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4/9/2013

InducedACInterference,
Corrosion&Mitigation
PreparedforNACE/Pipeliners JointMeeting
Atlanta,GA
April8,2013
BryanEvans
VicePresident
Corrosion&IntegritySolutions
Grayson,GA
7709850505
bevans@cisolutionsllc.com
4/9/2013

AbouttheSpeaker
BryanEvans,E.I.T.
B.S.CivilEngineeringTechnology
SouthernPolytechnicStateUniversity,Marietta,GA,1993
NACECathodicProtectionSpecialist No.9754
NACECoatingInspectorLevel1 No.21458
15 years of experience in corrosion, cathodic protection, pipeline
integrity and AC mitigation as a consultant & installation contractor.
Experience in both field testing, design and construction.
Former Chairman of the NACE Atlanta Section
Currently, a coowner/operator of a woman owned, small business
providing consulting/contracting in corrosion and cathodic protection
services based in Grayson, GA.

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WHATISINTERFERENCE?

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Asunderstoodinthepipelineindustry:
Anydetectableelectricaldisturbanceona
structurecausedbyastraycurrent
Tofurtherclarify:
Straycurrentisdefinedasunintended
electricalpath

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PossibleSourcesofInterference
ACandDCTransitSystems
WeldingOperations
CathodicProtectionSystems
HighvoltageDCtransmissionsystems
HighvoltageACtransmissionsystems
Lowfrequencycommunicationsystems
Telluric(Geomagnetically induced)currents

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TypesofInterference
DCInterference mostcommonlythoughtof
withinthepipelineindustryandpotentially
mostdamaging
ACInterference becomingmorecommon
duetoHVPLjointusecorridors
TelluricInterference leastcommonbut
problematicduetodynamicchanges
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DCInterference

Stray

current interference occurs when DC current


travels along a nonintended path.

Where DC stray current is received by a structure, the


area becomes cathodic and generally, no corrosion
occurs

Where DC stray current exits the structure to return to


its source, corrosion occurs and depending on
magnitude of stray current, can lead to highly
accelerated corrosion failures.

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DCInterference
UsingFaradaysLaw,weightlossisdirectly
proportionaltocurrentdischargeandtime
Steelisconsumedat~21lbs/ampyear
Example: A1inchdiameterconeshapedpitin0.500thicksteel
weighs0.04pounds.
OneampereofDCcurrentdischargingfroma1inchdiameter
coatingholidaywouldcauseathroughwall,coneshapedpitto
occurin0.0019yearsor16hours.

DCstraycurrentcorrosioncanbeaseriousproblem!!

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ACInterference
A pipeline can experience AC interference as a
result of being in the proximity of any AC power
line. However, the vast majority of interference
problems are created by threephase (3) power
transmission systems because these involve both
high currents (during steadystate and fault
conditions) and high voltages. Moreover, these
system are more likely to run parallel to
pipelines for long distances.
A 3 power transmission system consists of
three energized conductors; Each conductor ~
same voltage to ground, and each carries ~
same current.

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WhyisACInterferenceaProblem?
AC Interference introduces a series of issues into the
operation of pipeline system:
PotentialofPersonnelSafetyIssues
PotentialforACCorrosion
PotentialforPipelineandCoatingDamage

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TelluricInterference
Telluric currents are currents that are geomagnetically induced on the earth and on
metallic structures, such as power lines and pipe lines, as a result of the interaction of solar
particles on the earths magnetic field.
The solar plasma arises from two solar phenomena: sun spot activity and corona mass
ejections (CME), which are commonly referred to as solar flares. The geomagnetic storms
that result from the interaction of the solar plasma with the earths magnetic field cause
currents to be induced in the earth and metallic structures on the earth.
Note: Solar activity typically runs ~ 11 year cycles of activity. The next solar maximum is
predicted to peak in May 2013.

