THEBOOKWAS
DRENCHED
DIFFERENTIAL
CALCULUS
SIIANTI NARAYAN
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
(Review published in Mathematical
Gazette, _{L}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{o}_{n}_{,} December, 1953
THE book has _{r}_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{d} Its 5th edition in 9 _{y}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d}
_{i}_{t}
can be assumed that it meets all demands.
_{w}_{e}_{r}_{'}_{s} _{f}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{y} _{t}_{o} _{d}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{e}_{r}_{n} the influence of _{G}_{.} H.
Is it the revie
_{H}_{a}_{r}_{d}_{y} in the
_{o}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} on
clearly dealt with ?
real
_{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} which are well _{a}_{n}_{d}
Or is this only to
be expected from
_{a}_{n} author of the race which _{t}_{a}_{u}_{g}_{h}_{t} the rest of the _{w}_{o}_{r}_{l}_{d}
how to count ?
_{*}
. "i
_{*}
_{*}
The course followed is _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{h}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{v}_{e} and _{t}_{h}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h}_{,}
and has a there _{t}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t} is for a good _{c}_{l}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} onv curve and _{i}_{s} tracing. _{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{t}_{i}_{c} The to author the
difficulties of the _{b}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{.}
* *
#
_{A}_{n}_{s}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{,} ofwhich _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} are _{g}_{o}_{o}_{d} and _{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}
selections, are _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{.}
* #
Certaianly Mr. Narayan's
command
3
of _{E}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{i}_{s}_{h}
is
_{e}_{x}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{n}_{t}
Ourown _{y}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{g} scientific or mathematical
specialist, grumbling over French or German or Latin as
_{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} to _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{i}_{e}_{s}_{,} would do well to consider their
Indian confreres,
with
_{E}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{i}_{s}_{h} to master before their
technical education can _{b}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{n}_{.}
DIFFERENTIAL _{C}_{A}_{L}_{C}_{U}_{L}_{U}_{S}
FOR
B. A. & B. Sc. STUDENTS
By
SHANTI NARAYAN
_{P}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{i}_{p}_{a}_{l}_{,} and Head _{o}_{f} the _{D}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{o}_{f} Mathematics
Hans _{R}_{a}_{j} College, Delhi University
TENTH REVISED EDITION
1962
S. CHAND & CO.
_{D}_{E}_{L}_{H}_{I} NEW DELHI BOMBAY
JULLUNDtTR LUCKNOW
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A _{T}_{e}_{x}_{t} _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} of Matrices
A Text _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} of Vector _{A}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}
A Text Book ofVector Calculus
A Text _{B}_{o}_{o}_{k} _{o}_{f} _{C}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{a}_{n} Tensors
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_{f}_{o}_{r} _{S}_{h}_{y}_{a}_{m} Lai Charitable _{T}_{r}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{,}
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(Allprofitsfrom this book are spent on charities.)
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JULLUNDUR
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First Edition 1942
Tenth Edition 1962
Price _{:} Rs. 700
Publishedby G S _{S}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{n}_{a}_{.} _{f}_{o}_{r} S. Chand& _{C}_{o}_{.}_{,} Ram _{N}_{a}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{,} New Delhi and
Printed at _{R}_{a}_{j}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{r}_{a} Printers. Ram _{N}_{a}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{,} New Delhi1*
Preface to the Tenth Edition
The book has been _{r}_{e}_{v}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{d}_{.}
A _{f}_{e}_{w} more exercises drawn from
the recent university papers have been given.
_{3}_{0}_{t}_{h} _{A}_{p}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{,} _{1}_{9}_{6}_{2}_{.}
_{S}_{H}_{A}_{N}_{T}_{I} NARAYAN
PREFACE
This book is meant for _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} for the B.A. and
_{B}_{.}_{S}_{c}_{.} examinations _{o}_{f} _{o}_{u}_{r} universities.
Some _{t}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{c}_{s} of the Honours
_{a}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{s} to the _{r}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{v}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{y} _{T}_{h}_{e} are treatment _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} in of the the form _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} of
standard have also been _{i}_{n}_{c}_{l}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{d}_{.}
is _{r}_{i}_{g}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{s} but no _{a}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{m}_{p}_{t} has been made to state and _{p}_{r}_{o}_{v}_{e} the
theorems in _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{s} and under less _{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} conditions as
_{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} case _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{M}_{o}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{n} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} Function.
