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HT-208:

Heat Transfer in Turbulent Flow

Telgote Devanand suresh-130020030


Gaurav choudhary-130020043
Gondi Venkat Narayan Reddy-130020110
Jayesh Bundel-130020039

Objective and Motivation


The overall heat transfer coefficient is
related to the total thermal resistance
which includes thermal resistance for
conduction and convection
So it becomes very easy to calculate how
much heat is going to be exchanged
between the fluids at different temperature
once we know the overall heat transfer
coefficient at the given velocity of hot fluid

To determine the overall heat coefficient


by using the logarithmic mean temperature
difference
To find out the individual film heat transfer
coefficient
Verify the Dittus Boelter equation for the
turbulant flow heat transfer.

Theory
The total thermal resistance provided to the heat
transfer is sum of the individual thermal
resistances as the resistances are in series

1
1
x
1

U i Ai hi Ai kAlm h0 A0

where

Ui :overall heat tansfer coefficient w.r.t. inner area

Ai :inner area of the tube

A0:outer area of the tube

Alm:logarithmic mean area difference

K:thermal conductivity

x=thichness of the metal wall

hi=heat transfer coefficient of inner film

h0=heat transfer coefficient of outer film

Logarithmic mean temperature difference is defined by:

Multipliying by Ai we get

Ai
1
1 xAi

U i hi kAlm h0 A0

Apply Dittus Boelter equation on the hot fluid :


Nu=0.023(Re)0.8(Pr)n
The physical properties do not change much if the bulk
mean temperature of the hot fluid do not change much
as we change its flow rate,and so the equation can be
written a
Nu=constant x (velocity)0.8
So the relationship is:
1/U=constant1/(u)0.8+constant2
Now plot the graph between 1/U and 1/(u)0.8 this would
be a straight line and this plot is known as the wilson
plot.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE


APPARATUS
Rotameter

Double temperature
indicator-controller

Double pipe heat


exchanger
Cold fluid
circulation pump
Heater

Hot fluid
circulation pump

Double pipe heat exchanger

Experimental Procedure
Switch on the double
temperature indicator
only and note down the
inlet and outlet
temperature to get the
zero error in digital
thermometer

Again repeat the


procedure and take 5
more readings for
different flow rate of
hot fluid

Now switch on both the


pumps and adjust the
set point to around 650C
keeping the intial flow rate
around 400lph of both
fluids

Wait for 6-8 minutes


for the steady state to
come and then again
note down the inlet
and outlet tempeature
of the hot and the cold
fluid

Note down the inlet


and outlet temperature
of the hot and the
cold fluid when steady
state has reached

Now increase the hot


fluid flow rate keeping
the cold fluid flow rate
to be constant

Calculation Procedure
Calculate the amount of
heat that is transfered
by the hot fluid using the
corrected temperatures

Plot the graph between


ln(Nu) and ln(Re),then
calcuate the slope of
the line that is obtained
by plotting the graph

Calculate the overall


heat transfer coefficient
by using the amount of
heat transfered , LMTD
and inside area of heat
exchanger

Find out the velocity


of the hot fluid by
dividing the volume
flow rate by cross
sectional area of inner
tube

Calculate the inner film


heat transfer coefficient

Plot the graph


between 1/Ui and
1/(u)0.8(Wilson plot),
whose intercept would
give the value of 1/h0

Observation Table
Inlet
Temperature

Outlet
Temperature

Error

Hot Fluid

31.8

28.0

-3.8

Cold Fluid

27.2

27.8

+0.6

d1 (inner diameter of inner tube)=1.00cm


d2(outer diameter of the inner tube)=1.27cm
D1(inner diameter of the outer tube)=2.20cm
L(length of heat exchanger)=85cm
(density of ethylene glycol)=1.085gm/cm3
(viscosity of ethylene glycol)=0.0052N.s/m2
Cp(specific heat capacity)=0.615Cal/gm.C
k(thermal conductivity)=0.258W/m.K

Hin (0C)

Hout
Hout(0C)
Corrected

Cin(0C)

Cout(0C)

Cout
Correcte LMTD(0C)
d

400

65.8

58.0

61.8

26.8

31.3

30.7

460

65.8

58.2

62.0

26.7

31.5

30.9

520

65.8

58.5

62.3

26.6

31.8

31.2

580

65.8

58.5

62.3

26.6

31.5

30.9

640

65.8

58.7

62.5

26.6

31.7

31.1

700

65.8

58.8

62.6

26.5

31.8

31.2

760

65.8

59.0

62.8

26.5

31.9

31.3

S.No.

Flow
Rate(lph)

34.743

34.494
34.537
34.69
34.686
34.733
34.778

Graph between 1/U v/s 1/(u^0.8)


1.20E-03

1.00E-03

y = 0.001x + 8E-06
R = 0.912

8.00E-04

6.00E-04

Series1
Linear (Series1)

4.00E-04

2.00E-04

0.00E+00
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Graph between ln(Nu) v/s ln(Re)


1.95

1.9

y = 0.753x - 0.931
R = 0.918

1.85

1.8
Series2
Linear (Series1)
1.75

1.7

1.65

1.6
3.45

3.5

3.55

3.6

3.65

3.7

3.75

3.8

Uncertainity in measured and estimated


parameters

The uncertainity in measurement of the


temperature is 0.050C.
The value of the slope of the line obtained
by plotting graph between ln(Nu) and
ln(Re) is 0.75 which differs from 0.8 by
0.05.
So error in slope is 6.25%.

Result and Conclusion


Q(Kcal/hr)

U(Kcal/
hr m2
0C)

u(m/sec
)

Re

Nu

ln(Re)

ln(Nu)

hi(Kcal/hr
m2 0C)

907.493

978.155

1.415

2952.452

1.646

3.47

44.258

982.485

1166.399

1266.296

1.628

3396.885

1.758

3.531

57.325

1272.544

1214.437

1316.807

1.84

3839.231

1.776

3.584

59.679

1324.806

1354.567

1462.271

2.052

4281.577

1.821

3.632

66.263

1470.961

1409.287

1521.518

2.265

4726.01

1.839

3.674

69.003

1531.798

1494.693

1611.542

2.477

5168.356

1.864

3.713

73.031

1621.198

1521.386

1638.199

2.689

5610.702

1.871

3.749

74.357

1650.634

Results and Conclusion


As the volume flow rate of the hot fluid tube is
increased then the heat transfer coefficient
increase and the heat transfered also increases
As the velocity of the flow increases reynolds
number also increases and hence there would
be more turbulent and more eddies developing
in the flow so more heat transfer.
Reynolds is basically the ratio of the inertial
force to the viscous forces .So as the velocity of
the flow increases the inertial force increases
more as compared to the vicous forces and
hence flow becomes turbulent

Result and Conclusions


Also the nusselt number increases as the
velocity increases which is the ratio of the
convective heat transfer to the conductive
heat transfer
So more and more heat tansferred by
convection as the velocity increases or the
flow becomes turbulent.

Precautions
Surfaces of the hot fluid pipes should not
be touched
Volume flow rate of the hot fluid should not
be too low so that there is no turbulent
flow
Volume flow rate of the cold fluid has to be
constant so that resistance provided by
the outer film remains constant