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Objective :

To find friction factor for water flow in pipes of different diameters.

To find Head loss coefficient across in pipes of different diameter, smooth 90 bend, sudden enlargement

and sudden contraction tube, globe valve, gate valve and ball valve.

To find coefficient of discharge for Orifice plate, Nozzle and Venturi-meter.

Losses :

Whenever a fluid flows through a pipe , pressure loss occurs along the flow passage. This pressure loss is

divided into two categories as

Major losses

Minor losses

P1

V12

P2

V22

Z1

Z 2 hloss

2g

2g

Major Losses are the ones that occur due to friction which results due to the viscosity. For a fully developed,

major loss due to friction is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation

P

fLV2/(2gD)

Where

P

f

V

D

L

= Pressure Loss

=

Darcy friction factor

=

Fluid velocity

=

diameter of pipe

=

Length of pipe

This major loss occurs in every piping system no matter how much smooth the pipe is since the even for smooth

pipe roughness is not zero

Minor Losses :

piping systems do not necessarily consist of straight pipes. They contains a considerable no of other components

like valves, bends etc losses due to such components are termed as the Minor losses.

It is given by the expression

P

=

K(V2/2g)

i-e pressure loss is k times the dynamic pressure of fluid.

K represents the loss Co-efficient which is mostly given by the manufacturer. The value of k strongly

depends upon the geometry of component considered. It may also depends upon the fluids properties. Loss

coefficient is a function of Reynolds no and the components geometry but in most practical cases, in a flow in

which inertial forces are more dominant than the viscous effects, K is only a function of component Geometry.

Measuring the Flow Coefficient for Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi meter :

The objective of this section of the experiment was to find out the behavior of fluid as it flows across the orifice,

nozzle or a venture meter. In the end the relation between Reynoldss number and Flow coefficient is seen

graphically to easily visualize the observations.

The mathematical relations used are given below:

4

4

4

These equations give us the theoretical flow rate. The actual flow rate is given by the Rota meter. The flow

coefficient is measured by following equation.

C d=

Qactual

Qtheoretical

Discussions :

Graph between Reynold Nunber and friction factor :

The reynold number increases with the increase in flow rate for the given pipes because with the increase

in flowrate the velocity increases. And the fluid flow moves towards turbulence.

For the same flowrate the friction factor is maximum for large diameter pipe.

(P2gD) / (LV2 )=

With the increase in diameter of the pipe the velocity becomes very small. And the square of small quantity becomes very

very small.

Here in this case pressure drop in larger diameter pipes is small.

In this situation small quantiy/(small quantity)^2. The result of this is a large quantity. Thats why the friction factor for

large diameter pipes is greater than the smaller diameter pipes for the same flowrate.

For the same diameter pipe with the increase in flowrate the friction factor decreases.

This is because with the increase in flowrate the velocity of flow increases. And the pressure drop increases not so

significantly as the velocity increases (because where the speed becomes high the pressusre gets and the difference of

pressure becomes more). Due to this the friction factor decreases with the increase in flow rate for pipes of same

diameter.

It is given by the expression

P

=

K(V2/2g)

For the same obstruction the head loss coefficient will decreases with the increase in flow rate. Because the

velocity increases with the increase in flow rate. Whereas the pressure drops also increase but not so

significantly as the velocity.

For venturimeter area = 0.00011116 m^2

For orificemeter area = 0.00016963 m^2

For nozzle area = 0.00013471 m^2

At the same flow rate the head loss coefficient for venturimeter is higher than other obstructions because

the venture meter has the smallest area and a very smooth shape. In case of venturimeter the value of

velocity is higher than the other because in this case the pressure drop is effectively converted into velocity

head with minimum friction losses.

C d=

Qactual

Qtheoretical

Q actual is same for all the instruments because all of them are connected to a constant diameter pipe i.e

1inch diameter pipe.

Now

For venturimeter area = 0.00011116 m^2

For orificemeter area = 0.00016963 m^2

For nozzle area = 0.00013471 m^2

Now here the areas are varying, the areas must be the same then we can compare them.

Velocities at the certain area are calculated by using venture relation.

For venturimeter smallest area highest velocity at that point. But the quantity theoretical discharge as a

whole is less than the others at the same flowrate so its cd value is high.

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