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SeverityofCorrosion
Theseverityofcorrosiondependsonthemagnitudeofthestraycurrentandtimeas
relatedbyFaradaysLaw:

Wtotal =(M/nF)*t*Icorrosion
Where:

Wtotal =weightloss(grams)atanodeorweightgainatcathode
M=Atomicweight(grams)ofthematerialcorrodingorbeingproduced
n=numberofchargetransfersthroughtheoxidationorreductionreactions
F=Faradaysconstant(96,500coulombsperequivalentweight)
t=timethecorrosioncelloperated(seconds)
Icorrosion =corrosioncurrentin(Amps)

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Alternating Current Power Grid System


Asystemofhightensioncablesbywhichelectricalpowerisdistributedthroughout
aregion

Powertravelsfromthepowerplanttoyourhousethroughasystemcalled
the powerdistributiongrid.
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BasicCorrosionMechanism
MetallicPath
e-

Electrolyte
(water,soil,
mud,etc.)

e-

Cathode(protected)
e- Water

e-

Anode(corrodes)

Intypicalsoils,atCathode:

forms

eee-

Steel

water/oxygen protectivefilm

Copper

Electronsconsumedby

e-

e-

CorrosionCurrent
(ConventionalCurrentFlow)
Intypicalsoils,atAnode:
Irongoesintosolutionandcombineswithions
intheelectrolytetoformcorrosionDeposits

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Corrosion
Deposits
14

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ACPipetoSoilPotentialMeasurement
11.32

Negati
ve
_
+

V AC

CopperCopperSulfate

HighImpedanceVoltmeter

ReferenceElectrode

(MillerLC4Pictured)
Areaof
Pipe
detected
by
electrode

Polarizationfilm

Pipeline
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SoilResistivityTesting
Typically,completedviaASTMG57,Wenner 4PinMethod.
FieldResistivityMeasurements
SinglePinResistivityMeasurements
SoilBoxLaboratoryResistivityMeasurements

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SoilResistivityTesting

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Dataloggers

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CloseIntervalSurvey(CIS)

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CloseIntervalSurvey(CIS)

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10

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DirectCurrentVoltageGradient(DCVG)

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ACSTRAYCURRENTINTERFERENCE

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PipelinesinCongestedPowerROW

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ACInterference
ThemagneticfieldgeneratedbytheoverheadpowerlinesinducesanACvoltage
ontothepipeline(whichcreatesACcurrents).Themagnitudeofsuchcurrents
dependonmanyfactorssuchascoatingcondition,soilcomposition,powerline
voltage,separationdistance,etc.

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SharedRightofWays
New(clear)RightofWaysaredifficulttoobtainfornew
pipelineapplications
Moreattractiveoptionistoshareanexistingrightofway
withotherpipelinesorwithexistingrightofwaywithan
overheadelectricpowertransmissionsystem
Duetothelimitedamountofland,andthecostassociated
withacquiringROWsharedrightofwayswillbemoreand
morecommoninthecomingyears.

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ACInterference
TheelectromagneticfieldcreatedbyACpowerchanges60timespersecondper
phase.
Metallicstructuressubjecttoachangingelectromagneticfieldwillexhibitan
inducedvoltage(henceinducedACcurrent).
PhasetogroundfaultscanexposeanundergroundstructuretoveryhighAC
currents

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Code CFR192
Where AC Interference effects falls within the Code:
192.473ExternalCorrosionControl:InterferenceCurrents.
(a) Each operator whose pipeline system is subjected to stray
currents shall have in effect a continuing program to
minimize the detrimental effects of such currents.

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Code CFR192
192.328Additionalconstructionrequirementsforsteelpipe
usingalternativemaximumallowableoperatingpressure.
SpecialPermitLines80%SMYS
(e)Interferencecurrents.
(1)Foranewpipelinesegment,theconstructionmustaddress
theimpactsofinducedalternatingcurrentfromparallel
electrictransmissionlinesandotherknownsourcesof
potentialinterferencewithcorrosioncontrol.

