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THEBOOKWAS

DRENCHED

DIFFERENTIAL

CALCULUS

SIIANTI NARAYAN

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

(Review published in Mathematical

Gazette, London, December, 1953

THE book has reached Its 5th edition in 9 years and

it

can be assumed that it meets all demands.

wer's fancy to discern the influence of G. H.

Is it the revie-

Hardy in the

opening chapter on

clearly dealt with ?

real

numbers, which are well and

Or is this only to

be expected from

an author of the race which taught the rest of the world

how to count ?

*

.- "i

*

*

The course followed is comprehensive and thorough,

and has a there talent is for a good clear chapter exposition, onv curve and is tracing. sympathetic The to author the

difficulties of the beginner.

* *

#

Answers to examples, ofwhich there are good and ample

selections, are given.

* #

Certaianly Mr. Narayan's

command

3

of English

is

excellent

Ourown young scientific or mathematical

specialist, grumbling over French or German or Latin as

additions to their studies, would do well to consider their

Indian confreres,

with

English to master before their

technical education can begin.

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

FOR

B. A. & B. Sc. STUDENTS

By

SHANTI NARAYAN

Principal, and Head of the Department of Mathematics

Hans Raj College, Delhi University

TENTH REVISED EDITION

1962

S. CHAND & CO.

DELHI NEW DELHI BOMBAY

JULLUNDtTR LUCKNOW

Books by the same Author

Integral Calculus

Modern Pure Geometry

Analytical Solid Geometry

A Course of Mathematical Analysis

Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable

A Text Book of Matrices

A Text Book of Vector Algebra

A Text Book ofVector Calculus

A Text Book of Cartesian Tensors

A Text Book ofModern Abstract Algebra

A Text Book ofGeneral Topology (Under preparation)

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First Edition 1942

Tenth Edition 1962

Price : Rs. 7-00

Publishedby G S Shartna. for S. Chand& Co., Ram Nagar, New Delhi and

Printed at Rajendra Printers. Ram Nagar, New Delhi-1*

Preface to the Tenth Edition

The book has been revised.

A few more exercises drawn from

the recent university papers have been given.

30th April, 1962.

SHANTI NARAYAN

PREFACE

This book is meant for students preparing for the B.A. and

B.Sc. examinations of our universities.

Some topics of the Honours

appendices to the relevant chapters. They The are treatment given in of the the form subject of

standard have also been included.

is rigorous but no attempt has been made to state and prove the

theorems in generalised forms and under less restrictive conditions as

is the case with the Modern Theory of Function.

It has also been a

constant endeavour of the author to see that the subject is not pre-

sented just as a body of formulae.

This is to see that the student

doesnot form an unfortunateimpression that the study of Calculus

consists only in acquiring a skill to manipulate some formulae

through 'constant drilling'.

The book opens with a brief 'outline of the development of

Real numbers, their expression as infinite decimals and their repre-

of sentation the graphs by points of the 'along elementary a line. functions This is x"> followed log x, ex by , sin a discussion x, sin-1 *,

etc,

Some of the difficulties attendant upon the notion of inverse

functions have also been illustrated by precise formulation of

Inverse trigonometrical functions. It is suggested that the teacher

in the class need refer to only a few salient points of this part of the

an independent The student study would, of the same. on his part, go through the same in

book.

complete details to acquire a sound grasp of the basis of the subject.

This part is so presented that a student would have no difficulty in

The first part ofthe book is analytical in character while the concepts of Continuity and Curvature.

later part deals with the geometrical applications of the subject.

But this order ofthe subject is by no means suggested to be rigidly

followed in the class.

A different order may usefully be adopted at

tho discretion ofthe teacher.

An analysis of the 'Layman's' concepts has frequently been

made to serve as a basis for the precise formulation of the corres-

ponding 'Scientist's' concepts.

This

specially relates to the two

been given Geometrical to bring interpretation them home to of the results students. analytically obtained have

Achapter on 'Some

Important Curves' has been given before dealing with geometrical

applications. This will enable the student to get familiar with the

names and shapes of some ofthe important curves. It is felt that a

student would have better understanding of the properties of a

curve if he knows how the curve looks like.

