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Original Title: Fixed head piles.pdf

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V. S. Phanikanth

Ph.D. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology

Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India and Scientific Officer F, Architecture and

Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085,

India; e-mail: vphanikanth@yahoo.com,vphanikanth@gmail.com

Deepankar Choudhury

Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of

Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India; dc@civil.iitb.ac.in

G. Rami Reddy

Professor of Homi Bhabha National Institute, Scientific Officer H, Reactor

Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085,

India

ABSTRACT

Pile foundations are often subjected to lateral loads due to earth pressure, earthquake loading, wave

force and wind forces etc. The pile design shall ensure estimation of ultimate pile load carrying

capacity and allowable pile deflection and thus both strength and serviceability aspects are considered.

In the present study, lateral load behavior of single pile in cohesionless soils is attempted for various

soil types viz., loose sand, medium sand and dense sand. The subgrade modulus of each soil type is

assumed based on approximate values available in the literature. The pile soil behavior is observed for

both dry and submerged conditions. The analysis is carried out considering fixed head pile and floating

tip at the base. Parametric studies have been carried out to evaluate the influence of pile and soil

properties on the flexural response of piles. The significance of soil type in altering the pile deflection

and flexural response is discussed. Also deflection and moment coefficients are evaluated for a typical

pile length for various soil types. Various methods available in pile-soil interaction analysis are

discussed. A computer program is developed using MATLAB by considering modulus of subgrade

reaction approach. Finite difference technique is chosen for the above analysis. The output of computer

program is validated with the available benchmark solutions in literature.

KEYWORDS: Laterally loaded piles; Fixed head pile; Flexural response; Characteristic

length; Deflection coefficient; Moment coefficient.

INTRODUCTION

Pile foundations are widely used in civil engineering constructions due to non-availability of bearing

capacity at the required depth and/or due to heavy super structure loads. Such foundation systems are

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required to be designed for lateral loading in addition to the vertical loads. Some of the examples which

require lateral load analysis of pile foundations are: (a) High rise buildings and tall chimneys subjected to

wind and/or earthquake loads, (b) quay and harbor structures subjected to horizontal forces due to the

impact of ships during berthing and wave action, (c) offshore structures with wind and wave loads etc.

Both the ultimate load and deflection are required to compute for design of single pile to maintain safety

and serviceability conditions intact. For short piles, based on earth pressure theory, Hansen (1961) had

developed the method to estimate the ultimate lateral resistance of rigid piles. Zhang et al. (2005)

proposed a simplified method for calculating the ultimate resistance exerted by the cohesionless soils

against laterally loaded piles. Using two forms of varying modulus with depth, Matlock and Reese (1960)

had given a generalized iterative solution for rigid and flexible piles subjected to lateral loads. For layered

soil system, using different constant moduli of subgrade reaction, Davisson and Gill (1963) studied the

case of a laterally loaded pile. Generalized solutions for laterally loaded pile in elasto-plastic soil have

been proposed by Reddy and Valsangkar (1970). An elasto-platic model was used by Madhav et al.

(1971) for obtaining the response of laterally loaded piles. Using earth pressure theory, Broms (1964a, b)

proposed the solutions for pile deflections for both short and long piles. Broms (1964a, b) method for

computing ground surface deflections of rigid and flexible, with fixed and free head piles was based on

Terzaghis (1955) modulus of subgrade reaction approach. A state-of-the-art discussion on soil modulus

and ultimate soil resistance for laterally loaded piles were given by Jamilokowski and Garassino (1977).

Algebraic expressions for pile head displacement and rotation for flexible piles subjected to lateral loads

was given by Randolph (1981). Influence of vertical load on the lateral response of piles in sand was

investigated by Karthigeyan et al. (2006). Very recently, response of single pile with free headed top and

floating tip under lateral loads in cohesionless soils is analyzed by Phanikanth et al. (2010). However the

similar study for fixed head single pile is still scarce.