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Standards&GuidanceDocuments
NACE SP 0177 Mitigation of Alternating Current and
Lightning Effects on Metallic Structures and Corrosion Control
Systems.
ANSI / IEEE Standard 80 Guide for Safety in AC Substation
Grounding.
EPRI/AGA Mutual Design Considerations for Overhead AC
Transmission Lines and Gas Pipelines.
Canadian Electrical Code C22.3 No. 6M1987 Principles and
Practices of Electrical Coordination between Pipelines and
Electric Supply Lines.
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ACInterference
Electrostatic(Capacitive)Coupling
Abovegroundstructuresonly
(suchasanabovegroundteststation,acar,orpipestorednearditch)
Electromagnetic(Inductive)Coupling
Structureactsassecondarycoil
Structureaboveorbelowground
(mostimportantcomponent,causesACcorrosionofsteelaswellas
personnelhazardpotential)
Conductive(Resistive)Coupling
Buriedstructuresonly(duringlinefaults)

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ACInterference CapacitiveCoupling
Caused by accumulation of electro static
voltage resulting in a capacitance
coupling (buildup) between the power
line and the pipeline.
Typically,occursduringconstruction
whencoatedandungroundedjoints
ofpipearenearaHVACpowerline
Commonataboveground
components;suchas:teststations,
risers,valvesetc.
Unlikelyonburiedpipelinebecause
ofthelowpipetoearthcapacitance

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ACInterference InductiveCoupling
Causedbycurrentflowinthepowerlinewhich
createsanelectromagneticfieldsurrounding
theparallelingpipeline.
Occursduringnormaloperating
conditionsofthepowerline.
Magnitudecanreach100sofvolts
andpresentingshockhazards
Pipelineswithin1000lfofaHVAC
powerlineshouldbeinvestigated,in
particulariftheyshareacommon
ROWinparallel.

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ACInterference InductiveCoupling

Voltage and currents are


electromagnetically induced
on to a pipeline in the same
manner that an inductive
pipe locator induces an audio
signal onto a pipeline.
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ACInterference Resistive Coupling


Directcontactbetweenalivecomponentofthepowerlineandan
exposedmetallicstructure.Occurduringgroundfaultconditionsor
duringlightningstrikes.
Notcommon.
Veryshortduration(breakerswilltrip).Typically,0.1secondsor
lessonhighvoltagesystems.
Potentialscanexceed15,000volts.
Pipelineruptureshaveoccurredduetothesefaultconditions.
Cancausemeltingorcrackingofthepipewall.
Pipelinecoatingstressisalargeconcern.
MetallossduetoACcurrents~2.0lbs/ampyear(~10%ofDC
metalloss);butthemagnitudeispotentiallymuchhigher.
Especially,ingroundfaultconditions.
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ACInterference ResistiveCoupling
CAUSESOFPOWERLINEFAULTCONDITIONS
Onhighvoltagepowerlines faultsaremostlikelytooccurasthe
resultoflightning,whichcanionizetheairinthevicinityofan
insulator.
Highwinds
Failureofthepowerline structuresorinsulators.
Accidentalcontactbetweenpowerlines andotherstructures
(cranes,constructionequipment,etc).

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ACInterference
FactorscontributingtoACInterference:
SoilResistivity.
Magnitudeofsteadystatecurrentinpowerline.
Geometry Separationdistanceandorientation
betweenpowerlineandpipeline.
Powerlineoperatingcharacteristics.
Magnitudeanddurationoffaultcurrents.
Groundingcharacteristics.
Pipelinecoatingtype.
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ACInterference
HighVoltageACPowerLinescancause:
1. PersonnelShockHazardDueToInducedAC
Voltages.
2. Corrosionofthesteel.
3. Coatingdamage.

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PersonnelSafety
Industry standard for mitigation of induced AC voltage that a
person should be exposed to is 15 volts to a coppercopper
sulfate (CSE) reference electrode.
Safetystandardsforpersonnelarebasedon:
1.StepPotentials
2.TouchPotentials

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CourtesyNACE

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PersonnelSafety
Safetyconsiderationsshouldbeconsideredatalltimesincluding:
1. Constructionphase:
Temporarygroundingconnections(bonds).
GroundRods.
Barepipecasing.
Groundingstrapsonvehicles/equipment.
2.TypicalOperation&Maintenance:
ACMitigationMeasures.
EmployeePPE.