This chapter will also the importance. trated point by tends means Moreover, to ofa infinity large the along number definition the of curve. solved gives It rise examples. is to believed a simple that, method of all

serve as a useful introduction to the subject of Double points of a

curve. Asymptote of a curve has been defined as a line such that the

distance of any point on the curve from this line tends to zero as

the definitions of an asymptote, this is the one which is most natural.

It embodies the idea to which the concept of asymptotes owes its

for determining the asymptotes.

The various principles and methods have been profusely illus-

manuscript I am indebted and made to a Prof. number Sita of Ram suggestions. Gupta, M.A., My thanks P.E.S., formerly are also

ofthe Government College, Lahore who verykindly wentthrough the

due to my old pupils and friends Professors Jagan Nath M.A.,

Vidya Sagar M A.,

and Om Parkash M A., for the help which they

rendered me in preparing this book.

Suggestions for improvement will be thankfully acknowledged.

January, 1942

SHANTI NARAYAN

CHAPTER 1

Real Numbers, Variables, Functions

ARTICLE

PAGE

 

Introduction

1

ri.

Rational Numbers

2

1'2.

Irrational Numbers.

Real Numbers

5

1*3.

1*4.

1'5.

1 6.

1*7.

Decimal Graphical representation representation of real numbers

Themodulus of a real number

Variables, Functions

Some important types of domains of variation

of functions

CHAPTER II

Some Important Classes of Functions and their Graphs

2-1. 2-4.

2*2.

2-3.

2-5.

Graphs ofy=x*

Monotoiiic Functions. Inverse Functions

Graph Graph of y=x*in

Graph ofy=a x

of >>^logax

26. Graphs of sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x,

2-7.

2-9. 2*8.

3*3. 3-1.

32.

3-4.

35.

361.

3-65. 3-64. 3'62.

3-63. 3-66.

3-7.

3-8.

cosec x

Graphs of shr^x, cos^x, tan^x, cot~*x; see^x,

cosec^x

Function of a function Limit

Continuity of a function

Theorems on limits

Continuity of sum, difference, product and

Classification offunctions

CHAPTER III

Continuity and Limit

quotient Some important of two continuous properties ofcontinuous functions. Con- functions

tinuity Limit of ofelementary xn jn I as n -> functions oo Hyperbolic Functions and their graphs

Limit of (sin .v/x) as x->0

Limit of [(x X -^)/(x-o)] as x->a

Limit of xn as

-> oo

Limit of (1 + 1//I)"

Limit of [(a*~l)/Jt] as as n x ->oo -0

-

Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

7;.

6

9

11

13

14

18

20

22

24

25

26

30

34

35

37

41

52

53

54

57

58

59

63

64

64

66

68

4-1.

4*11.

4-15. 4-12.

4-14.

4*16.

4 22.

4-3.

4-34.

4*35.

4-36.

4*4.

4*5.

4-61.

4-62.

4-71.

4-8.

4-91.

4-93. 4*92.

5-1.

5*2. 5*3.

5 -4.

5*5.

5-6.

tvl. 6*3.

6*2.

6*4.

( VI

)

CHAPTER IV

Differentiation

Indroduction. Rate ofchange

Derivability. Derivative

Derived Function

An Important theorem

Geometrical Interpretation of a derivative

Expressions for velocity and acceleration

Derivative of xa Derivative Derivative of ofInverse logax Trigonometrical Functions

Derivative of (f

Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions

Derivatives ofInverse Hyperbolic Functions

Logarithmic differentiation

Transformation before differentiation

Differentiation 'ab initio*

Spme general theorems on differentiation

Derivative of a function ofa function

Differentiation Differentiation offunctions of inverse functions defined by means

ofa parameter

DerivativesofTrigonometrical Functions

Appendix

CHAPTER V

Successive Differentiation

Notation General Theorems. MeanValue Theorems

Introduction

Calculation of nth derivative. Some standard

results

Determination of the th derivative of rational

functions

Determination of the nth derivative of a pro-

duct of the powers of sines and cosines

Leibnitz's theorem

Value of the nth derivative for x0

CHAPTER VI

Rolled theorem

Lagrange's mean value theorem

Some deductions from mean value theorem

Cauchy's meanvaluetheorem

72

72

74

74

76

78

TO

81

86

88

88

89

93

96

97

97

99

100

102

104

108

113

116

120 118 . 130 136

137

133

130

121

123

( vn )

6*6,6-7. Taylor's development ofa function in a finite

form ; Lagrange's and Cauchy's forms of re-

mainders

Appendix

CHAPTER VII

Maxima andMinima, Greatest and Least values

7-1. 7*6.