Considering kinematic and inertial interactions, seismic lateral response of piles in liquefying soil was

proposed by Liyanapathirana and Poulos (2005a). A pseudo-static approach was proposed by

Liyanapathirana and Poulos (2005b) which can be more frequently used by the designers. Tabesh and

Poulos (2007), developed design charts for seismic analysis of single piles in clay based on range of

earthquakes recorded in northern America and Australia. In the present study, behavior of fixed head piles

with floating tip considering various soil types under lateral loading is attempted. Subgrade modulus

suggested by Terzhagi (1955) is used for the present analysis. Varied length and radius of pile in both dry

and submerged soils are considered to obtain the response of single fixed head pile in the present analysis.

In the design of pile foundations, it is usually necessary to evaluate the pile deflections, in addition to

estimating the ultimate pile load capacities to satisfy the serviceability aspects. Permissible deflection of

pile must not be exceeded by the actual deflection of pile even though the working load estimated using

factor of safety to the ultimate load is well below the permissible limit. The following methods are most

widely accepted methods, in estimating the pile deflections under lateral loads:

i) Continuous nature of soil medium is ignored while using the concept of modulus of subgrade

reaction (Reese and Matlock, 1956) and the pile reaction at a point is related to the deflection at that

point.

ii) Soil is idealized as an elastic medium using the elastic approach (Poulos, 1971a and b).

Because of its simplicity, the modulus of subgrade reaction approach is widely used. This method can

also consider the additional factors like nonlinearity, variation of subgrade reaction with depth and can

account for various soil layers.

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This approach treats the laterally loaded pile as a beam on elastic foundation. It is assumed that the

beam is supported by a Winkler (1867) soil model according to which the elastic continuum is replaced

by a series of infinitely closed independent and elastic soil springs. The pile is usually assumed to act as a

thin strip whose behavior is governed by the beam equation which was originally proposed by Hetenyi

(1946) for beam-on-elastic-foundation and is as given below:

+ = 0

(1)

where

Ep = Youngs modulus of pile material

Ip = Moment of Inertia of Pile material

kh= Modulus of subgrade reaction

y = pile deflection at a depth x below GL

Palmer and Thompson (1948) employed the following form to express the modulus of horizontal

subgrade reaction:

kx = kh (x/L)n

(2)

where

kh = value of kx at x=L (tip of pile)

n= a coefficient equal to or greater than zero.

The most commonly used value of n for sand and normally consolidated clays is zero. According to

Davisson and Prakash (1963), a more appropriate value of n be 1.5 for sands, 0.15 for clays under undrained conditions. For the value of n=1, the variation of kh with depth is expressed by the following

relationship:

kh = hx

(3)

Solutions to the above equations may be obtained analytically or numerically. Analytical solutions are

available only for uniform kh along pile depth. The scope of the present study is for cohesion-less soils

and hence Eq.(3) is applicable. For linear variation of kh (= h x) with depth numerical solutions like

finite difference method are usually employed. In the present study Finite difference technique is

employed for analyzing the pile response. The pile top is assumed to be fixed head and pile tip as floating

tip and their boundary conditions are also described.

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Using the central difference method at point i as given by Poulos and Davis (1980) and applying

boundary conditions for fixed head and floating tip single pile, one can get,

At the top of pile (at point 1):

d y

=H

dx

Shear = E I

Using Finite Difference Method at point 1: y

+2y

2y + y = HL /(E I n )

Using Finite Difference Method at point 1: y

+2y +y = 0

Shear = E I

Using Finite Difference Method at point n+1: y

d y

=0

dx

+ 2 y 2y

+y

=0

and

Moment = E I

d y

=0

dx

+y

=0

The equilibrium equations V=0 and M=0 will results in the following additional equations:

For load equilibrium

R = H and

R (n i)h = M

This approach is similar to that used by Phanikanth et al. (2010) for free head piles but with different

boundary conditions.