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ACCorrosion
CharacteristicsofACcorrosion:
1. Typicallyareasoflowsoilresistivity.
2. Typicallylocatedatcoatingdefects.
3. Harddomeshapedclusterofsoilandcorrosionproducts
4. Typicallyresultsinroundedshapedpits.
5. Typicallypitsizelargerthancoatingdefect

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ACCorrosion
BasedonrecentstudiesofACcorrosionrelatedfailures,thefollowing
guidelinewasdeveloped:

NoACinducedcorrosionatACcurrentdensities<1.86A/ft2 (20A/m2 ).

ACcorrosionisunpredictableforACcurrentdensitiesbetween1.86A/ft2
to9.3A/ft2(20to100A/m2 ).

ACcorrosiontypicallyoccursatACcurrentdensities>9.3A/ft2 (~100A/m2 ).

Highestcorrosionratesoccuratcoatingdefectswithsurfaceareasbetween
0.16in2 0.47in2(1and3cm2 )

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ACCorrosion
RecentstudiesrelatedtoAChaveconcludedthefollowing:
1.
2.

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AC does not have any significant effect on the polarization or depolarization of


cathodically protected steel.
It has been found that excessive amounts of CP can actually increase AC corrosion
rates. This has been attributed to the lowering of the electrolyte resistivity
immediately adjacent to the site of the holiday, which coincides with the high pH
resulting from increased levels of CP.

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Hereisanactualscenario:
AnumberofanomalieswerediscoveredafteraregularlyscheduledILIrun.
Thekeyinformationisasfollows:

24Diameterx0.375wallNaturalGasTransmissionPipeline
LocatedinLA
Pipewasinstalledin1992,andhasaFBEcoating
Soilresistivityrangedfrom800to2000ohmcm(4pin)and as
littleas400ohmcm(viasoilbox)
pHatandaroundtheimmediatevicinityofthedefect12.5
PipelinehadeffectivecathodicprotectionIRFreepipetosoil
potentialsof1100mVvs.CSE
Pipelinewasfoundtohave6.1voltsAConthelineatthedefect
location.Given<15VAC,thisisnotapersonnelhazardissue.

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
PowerLineandPipelineAlignment

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#1

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#1

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#1

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#1 ~20%WallLoss

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#2

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#2 50%WallLoss

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ACCorrosion:CaseStudy
Anomaly#2

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FaultConditions PipelineDamage
Fault currents from power lines can be collected and discharged from pipe
lines in the vicinity of the fault.
Coating damage can occur when the current picked up by the pipe line
exceeds the dielectric strength of the coating material. Coating stress
voltages:
2 kV for tape wraps and coal tar coatings
3 to 5 kV for fusion bonded epoxy and polyethylene
Arching resulting from the discharge of the fault current can cause
structural damage to the pipeline in excess of >5000 volts

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REVIEW KEYPOINTS:
Mostimportant thingstorememberrelatedtoACVoltages:
15voltLimitationforProtectionofPersonnel
Voltagesof1000volts 3000voltsCausesCoatingDamage
>5000voltsCanCausePipeStructuralDamage
ACdoesnothaveanysignificanteffectonthepolarizationordepolarizationof
cathodically protectedsteel
ACcorrosiontypicallyoccursatACcurrentdensitiesgreaterthan100A/m2 (~9.3A/ft2).
Highestcorrosionratesoccuratcoatingdefectswithsurfaceareasbetween1and3
cm2 (0.16in2 0.47in2)

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ACInterferenceStudy DataNecessary
DatarequiredforACComputerModeling:
1.

2.
3.

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Soilconditions.ResistivityviaASTMG57(Wenner 4Pin)
atvariousspacings todevelopanApparentResistivity
BarnesLayerAnalysis(EmpiricalModeling)
InverseModelingSoftware
CurveMatching
Pipelinecharacteristics(materialsofconstruction).
Pipelineandpowerlinealignment.

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ACInterference DataNecessary
DatarequiredforACComputerModeling:
4. Powersystemcharacteristics:
OperatingVoltage.
PeakLoading
Daytimevs.nighttime
Seasonal:summervs.winter
Weekdayvs.weekend
FaultCurrents.
PhaseTranspositions changeinphasearrangement
TowerConfigurations height,horizontaldistance,phasearrangement,shield
wirearrangement
Horizontalseparationfrompipeline
Static(Shield)Wire.
GroundingDesign.
CounterpoiseData.
Substationlocations.