7*2.

Definitions

A Application necessarycondition to problems for extreme values Introduction

CHAPTER VIII

.

7-3,7-4. Criteria for extremevalues

Evaluation of limits. Indeterminate forms

8-1.

8-2. 8-5.

8-4. 8-6.

8'7.

Limitof [/(x)/i r (x)]

when/(x)->0 and F(x)->0

Limit of [/(x)/F(x)] when/(;c)->oo and F(xj -*oo

Limit of [/(x).F(x)] when/(x)->0 and F(x)->oo

Limit of[/(*) F(x)J when/(x)->oo and F(x)->oc

Limit of

/(x)

F'(\Y

l

"

'

under various conditions

CHAPTER IX

Taylor's Infinite Series

9* 1 .

Definition of convergence and of the sum ofan expansions of

Formal expansions of functions

Use of infinite series for evaluating limits

Appendix. Rigorous proofs

ex , sin x, cos x, log (l-fx),

ofthe

(l+x)m

infinite series

9-2,9*3. Taylor's and Maclaurin's infinite series

9-4.

9-5.

140

145

148

149

151

157

165

166

170

173

174

175

179

180

181

185

188

CHAPTER X

FUNCTION OF WO VARIABLES

10 4 1.

10'2.

10'6. 10*4.

10*5.

10*7.

10*71.

Partial Differentiation

Introduction

Functions of two variables and their domains

of definition

Continuity ofa function of two variables

Limit ofa function of two variables

Partial Derivatives

Geometrical representation of a function of

two Geometrical variables interpretation of partial derivatives

193

193

194

195

196

197

( VIII )

10*81. Eider's theorem on Homogeneous functions

10*82. Choice ofindependent variables.

A new Nota-

tion

10*91. Theorem on total Differentials.

Calculation

Approximate

10*93* Differentiation of Composite Functions

10*94. Differentiation of Implicit Functions.

Appendix. Equality of Repeated Derivatives.

Extreme values of functions of two variables.

Lagrange's Multipliers

IT!.

11*3. 11*4.

11*5.

11-6.

12-1; 12*2.

12*3. 12-6. 12*4.

12*5.

12-7. 12-8.

13'1.

13>2.

13-3. 13-4.

13-5.

MiscellaneousExercises I Polar Co-ordinates

bola

curve. Cissoid, Strophoid, semi-Cubical para-

Implicit Cartesian Equations. Branches of a

Hypocycloid. Epicycloid

Parametric Cartesian Equations. Cycloid,

Explicit Cartesian Equations. Catenary

CHAPTER XI

SomeImportant Curves

Polar Equations. Cardioide, Leinniscate.

Curves rm=am cos w0, Spirals,

Curves

r~a sin 3$ and r=a sin U0

CHAPTER XII

Tangents and Normals

Explicit, Implicit and Paramedic Cartesian

equations

Angle ofintersection of two curves

Cartesian sub-tangent and sub-normal Pedal Equations. Polar equations

Polar sub-tangent and sub-normal

Perpendicular from the pole to a tangent

Angle between radius vector and tangent

Pedal Equations. Cartesian equations

CHAPTER XIII

Derivative of Arcs

On the meaning oflengths of arcs. An axiom

Length of an arc as a function

To To Todetermine determine determine dsjdt dsjde ds/dx for for for the the the curve curve curve y=f(x) r=/(0)

*=/(0, ?=/(')

.,.

-

199

204

206

210

230 213

232-237

238

239

243

247

248

254

262

264

266

267

270

271

272

274

275

275

276

277

CHAPTER XIV

Concavity, Convexity, Inflexion

14-).

14*2.

1 -t-3.

14-4.

15-1.

15-2.