The solution requires the pressure distribution to be assumed and generally assumed and accepted

pressure distributions are stepped function, linear or parabolic variations. Based on the pressure

distribution the soil deflections and subsequently the soil reactions are evaluated (Bowles, 1968). Stepped

distribution was assumed in the present study.

Matrix equations may be developed using the above set of equations available at each node and with

the boundary conditions described. A computer program is developed using MATLAB to compute the

deflections, shear forces, bending moments and soil reactions.

The short rigid, long flexible or semi rigid behavior of the piles is evaluated by stiffness factors R and

T (also known as Characteristic length). These factors depend on the flexural rigidity EI of the pile and

1247

subgrade modulus. The subgrade modulus depends on the type of soil, width of pile, and depth of

influence of area and is related to Terzaghis (1955) modulus of subgrade reaction. For stiff over

consolidated clay the stiffness factor is given by,

R=

Where k=k1/1.5 and k1 is Terzaghis (1955) subgrade modulus in kN/m3.

For soft normally consolidated clays and for granular soils, the soil modulus is assumed to increase

linearly with depth. The stiffness factor (Characteristic length) for this case is given by

T=

The pile behavior is dependent on the Characteristic length T of the pile. When the length of the pile

exceeds 5T, the pile is considered as long pile and when the pile length is < 2T, the pile is considered as

short rigid pile (Das, 2004). Failure of a short rigid pile occurs when the lateral resistance of the soil has

been exceeded. The failure mechanisms of short rigid pile for free headed and fixed headed condition are

shown in Fig.1. In case of long flexible pile, the failure is associated when the moment at one or more

points exceeds the moment of resistance and the failure takes place by formation of one or two plastic

hinges along the pile length. The failure modes for long flexible pile are given in Fig. 2.

(a)

Plastic hinge

Figure 1: Typical failure modes for rigid pile [Phanikanth et al. (2010)]

- 1247 -

Plastic hinge

Plastic hinge

Figure 2: Typical failure modes for flexible pile [Phanikanth et al. (2010)]

SOIL REACTION

For a vertical pile at a depth x below the ground surface the pressure exerted by the soil on the pile

before and after the lateral movement of the pile is shown in Fig. 3a. It may be seen that the net force

exerted by the soil per unit length of the pile is zero before pile deflects. When the pile deflects the

pressure diagram on the pile is again shown in Fig. 3a.It may be seen that the net force exerted by the soil

per unit length of the pile is p. At any given depth x, soil reaction p will depend on the lateral

deflection y. A typical p-y relationship is shown in Fig. 3b. The p-y curve is usually nonlinear.

However, reasonably good accuracy may be achieved by assuming p-y curve to be linear.

(i)

(ii)

Lateral deflection (y)

Figure 3a: Soil pressure distribution (i) before and (ii) after pile deflection

1249

VERIFICATION OF RESULTS

The finite difference method (FDM) Program developed using MATLAB, is validated using available

solutions in the literature. The computer program is validated with Reese and Matlock (1956) with the

following input:

Horizontal load =100 kN; (Applied at the top of pile)

Constant modulus of subgrade (h) = 2600.0 kN/m3;

Radius of the pile =0.25m;

Modulus of elasticity of pile material=2.74x107 kN/m2;

Grade of concrete=M30;

The above input is considered for pile soil analysis and bending moments and deflections are

evaluated considering fixed head and floating tip. The pile cap is assumed to be at the ground level.

Results obtained are plotted in Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b showing variation of deflections, and bending moments

in the pile, along the soil depth based on FDM technique. These results are compared with that of solution

given by Reese and Matlock (1956) which are also shown in Fig. 4a and Fig. 4b. Clearly it can be seen

that the results are in excellent agreement with that of solutions available in literature.

