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Nautilus Invitational 2013: Physics Test

g = 9.8 meters per second squared


0 = 8.85 x 1012 Farads per meter
ke = 8.99 x 109 Newton meters squared per Coulomb squared
h = 6.626 x 10-34 Joule-seconds
c = 2.998 x 108 meters per second
0 = 4 x 10-7 Tesla meters per Ampere
Express all answers to two significant figures using scientific notation.
Part A - Projectile motion
A bullet is launched at a 30 degree angle from the ground with a speed of 50 meters per second. It
encounters zero air resistance.
1) How long does it take for the bullet to hit the ground, in seconds?
2) How far does it travel as it does so, in meters?
3) What angle does it make with the ground when it hits the ground?
Part B - Rolling motion
A hollow sphere, with a mass of 144 grams and a radius of 2.0 cm, rolls on a table without slipping.
The table has static and kinetic coefficients of friction equal to 0.20. Its velocity is 5.0 meters per
second directly east. It has a moment of inertia whose formula is given by I = m r^2.
4) What is the translational kinetic energy of the sphere, in Joules?
5) What is the rotational kinetic energy of the sphere, in Joules?
6) If there is no air resistance, what is the frictional force acting on the sphere, in Newtons? In what
direction does it point?
Air resistance causes the sphere to decelerate at a constant rate of 1.25 meters per second squared.
Although this is not a perfect model, it can be modeled as a force acting on the spheres center of
mass.
7) How far will the sphere roll before changing direction, in meters?
8) What is the frictional force acting on the sphere, in Newtons? In what direction does it point?
Part C - Fields around a wire
A loop of positively charged wire, with a charge density of 50 microCoulombs per meter and a
radius of 20 centimeters, lies on a table and rotates counter-clockwise at 1000 radians per second.
Ignore relativistic effects.

9) What is the current in the loop, in Amperes?


10) What is the electric field 10 centimeters above the center of the loop, in Volts per meter? In
what direction does it point?
11) What is the magnetic field in the center of the loop, in Teslas? In what direction does it point?
Part D - Momentum of refracted light
When light enters a medium such as glass, it refracts; that is, it slows down and sometimes changes
direction. In addition, its momentum decreases - the momentum of a photon in a medium of index n
is equal to its regular momentum, divided by n.1 The remaining momentum is transferred to the
medium in which it travels.
The momentum of a photon in the vacuum is given by p = h / , where p is momentum, is
wavelength, and h is Plancks constant.
A photon of yellow (589.0 nm) light is fired at a glass crystal with mass 0.8 kg, length 10 cm, and
index of refraction 1.5. The glass crystal slides frictionlessly on a table.
12) What is the momentum of the light in the crystal, in kilogram meters per second?
13) What is the momentum of the crystal while the light is in it, in kilogram meters per second?
14) How long does the light take to travel the length of the crystal, in seconds?
15) How much does the crystal move while the light goes through it, in meters?
The fact that the answer to #15 is incredibly small is significant; it was proposed by Jacob
Bekenstein that this could be used to devise an experiment to detect quantum foam.
1

This was postulated by Max Abraham in 1909, but in 1908, Hermann Minkowski suggested the opposite was true - that
because its wavelength decreased, its momentum increased. Experiments have yet to conclusively determine which one
is correct - but in this problem, we will assume that Abrahams formula is right.

Nautilus Invitational 2013: Physics Exam Answer Document


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