It has also been a
constant endeavour _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{u}_{t}_{h}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{o} _{s}_{e}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} is not _{p}_{r}_{e}_{}
sented _{j}_{u}_{s}_{t} as a _{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} of formulae.
This is to see that the student
doesnot form an unfortunateimpression that the _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{y} of Calculus
consists _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} in _{a}_{c}_{q}_{u}_{i}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} a skill to _{m}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{p}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} some formulae
_{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} 'constant drilling'.
The book _{o}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} a _{b}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{f} 'outline _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} of
Real _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} their _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} as infinite decimals and their _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{}
of sentation the graphs _{b}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} of the _{'}_{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} elementary a _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{.} functions This is x"> followed _{l}_{o}_{g} x, ex _{b}_{y} , sin a discussion x, sin1 *,
_{e}_{t}_{c}_{,}
Some of the difficulties attendant _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of inverse
_{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} have also been _{i}_{l}_{l}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e} formulation of
Inverse trigonometrical functions. It is _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{e}_{d} that the teacher
in the class need refer to _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} a _{f}_{e}_{w} salient _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} of this _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} of the
an independent The student study _{w}_{o}_{u}_{l}_{d}_{,} of the same. _{o}_{n} his _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{,} _{g}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} the same in
book.
complete details to acquire a sound grasp of the basis of the subject.
This part is so presented that a student would have no difficulty in
The first _{p}_{a}_{r}_{t} ofthe book is _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} _{i}_{n} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r} while the _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{s} of Continuity and Curvature.
later part deals with the geometrical applications of the subject.
But this order ofthe subject is by no means suggested to be rigidly
followed in the class.
A different order may usefully be adopted at
_{t}_{h}_{o} discretion ofthe _{t}_{e}_{a}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{.}
An analysis of the 'Layman's' _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{s} has frequently been
_{m}_{a}_{d}_{e} _{t}_{o} serve as a basis for the _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e} formulation of the corres
_{p}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} 'Scientist's' _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{s}_{.}
This
_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s} to the two
been _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} Geometrical to _{b}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} interpretation them home to of the results _{s}_{t}_{u}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.} analytically obtained have
Achapter on 'Some
Important Curves' has been _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} before _{d}_{e}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} with geometrical
applications. This will enable the student to _{g}_{e}_{t} familiar with the
names and shapes of some ofthe important curves. It is felt that a
student would have better understanding of the properties of a
curve _{i}_{f} he knows how _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e} _{l}_{o}_{o}_{k}_{s} _{l}_{i}_{k}_{e}_{.}
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{p}_{t}_{e}_{r} will also the importance. _{t}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{b}_{y} tends means Moreover, to ofa _{i}_{n}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{l}_{a}_{r}_{g}_{e} the _{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{g} number definition the of curve. solved gives It rise _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{s}_{.} is to believed a simple _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}_{,} method of all
serve as a useful introduction to the _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} of Double _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} of a
curve. _{A}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e} of a curve has been defined as a line such that the
distance of _{a}_{n}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} curve from _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{l}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{t}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{s} to zero as
_{t}_{h}_{e} definitions _{o}_{f} _{a}_{n} _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} one _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{i}_{s} _{m}_{o}_{s}_{t} natural.
It embodies _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a} _{t}_{o} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t} of _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s} owes its
for determining the asymptotes.
The various principles and methods have been profusely illus
_{m}_{a}_{n}_{u}_{s}_{c}_{r}_{i}_{p}_{t} I am indebted and made to a Prof. number Sita of Ram _{s}_{u}_{g}_{g}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} _{G}_{u}_{p}_{t}_{a}_{,} _{M}_{.}_{A}_{.}_{,} _{M}_{y} thanks _{P}_{.}_{E}_{.}_{S}_{.}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{l}_{y} are also
ofthe Government _{C}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{,} Lahore who _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y}_{k}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{l}_{y} wentthrough the
due _{t}_{o} _{m}_{y} old _{p}_{u}_{p}_{i}_{l}_{s} and friends Professors _{J}_{a}_{g}_{a}_{n} Nath _{M}_{.}_{A}_{.}_{,}
Vidya Sagar M A.,
and Om _{P}_{a}_{r}_{k}_{a}_{s}_{h} M _{A}_{.}_{,} _{f}_{o}_{r} the _{h}_{e}_{l}_{p} which _{t}_{h}_{e}_{y}
rendered me in preparing this book.