- 1249 -

defelction(mm)

-2

10

2

4

Reese and Matlock (1956)

6

present study

L=15.0m; r=0.25m;

E=2.74e07 kN/sq.m

T=2.0043; kh=2600.0;

H=100.0 kN; M=-186.40 kNm

10

12

14

16

Figure 4a: Pile deflections along soil depth -Present study vs. Reese and Matlock (1956)

Moment(kN-m)

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

50

100

present study

L=15.0m; r=0.25m;

E=2.74e07 kN/sq.m

T=2.0043; kh =2600.0;

H=100.0 kN; M=-186.40 kNm

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

Figure 4b: Pile bending moments along soil depth -Present study vs. Reese and Matlock (1956)

RESPONSE

A Parametric study is carried out by varying the pile length and the pile response is obtained for

various pile lengths. Length of the pile is varied from 5.0 m to 20.0 m such that, the short pile behavior

and also long flexible pile behavior. Also the pile radius is varied to study the pile response for lateral

loading for various pile length to radius ratios. The pile radius is varied from 0.25m to 1.0m.Pile head is

assumed to be fixed and pile tip is considered as floating for the present analysis.

1251

Length of the pile= 5.0m;

Youngs modulus of the pile material = 2.74x107 kN/m2

Pile radius= 0.25 m

Horizontal load = 100.0 kN and is applied at the top of the pile.

The constant subgrade moduli in dry state for different soil types (h):

Loose sand =2600.0 kN/m3

Medium sand=7700.0 kN/m3

Dense sand=20000.0 kN/m3

The constant subgrade moduli in submerged state for different soil types (h):

Loose sand =1500.0 kN/m3

Medium sand=5200.0 kN/m3

Dense sand=12500.0 kN/m3

The relative stiffness factors [T = (EI/h)0.20] (dry state):

Loose sand =2.004

Medium sand=1.61

Dense sand=1.33

Non-dimensional depth coefficient Zmax (dry state):

Loose sand=2.49

Medium sand=3.09

Dense sand=3.75

The pile cap is assumed to be at the ground level. When the pile length is considered as 5.0 m, the

response for a range of soil types viz., loose sand, medium sand, and dense sand is analyzed and the

results are presented in Fig.5a for pile deflections. For non dimensional depth coefficient Zmax <=2 the

pile behaviour is short rigid. In the present problem Zmax considering loose sand is about 2.49 and hence

semi rigid behavior is observed as can be seen Fig. 5a. However under medium and dense sand condition

the flexible type behavior was observed and also here it can be seen that Zmax exceeds 2.0. Also it is

observed that pile deflections in loose sand are higher compared to medium sand and dense sand.

The variation of bending moment is also obtained and is presented in Fig. 5b. It is also observed that

the bending moments, are influenced by soil type and pile bending moments in loose sand is higher

compared to that of medium and dense sand, as can be seen in Fig. 5b.

- 1251 -

0.5

1.5

L=5.0m;r=0.25m;E=2.74e07

k N/sq. m; H=100.0 k N

2.5

3

Kh=2600.0 k N/cu.m

3.5

Kh=7700.0 k N/cu. m

Kh=20000 k N/cu. m

Kh=1500.0 k N/cu.m

Kh=5200.0 k N/cu. m

4.5

Kh=15200 k N/cu. m

5

-5

10

15

20

deflection-mm

0.5

1.5

Kh=2600.0 kN/cu.m

Kh=7700.0 kN/cu. m

Kh=20000 kN/cu. m

2

Kh=1500.0 kN/cu.m

Kh=5200.0 kN/cu. m

2.5

Kh=15200 kN/cu. m

3

L=5.0m;r=0.25m;

E=2.74e07k N/sq.m;H=100.0 k N

3.5

4.5

5

-250

-200

-150

-100

Moment-kNm

-50

50

The pile response is also evaluated considering submerged soil condition. The pile deflections under

submerged conditions are also presented in Fig.5a. Also bending moments, are presented in Fig.5b. It was

1253

observed that the pile undergoes higher deflections under submerged condition compared to dry state and

also semi rigid behaviour of the pile in case of loose sand was observed.

