is not good to do marriage for the eldest daughter as bride and eldest son as groom. The
combination of both eldest is known as medium. Only one being eldest is auspicious.

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Months in which Marriage is forbidden:


1. Ashadha, Proushtapada, Magha and Margasirsha are four months in which samskaras for the
three varnas are forbidden.
2. Mathsya - When Guru is in Simha rasi, in Adhikamasa, in moudhyam, balyam and vardhakam
of Guru and Sukra, when Guru is in Janma and in Jyeshtha month in the case of the the eldest,
auspicious ceremonies should not be performed.
3. Garga - Sages such as Kasyapa say that marriage should not be performed when Guru is in
Simha rasi and Surya in Dhanur rasi.
4. Narada - Girl, who is married when Guru is in Simha rasi in Utharaphalguni star, is fortunate. Girl,
who gets married when Guru is in Magha and Purvaphalguni stars, will be widowed. This is true of
people north of Narmada river. Vyasa - That marriage should not be celebrated when Guru is in
Simha rasi applies to areas north of Narmada; it is not forbidden in the south.
5. In Sridhariyam - That marriage should not be celebrated when Guru is in Simha rasi applies to
areas north of Narmada; it is not forbidden in the south.
6. In Arnavam - Annaprasanam for boy and marriage in the month of birth and in birth star are
prohibited in areas north of Narmada. Many agree that in areas south of Narmada, auspicious
ceremonies like marriage in the month of birth are recommended as good.
7. Vyasa - Annaprasanam, Aatithyam, marriage and Vastukarma may be done in day or in night. The
rest should be done only in day. When Surya is in Meenam, Dhanus and Simha rasis, chowlam,
annaprasanam, marriage and upanayanam should not be performed. The months of Magha,
Phalguna, Vaisakha and Jyeshtha are auspicious. Karthika and Margasirsha are medium; the rest
are deplorable. When Surya is in Ardra star, no auspicious ceremony should be performed in 10
stars starting from Ardra. Gargya said that Pousha and Chaitra are auspicious; Brihaspati said that
these are not auspicious. Some Maharshis say that Sravanam is auspicious; some disagree. The
soura months of Kanya, Kumbha and Kataka are not auspicious. One should avoid the four
chandra months starting from Ashadha and the month of Pousha. Gautama et al think that
marriage can be done in all months.
8. Aapasthambha - All months other than Magha, Phalguna and Ashadha are good for marriage.
9. Aasvalayana - Some agree that marriage can be done in all months.
10. In Sangraha - Some say that in Dakshinayanam, Karthika, Aasvayujam and Sravanam are good
for marriage; the other months are not good.
11. Vyasa on rule on this matter - Marriages not as per dharma can be done in all months.
12. Daksha - Brahmana can observe Rakshasam, Aasuram, Gandharvam and Paisacham type of
marriages even in prohibited months and tithis.
13. In Grihyaparisishta - One has to look for good period only in marriages as per dharma; not in
marriages not as per dharma.
14. Bodhayana - In case there is contradiction between statements in Jyotisha (astrology) and Smriti,
Smriti should be followed, ignoring Jyotisha.
15. Vyasa - In the period between Vishnus sayanam and uththanam, upanayanam, marriage or a
big celebration should not be performed.
16. In Smrityarthasara - If man who is blind, leper, with rotten nails, maimed or lame, decides on the
time of muhurtham, the family will be destroyed.
17. Devala prohibits celebration of humans in between that of Devas - When the celebration of Devas
is in progress, there should be no celebration of humans; one who does it will be destroyed.

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Testing of Growth:
1. Aapasthambha - If the bride and her relatives agree, the following test may be done. The seeds of
paddy, barley etc., the dust of the altar of Somayaga, the soil from field, cowdung and soil from
cremation ground should be kept hidden in separate rolls and the bride asked to touch any one of
them. Prosperity will depend on the material in the roll she touches. If it is seed, growth in progeny
will happen; if it is dust of the altar of Somayaga, growth in yagna; if it is soil from field, growth of
foodgrains; if it is cowdung, growth in cows; if it is soil from cremation ground, no growth, it is
deplorable.
2. Aasvalayana - Eight materials should be kept hidden in eight rolls, the mantra Rutamagre should
be chanted and the bride should be asked to pick one of the rolls. Know that if the chosen roll
contains soil from field, she will have children with food; if soil from cowpen, she will have cows; if
soil from yaga altar, brahmatejas (splendour of Brahman); if soil from tank, everything; if soil from
place of gambling, she will be characterless; if dust from road crossing, she will be a wanderer; if
soil from infertile field, she will lack good fortune; if soil from cremation ground, she will kill her
husband.
3. Haaritha - Marriage in exchange is forbidden. Two daughters should not be given to one man. Two
sisters should not be given to two brothers. Smriti faults union with sister of father or mother, wife
of mothers brother, daughter - in - law, step - mother, sister, daughter of Acharya, wife of Acharya
and own daughter and says that one who has union with them commits the sin of union with Gurus
wife. Sangrahakara says that either directly or by tradition, or by directions such as mother - in law and wife of elder brother are equal to mother and all wives of father are mothers, one should
not marry the aforesaid relatives.

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Rules for time of Kanyadanam:


The statement One should marry bride, who has had her food; receiving Gayatri ceremonially is also
similar. The giver of Kanya should observe fast and give the bride to vara after worshipping him
relates to marriage not as per dharma. Vyasa in the same vein - Only in Gandharvam and Aasuram
marriages, marrying bride after she has had her food is done. Kasyapa said that in marriages like
Braahmam food should not be taken.
1. Saatatapa - In marriages like Braahmam, first homam and then acceptance of bride are done. In
marriages like Aasuram this will alter. Or the order of these ceremonies will depend on directions in
ones Grihya.
2. Vyasa - The giver of Kanya should face east and the recipient should face north. If so the couple
as well as the giver will have long life.
3. Skanda also - The giver should face east and give the young bride with ceremonial water to vara
who faces north.
4. Vasishtha - In marriage and danam of cow, the giver should face east and the recipient north.
5. In Aagneya Puranam - One should face east while giving Kanya in danam. The vara should face
west and look at the bride from foot to head in auspicious lagna.
6. Know that the contradiction in Smritis here refers to alternatives.
7. Vyasa - The giver of Kanyadanam should hold with his left hand the hand of the girl who is
decorated with fine clothes and ornaments, pronounce his gotra together with the names of three
ancestors starting from his great - grandfather and similarly the names of the ancestors of the
bridegroom starting again from his great - grandfather and give the girl in danam. In Naandi
sraadham and marriage, the order is from great - grandfather upto father; in other functions the
order is from father to great - grandfather.
8. Daksha - Danam should be done pronouncing the gotra and names of ancestors starting from
great - grandfather.
9. Jamadagni - Holding the girl with his left hand, starting from great - grandfather - - 10. In Devi Puranam - Uttering the gotra first, followed by the names of great - grandfather,
grandfather, father and girl and similarly the bridegrooms gotra etc., one should do the danam.
The bridegroom should stand and hold the sitting girls hand including her thumb and accept her by
saying Rik mantras like Grunhami etc.
11. In case the Agni is put out before commencing Aupasana, marriage should be done again.
12. In Sangraha in same way - In case the Agni is put out before commencing Aupasana, marriage
should be done again. If Agni is put out after commencement of Aupasana, no need for marriage
again. In case Agni is put out before Pravesa homa for Rigvedis, Aupasana for Yajurvedis and
Lekhahoma for Samavedis, marriage should be done again.
13. Bodhayana - In case the Agni is put out before commencing Aupasana, marriage should be done
again.
14. Bodhayana himself describes the procedure for fresh marriage - One should discard Ankuram,
Pratisaram, Varanam, Pratigraham and Vastraachadanam.
15. Bodhayana on Agni being put out in case of Upanayanam, Marriage, Jatakarma and cremation - In
case Agni is put out within four days in Marriage and Upanayanam, twelve days in Jatakarma and
before Sanchayanam in cremation, one should sprinkle water with mantra Apahataha and perform
Sthandila samskara, establishing Agni, Paristaranam etc. and Prayaschitta homa and homa with
mantras like Ayascha.

