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Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS - 13 - 22110 ( Group 3 )

Fluid Friction Lab Report

Objective :
To find friction factor for water flow in pipes of different diameters.
To find Head loss coefficient across in pipes of different diameter, smooth 90 bend, sudden enlargement
and sudden contraction tube, globe valve, gate valve and ball valve.
To find coefficient of discharge for Orifice plate, Nozzle and Venturi-meter.
Losses :
Whenever a fluid flows through a pipe , pressure loss occurs along the flow passage. This pressure loss is
divided into two categories as
Major losses
Minor losses

So from Bernoulli equation




Z 2 hloss



Where hloss represents the total head lost

Major Losses are the ones that occur due to friction which results due to the viscosity. For a fully developed,
major loss due to friction is given by the Darcy-Weisbach equation




= Pressure Loss
Darcy friction factor
Fluid velocity
diameter of pipe
Length of pipe

This major loss occurs in every piping system no matter how much smooth the pipe is since the even for smooth
pipe roughness is not zero
Minor Losses :
piping systems do not necessarily consist of straight pipes. They contains a considerable no of other components
like valves, bends etc losses due to such components are termed as the Minor losses.
It is given by the expression
i-e pressure loss is k times the dynamic pressure of fluid.
K represents the loss Co-efficient which is mostly given by the manufacturer. The value of k strongly
depends upon the geometry of component considered. It may also depends upon the fluids properties. Loss

Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS - 13 - 22110 ( Group 3 )

coefficient is a function of Reynolds no and the components geometry but in most practical cases, in a flow in
which inertial forces are more dominant than the viscous effects, K is only a function of component Geometry.
Measuring the Flow Coefficient for Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi meter :
The objective of this section of the experiment was to find out the behavior of fluid as it flows across the orifice,
nozzle or a venture meter. In the end the relation between Reynoldss number and Flow coefficient is seen
graphically to easily visualize the observations.
The mathematical relations used are given below:

Qo= d 2o 2 g h o Qn = d2n 2 g h n Qv = d2v 2 g h v

These equations give us the theoretical flow rate. The actual flow rate is given by the Rota meter. The flow
coefficient is measured by following equation.

C d=


Actual flow rate is measured with the help of rota-meter

Discussions :
Graph between Reynold Nunber and friction factor :
The reynold number increases with the increase in flow rate for the given pipes because with the increase
in flowrate the velocity increases. And the fluid flow moves towards turbulence.
For the same flowrate the friction factor is maximum for large diameter pipe.
(P2gD) / (LV2 )=

With the increase in diameter of the pipe the velocity becomes very small. And the square of small quantity becomes very
very small.
Here in this case pressure drop in larger diameter pipes is small.
In this situation small quantiy/(small quantity)^2. The result of this is a large quantity. Thats why the friction factor for
large diameter pipes is greater than the smaller diameter pipes for the same flowrate.
For the same diameter pipe with the increase in flowrate the friction factor decreases.
This is because with the increase in flowrate the velocity of flow increases. And the pressure drop increases not so
significantly as the velocity increases (because where the speed becomes high the pressusre gets and the difference of
pressure becomes more). Due to this the friction factor decreases with the increase in flow rate for pipes of same

Graph between Head loss Coeffecient and Reynold Number:

It is given by the expression
For the same obstruction the head loss coefficient will decreases with the increase in flow rate. Because the
velocity increases with the increase in flow rate. Whereas the pressure drops also increase but not so
significantly as the velocity.
For venturimeter area = 0.00011116 m^2
For orificemeter area = 0.00016963 m^2
For nozzle area = 0.00013471 m^2
At the same flow rate the head loss coefficient for venturimeter is higher than other obstructions because
the venture meter has the smallest area and a very smooth shape. In case of venturimeter the value of

Syed Ghulam Abbas Anjum MS - 13 - 22110 ( Group 3 )

velocity is higher than the other because in this case the pressure drop is effectively converted into velocity
head with minimum friction losses.

Graph between coefficient of discharge Cd and Reynold number:

C d=


Q actual is same for all the instruments because all of them are connected to a constant diameter pipe i.e
1inch diameter pipe.

Qtheoretical = (Area of instrument)*(Velocity at that area)

For venturimeter area = 0.00011116 m^2
For orificemeter area = 0.00016963 m^2
For nozzle area = 0.00013471 m^2
Now here the areas are varying, the areas must be the same then we can compare them.
Velocities at the certain area are calculated by using venture relation.
For venturimeter smallest area highest velocity at that point. But the quantity theoretical discharge as a
whole is less than the others at the same flowrate so its cd value is high.