When the pile length is increased to 10.0m, it can be seen from Table 1a that Zmax varies from 5.0 to

7.5 and hence it is reasonable to predict flexible pile behaviour. The same is observed from the analysis

results and the pile deflections are presented in Fig.6a. Also it can be seen from this figure that the

stiffness of the surrounding soil has significant influence on the pile response.

Fig.6b shows the bending moment variation along depth of pile. The analysis is performed for

submerged condition and the pile deflections are again presented in Fig.6a. The bending moment

variation along the depth of the pile under submerged condition is presented in Fig.6b.

The analysis is also performed for pile length of 15.0 m and 20.0 m considering both dry and

submerged conditions and it is observed that the pile response is not affected by the increase in length any

more and is also consistent with Reese and Matlock (1956) theory which also says that the pile response

is not affected in the case of flexible piles where non-dimensional depth coefficient Zmax > 5.0.

0

3

Kh=2600.0 kN/cu.m

4

Kh=7700.0 kN/cu. m

Kh=20000 kN/cu. m

Kh=1500.0 kN/cu.m

Kh=5200.0 kN/cu. m

6

Kh=15200 kN/cu. m

7

L=10.0m;r=0.25m;E=2.74e07k N/sq.m;

H=100.0 k N;

10

-2

6

deflection-mm

10

12

- 1253 -

14

Table 1a: Input data considered for the present study as was reported by Phanikanth et

al.(2010)

Soil

condition

Dry

Submerged

Dry

Submerged

Dry

Submerged

Dry

Submerged

Pile

radius r (m)

Young's

modulus of

pile 'E'

(kN/m2)

Moment of

Inertia I

(m4)

Unit

subgrade

modulus h

(kN/m3)

Relative

Stiffness factor

T: T=(EI/h)0.2

Pile

lengthL (m)

Depth

coefficient

Zmax= L/T

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.60E+03

2.004133

5.0

2.494844

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

7.70E+03

1.612958

5.0

3.099895

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.00E+04

1.332647

5.0

3.751931

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.50E+03

2.23719

5.0

2.234947

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

5.20E+03

1.744699

5.0

2.865824

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.25E+04

1.463994

5.0

3.415315

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.60E+03

2.004133

10.0

4.989689

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

7.70E+03

1.612958

10.0

6.199789

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.00E+04

1.332647

10.0

7.503863

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.50E+03

2.23719

10.0

4.469893

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

5.20E+03

1.744699

10.0

5.731648

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.25E+04

1.463994

10.0

6.830629

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.60E+03

2.004133

15.0

7.484533

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

7.70E+03

1.612958

15.0

9.299684

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.00E+04

1.332647

15.0

11.25579

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.50E+03

2.23719

15.0

6.70484

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

5.20E+03

1.744699

15.0

8.597472

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.25E+04

1.463994

15.0

10.24594

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.60E+03

2.004133

20.0

9.979378

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

7.70E+03

1.612958

20.0

12.39958

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

2.00E+04

1.332647

20.0

15.00773

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.50E+03

2.23719

20.0

8.939786

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

5.20E+03

1.744699

20.0

11.4633

0.25

2.74E+07

3.068E-03

1.25E+04

1.463994

20.0

13.66126

1255

Kh=2600.0 k N/cu.m

Kh=7700.0 k N/cu. m

Kh=20000 k N/cu. m

Kh=15200 k N/cu. m

Kh=5200.0 k N/cu. m

Kh=1500.0 k N/cu.m

6

L=10.0m;r=0.25m;E=2.74e07 k N/sq.m;

H=100.0 k N;

7

10

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

Moment-kNm

50

100

The response of single piles in cohesionless soils is evaluated for a given horizontal load and moment.