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Time for Commencement of Aupasana:


1. Aapasthambha on time for commencement of Aupasana - After Aagneya Sthalipakam, one should
perform homa with his hand of rice or yava (barley) in two Aahutis. Aupasana should be started in
the night after completing Aagneya Sthalipakam, if 9 nazhigas (216 minutes) have not elapsed.
Tatparyadarsanam states that Aupasana should be done the next day in the evening at the time of
Agnihotra in case of lapse of 9 nazhigas.
2. In Smritiratnam - Considering three parts in a night, Sthalipakam and Aupasana homa may be
performed in the first part; in the second part, only Sthalipakam may be done and not Nityahoma;
in the third part, neither Sthalipakam nor Nityahoma.
3. Vyasa - In case of marriage in the night, Aupasana should be done then and there. In case time
has been crossed in the night, Aupasana should be commenced the next day in the evening.
Homa time in the morning is till end of Sangava and in the evening till 9 nazhigas after sunset.

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Commencement of Sthalipakam:
1. Aapasthambha - The bridegroom and the bride, after Aagneya Sthalipakam, should fast on Parva
days (Amavasya and Pournami) and perform Sthalipakam the next day without Rishabhadakshina.
Some say Purnapatram is dakshina.
2. This means that after Aagneya Sthalipakam, if Parva comes before Sesha homa, Sthalipakam
should be performed. Elders also say - During marriage if Parva comes befoe Sesha homa
Sthalipakam should be performed as per procedure. If Amavasya or Pournami, Sthalipakam
should be done.
3. Here the statement that it can be done in Amavasya also refers to the following Pournami having
dosha like moudhyam. Gautama on this - Commencement of Pakayagna and Anvarambhanam
should be done first in Purnima, not in Amavasya. If the following Purnima has dosha like
moudhya, then what to do? Then, in Amavasya itself, one should perform the yaga for Purnima as
well as Amavasya. Postponing to another occasion will result in sin for the performer. It will spoil
lifespan, wealth and fame. Hence postponement should not be done.
4. As the time for Purnima is upto Amavasya, one should perform Purnima Sthalipakam on days like
Panchami prior to Amavasya and also Amavasya Sthalipakam in due time. This means that one
should not perform both Sthalipakams on Prathama day.
5. There are sayings - If moudhyam, Adhikamasam and eclipses of Sun or moon occur,
Anvarambham should be done in the next Parva; If Aashadha month, Adhikamasa, Sankramnm
or Eclipse occurs, Anvarambham (commencement) should be done in the next Parva. These
mean that Anvarambham should be done only in the next Parva, as Smriti texts say that there is
dosha in beginning when there is moudhyam etc. e.g., Vriddha says that if Purnima next to
Aadhanam occus in Malamasa (same as Adhikamasa), Anvarambham should not be done.
6. In Smrityarthasaram - Even in Vasanta ritu, if Malamasa etc. occur, karma should not be
commenced; nor should Sthalipakam be commenced. The first Ishti should not be performed if
Eclipse or Adhikamasa occurs during the first Parva; same with moudhyam of Guru and Sukra.
Sthalipakam after marriage should be performed in Uttarayanam. If performed in the four
Pitrumasas, he will be destroyed. Commencement of Ishtis on Darsa (Amavasya) and Pournami
and of Agnihitram, Pratishtha etc. should not be done in Malamasa. If started in good time, there is
no bar for third Ishti etc. Aupasanagni, where homam is done without Sthalipakam in three ritus or
three months, becomes Loukikaagni. This applies to one who has gone far from his place, as
Smriti says Knowers of Veda say that Aupasanagini, where homam is done without Sthalipakam
even after one ritu, becomes Loukikaagni.

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Adhivedanam (Marrying an additional Wife):


1. Manu - One can discard a wife, who drinks liquor, is of bad conduct, is not favourable to her
husband, suffers from sinful disease, who tortures or always spends too much and he can marry
again. One can discard a wife, who is barren since maturity, in 8th year; who delivers dead children,
in 10th year; who bears only female children, in 11th year and he can remarry. If the wife speaks
hateful words, she can be discarded instantly and the husband can remarry; but if she has a son,
this should not be done. If the wife is of good conduct and is favourable in attitude, but happens to
suffer from prolonged illness, she can be discarded with her permission; she should not be
dishonoured. If the first wife leaves the home owing to anger at remarriage, she should be forced
to stay at home or sent to her fathers home.
2. Yagnavalkya - One can discard a wife, who drinks liquor, is afflicted with prolonged illness, is of
bad conduct, is barren, is used to losing money, speaks hateful words, delivers only female
children or hates her husband and he can remarry. The first wife should be looked after; if not,
much sin will accrue. Where the couple are harmonious, the three Purusharthas - Dharma, Artha
and Kama grow. One, who discards a wife, who is obedient, is quick in action, has delivered a
courageous son and speaks kind words and remarries, should give away one - third of his wealth
to her. If he has no wealth, he should at least provide for her basic needs of food, clothing etc.
3. In Parasara Madhaviyam - One can discard a wife, who poses obstacles to dharma, is vampish, is
given to too much of anger or talks unkind words and can remarry for protecting dharma.
4. Daksha - The first wife is called Dharmapatni; the second is only for pleasure. With her, only
carnal pleasure can be enjoyed, not the strength of dharma. Only if the first wife is free from fault,
she will be called Dharmapatni. It is not improper to discard a wife who has faults and to remarry.
5. In Smritiratnam - One who wishes to remarry for carnal pleasure should please the first wife with
wealth before remarrying.
6. Bodhayana - One can discard a wife who is barren in 10th year, who bears only female children in
12th year, who delivers dead children in 15th year and one who speaks unkind words instantly. He
can then remarry.
7. Aapasthambha - One should not remarry when his wife has faith in dharma and has children. If
one of these two is absent, he can remarry; before Aadhanam. As there is bar on remarriage when
wife is present, it means that after her death, whether before or after Aadhanam, one can remarry
for dharma even if he already has a son.
8. Saatatapa - One can discard a wife, who drinks liquor, is afflicted with prolonged illness, is given to
cheating, is barren, bears only female children, speaks hateful words, is used to losing money, or
hates her husband and he can remarry.
9. In another Smriti - If one is to discard a wife who has illness, bears only female children, is barren,
is mad, is post - menopause, but is free from fault, remarriage in such a case can be for pleasure,
not for dharma.
10. Garga - Grihastha should have only one wife. He can marry another wife for pleasure only. He
should not marry a girl for a third time, but can marry for a fourth time.
Arka (Sun - plant) Marriage:
11. Garga - One who marries a third wife out of delusion or ignorance, will lose wealth, foodgrains and
lifespan. Even if he has long life, he will suffer from illness. For marrying a fourth wife, one should
marry Arka plant. He should go out of the village in east or north direction to a place where Arka
plant is available. After performing auspicious acts as proper and cleaning the earth, he should
marry the Arka plant with proper clothing, Pratisaram (Rakska cord around wrist) etc. After
performing Vivaha homam as per his Veda sakha, he should dedicate the Agni to himself and
observe brahmacharya for three days. After observing brahmacharya at least for one day, he can
marry the fourth wife without doubt.
12. Second, fourth marriages should be done if there is no progeny or wife is dead, as it is clear from
many Sruti texts that one can take many wives for dharma and for progeny.

