You are on page 1of 12

Welcome to PYL100 course

Lecture-5 on 13/01/2015
By: Rajendra S. Dhaka
(rsdhaka@physics.iitd.ac.in)

PYL100:
Electromagnetic Waves and
Quantum Mechanics
Ch.4: Electric Fields in Matter
1

The Electric Displacement:


Gausss law in the presence of Dielectrics:
For closed surface:

! ! 1
"S E da = 0 Qenc

Qenc= total charge enclosed

within the surface.


0 = permittivity of free space

Lets apply the divergence theorem:


! !
! !
! E da = ( E) d
S

We can also write:


This gives

Qenc = d

! !
( E )d =

( ) d
V
0

= Volume charge
density

! ! 1
E =
0

Finally, we get
This is the Gauss law in differential form2

The Electric Displacement:


Gausss law in the presence of Dielectrics:
Total charge density

(bound +free)

Gauss law

E is the total field inside the dielectric,


not just that portion generated by polarization.

,where
This is the Gauss law for Dielectrics in differential form
(integral form)

The new field D is called the


Electric Displacement.
3

The Electric Displacement & Free Charges:


In situations in which Gauss Law helps, one
can use this new relation to calculate D, and
then to determine E from D, from the free
charges alone.
The use of D turns out to be most helpful
where the polarization is not built in, but
instead is induced by an external applied
electric field.
**Home Work**
Examples: 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, and 4.4 of Griffiths
4

Dielectrics in an Electric Field:


Lets consider a parallel-plate capacitor:

Electric field in the


region between the
plates can be found
by using Gausss law:

When we insert a dielectric in an electric field:


there is an induced charge of opposite sign
on the surface, and the net charge enclosed
by the Gaussian surface is
.

Gausss law becomes:


6

When we insert a dielectric in an electric field:


the effect of the dielectric is to weaken the
original field by a factor
:

induced polarization gives fields that try to


do the same thing as free charges in
conductors do.
cancel at least partially the applied electric
field. (E is smaller inside than outside).
7

Linear dielectrics:
Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant..
In most dielectric materials, the polarization
is proportional to the electric field:
(dipole moment
)
Such materials are called Linear dielectrics
the constant of proportionality is called the
electric susceptibility of the material.
This constant is dimensionless

depends on the microscopic structure of the


substance (also on external conditions like temp.)
8

Linear dielectrics:
Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant..
In above equation, E is the total field
(external + internal).
Hence, if we put a dielectric into an external
field E0, we will not know the exact value of P..

Because the external filed will polarize the


material.., which will produce its own field,
then contributes to the total field.., and this in
turn modifies the polarization.
Lets use the concept of displacement D,

Linear dielectrics:
Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant..
In linear media, we have
D (linear dielectric) is also proportional to E..
where,
permittivity of the material

is called the

In vacuum, is zero (because there is no


matter to polarize) and permittivity is .
10

Linear dielectrics:
The dimensionless quantity is called relative
permittivity or the dielectric constant,
which is the ratio of permittivity of the
material to permittivity of vacuum.

11

Solving dielectric problems:


Dielectric problems may be divided into two
types and solved accordingly:
Problems for which the P is specified: for these
we first find the bound charge densities
and
We then solve the equivalent problem of these
bound charges placed in vacuum
Problems for linear dielectrics: we use Gausss
law for D in terms of the free charges..
We then use the known permittivity &
susceptibility to find E and P.
12