The constant subgrade modulus for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand based on Terzaghi (1955)

are considered both in dry condition as well as in submerged condition for the present analysis. The

youngs modulus is considered as 2.74x107 kN/m2 and the pile radius is taken as 0.25m. The pile head

deflection is observed by varying the subgrade modulus, for various pile length to radius ratios and the

results are presented in Fig. 7. Clearly it can be seen that the deflections are reduced as the soil stiffness

increases. It was observed that in case of 5.0m pile under loose sand the deflection is increased by about

49% under submerged condition with respect to the dry state. The increase in medium sand and dense

sand in submerged condition was about 30% and 33% respectively for the same pile length. However

when the pile length is considered as 10.0m, the pile deflections under submerged conditions are

increased by 37%, 25% and 29% respectively for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand.

The pile response is observed under dry condition for 5m and 10m pile lengths. It was observed that

for short rigid pile (L=5m), response is increased by about 3.87 times in loose sand compared to dense

sand under dry condition, where as in submerged condition the pile response is amplified by about 4.36

times in loose sand compared to dense sand. For flexible piles (L=10.0m) the response in loose sand is

amplified by about 3.13 times from the dense state considering dry state and the amplification is about

3.33 times in submerged condition for loose sands with respect to dense sands.

Also it can be seen that the deflections are higher in case of 5 m pile length compared to 10m and

higher length piles. This is due to short rigid behaviour of the pile resulting in pile rotations. Also it is

- 1255 -

observed that pile response is not affected by increasing the length of the pile beyond 10m. This is due to

the fact that, the depth coefficient Zmax (= L/T) exceeds 5.0 and hence the pile behaves as flexible

beyond 10.0 m length.

Subgrade modulus1.0e03 kN/m3

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

10

15

20

25

L=5.0

L=10.0

r=0.25; E=2.74e07;

H=100.0;

Deflection and Moment Coefficients

Before generating these coefficients validation is performed from the analysis results obtained from

the present study with the coefficients proposed by Reese and Matlock (1956). The pile length is

considered as 15.0m with pile radius as 0.25m.Youngs modulus is considered as 2.74x107

kN/m2.Considering loose sand the non-dimensional factor Zmax works out to 7.85. With this input the

deflection coefficients Cy are obtained and compared with Reese and Matlock (1956) solutions and is

presented in Fig.8a.It can be seen from these figures that good agreement in results was observed. Also

moment coefficients are evaluated in the present study and the results again are compared with Reese and

Matlock (1956).The results are presented in Fig.8b. Again excellent matching was observed from the

present study with the solutions from the literature.

-0.2

1257

Deflection

)

y0.8

0.2

0.4Coefficient(C

0.6

1.2

1

2

present study

3

4

L=15.0m; r=0.25m;

E=2.74e07 kN/sq.m

T=2.0043; ks=2600.0

kN/m3;

5

6

7

8

Figure 8a: Validation of Deflection Coefficient (Cy) with Reese and Matlock (1956)

-1

Deflection Coefficient(Cm)

-0.5

0.5

0

1

present study

L=15.0m; r=0.25m;

E=2.74e07 kN/sq.m

T=2.0043; ks=2600.0

kN/m3;

Depth Coefficient

Z=(x/T)

3

4

5

6

7

8

Figure 8b: Validation of Moment Coefficient (Cm) with Reese and Matlock (1956)

The deflection and moment coefficients have been generated for the chosen pile length and

considering various soil types. Using these coefficients pile responses i.e., deflection, and bending

moment can be evaluated which are very useful for the designers. The coefficients generated are

applicable for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand with the constant subgrade modulus presented in

Table 1 under dry condition. For generating these coefficients, the length of the pile is considered as 15.0

m. The radius of the pile is varied from 0.25 m to 1.0 m. The Youngs modulus is considered as 2.74x107

kN/m2.The input data considered is also shown in Table 1b.