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Time for Second etc. marriages:


13. Gargya - Marrying a different wife is auspicious in odd years; if in even years the husband will
face destruction.
14. Vasishtha - One who has lost his wife can marry in the same year. He can do so even in the
next Ayanam. Muni Sounaka says that he can marry in odd or even month.

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Parivedanam (Marriage of younger brother before the elder):


1. Garga - When the elder brother born of the same mother is unmarried, his younger brother should
not marry. When the elder brother has not done Aadhanam, the younger brother should not do
Aadhanam; if he does, he will be a fallen man.
2. Yama - If the younger brother marries and does Aadhanam before his fathers brothers sons, or
his fathers other wifes sons, there is no fault.
3. Saatatapa - The younger brother does not attract any fault if he marries ahead of an elder who is a
eunuch, lives in a distant country, fallen man, sanyasi or one who is attached to yogasastra.
4. Katyayana - The younger brother does not attract any fault if he marries ahead of an elder who
lives in a distant country, is a eunuch, has a single testicle, of a different mother, is attached to
prostitute, fallen man, is akin to sudra, very ill, inert, dumb, blind, deaf, hunchback, dwarf, bereft of
limbs, old, eternal brahmachari, likes agriculture related to king, likes expanding wealth, is
detached from marriage, cheat, mad or thief. In such cases the elder brother also does not attract
the fault of Parivitti. Inert or dumb man can also marry. Still if the younger brother marries before
him, there is no fault.
5. Parasara - If the elder brother has gone to another country for dharma or wealth, the younger
brother should wait for him for 12 years.
6. Vasishtha - If the elder brother, who has gone to another country for dharma or wealth, is not
married and is not doing Agnihotram, the younger brother should wait for him for 12 years. If the
elder has gone for any other purpose, the younger should wait for him for 8 to 10 years.
7. Gautama - If the elder brother, who has gone to another country as a student, is not married and
has not done Aadhanam, the younger brother should wait for him for 12 years.
8. Sankar - Same as vasishtha.
9. Waiting thus is in respect of one who is not mad etc. In Chandrika also - It is not proper to wait for
one who is mad, sinner, fallen, eunuch or who suffers from consumptive disease. In the case of
mad, inert, eunuch and fallen men, there is no marriage, samskara, Aasoucham (defilement) or
udakadanam. Manu says that Arka marriage can be done for them.
10. Manu and Saatatapa - The younger brother who marries and performs Agnihotram when his elder
brother is not married is known as Parivetta; the elder is known as Parivitti.
11. Parasara - Parivitti, Parivetta, the wife of Parivetta, one who gave her in danam and the Purohit
who performed that marriage - all five go to naraka. The fault of Parivedana is not attracted in the
case of hunchback, dwarf, eunuch, stammerer,inert, blind from birth, deaf and dumb men. In the
case of the son of fathers brother or of step - mother, there is no fault of Parivedana. The younger
brother, who is Parivetta, has no right for Agni, Vedas, tapas and sraadham. When the elder sister
is due for marriage, but not married, the younger sister should not go for marriage. In case the
elder sister has any defect, there is no fault in the marriage of the younger sister.
12. Parasara again - The younger sister who gets married ahead of her elder sister is called
Agredidhishu, whereas the elder sister in this case is called Didhishu.
13. Bodhayana - Parivitti, Parivetta, the wife of Parivetta, one who gave her in danam and the Purohit
who performed that marriage - all five go to naraka.
14. In case the younger sister has Patityam, Prayaschittam has to be done before her marriage.
Yama - In case the girl commits the sin in youth without discrimination, her father has to follow the
rules for half the Prayaschittam. She has to be married only after purification through
Prayaschittam. If not, the man who marries her will also become Patita (fallen).
15. Vyasa says that if one marries a Patita, he becomes also Patita. One who shares Patitas vehicle,
bed, seat etc. for one year knowingly becomes also a Patita. One who does yagna, marriage,
Vedic teaching and eating food knowingly with a Patita becomes a Patita instantly.
16. Devala - Same as above.
17. Aapasthambha - Even after Prayaschittam, one should not have any relationship with a Patita.

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18. Aapasthambha proves logically that children born to Patitas are also Patitas. He refutes the
argument that the children born to a Patita man cannot be Patitas as his wife is not a Patita.
Haaritha is also of the same view. Because - Woman is like the pot for curd. If one makes ghee out
of curd made in a pot with milk touched by a dog, that ghee is not used for yagas etc. Similarly
good people do not relate to a child born of semen defiled by being in the body of a Patita.
19. Bodhayana - One who is associated with a Patita for one year becomes also Patita. One who does
yagna, marriage and Vedic teaching with a Patita becomes a Patita instantly.
20. Bodhayana also - Children born of Patitas, if desired, should do Prayaschittam, of that for a
Patita. This also applies to women.
21. Male child of Patita becomes Patita; not female child. Vasishtha says that daughter of Patita can
be accepted in marriage without dowry and after doing Prayaschittam.
22. Yagnavalkya - Same as above.
23. Haaritha also - Daughter of Patita should be made to fast for a whole day without clothes, made to
wear white clothes the next morning and utter loudly that she does not belong to family of Patita,
nor they belong to her and then she can be accepted in marriage on the banks of a tirtha or at his
home.
24. Yagnavalkya says about the benefit of such marriage - As the maintenance of lineage by the birth
of son, grandson and great - grandson and attainment of Swarga by following dharma are possible
only in association with women, women should be protected.

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Method of Protecting Women:


1. Manu - Men should always ensure no freedom for their women. They should keep women attached
to worldly matters under their control. Father before marriage, husband during youth and son
during old age should protect a woman. Woman does not deserve freedom. Women should be
protected carefully even from association with minor evils. If not protected, they might cause
misery to both the lineages. Knowing this dharma as the best for all varnas, even weak husbands
should protect their wives. One who protects his wife becomes the protector of his progeny of sons
and grandsons, good conduct, himself and his dharma. The husband enters his wife in the form of
semen, becomes foetus and is born as son. As he is born again through his wife thus, she is
known as Jaya. Whichever type of husband woman gets, she begets that type of son. Hence for
the purity of the progeny, wife should be protectd. Nobody can protect women by use of force. It is
possible to protect her by adopting the following means. She should be made to work in gathering
and spending money, keeping materials including her body clean, following dharma, cooking food
and taking care of the house. Even if they are kept at home, they cannot be said to be protected by
their well - intentioned husbands. Women, who protect themselves, are only protected. Women will
be spoiled by drinking liquor, association with evil persons, separation from husband, roaming
outside, sleeping at wrong time, living in other persons homes etc. Women do not care for beauty
and age; they will enjoy men, whether handsome or ugly. Even if protected with effort at home, as
they are inclined to desire on seeing men, unsteady mind and natural absence of love, they start
disliking husband. Man has to take extra effort to protect women knowing this type of nature of
women, which has come down from the time Brahma started creation. Manu says that woman has
as her nature right from the start of creation, lying down always, sitting, decorating herself, desire,
anger, crookedness, conspiracy against others and bad conduct. Woman picks up the qualities of
her duly married husband, like a river joning the sea. Women, who bear children, are very
fortunate, worthy of adoration and add lustre to the home, are equal to Lakshmi; there is no
difference between them. Women have been created to bear children and men to produce
progeny. Hence Veda mentions Aadanam with wife as a normal feature. It is obvious that woman
is alone responsible for delivering a child and protecting it and for day - to - day activities. Woman
performs various functions - bearing of children, dharmic acts, service, superior pleasure and
attainment of Swarga for oneself and ancestors. If husband has to go to another country for work,
he should arrange for all needs of his wife. If woman has to struggle for food and clothing, even if
she were good, she will become evil. When the husband has arranged for food and clothing and
left for another country, the wife should remain at home, taking care of her chastity. If food and
clothing are not available, she can earn her living by blemishless activities (like spinning etc.).
When Dvijas (men of the first three varnas) marry women of their own varna and other varna,
seniority and respect for the women occur in accordance with their varna. The woman of same jati
should only do bodily service to the husband and daily observance of dharmic acts; not woman of
a different jati. One, who gets such services done by a woman of jati different from his, even when
woman of his own jati is available, becomes a brahmana chandala, as mentioned earlier.
(Brahmana chandala is one born of a brahmana woman to a sudra father). Married couple should
so conduct themselves that there will be no separation and transgression.
2. Daksha - If wife is favourable, there is no asrama greater than Grihastha. A grihastha attains
dharma, artha and kama through his wife. It is certain that wife being favourable alone is swarga
and her being hostile is naraka. Even in swarga it is rare to find mutual love in a couple. If one of
them is loving and the other does not respond, what greater misery can there be? For the pleasure
of the grihastha, wife alone is responsible. Wife is called Patni only when she is aware of
grihastha dharmas, knows her husbands mind and is subordinate to him. For one, whose wife is
hostile, in addition to sorrow, there will be quarrel, disharmony and mutual recrimination. For one
who has two wives, these features are specially applicable. Women are all like leaches. Even if a
woman is adored with ornaments, dress, food and pleasures, she will demean her husband. The
poor leach draws only blood; woman draws wealth, mind, flesh, vitality and pleasure. Woman, who
was bashful in childhood and given to bodily pleasures in youth, considers her husband like a
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3.

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

grass in old age. If she is not stopped out of misplaced love while initially indulging in bad actions,
she cannot be stopped later, like a disease ignored. Woman, who is always favourable, happy,
able, chaste and child - bearing is Lakshmi herself. Woman, who is always joyous, able in position
and regard and doing acts liked by husband is alone Jaya; otherwise she is Jara (old and eaten
up). A husband, who abandons in youth his wife, who is faultless and obedient, will face being a
woman and widow for seven generations. A wife, who disgraces her husband, who is poor,
diseased and idiotic, will be born after death as dog and pig again and again. Woman, who fasts
and observes austerities while her husband is alive, steals the life of the husband; she will go to
naraka. One, whose disciple, wife, child, brother, friend and dependent are obedient, is honoured
in the world.
Yagnavalkya - Woman, who does not resort to other men while her husband is alive or dead, will
get fame in this world. She will be happy along with Parvati in the next world. Women should act as
told by their husbands. This is the best dharma for women. She should await the return of her
husband, who is afflicted with great sins, after purification. Women should be honoured with
ornaments, dress, and food by husband, brother, father, relatives, mother - in - law, father - in - law
and brother - in - law. She should keep things in right places at home and be capable, joyous,
economical in spending money and obedient to husband and prostrate to the parents of husband.
While husband is away to another place, she should avoid sport, bathing luxuriously, witnessing
crowds and festivals, laughter and visit to others houses. Woman should be protected by father in
childhood, husband in youth and son in old age and by close relatives in the absence of these. She
is never entitled to freedom. Woman, who acts to the liking and welfare of husband, is of good
conduct and has conquered her senses, attains fame in this world and good state in the next.
When wife of same varna is there, husband should not get any dharmic act done by woman of
another varna. When there are many wives of same varna, dharmic acts should not be got done by
anyone other than the eldest.
Sankar - Woman should not go out of house without information. She should not be without top
cover dress; not walk fast; not talk to other men other than trader, sanyasi, old man and doctor.
She should not show her navel; she should wear her dress till the ankle; not show off her breasts;
not laugh without closing her mouth. She should not hate her husband and his relatives. She
should not be in the same place with prostitute, evil woman, woman of evil practices, sanyasini,
astrologer woman, cheating woman and fraudster. Due to association, good conduct will be
affected.
Parasara - Wife, who dishonours her husband, who is poor, diseased or idiotic, will be born many
times as dog and pig in later births. When husband is alive, woman, who observes fast and vrata
reduces the lifespan of husband; she will also go to naraka. Manu says that vratas observed
without permission of husband will go to Rakshasas. One should not talk to woman, who wreaks
evil to relatives and persons of same jati and harms the foetus. Harming the foetus is twice as
harmful as Brahmahatya. There is no Prayaschitta for it; one should keep her away.
Markandeya - Vratas etc. observed by woman without permission from father, husband and son
are fruitless.
Katyayana - Same as above.
Mahabharata states that the woman who has rendered service of husband reaches a good state
and that woman who has not done so, but has observed vratas only does not attain a good state The Lokapalaka, Yama then said: O blemishless one! Grieve not. Return. You will not reach
auspicious spheres. How can you, who were always averse to own dharma, attain auspicious
spheres? Husband has been established by all Devas as God for woman. O woman! You did not
know your God owing to delusion. Worship of husband alone is dharma for woman with husband in
the world.

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9. Manu - Other than husband, there is no separate yaga, vrata or fast for women. By serving her
husband, woman is honoured in Swarga. Husband alone is the giver of pleasure to woman during
period of fertility and other times and in this world and the next. Even if husband is of bad conduct,
loves another woman or is devoid of good qualities, wife should consider her husband as God; not
leave him. Woman, who desires to get the world obtainable through merit of dharmas performed
with husband, should not do anything not to the liking of her husband while alive or even after his
death. In childhood, youth and old age, even while at her own home, she should not do anything of
her own will. Woman should be under the control of father in childhood, husband in youth and in
case of death of husband, that of sons; she should not be free. She should not desire to be
separate from father, brother or sons. If separate, she will bring about downfall of both the
lineages. Woman should be always happy, capable in household work, keep utensils etc. clean
and not incur too much of expense.
10. Katyayana - One who has many wives should get service for Agnihotra etc. from wife of same
varna. If there are many of the same varna, he should get it done by the eldest, who is faultless.
Or, he should entrust it to wife who has borne good sons, is obedient and capable, who speaks
kindly and is pure. If not possible, he should get it done by wife in the order of seniority every day.
If that is also not possible, wife should do the service alone or together with others.
11. In Dharmasara - Lakshmi resides with all her aspects in a home where there is no quarrel and the
residents are respected.
12. Vyasa - A chaste woman should always worship her husband with all three instruments - mind,
speech and body, even if he were ugly, of bad conduct, of evil nature, diseased, of evil spirits,
drunkard, angry, old, idiot, dumb, blind, deaf, terrible, poor, miserly, inferior, afraid, given to
gambling or women.
13. In Ratnavali - Similar.
14. Vyasa - Sitting at the entrance to home, looking out of the window, bad words, laughter etc. are
prohibited for a chaste woman. A chaste woman, who is not affected by desirous looks of others,
being touched in a crowd, show of wealth etc. and who is true to her husband in mind, seech and
body is ornament of the world. Woman, who does not go to another man even if prayed devotedly,
caught by force or adored with dresses etc. is chaste. Woman, who does not look even if looked at
by other men, laugh even if other men laugh with her or talk even if talked by other men, is chaste.
Woman, who is youthful and is beautiful, expert in music and dance and is still not affected by
another man equal to her, is chaste. Woman, who does not desire another man, endowed with
youth and handsomeness and capable of attracting women, is very chaste. Woman, who eats after
husband has finished eating, grieves when husband grieves, is happy when husband is happy,
wears dirty clothes when husband is away in another country, sleeps after husband has slept,
wakes up before him and does not even think of another man is chaste. She should be devoted to
father - and mother - in - law. She should be helpful in husbands dharmic activities; not spend too
much; be keen on karmas; be pure in her body; do auspicious deeds; always speak kind words to
husband. She should decorate her house and keep all materials in the house clean. When
husband returns from field, forest or village, she should get up, speak kind words, make him sit on
a seat and make him happy by giving him water for washing feet. She should have unlimited
quantities of food, give food in time, be humble, take care of foodgrains, and offer seat, food,
danam, honour and kind words in time as appropriate to gurus, sons, friends, relatives, workers,
male and female servants, guests, bhikshus, sanyasis et al. She should save on household
expenses and not spend all of the money given by husband. But she should not save out of money
given for danam. Without husbands permission, she should not give money to relatives. She
should avoid drink and food not liked by husband. She should avoid the following in front of
husband - massaging oil, bath, brushing teeth, combing hair, eating, vomiting, sleep, wearing dress
and ornaments. Woman who does not respond to the call of husband immediately will be born a
crow in 15 births. Woman who dishonours husband out of lust, anger or jealousy will go to naraka
in 7 births.