Definitions

Investigation of the conditions for a curve to be Curvature, Evolutes

concave upwards or downwards or to have in-

flexion at a

point

Another criterion for point of inflexion

Concavity and convexity w.r. to line

CHAPTERXV

Introduction, Definition

Curvature of a circle

of Curvature

of Curvature lo'-l'O. Radius ofCurvature of Curvature for for pedal polar curves curves

15vJ.

15-4.

Newtonian Formula.

15-47. Radius

Radius

Radius of Curvature for Cartesian curves.

Explicit Equations. Equations. Implicit Newton's Equations. for-

Parametric

mulae for radius of curvature. Generalised

15*48. Radius ofCurvature for tangential polar curves

15-51. Centre Curvature. Evolute. Involute. Circle

of curvature. Chord of curvature

15*5"). Two properties of evolutes

CHAPTER XVI

Asymptotes

16-1.

Definition

IO31. Determination Determination of of Asj^mptotes Asymptotes parallel to co-

16'2.

ordinate axes

,.:_<

lfi-32. Asymptotes of generalrational Alge^raic'Equations

"

1(5-4. lfi-5.

](>(>.

I(r7. 1C-8.

17*1.

17-2.

Asymptotes Asymptotes by by inspection expansion

Intersection of a curve and its asymptotes

Position of a curve relative to its asymptotes

Asymptotes in polar co-ordinates

CHAPTER XVII

Singular Points, Multiple Points

Introduction Conditions for multiple points,

Definitions

17-31. Tangents at the origin

17*4,

,

281

282

284

285

290

291

291

292

298 304

299

300

310

313

313

315

317

324

325

328 329

331

335

336

336

339

17-5.

Types of cusps

342

17-6.

18-4. 18*2. 18-3.

18-6.

18-6.

19 f l.

Radii of curvature at multiple points Envelopes

One parameter family of curves

CHAPTER XVIII

Curve Tracing

Procedure for tracing curves

Equations

ofthe form }> 2 =/(x)

Equations ofthe form y*+yf(x)+F(x)-^0

Polar Curves

Parametric Equations

CHAPTER XIX

19*2,19'3. Definitions. Envelopes ofy=MX-t-ajm

19*4.

19*5.

19*6.

obtained and its envelope 'ab initio*

Determination ofEnvelope

Evolute ofcurve as the Envelope of its normals

Geometrical relations between a family of curves

Miscellaneous Exercises II

Answers

345

348

349

357

359

364

369

369

270

37:2

372

378-82

,,. 383-408

CHAPTER I

REAL NUMBERS

FUNCTIONS

itself. with Introduction. the It various specially operations introduces The subject with and of deals them Differential with that what it Calculus primarily is called takes concerns Limiting its

stand upon the aggregate of numbers and it is with numbers and

operation in addition to being concerned with the Algebraic opera-

tions of Addition and Multiplication and their inverses, Subtraction

and Division, and is a developmentofthe important notion of Instan-

taneous rate of change which is itself a limited idea and, as such, it

finds application to all those branches of human knowledge which

deal with the same. Thus it is applied to Geometry, Mechanics and

other branches of Theoretical Physics and also to Social Sciences such

as Economics and Psychology.

It may be noted here that this application is essentially based the application of Calculus to Mechanics, the first step is td~correlate

the two notions of Time andNumber, i.e., to measure time in terms

instance, we are concerned with the notion oftime and, therefore, in

ofnumbers. Similar is the case with other notions such as Heat,

investigation in any department of knowledge. In Mechanics, for

measure the particular quantity or magnitude which is the object of

on the notion of measurement, whereby we employe-numbers to

Intensity of Light, Force, Demand, Intelligence, etc.

The formula^

tion ofan entity in terms of numbers, i.e., measurement, must, of

course, take note ofthe properties which we intuitively associate with

the same. This remark will later on be illustrated with reference to

the concepts of Velocity, Acceleration Gwry^fr&e, etc.

The importance ofnumlTe^l^/Bfe-sradj^bfi^subject in hand

being thus clear,

we will

in some*.of the; :f#ltowig. articles,

see how

we

were first introduced to the notion of number and how, in course of 'Fundamentals ofAnalysis' by Landau.

excellent account of the. -Development of numbers is given in

It may also be mentioned here.that even though it satisfies a

deep philosophical need to base the theory part of Calculus on the

notion *>f number ialohe, to the entire exclusion of every physical

basis, but a rigid insistence on the same is not within the scope of

time, this notion came to*be subjected to a series of generalisations.