Suggestions for improvement will be thankfully acknowledged.
January, 1942
SHANTI NARAYAN
CHAPTER _{1}
Real _{N}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} Variables, Functions
ARTICLE
_{P}_{A}_{G}_{E}
Introduction 
_{1} 

ri. 
Rational Numbers 
_{2} 

1'2. 
_{I}_{r}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{N}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} 
Real Numbers 
_{5} 
1*3.
1*4.
1'5.
1 6.
1*7.
Decimal _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} representation representation of real numbers
Themodulus of a real number
Variables, Functions
Some _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{t}_{y}_{p}_{e}_{s} of domains _{o}_{f} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of functions
CHAPTER II
_{S}_{o}_{m}_{e} _{I}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} Classes of Functions _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{s}
21. 24.
2*2.
23.
25.
Graphs ofy=x*
Monotoiiic Functions. Inverse Functions
_{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h} of y=x*in
_{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h} ofy=a x
of >>^logax
_{2}_{6}_{.} _{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{s} of sin _{x}_{,} cos _{x}_{,} tan _{x}_{,} cot _{x}_{,} sec _{x}_{,}
27.
29. 2*8.
3*3. _{3}_{}_{1}_{.}
_{3}_{2}_{.}
34.
_{3}_{5}_{.}
_{3}_{6}_{1}_{.}
365. 364. 3'62.
363. 366.
37.
38.
cosec x
_{G}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h}_{s} of shr^x, cos^x, tan^x, cot~*x; see^x,
cosec^x
Function of a function Limit
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{y} of a function
Theorems on limits
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{y} of sum, difference, _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} and
Classification offunctions
CHAPTER III
Continuity and Limit
_{q}_{u}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{S}_{o}_{m}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} continuous _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} ofcontinuous functions. Con _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{L}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t} of ofelementary xn _{j}_{n} I as n > functions oo Hyperbolic Functions and their graphs
Limit of _{(}_{s}_{i}_{n} _{.}_{v}_{/}_{x}_{)} as x>0
Limit of [(x X ^)/(xo)] as x>a
Limit of xn as
> oo
Limit _{o}_{f} (1 + 1//I)"
Limit of _{[}_{(}_{a}_{*}_{~}_{l}_{)}_{/}_{J}_{t}_{]} _{a}_{s} as _{n} x >oo 0

Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
7;.
6
_{9}
11
_{1}_{3}
14
18
_{2}_{0}
22
_{2}_{4}
25
26
30
34
35
37
41
52
53
54
57
58
59
63
64
64
66
68
41.
4*11.
415. 412.
414.
4*16.
4 22.
43.
_{4}_{}_{3}_{4}_{.}
4*35.
_{4}_{}_{3}_{6}_{.}
4*4.
4*5.
461.
462.
471.
48.
491.
493. 4*92.
51.
_{5}_{*}_{2}_{.} _{5}_{*}_{3}_{.}
_{5} 4.
5*5.
56.