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15. Atri - Woman who cheats her husband with her Pranas or money will be born as a worm many
times and then Chandali. Japa, tapas, pilgrimage, sanyasa, repeated chanting of mantras and
worship of Devatas - these six are negative factors for women and sudras.
16. Vyasa - Chaste woman, who desires husbands long life, should not hate turmeric, kunkumam,
sindooram, anjanam, blouse, betel - leaves, auspicious ornaments, combing and pleating hair and
ornaments for hands, ears etc. Woman who gives Argyam in early morning to Sun will not attain
widowhood in 7 births. Devatas are happy when she makes design of mandalam outside the house
and worships there with Akshatas etc. without mantras. Lakshmi resides with all kalas in the house
which shines with auspicious objects and cleaning with cowdung etc. Woman, who does not offer
bali to Jyeshtha Devi according to her capacity out of the food she is going to eat, will attain
naraka. Women, who desire for sons, grandsons and wealth, should offer bali to Jyeshtha Devi
every day.
17. Valmiki - For women, father, son, self, mother and friends will not be the refuge; husband is the
only refuge in this world and the next. As women are of unsteady mind, they do not hold on to help,
lineage, vidya, danam and acquisitions. For chaste women with good conduct, truth, adherence to
sastras and equality, husband is the best. Veena without string will not make sound; chariot without
wheel will not run; though having many sons, woman without husband will not be happy.
18. Vyasa - For a chaste woman, keen on service of husband, there is no sin in this world and the
next. Chaste woman, established in dharma, is verily Parvathi; no doubt. None can dishonour her
at any time.
19. Bodhayana - Woman keen on good of husband will attain to Swarga.

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Dharma of Pregnant Woman:


1. Yagnavalkya - 16 nights from the day of start of menses are called period of Ritu (fertility). The
couple should unite in even nights in this period.
2. Parasara - If a woman, after post - menses bath, does not unite with her husband, she will attain to
naraka. She will also attain widowhood in many births. Husband, who does not unite with wife after
post - menses bath, is guilty of killing of foetus; no doubt. Garbhadhanam has been covered in
detail earlier.
3. In Smritichandrika - Pregnant woman should not sit on grinder and pestle; go under water; stay in
deserted house; sit on snakepit; grieve mentally; scratch on ground with nails, charcoal and ash; lie
down always; work hard; sit on husk, charcoal, ash, bone and tile; conspire; stretch body; have hair
untied and body impure; lie down with head in north or in ditch, without dress, grieving or wet feet;
speak inauspicious words; laugh. She should worship mother - and father - in - law. She should do
auspicious deeds, be clean - faced and do things to the liking and good of husband.
4. In Smritiratnam - Pregnant woman should noteat, bathe in sandhya times; go near foot of tree
any time; be lying down always; stay in the shade of cot. She should bathe in warm water mixed
with herbs. She should have raksha; wear ornaments; do Vastu pooja; do danam; do Parvatis
Naktavrata on Tritiya. She should observe these rules specially during pregnancy. Son born to
such a woman will have long life. Otherwise the offspring will be affected; no doubt.
5. Yagnavalkya - If pregnant woman is not given what she desires, her offspring will be affected by
disfigurement or death; hence one should do what she desires.
6. In Susrutham - From the start of pregnancy, woman should avoidphysival labour, hard work,
heavy eating, sleep during day, wakefulness at night, grief, fear, getting into vehicles, squatting
with legs bent up, discharge of blood. If she is given objects of her desire, she will beget son of
courage and long life.
7. Pregnancy should be recognised by signs. The signs have been mentioned oin Susrutham exhaustion, tiredness, thirst, uneasiness in thighs, vibration in vagina.
8. Brihaspati - Same as above.
9. Kasyapa - Pregnant woman should avoid, in addition to those in item 3 above, carving, getting on
to elephant, horse, pungent food.
10. In Garbhopanishad - In Ritu period, through union, the semen and blood mix. In 7 days, it becomes
a bubble. In 15 days, it becomes semi - solid; in 1 month, it becomes hard. In 2nd month head is
formed; in 3rd month, feet; in 4th month, fingers, belly, waist; in 5th month, spine; in 6th month, nose,
eyes, ears. In 7th month, it becomes a jiva. In 8th month, it attains fullness. In case of predominance
of semen, male child is formed; in case of blood, female child; if both semen and blood are equal,
eunuch. If conception takes place from agitated parents, the child becomes blind, lame,
hunchback, dwarf. Due to force of Vayu, if semen enters in two streams, twins are conceived. In 9 th
month, the foetus is complete in all respects; it remembers previous births and past good and bad
deeds and wails thusI went through many thousands of births; ate several kinds of foods; drank
milk from many breasts; I go through birth and death again and again; Immersed in the sea of
sorrow, I do not know the way of emancipation; when I come out of this uterus, I shall take refuge
in Sankhya, Yoga etc. which will give me good results and destroy evil; I shall worship Maheswara;
I shall take refuge in Bhagavan Narayana. I did so many acts for the sake of relatives; benefitted
by them, they went away. I am alone being burnt due to those sins. The being, grieving thus,
comes out of the small orifice of vagina of mother and suffers a lot. On being born, it is touched by
Vishnus vayu and forgets all about previous births and becomes inert.
11. Yagnavalkya - The jiva, born out of the mixture of semen and blood, is of liquid form having the five
essential dhatus (elements) in the 1st month. It hardens in 2nd month; in 3rd month, parts of body
and sense - organs develop; it gains the qualities of Panchabhutas - space, air, fire, water and
earth. In 4th month the parts of body become firm; in 5th month blood forms; in 6th month, strength,
complexion, nails, hair develop; in 7th month, mind, consciousness, nerves, bones, blood vessels
etc. develop; in 8th month, skin, flesh, memory develop. In this month, the quality of Ojas keeps
travelling from mother to the foetus and back to the mother frequently. That is why the child born in
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8th month is lifeless. In 9th or 10th month, the baby is pushed out like an arrow, from the small orifice
in the machine of mothers body by strong airs of delivery. Ojas is the object in the heart, clean,
somewhat reddish and acidic.