Note:Mustconsidersteadystate,peakloading,timesoflowerresistivity,
andtimesoffaultconditions:
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ACInterference DataNecessary

TYPICALACTRANSMISSIONTOWERCOMPONENTS
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ACInterference DataNecessary

Note:Mustconsidersteadystate,peakloading,timesoflowerresistivity,
andtimesoffaultconditionsofeachHVPLinthecorridor
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MethodsforcollectingPowerLineData:
SubmeterGPS DataLoggers

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MethodsforcollectingPowerLineData:
SurveyGrade LaserRangeFinders

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PipelineElectricalCharacterisitics:
LongitudinalElectricField(LEF):
Theelectromagneticfieldproducedbythepowerline currentgeneratesanelectricfield
runninglongitudinallywiththepipeline.ThisisknownastheLEF.Itisacomplexnumber
thathasbothmagnitudeandaphaseangle.

Voltagesthatareinducedonthepowerline aredirectlyproportionaltothemagnitudeofthe
LEF.
LEFisdirectlyproportionaltotheelectromagneticfield,anddirectlyproportionaltothe
powerline phasecurrents.
Becauseelectromagneticfieldstrengthvarieswithdistance,sodoesLEF.
LEFisalsoafunctionofhowconductorsarearrangedontheHVACtower.
Separationdistancebetweenphaseconductorsisakeyfactor.LEFincreasedlinearlywith
increasingconductorseparation.

PipelinePowerline GeometryforCalculationofLEF

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LongitudinalElectricField(LEF):

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HVACTowerConfigurations:
In the Single Horizontal Circuit example
shown, Phase C has the most effect on
the pipe line and Phase A the least. The
greater the separation distance the less
effect by that Phase. Figure to Right

EffectofPhaseConductorSeparation

PhaseArrangementsforDoubleVerticalCircuit

PhaseTransposition
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ACInterference ComputerModeling
TypicalACConditionsModeled:
SteadyStateInducedACLevels
PipePotentialsUnderPhasetoGroundFault
PotentialstoRemoteEarth
StepPotentials
TouchPotentials
Identifyhighriskareas(phasetranspositions,powerlinecrossings,
areasofconvergence/divergence,etc.)
15voltLimitationforProtectionofPersonnel
1000volts 3000voltsCausesCoatingDamage
>5000voltsCanCausePipeStructuralDamage

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ACInterference ComputerModeling
SeveralorganizationsandcompanieshavedevelopedsoftwaretomodelcomplexRightof
WayconditionsrelatedtoInducedACvoltages.Thisisthemostefficientmeansto
effectivelyevaluateWhatIfScenariosduringthedesignphase.Themodelinginvolvesvery
complexmathematicalformulaetoanalyzethevariousscenarios.
Therangefromaffordabletoveryexpensive(~$50,000/license),andallhaveProsand
Cons.Someindustryavailablemodelsareasfollows:
PipelineResearchCouncilInternational(PRCI)
SafeEngineeringServices &Technologies
CDEGS
SafeROW
ELSYCA
OTHERS
RULEOFTHUMBCOSTSFORFIELDDATACOLLECTION,MODELINGANDDESIGNFEESFORACMITIGATION
RANGEFROM$1,500TO$3,500/mileonup
Forcomputermodelingonly,$1,000to$1,500onupdependingoncomplexityoftheHVPLcorridor.

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ACInterference MitigationMeasures
SeparatestructureandACline.
Usedeadfrontteststations(toeliminateshockhazard).
Installpolarizationcellstoground(grounding).
Installsemiconductordevicestoground(grounding).
UsebarecoppercablesorzincribbonasgroundswithDCdecoupling

devices(capacitors,polarizationcells,ISPs).
Installequipotential groundmatsatvalves,teststations(forshock
hazard)andcasingvents.
Usenocasingventsornonmetallic.