_{t}_{v}_{l}_{.} _{6}_{*}_{3}_{.}
_{6}_{*}_{2}_{.}
_{6}_{*}_{4}_{.}
_{(} VI
_{)}
CHAPTER IV
Differentiation
Indroduction. _{R}_{a}_{t}_{e} ofchange
_{D}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{.} Derivative
Derived _{F}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
An Important theorem
Geometrical Interpretation of a derivative
Expressions for velocity and acceleration
Derivative of xa Derivative Derivative of ofInverse _{l}_{o}_{g}_{a}_{x} _{T}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{o}_{n}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l} Functions
Derivative of (f
Derivatives of _{H}_{y}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{c} Functions
_{D}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{s} ofInverse _{H}_{y}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{c} _{F}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
_{L}_{o}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{m}_{i}_{c} differentiation
_{T}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} before differentiation
Differentiation 'ab initio*
_{S}_{p}_{m}_{e} _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} theorems on differentiation
_{D}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} of a function ofa _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
_{D}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} Differentiation offunctions of inverse _{f}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} means
ofa parameter
DerivativesofTrigonometrical Functions
Appendix
CHAPTER V
Successive Differentiation
Notation _{G}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} Theorems. MeanValue Theorems
Introduction
_{C}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{n}_{t}_{h} _{d}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{.} Some standard
results
Determination of the th derivative of rational
functions
Determination of the nth derivative of a _{p}_{r}_{o}_{}
_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} of _{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r}_{s} of _{s}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{s} and cosines
Leibnitz's theorem
Value of the nth derivative for x0
CHAPTER VI
_{R}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} theorem
_{L}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{'}_{s} mean value theorem
Some deductions from mean value theorem
_{C}_{a}_{u}_{c}_{h}_{y}_{'}_{s} meanvaluetheorem
72
72
74
74
76
78
TO
81
86
88
88
89
93
96
97
97
99
100
102
104
108
113
116
120 118 . 130 136
137
133
130
121
123
_{(} vn _{)}
_{6}_{*}_{6}_{,}_{6}_{}_{7}_{.} _{T}_{a}_{y}_{l}_{o}_{r}_{'}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} ofa function in a finite
form _{;} _{L}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{'}_{s} and _{C}_{a}_{u}_{c}_{h}_{y}_{'}_{s} forms _{o}_{f} _{r}_{e}_{}
mainders
Appendix
CHAPTER VII
Maxima andMinima, _{G}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{t} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{L}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{t} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s}
71. 7*6.
7*2.
Definitions
A Application necessarycondition to problems for extreme values Introduction
CHAPTER _{V}_{I}_{I}_{I}
.
_{7}_{}_{3}_{,}_{7}_{}_{4}_{.} Criteria for extremevalues
Evaluation of limits. _{I}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{e} forms
81.
82. 85.
84. 86.
8'7.
Limitof [/(x)/i r (x)]
when/(x)>0 and F(x)>0
Limit of [/(x)/F(x)] when/(;c)>oo and F(xj *oo
Limit of [/(x).F(x)] when/(x)>0 and _{F}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{}_{>}_{o}_{o}
Limit of[/(*) _{F}_{(}_{x}_{)}_{J} when/(x)>oo and F(x)>oc
Limit of
/(x)
F'(\Y
l
"
'
under various _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
CHAPTER _{I}_{X}
Taylor's Infinite Series
_{9}_{*} 1 .
Definition of _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} and of the sum ofan expansions of
Formal expansions of functions
Use of infinite series for _{e}_{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} limits
Appendix. _{R}_{i}_{g}_{o}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{s} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{s}
ex , sin x, cos x, _{l}_{o}_{g} (lfx),
ofthe
(l+x)m
infinite series
_{9}_{}_{2}_{,}_{9}_{*}_{3}_{.} _{T}_{a}_{y}_{l}_{o}_{r}_{'}_{s} and Maclaurin's _{i}_{n}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{e} series
94.
_{9}_{}_{5}_{.}
_{1}_{4}_{0}
145
_{1}_{4}_{8}
149
_{1}_{5}_{1}
157
_{1}_{6}_{5}
166
170
173
174
_{1}_{7}_{5}
_{1}_{7}_{9}
_{1}_{8}_{0}
181
_{1}_{8}_{5}
188
CHAPTER X
FUNCTION OF _{W}_{O} VARIABLES
_{1}_{0} 4 _{1}_{.}
_{1}_{0}_{'}_{2}_{.}
_{1}_{0}_{'}_{6}_{.} 10*4.
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{5}_{.}
10*7.
10*71.
Partial Differentiation
Introduction
_{F}_{u}_{n}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{s} and their domains
of definition
Continuity ofa function of two variables
_{L}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t} _{o}_{f}_{a} function of two variables
Partial Derivatives
Geometrical representation of a function of
two Geometrical variables interpretation of partial derivatives
193
193
194
195
196
197
of first order
198
_{(} VIII _{)}
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{8}_{1}_{.} _{E}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{r}_{'}_{s} theorem on _{H}_{o}_{m}_{o}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{o}_{u}_{s} functions
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{8}_{2}_{.} Choice ofindependent variables.
A new Nota
tion
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{9}_{1}_{.} Theorem on _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} Differentials.
Calculation
_{A}_{p}_{p}_{r}_{o}_{x}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{e}
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{9}_{3}_{*} Differentiation of _{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e} Functions
_{1}_{0}_{*}_{9}_{4}_{.} Differentiation of _{I}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t} Functions.