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Widows Dharmas:
1. Yagnavalkya - A widowed woman should not live separate from mother, father, son, brother,
mother - in - law, father - in - law or uncle; if separate, she will be despised. This is applicable if she
observes brahmacharya in view of Vishnusmriti, which says that if husband dies, wife can die
along with him or live with brahmacharya.
2. Vyasa - Woman, who observes brahmacharya after her husbands death, will reach Swarga and
enjoy pleasures with husband. Widows hair binds her husband; hence she should shave her head.
She should eat once; not second time. She should observe vratas of fast for 3 days, 5 days, 15
days and 1 month. She may observe kruchchras (prayaschittas) like Chandrayanam. She should
maintain life with barley food, fruits, vegetables, milk vrata etc. till life ebbs. If she lies down in a
cot, she will push her husband into naraka; hence she should lie down on floor only. She should
not have luxurious bath; not use perfumes. She should offer tarpanam every day with kusa and til
to her husband, his father and his grandfather by uttering their names and gotra. She should
consider Vishnu as her husband and worship. She should meditate on Vishnu as her husband.
Widow who observes thus is also called chaste (Pativrata).
3. Aasvalayana - Widow without son or with child son should approach her father or relatives and live
with discipline. She should do japa like sudra. She should worship Surya every day and meditate
on husband alone. Nothing else is laid down.
4. Parasara - Widow who observes brahmacharya goes to Swarga, like famous brahmacharis.
5. Manu - After death of husband, widow should have light food with pure flower, root, fruit etc and
shrink her body. She should not utter even the name of another man. One who observes
brahmacharya in this manner will go to Swarga, like brahmacharis like Sanaka. If widows, sanyasis
and brahmacharis use one of the three items, betel - leaf, nut or lime, it will be equal to meat. If
they use all three, it will be equal to liquor.
6. Aapasthambha - Widow should observe, as long as she lives, bath,food one time, sleeping on
floor, brahmacharya and avoidance of pungent food, salt, honey and meat.

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Anugamanam (Joining Husband on Funeral Pyre):


1. Vishnu - After death of husband, wife should either observe brahmacharya or die on his funeral
pyre.
2. Parasara - Man has 3 crores of hair; wife, who does Anugamanam will live in Swarga for 3
crores of years.
3. Haaritha - Same as above; she purifies the lineages of her mother, father and husband.
4. Parasara says that she will not enjoy Swarga alone; but like a snake - charmer would charm a
snake from its pit, she would spirit away her husband forcefully from naraka, even if he happens to
be there and enjoy with him in Swarga.
5. Trikandi - A Pativrata wife will spirit away her husband from naraka, if he happens to be there
because of sins and enjoy with him in Swarga for 10000 years per each hair of hers. Messemgers
of Yama run away from a distance on seeing her husband.
6. Sankar, Angiras - That Pativrata will enjoy in Swarga with her husband for a period lasting that of
14 Indras, adored by Apsara women. Wife, who does Anugamanam, makes her husband sinless,
even if he is guilty of killing brahmana or friend or of being ungrateful. Wife, who enters the fire on
death of her husband, is equal to Arundhati and is honoured in Swarga. Woman is not freed of her
birth as woman till she enters fire on death of her husband.
7. Angiras - For Pativrata women, there is no dharma other than entering fire, on death of husband.
Know that Pativrata is that woman who suffers while husband suffers, is happy while husband is
happy, is emaciated while husband is away in another country and dies on his death.
8. Upamanyu - Whether wife is of brahmana varna or of other caste, if she is childless, there is no
course for her other than Anugamanam.
9. In Vignanesvariyam on this matter - This dharma applies commonly to all women right upto
chandala caste, unless they are pregnant or have small children.
10. In Smritiratnam also - Same as above.
11. Ourva - Women, who have small children, are pregnant, not attained maturity or in menses period
should not do Anugamanam.
12. In a different Smriti - Same as above.
13. In a different book - If women who are impure after child - birth or in menses are desirous of
Anugamanam, they are purified by doing so. Some say that Anugamanam is prohibited for
pregnant women and is optional for others.
14. Vyasa through the guise of story of dove - That chaste female dove entered the dazzling fire. It
then got its husband, who was wearing nice armlets. The male dove reached Swarga along with its
female and enjoyed there, praised by Devas.
15. There is also prohibition on Anugamanam in Smriti for brahmana woman. Paitinasi - By the order
of Brahma, there is no Anugamanam for brahmana woman. It is the best dharma for women of
other varnas.
16. Virat - Wife should act harmoniously with husband while he is alive. On his death, she should not
do Anugamanam. She should live and do dharma which will be good for the husband. If she does
Anugamanam, she will attract the sin of suicide.
17. Angiras - If brahmana woman does Anugamanam, she does not reach Swarga, nor does she get
her husband to Swarga.
18. Vyaghrapada - Brahmana woman should not die along with her husband, overcome by grief. If
she dies, she will get the sin of suicide. If she is alive, she will get the fate of a sanyasi.
Vignanesvariyam, Madhaviyam, Smritiratnam and other such books state that the above
statements refer to a separate funeral pyre, not the same pyre of her husband. Hence Usanas
says that brahmana woman should not get on to another pyre; for other women, this is the best
dharma.

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19. But in Apararga - The following statement applies to women other than brahmana women - If
husband dies in another country, Pativrata wife should embrace her husbands footwear and enter
fire with faith. Know her power. She will not enjoy Swarga alone; but like a snake - charmer would
charm a snake from its pit, she would spirit away her husband forcefully from naraka, even if he
happens to be there bound cruelly by ropes by Yamas servants, and enjoy with him in Swarga,
adored by Deva women, for the period of 14 Indras.
20. Vignanesvara - Sruti says One should not die, desirous of Swarga, before the end of his or her
lifespan. This does not mean that Anugamanam is improper. One, who is desirous of Moksha,
should not reduce his or her lifespan for the sake of Swarga. In the rest of her life, removing mental
impurities by performing nitya and naimittika karmas; by attaining Atmagnanam through sravanam
(hearing), mananam (meditation) and nididhyasanam (contemplation); one can attain Moksha,
which is attainment of Brahman, of the form of eternal and unparalleled Bliss. Hence one should
not lose life for the sake of short - lived and inferior pleasure; this is the meaning. Hence
Anugamanam is suitable for wife, desirous of Swarga and not Moksha, like other kamya karmas.
21. This Anugamanam will bring merit to both wife and husband if adopted by Pativrata woman; if
adopted by sinful woman, her sins get attenuated. Vyasa and Saatatapa say that if even women,
who dishonoured husband with evil mind and were adverse to husband, do Anugamanam even out
of desire, anger, fear or delusion, become freed from sin. Pativrata woman, who does acts liked by
husband right from beginning, reaches auspicious worlds along with husband, if she does
Anugamanam.
22. In Puranasaram, Narada says to a brahmana woman - O woman! Sin accrued out of association
with other man or other reasons gets destroyed on entering fire. If Pativrata woman, keen on
service of husband, does Anugamanam, the couple reach Swarga for certain.