It is, however, not intended to give here any logically connect-

ed amount of the development of tl>e system of real numbers, also

known some well as Arithmetic known salient Continuum facts and will only suffice a very for our brief purpose. reference to

An

2

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS

this book and intuitive geometrical notion of Point, Distance, etc.,

will sometimes be appealed to for securing simplicity.

1-1.

Rational numbers and their representation by points along a

straight line.

I'll.

Positive Integers.

It was to the numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. r

that we were first introduced through the process of counting certain

objects.

The totality ofthese numbers is known as the aggregate of

natural numbers, wholenumbers orpositive integers. and'division. Thus, for example, the symbols

this is not the case in respect of the inverse operations ofsubtraction

restrictedly possible in relation to the aggregate of positive integers,

While the operations of addition and multiplications are^,un-

added are meaningless to the former in respect class. of the aggregate ofpositive integers.

1*12.

Fractional numbers. This is known as the class of fractions

At a later stage, another class of

numbers like p\q (e.g., |, |) wherep and q are natural numbers, was

and it obviously includes natural numbers as a sub-class ; q being

equal to 1 in this case.

The introduction of Fractional numbers is motivated, from an is known The introduction as the aggregate of Negative of rational numbers numbers. is motivated, from an

abstract point of view, to render Division unrestrictedly possible and,

from concrete point of view, to render numbers serviceable for

measurement also in addition to counting.

1-13. Rational numbers. Still later, the class of numbers was

enlarged by incorporating in it the class of negative fractions includ-

ing negative integers and zero. The entire aggregate ofthese numbers

Every rational

number is expressible as p\q, where p and q are any two integers,

positive and negative and q is not zero.

abstract point of view/ to render Subtraction always possible and, tant property of the aggregate of rational numbers is that the

operations of addition, multiplication, subtraction and division can

be performed upon any two such numbers, (with one exception which

1-14. Fundamental operations on rational numbers. An impor-

fall, etc.

oppositely directed pairs of entities such as, gain and loss, rise and

from concrete point of view^, to facilitate a unified treatment oi

T15) and the number obtained as the result

is considered below in to note that the only exception to the above property is 'Division

ofthese operations is again a rational number.

This property is

expressed

by saying tli^t the ag^egate of

rational numbers is closed

with respect to the four fundamental

operations.

1-15. Meaningless operation of division by zero. It is important

REAL NUMBERS

3

by zero' which is a meaningless operation.

This may be seen as

follows and the : division will be intelligible only, if and only if, the determi-

To divide a by b amounts to determining a number c suchthat

bc=a,

nation of c is uniquely possible.

Also any Now, number there is when no number multiplied which by zero when produces multiplied zero by so zero that pro- 0/0

duces a number other than zero so that aJO is no number when 0^0. Then

may be any number.

On account of this impossibility in one case and indefiniteness in

the other, the operation of division by zero must be always avoided.

A disregard of this exception often leads to absurd results as is

illustrated below in (/).

(i) Let

jc- 6. 6, we get 6, which is zero here, is responsible for this

jc+6=l.

6+6=1, i.e., 12= 1.

;c2 -36:=.x-6,

(x--6)(jc-f.6)=Jt 8.

or

Dividing both sides by jc

which Division is clearly by absurd. jc

absurd conclusion.

(ii) We may also remark in this connection that

X ^lf=( *~^~ 6) =x+6, only when *j66.

(1)

For *=6, the left hand expression, (je 2 36)/(x 6), is meaning-

less whereas the right hand expression, x-f6, is equal to 12 so that

the equality ceases to hold for Jt=6.

The equality (1) above is proved by dividing the numerator

and denominator of the fraction (x 2

36)/(x

6) by

(.x

6) and this

operation of division is possible only when the divisor (jc -6) ^0, i.e* 9

when x^6. This explains the restricted character ofthe equality (1).

Ex. 1. Show that the aggregate of natural numbers is not closed with

respect to the operations of subtraction and division. Also show that the

aggregate ofpositive fractions is not closed with respect to the operations of terminating