Appendix. Equality of Repeated Derivatives.
Extreme values of functions of two variables.
_{L}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{'}_{s} Multipliers
IT!.
11*3. _{1}_{1}_{*}_{4}_{.}
_{1}_{1}_{*}_{5}_{.}
_{1}_{1}_{}_{6}_{.}
_{1}_{2}_{}_{1}_{;} _{1}_{2}_{*}_{2}_{.}
_{1}_{2}_{*}_{3}_{.} 126. _{1}_{2}_{*}_{4}_{.}
12*5.
_{1}_{2}_{}_{7}_{.} 128.
_{1}_{3}_{'}_{1}_{.}
_{1}_{3}_{>}_{2}_{.}
_{1}_{3}_{}_{3}_{.} _{1}_{3}_{}_{4}_{.}
_{1}_{3}_{}_{5}_{.}
MiscellaneousExercises I _{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} Coordinates
bola
_{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{.} _{C}_{i}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{,} _{S}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{h}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{,} semiCubical _{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{}
_{I}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t} _{C}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{a}_{n} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} Branches of a
Hypocycloid. Epicycloid
Parametric Cartesian Equations. Cycloid,
_{E}_{x}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t} Cartesian Equations. Catenary
CHAPTER XI
SomeImportant Curves
_{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} _{C}_{a}_{r}_{d}_{i}_{o}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{,} Leinniscate.
Curves rm=am cos w0, Spirals,
_{C}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{s}
r~a _{s}_{i}_{n} _{3}_{$} and r=a _{s}_{i}_{n} _{U}_{0}
CHAPTER _{X}_{I}_{I}
Tangents and Normals
_{E}_{x}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{,} _{I}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t} and Paramedic Cartesian
equations
_{A}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} ofintersection of two curves
_{C}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{a}_{n} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{t} and subnormal Pedal Equations. Polar equations
_{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{t} and subnormal
Perpendicular from the pole to a tangent
Angle between radius vector and tangent
_{P}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{l} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} Cartesian _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
CHAPTER XIII
Derivative of Arcs
_{O}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} oflengths of _{a}_{r}_{c}_{s}_{.} An axiom
_{L}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{f} _{a}_{n} _{a}_{r}_{c} _{a}_{s} a function
_{T}_{o} To Todetermine determine determine _{d}_{s}_{j}_{d}_{t} _{d}_{s}_{j}_{d}_{e} _{d}_{s}_{/}_{d}_{x} for for for the the the curve curve curve _{y}_{=}_{f}_{(}_{x}_{)} _{r}_{=}_{/}_{(}_{0}_{)}
*=/(0, ?=/(')
.,.

199
_{2}_{0}_{4}
206
210
230 213
_{2}_{3}_{2}_{}_{2}_{3}_{7}
238
239
243
247
248
254
262
264
266
267
270
271
272
274
275
275
276
277
CHAPTER XIV
Concavity, Convexity, Inflexion
14).
14*2.
1 t3.
144.
151.
152.
Definitions
_{I}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of the conditions for a curve to be Curvature, Evolutes
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{u}_{p}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d}_{s} or downwards or to have in
flexion _{a}_{t} _{a}
point
Another criterion for _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of inflexion
_{C}_{o}_{n}_{c}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{x}_{i}_{t}_{y} w.r. to line
CHAPTERXV
Introduction, Definition
Curvature _{o}_{f} a circle
of Curvature
of Curvature lo'l'O. Radius ofCurvature of Curvature for _{f}_{o}_{r} _{p}_{e}_{d}_{a}_{l} _{p}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} curves curves
15vJ.
154.
Newtonian Formula.
1547. Radius
Radius
_{R}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{u}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{C}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{C}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{s}_{i}_{a}_{n} curves.
Explicit _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.} Implicit Newton's Equations. for
Parametric
mulae for radius of curvature. Generalised
15*48. Radius ofCurvature for _{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{p}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} curves
1551. Centre Curvature. _{E}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{e}_{.} Involute. Circle
of curvature. Chord of curvature
15*5"). Two properties of evolutes
CHAPTER XVI
Asymptotes
161.