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Censure of unchaste woman:


1. Yagnavalkya - Unchaste woman should be kept at home in a powerless, unattractive and
dishonoured condition with just enough food for living and be made to sleep on floor.
2. Manu - Woman, who unites with another man other than husband with desire for child, is censured
in this world and will not reach a good state hereafter. She will be born a wolf; caught by terrible
diseases. Even if husband is inferior, if woman lusts after another superior man, she will be
despised in this world; she will be called Parapoorva. Son born from another man is not a son;
similarly son born of woman other than wife is also not a son. No Sastra permits a second husband
for a Pativrata woman.
3. Sruti - Woman cannot have two husbands.
4. Yagnavalkya - Sin generated out of adultery is purified through Ritu. If woman bears a child
through adultery or is guity of killing of foetus or husband or great sin, she should be abandoned.
Purification through Ritu refers to mentaladultery. If woman bears a child with a sudra man, she
should be abandoned. Manusmriti says that if women of brahmana, kshatriya and vaisya varnas,
on union with sudra man, do not become pregnant, they get purified through Prayaschittam; others
do not. Smriti says that woman who unites with disciple or Guru or kills husband or pratilomaja
should be abandoned. Abandonment means keeping her away from pleasures and dharmic deeds;
not total abandonment, as rules state that husband should keep the guilty woman at his home only,
but subdued.
5. Usanas - Adulterous wife should be given low class dress and food, dishonoured, made powerless
and made to observe Prayaschittam including Chandrayanam or Prajapatyam.
6. Yagnavalkya - Vrata stipulated for men who unite with women other than wife should be enforced
on woman who unites with men other than husband.
7. Bhrigu - Man 80 years old or less than 16 years old, women and sick persons shall observe half
the Prayaschittam.
8. Manu - After Prayaschittam, woman should not be treated with contempt. This is because prior to
marriage, Soma, Gandharva and Agni enjoyed woman and gave her cleanliness, sweet words and
general purity. Hence women are pure.
9. Aapasthambha stipulates Prayaschittam for man who renounces wife without any reason and
woman who renounces husband without reason - Man who renounced wife should wear donkey
skin with hair outside and beg for alms in 7 homes saying Please give bhiksha to this man who
renounced wife; he should do this for 6 months. Woman who renounced husband should observe
Prajapatya kruchchram for 6 months.

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Dharmas of Grihasthas (Householders):


1. Daksha - Grihastha has 9 vidhas, 9 eashaddanas, 9 karmas, 9 vikarmas, 9 prachchannas, 9
prakasyas, 9 saphalas, 9 nishphalas and 9 adeyas. These navakas (9 things) will glorify the
grihastha. Vidhas (customs): - To be done - On arrival of elders at home, getting up with full
attention of mind; eyes; face and kind words; saying please come; speaking kind words right at
beginning (i.e. without waiting for the guest to speak); honouring; following the guest.
Eashaddanas (small gifts): - Minimum to be given - Giving the guest place; water; grass for sitting;
washing the feet with water; application of oil; seat; facility for sleeping; food; drinking water. Even
poor people can afford to give these. Grihastha should not eat without the guest having eaten.
Karmas: - To be done - Sandhyavandanam; ritual bath; japa; homa; Brahmayagna; Devapuja;
Vaisvadevam; Awaiting guest; honouring the guest as per capacity. Vikarmas: - Karmas not to be
done - Bearing tales; untruth; cheating; kama (desire); anger; absence of love; hate; hypocrisy;
treachery. (Also, dance, music, agriculture, service, trade, making salt, , carrying weapons - these
are inferior for a brahmana). Prachchannas (secrets not to be made public): - Age; wealth;
household secret; mantra; sexual union; medicine; austerity (tapas); gift (danam); disgrace.
Prakasyas (Matters to be made public): - Lending for interest; closure of loan; danam; adhyayanam
(Vedic study); sale; giving daughter away; vrishabhotsarjanam; sin committed in secret; freedom
from blame. Saphalas (Fruitful acts): - Giving to mother; father; guru; friend; humble follower;
helpful person; poor; orphan; man of good conduct. Nishphalas (Fruitless acts): - Giving to evil
person; flattering bard; boxer; bad doctor; gambler; cheat; angry man; wanderer; thief. Adeyas
(materials not to be given): - Common materials; materials obtained by begging; materials on
pledge; materials on deposit; wife; wifes belongings; wifes property obtained as gift; materials on
temporary deposit; entire wealth when descendant is there. These 9 materials are not to be given
to others even in emergency. If given, the giver should do Prayaschittam. Lakshmi does not leave
in this world as well as the next, a brahmana, who observes the above 9 sets of 9 each.
Praise of Grihasthasrama:
2. Manu - Out of men of the four asramas, grihastha is said to be the best as Veda directly stipulates
karmas like Aadhanam to him and he protects men of the other three asramas. As all rivers and
rivulets merge in the sea, men of all asramas join the grihastha. Grihastha, who does
karmasanyasa, removes sins generated out of karmas and studies Vedas with discipline, gets son
and wealth and lives comfortably. Brahma has said that son is called Putra as he saves father
from the naraka called Put. One, who does karmasanyasa and performs karmas with no desire
thus, removes sins and reaches the best state.
3. Here sanyasa means abandoning kamya karmas, i.e. karmas with desire for fruit. Bhagavad Gita
says thus - Wise men say that abandoning kamya karmas is sanyasa. It is not abandoning nitya
karmas (karmas to be done daily compulsorily). One should not leave yagna, danam and tapas;
they must certainly be done. They are purifying agents for the wise. My view is that one should do
these karmas without attachment and desire for fruit. O Arjuna! One who performs karmas without
attachment and surrenders them to Brahman is not affected by sins like lotus leaf by water. Yogis
perform karmas with mind, speech and body and sense - organs without attachment and for
purification of mind. One who performs karmas without expecting fruits attains Mukti; others are
bound.
4. Daksha - One who performs karmas is alone called Grihi. One who has abandoned svakarmas
does not become a grihastha merely by living at home and having wife and children. As Devas,
humans and animals are dependent on grihastha for their daily survival, he is superior to men of
other asramas. Just as all living beings depend on mother for survival, all bhikshus depend on
grihastha for survival. Grihastha is said to be the support of all the four asramas. If he grieves,
people of other asramas grieve. The stem of a tree is supported on its root. Branches arise from
the stem. Leaves are there in the branches. If root is destroyed, all the rest perish. Hence one
should protect the grihastha somehow. The king and people of other asramas should protect and
honour the grihastha. One who has the qualities of compassion, bashfulness, forgiveness, faith,
knowledge, sacrifice and gratefulness is said to be the best grihastha.
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5. Vyasa - One who chants Vedas every day, wears yagnopavita, speaks truth and has conquered
anger attains Brahmasayujya. One who performs without break sandhyavandanam, ritual bath and
brahmayagna and is free from jealousy, is soft and has conquered sense - organs attains best
worlds. Grihastha, free from desire, fear, anger, greed and delusion, who has not left Gayatri japa
and performs sraadhas becomes liberated. One, who does good to parents, cows and brahmanas,
performs yagas, and is devoted to Devas is honoured in Brahmaloka. One, who is after dharma,
artha and kama, worships Devatas, adores Devatas every day and has patience and compassion
is said to be grihastha. By merely living at home one does not become a grihastha. He should
perform good karmas as per capacity; leave bad karmas. By leaving delusion and attaining high
level of yoga, he becomes free from the bondage of samsara; no doubt.
6. Parasara - One who satisfies Pitrus by sraadham, Devas by yagnas, guests by food, Rishis by
Vedas, Brahma by son, bhutas by bali and all beings by kindness reaches auspicious worlds.
Sanyasis and brahmacharis, who eat food obtained from alms, survive on grihastha. Hence
grihasthasramam is the best. Grihastha, who observes all rules, attains best worlds.
7. Yagnavalkya - Chanting of Vedas, yagas, brahmacharya, tapas, self - control, faith, fast and
independence are causes of Atmagnanam. Atma should be known by this path by people of all
asramas. Atma must be understood through listening to Vedanta; enquired through intellect. Then
Atma will be known indirectly. Dvijas, who, with great faith, resort to lonely land and worship this
true Atma, attain to Paramatma. They reach in sequence Devatas of Agni, daytime, bright half
(Sukla paksha), Uttarayanam, Devaloka, Surya and Vidyut (lightning). Then Manasa Purusha
reaches them to Brahmaloka. There is no return for them to this samsara. Those, who conquer
Swarga by yagna, danam and tapas, reach in sequence Devatas of smoke (dhumam), night, dark
half (Krishna paksha), Dakshinayanam, Pitruloka and Chandra and enjoy the fruits of merit. Then
they reach Vayu, rain, water and earth and become sukla (semen) through foodgrains like paddy
and are born as living beings. They reach upper worlds again in the same way. One who does not
gert to follow these two routes is born as snake, worm, insect etc. Grihastha, who earns money
through proper means, is kind to guests, performs nitya and naimittika sraadhas, speaks truth and
is keen on Atmagnanam, also attains Mukti.
8. For people of all asramas, attainment of Atma is achievable through direct experience. Worshippers
reach Brahman by Archiradi marga (the route of light - Agni, daytime etc.) Those who perform
kamya karmas attain Swarga by Dhoomadi marga (the route of smoke etc.) and return to earth on
the exhaustion of merit. The import is that Mukti is not only for Sanyasi; but also for the grihastha,
who performs karmas and is tattvagnani (knower of Truth).
9. Sruti also - Knower of Brahman becomes Brahman itself. Worshippers reach in sequence Devatas
of Agni, daytime, bright half (Sukla paksha), Uttarayanam, Year, Surya, Chandra and Vidyut
(lightning). Then Manasa Purusha reaches them to Brahmaloka. This is the Devayana route.
Performers of karmas reach in sequence Devatas of smoke (dhumam), night, dark half (Krishna
paksha), Dakshinayanam, Pitruloka, Akasa and Chandra and enjoy the fruits of merit. Then they
return via Akasa, Vayu, smoke, cloud, rain, water and earth and become foodgrains like paddy,
barley, herbs, trees, sesame, urid dal etc. To come out of these states is very tough. They join him
who eats the paddy etc. and reach woman through semen. If those jivas had performed good
karmas, they are born in one of the three advanced varnas. If they had done bad karmas, they are
born in despicable births like dog, pig, chandala and the like. The import of Chandogya Sruti is that
worshippers reach Paramapadam (Supreme state) by Archiradi marga, while performers of karmas
reach auspicious worlds by Dhoomadi marga and return to earth again by the route of Akasa etc.
10. Manu - One who observes dharmas as mentioned in Sruti and smritis attains fame in this world
and reaches glorious and auspicious worlds later.
11. Bhagavan also - One who observes entire Varnasrama dharma and worships Me attains Gnana in
the same birth and reaches auspicious state.