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COTTDeadFrontTestStation
(PersonnelProtection)

InsulatedTest
Posts

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COTTDeadFrontCouponTestStation
(PipelineSimulation CorrosionRates)

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PipelineDecoupling:
DEALINGWITHCONFLICTINGELECTRICALREQUIREMENTS:

Structuresmustbecathodically protected(CP)

CPsystemsrequireDCdecouplingfromground

AllelectricalequipmentmustbeACgrounded

Theconflict:DCDecoupling+ACGrounding

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PipelineDecoupling:
ReasonstoDCDecoupleFromACMitigationandElectricalSystemGround
Ifnotdecoupled,then:

CPsystemattemptstoprotectgroundingsystem

CPcoverageareareduced

CPcurrentrequirementsincreased

CPvoltagemaynotbeadequate

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Polarization(Kirk)Cell Grounding/Decoupling
FillHole
CellTerminals

PotassiumHydroxideSolution
w/mineraloil
StainlessSteel Plates

CellModel

RatedCapacityfor SteadyState No.ofPlates


0.5seconds(amps) Rating(amps)
(pairs)

Conductorsizes TotalWT.
(mm2)
lbs(kg)

K5A

5,000

30

#82AWG(1035)

K25

25,000

175

12

#2AWG250MCM
74(33.5)
(35125)

K50

50,000

350

25

#1/0AWG500MCM
90(40.8)
(50250)

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6(2.7)

DISADVANTAGES:
1.

2.

PotassiumHydroxide
Solution Hazardous
Caustic
Disposalofhazardous
materials

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SemiconductorDecouplingDevices
Grounding

PCR PolarizationCellReplacement

SSD SolidStateDecoupler
CourtesyofDairyland

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ExamplesofDeCouplingDevices Rating
PolarizationCellReplacement(PCR)

60HzFaultCurrent@1cycle:6,500;20,000;35,000A
@3cycles:5,000;15,000;27,000A

LightningSurgeCurrent@8X20seconds:100,000A
SteadyStateCurrentRating:45or80ampsAC
SolidStateDecoupler (SSD)

60HzFaultCurrent@1cycle:2,100;5,300;6,500;8,800A
@3cycles:1,600;4,500;5,000;6,800A

LightningSurgeCurrent@4X10seconds:100,000A;75,000A
SteadyStateCurrentRating:45ampsAC

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PCR

SolidStateDecoupling
IsolatingDevices

GradientControlMat

OVP

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MATCOR TheMitigator

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PLATTLINE ZincRibbon

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LORESCO EarthBackfills

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ERICO EarthGroundingMaterials

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TypicalACMitigationDesignLayout

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TypicalACMitigationDesignLayout

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ZincRibbonInstallation
forACMitigation Grounding

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Equipotential GroundMat

Test
Station

CoatedPipeline

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ZincGroundMat
Connected
toPipe

UsedtoProtectPersonnelfromElectricShock
(atteststations,valves,etc.)

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Equipotential GroundMat

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OtherACMitigationDesignLayouts
Point Grounding Deep Anode Grounding Well

Faraday Cage
Grounded Systems (NonDecoupled)
Combination / Multi Application Systems

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TestingtheEffectivenessof
ACMitigation:
AC

pipetosoil potential (at test stations and above ground


appurtenances) to test for shock hazard voltage

A CIS (both VDC and VAC) to test the effectiveness of the cathodic
protection system as well as the AC potentials on the line.
Note: For ON/OFF surveys, the use of decouplers is critical to collect OFF
(IR Free) potentials.

Calculation of IAC to determine risk of AC corrosion

Locate/identify additional localized mitigation measures, if needed.


Note: Collect additional, soil resistivity measurements at remaining high VAC
locations

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TestingtheEffectivenessof
ACMitigation:
AC Current Drains
Ground Resistance

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TestingtheEffectivenessof
ACMitigation:
Coupon Test Stations

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Questions???

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ThankYou
Mycontactinformationforanyotherfollowupquestionsor
comments:
BryanEvans
VicePresident
Corrosion&IntegritySolutions
Grayson,GA
7709850505
bevans@cisolutionsllc.com
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