Definition
IO31. Determination Determination of of _{A}_{s}_{j}_{^}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{A}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s} _{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{l} to co
16'2.
ordinate axes
_{,}_{.}_{:}_{_}_{<}
lfi32. Asymptotes of generalrational Alge^raic'Equations
"
1(54. lfi5.
](>(>.
I(r7. _{1}_{C}_{}_{8}_{.}
_{1}_{7}_{*}_{1}_{.}
172.
Asymptotes Asymptotes by by inspection _{e}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}
Intersection of a curve and its _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s}
Position of a _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} to its _{a}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s}
_{A}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{p}_{t}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{s} in _{p}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} coordinates
CHAPTER _{X}_{V}_{I}_{I}
Singular Points, Multiple Points
Introduction Conditions _{f}_{o}_{r} _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{,}
Definitions
1731. _{T}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{o}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{n}
17*4,
_{,}
281
282
284
285
290
291
291
292
298 304
299
300
310
313
313
315
317
324
325
328 329
331
335
336
336
339
175.
Types of cusps
342
176.
184. 18*2. 183.
_{1}_{8}_{}_{6}_{.}
186.
19 f l.
Radii of curvature _{a}_{t} _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}_{s} Envelopes
One parameter family of curves
CHAPTER _{X}_{V}_{I}_{I}_{I}
Curve Tracing
Procedure for _{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{s}
Equations
ofthe form }> 2 _{=}_{/}_{(}_{x}_{)}
Equations ofthe form y*+yf(x)+F(x)^0
_{P}_{o}_{l}_{a}_{r} Curves
Parametric _{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}
CHAPTER XIX
19*2,19'3. Definitions. _{E}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{s} ofy=MXtajm
_{1}_{9}_{*}_{4}_{.}
_{1}_{9}_{*}_{5}_{.}
_{1}_{9}_{*}_{6}_{.}
_{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} and its envelope _{'}_{a}_{b} initio*
Determination ofEnvelope
_{E}_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{e} ofcurve as _{t}_{h}_{e} _{E}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{e} of _{i}_{t}_{s} normals
Geometrical relations between a _{f}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{y} of curves
Miscellaneous Exercises II
Answers
_{3}_{4}_{5}
_{3}_{4}_{8}
349
357
_{3}_{5}_{9}
_{3}_{6}_{4}
369
369
270
37:2
372
37882
,,. 383408
CHAPTER _{I}
_{R}_{E}_{A}_{L} NUMBERS
FUNCTIONS
itself. with Introduction. the It various _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} operations introduces The _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} with and of deals them Differential with that what it Calculus _{p}_{r}_{i}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{l}_{y} is _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} takes concerns _{L}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} its
stand _{u}_{p}_{o}_{n} the _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{o}_{f} numbers and _{i}_{t} _{i}_{s} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d}
operation in addition to being concerned with the Algebraic _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{}
tions of Addition and Multiplication and their inverses, Subtraction
and Division, and is a developmentofthe _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t} notion of Instan
taneous rate _{o}_{f} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e} which is itself a limited idea _{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} _{a}_{s} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h}_{,} _{i}_{t}
finds _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} to all those _{b}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{h}_{e}_{s} of human _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{l}_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h}
deal with the same. Thus it is _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} to _{G}_{e}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y}_{,} Mechanics and
other branches of Theoretical _{P}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{s} and also to Social Sciences such
as Economics and Psychology.
It _{m}_{a}_{y} be noted here that this _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} is _{e}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} based _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{p}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of Calculus to _{M}_{e}_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{c}_{s}_{,} the first _{s}_{t}_{e}_{p} is td~correlate
the two notions of Time andNumber, _{i}_{.}_{e}_{.}_{,} to measure time in terms
_{i}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{,} we are concerned with the notion _{o}_{f}_{t}_{i}_{m}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} in
ofnumbers. Similar is _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} such _{a}_{s} _{H}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{,}
investigation in _{a}_{n}_{y} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} of _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{l}_{e}_{d}_{g}_{e}_{.} In Mechanics, for
measure the particular _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} or magnitude which is the object of
on the notion of measurement, whereby we employenumbers to
Intensity of Light, Force, Demand, Intelligence, etc.