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12. Bodhayana - Brahmana, who always wears yagnopavita and carries kamandalu, chants Veda
every day, keeps off food of sudra, unites with wife in Ritu period and performs homas as laid
down, never falls from Brahmaloka. Grihastha, who is austere, chants Veda, performs yaga and
has conquered sense - organs, should produce progeny in woman of same varna. He pays off
debts to Rishis by chanting Veda, to Indra by Somayaga and to Pitrus by son and enjoys in
Swarga. He wins worlds by son; gets joy by grandson; reaches Swarga by great - grandson. Veda
states that brahmana is born with three debts. Freedom from debt happens through progeny. As
long as progeny is there, he reaches imperishable worlds. One, who has a good son, reaches the
previous 7 generations and future 7 generations and himself, thus totalling 15 people, to glorious
state. Hence one should beget a son. By producing a son, one produces himself. Son is himself so says Sruti. Acharyas say that Grihasthasrama is the only one that exists, as others do not have
progeny.
13. Gautama - Grihastha is the point of genesis of other asramas, as others do not have the right to
produce progeny. As Sruti specifically stipulates Grihasthasrama, that is the only asrama. Persons
produced by grihastha alone get the right to be in the four asramas, as producing progeny is
prohibited by Sastra in respect of others. Children produced by people of other asramas in violation
of Sastras prohibition are not entitled to any asrama. Saatatapa Smriti states that Sanyasis,
tapasvis and brahmacharis who violate their asrama rules are chandalas. Children born to them
should be made to live with chandalas. In all Vedas, Dharmasastras, Puranas and Itihasas, it is
only grihasthas who are described and praised in a majority. Hence that is the only asramam.
Many teachers think that the other asramas are specified for those who lack power. Gita also
states that Janaka et al attained Sidhdhi by performing karmas.
14. Aapasthambha - It is certain that for the best of those who are knowers of Vedas in text and
meaning, Vedas are the only authority in matters beyond the senses. Jaimini says that what is
stipulated in Veda is dharma. Hence they say that conduct in violation of Vedic karmas is not
authority. It amounts to saying that as karmas like Agnihotra are alone stipulated with clear import
in all branches of Vedas, Grihasthasrama alone is the best, if Vedas are authority. But burning
ground is mentioned for grihasthas in statement: they reached cremation ground; here cremation
ground refers to Pitrumedha stipulated after many karmas like Agnihotra; this does not mean that
they became ghosts and remained in burning ground. This is because good fruit of Swarga is
mentioned after the karma of cremation ground: - the performer reaches Swarga. Further, Veda
says that producing progeny is immortality: - O Mortal! You are born as your son; that is
immortality for you; you do not die, as you exist in the form of son. This is sensible. Father himself
is seen directly as a separate entity. It is only that their bodies are different. They appear the same.
If the sons observe the prescribed karmas, they enhance the fame and stay in Swarga of their
grandfathers et al; thus the succeeding generation enhances the fame and residence in Swarga of
the previous generations. They reside in Swarga till the Mahabhutapralaya. Bhavishya Puranam
says that even after dissolution, they become the seeds of the next creation. Brahmas saying is
also there to support the glory of Grihasthasrama - Let us stay with those who chant Veda, unite
with woman in non - prohibited period, produce progeny, are devoted and do tapas, yagnas and
danam in the land between Ganga and Yamuna (Antarvedi); they alone are our benefactors. One
who follows other asrama is destroyed and becomes dirt. But if it is argued that just as the sons
who observe the prescribed karmas enhance the fame and stay in Swarga of their ancestors, the
sons who observe prohibited karmas enhance the infamy and stay in naraka of their ancestors,
Aapasthambha says - Those who commit sins in a lineage get destroyed themselves; they do not
spoil the ancestors. If a leaf in a tree is spoiled by worm etc., that leaf will fall off; it does not bring
down the branch or the tree. Similarly for the ancestors, there is no relationship with the karmas of
their successors on earth. This is an example. Just as there is no doership for the father et al in
karmas of son, there is also no relationship for them with the fruit of karmas. The following is the
reason for saying that sinners alone perish. This creation from Devas down till animals is that of
Hiranyagarbha and Rishis like Marichi. They continue in their positions without being affected. For
example - The bodies of great meritorious persons like Vasishtha shine brilliantly, like the
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mandalam of Saptarishis. Sruti also says - Stars are actually the brilliance of the meritorious. This
is proof of the fact that ancestors are not affected by sons misdeeds. It is possible that a person in
another asrama can conquer the perishable world with his own body by the balance of merit left
after enjoyment or by arduous tapas; he may attain sidhdhi by mere will; it only means that it is not
the greatness of his asrama that is responsible for it. Know that grihasthasrama is praised in this
manner. Because Aapasthambha says that one who is careful in observing Sastra in all asramas
attains wellbeing and fearless state.
15. Vasishtha - It is only grihastha who performs yaga; tapas; he is the best among persons of the four
asramas.

Note: Some sections dealing with dharmas of Vanaprastha and Sanyasa asramas follow.
OM TAT SAT

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