The formula^
tion ofan _{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} in terms of numbers, i.e., measurement, must, of
_{c}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{,} take note ofthe _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} we _{i}_{n}_{t}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{y} associate with
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{.} This remark _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{n} be _{i}_{l}_{l}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} with reference to
the concepts of Velocity, Acceleration Gwry^fr&e, etc.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} ofnumlTe^l^/Bfesradj^bfi^subject in hand
_{b}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g} thus clear,
we will
in some*.of the; :f#ltowig. articles,
see how
we
_{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} first introduced to the notion of number and _{h}_{o}_{w}_{,} in course of 'Fundamentals _{o}_{f}_{A}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{'} _{b}_{y} Landau.
excellent account of the. Development of numbers is given in
_{I}_{t} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{b}_{e} _{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{.}_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{e}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} it satisfies a
deep philosophical need to base the theory part of Calculus on the
notion *>f number ialohe, to the entire exclusion of _{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} _{p}_{h}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}
_{b}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{s}_{,} but a _{r}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{d} insistence on the same is not within the _{s}_{c}_{o}_{p}_{e} of
_{t}_{i}_{m}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} came to*be _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} to a series of _{g}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{s}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{I}_{t} _{i}_{s}_{,} _{h}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{,} not intended to _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e} here _{a}_{n}_{y} _{l}_{o}_{g}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} connect
ed amount of the development of tl>e system of real numbers, also
_{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{n} some well as Arithmetic known salient _{C}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{u}_{u}_{m} facts and will _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} suffice a _{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} for our brief _{p}_{u}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{.} reference to
An
2
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
this book and intuitive geometrical notion of Point, Distance, etc.,
will sometimes be _{a}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{a}_{l}_{e}_{d} to for _{s}_{e}_{c}_{u}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{i}_{t}_{y}_{.}
11.
Rational numbers and their representation by points along a
straight line.
_{I}_{'}_{l}_{l}_{.}
Positive _{I}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.}
_{I}_{t} _{w}_{a}_{s} to the _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} _{1}_{,} _{2}_{,} _{3}_{,} _{4}_{,} etc. _{r}
that we _{w}_{e}_{r}_{e} first introduced _{t}_{h}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{g}_{h} the _{p}_{r}_{o}_{c}_{e}_{s}_{s} of _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} certain
objects.
The totality ofthese numbers is known as the aggregate of
natural _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} wholenumbers orpositive _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} and'division. _{T}_{h}_{u}_{s}_{,} for _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{,} the _{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s}
_{t}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} case in _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{o}_{f} the inverse _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} ofsubtraction
_{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{l}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} in relation to the _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} of _{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,}
While the operations of addition and multiplications are^,un
_{a}_{d}_{d}_{e}_{d} are meaningless _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} former in respect class. of the _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} ofpositive integers.
1*12.
Fractional _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{k}_{n}_{o}_{w}_{n} _{a}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e} class of fractions
_{A}_{t} a later _{s}_{t}_{a}_{g}_{e}_{,} another class of
numbers like _{p}_{\}_{q} _{(}_{e}_{.}_{g}_{.}_{,} _{}_{,} _{}_{)} wherep and _{q} are natural _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,} was
and it _{o}_{b}_{v}_{i}_{o}_{u}_{s}_{l}_{y} includes natural numbers as a subclass _{;} _{q} _{b}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} to 1 in this case.
_{T}_{h}_{e} introduction of _{F}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} numbers is _{m}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{,} from an is known The introduction as the _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} of _{N}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} numbers numbers. is _{m}_{o}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{,} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{a}_{n}
abstract _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of _{v}_{i}_{e}_{w}_{,} to render Division _{u}_{n}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d}_{l}_{y} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d}_{,}
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} concrete _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of _{v}_{i}_{e}_{w}_{,} to _{r}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{r} numbers _{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{i}_{c}_{e}_{a}_{b}_{l}_{e} for
_{m}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} in addition to _{c}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}_{.}
113. Rational numbers. Still _{l}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{,} the class of _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} was
enlarged by _{i}_{n}_{c}_{o}_{r}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} in it the class of negative fractions includ
_{i}_{n}_{g} _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} integers and zero. The entire aggregate ofthese numbers
_{E}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} rational
_{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} is _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} as _{p}_{\}_{q}_{,} where _{p} and _{q} are _{a}_{n}_{y} two _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{,}
_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} and _{q} is not zero.
_{a}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of _{v}_{i}_{e}_{w}_{/} to render Subtraction _{a}_{l}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{s} _{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} tant _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{y} of the _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} of rational numbers is that _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of _{a}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} subtraction and division can
be performed upon any two such numbers, (with one exception which
_{1}_{}_{1}_{4}_{.} Fundamental _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} on rational _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{A}_{n} _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{}
fall, etc.
_{o}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{y} _{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{p}_{a}_{i}_{r}_{s} of entities such _{a}_{s}_{,} _{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} and _{l}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{,} _{r}_{i}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{d}
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} concrete _{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} of _{v}_{i}_{e}_{w}_{^}_{,} to facilitate a unified _{t}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{t}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} oi
_{T}_{1}_{5}_{)} and the number obtained as the _{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}
is considered below in to note that the only exception to the above property is 'Division
ofthese _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} is _{a}_{g}_{a}_{i}_{n} a rational _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{.}
This property is
expressed
by saying _{t}_{l}_{i}_{^}_{t} the ag^egate of
rational numbers is closed
with _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} to _{t}_{h}_{e} four fundamental
operations.
115. Meaningless operation of division by zero. It is _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{t}
REAL NUMBERS
3
by zero' which is a meaningless _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.}
This may be seen as
follows _{a}_{n}_{d} the : division will _{b}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{g}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y}_{,} _{i}_{f} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{n}_{l}_{y} _{i}_{f}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{}
To divide a by b amounts to determining a number c suchthat
bc=a,
nation of c is _{u}_{n}_{i}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{l}_{y} possible.
Also any _{N}_{o}_{w}_{,} number there is when no _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} multiplied which by zero when produces _{m}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{p}_{l}_{i}_{e}_{d} zero _{b}_{y} so zero that _{p}_{r}_{o}_{} 0/0
duces a number other _{t}_{h}_{a}_{n} _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o} so that aJO is no _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r} when _{0}_{^}_{0}_{.} Then
_{m}_{a}_{y} be _{a}_{n}_{y} number.
On account of this _{i}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} in one case _{a}_{n}_{d} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{s}_{s} in
the _{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{,} the _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of division _{b}_{y} zero must _{b}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{w}_{a}_{y}_{s} avoided.
A _{d}_{i}_{s}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{r}_{d} of this _{e}_{x}_{c}_{e}_{p}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} often leads to absurd results as is
illustrated below _{i}_{n} _{(}_{/}_{)}_{.}
(i) Let
jc 6. 6, we _{g}_{e}_{t} _{6}_{,} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} is _{z}_{e}_{r}_{o} _{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{i}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e} _{f}_{o}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s}
jc+6=l.
6+6=1, i.e., 12= 1.
;c2 36:=.x6,
(x6)(jcf.6)=Jt 8.
or
Dividing both sides _{b}_{y} jc
which Division is clearly _{b}_{y} absurd. jc
absurd conclusion.
_{(}_{i}_{i}_{)} We _{m}_{a}_{y} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{r}_{e}_{m}_{a}_{r}_{k} _{i}_{n} this connection _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
X _{^}_{l}_{f}_{=}_{(} _{*}_{~}_{^}_{~} 6) =x+6, only when *j66.
(1)
For *=6, the left hand expression, (je 2 36)/(x 6), is meaning
less whereas the _{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} hand _{e}_{x}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{,} _{x}_{}_{f}_{6}_{,} _{i}_{s} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{t}_{o} 12 _{s}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} ceases to hold for _{J}_{t}_{=}_{6}_{.}
The equality (1) above is proved by dividing the numerator
_{a}_{n}_{d} denominator of the _{f}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{x} 2
_{3}_{6}_{)}_{/}_{(}_{x}
_{6}_{)} _{b}_{y}
_{(}_{.}_{x}
_{6}_{)} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{i}_{s}
_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} of division is possible only when the divisor (jc 6) ^0, i.e* 9
when _{x}_{^}_{6}_{.} This _{e}_{x}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{i}_{n}_{s} the restricted character ofthe _{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{(}_{1}_{)}_{.}
Ex. 1. Show that _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} of natural numbers is not closed with
_{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} to the _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of subtraction and division. _{A}_{l}_{s}_{o} show that the
_{a}_{g}_{g}_{r}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{e} ofpositive fractions is _{n}_{o}_{t} _{c}_{l}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} to the _{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} of _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
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