- 1257 -

Table 1b: Input data for computing deflection and moment coefficients [Phanikanth et al.(2010)]

Soil

condition

Dry

Dry

Dry

Dry

Dry

Dry

Dry

Dry

Pile

radius r (m)

Young's

modulus of

pile 'E'

(kN/m2)

Moment of

Inertia I

(m4)

Unit

subgrade

modulus h

(kN/m3)

Relative

Stiffness factor

T: T=(EI/h)0.2

Pile

lengthL (m)

Depth

coefficient

Zmax= L/T

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

2.60E+03

2.00439

15

7.48356

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

7.70E+03

1.61317

15

9.29847

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

2.00E+04

1.33282

15

11.2543

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

2.60E+03

3.48957

15

4.29853

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

7.70E+03

2.80846

15

5.34101

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

2.00E+04

2.32039

15

6.46444

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

2.60E+03

4.82831

15

3.10668

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

7.70E+03

3.8859

15

3.86011

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

2.00E+04

3.21058

15

4.67205

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

2.60E+03

6.07476

15

2.46923

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

7.70E+03

4.88907

15

3.06807

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

2.00E+04

4.03941

15

3.71341

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

2.60E+03

2.00439

20

9.97808

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

7.70E+03

1.61317

20

12.398

0.25

2.74E+07

3.07E-03

2.00E+04

1.33282

20

15.0058

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

2.60E+03

3.48957

20

5.73137

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

7.70E+03

2.80846

20

7.12134

0.5

2.74E+07

4.91E-02

2.00E+04

2.32039

20

8.61925

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

2.60E+03

4.82831

20

4.14223

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

7.70E+03

3.8859

20

5.14681

0.75

2.74E+07

2.49E-01

2.00E+04

3.21058

20

6.2294

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

2.60E+03

6.07476

20

3.29231

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

7.70E+03

4.88907

20

4.09076

2.74E+07

7.85E-01

2.00E+04

4.03941

20

4.95122

Fig. 9a shows the deflection coefficients Cy for loose sand for a pile length of 15.0m.Coefficients

have been derived for pile radii of 0.25m, 0.50m, 0.75m and 1.0m respectively. Fig 9b shows moment

coefficient Cm for various pile radii. For medium sand and considering a pile length of 15.0m, the

deflection coefficients Cy and moment coefficients Cm are again evaluated and are also presented in Fig.

9a and Fig. 9b respectively. Also the coefficients for dense sands are evaluated and are again presented in

Fig. 9a and Fig. 9b respectively for deflections and bending moments. Once the coefficients are known,

the deflections and bending moments can be evaluated by using the following expressions (Reese and

Matlock, 1956):

yx =yA+yB =Ay (HT3/EPIP)+ By ( MT2/ EPIP)

1259

Mx =MA+MB =Am HT+ Bm M

E I

When L>= 5T, the pile is considered as a long pile. For L<=2T, the pile is considered to be short rigid

pile (Das, 2004).

0

5

r=0.25,Kh=2600.0

r=0.50;Kh=2600.0

r=0.75;Kh=2600.0

r=1.0;Kh=2600.0

r=0.25;Kh=7700.0

r=0.50;Kh=7700.0

10

r=0.75;Kh=7700.0

r=1.0;Kh=7700.0

r=1.0;Kh=20000.0

L=15.0;

E=2.74e07;

r=0.75;Kh=20000.0

r=0.50;Kh=20000.0

r=0.25;Kh=20000.0

15

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

deflection Coefficient (Cy)

0.8

- 1259 -

1.2

1.4

r=0.25;Kh=2600.0

r=0.50;Kh=2600.0

r=0.75;Kh=2600.0

r=1.0;Kh=2600.0

r=0.25;Kh=7700.0

r=0.50;Kh=7700.0

10

r=0.75;Kh=7700.0

L=15.0;

E=2.74e07;

r=1.0;Kh=7700.0

r=0.25;Kh=20000.0

r=0.50;Kh=20000.0

r=0.75;Kh=20000.0

r=1.0;Kh=20000.0

15

-1

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

Moment Coefficient (Cm)

0.2

0.4

CONCLUSIONS

The behaviour of single pile in cohesionless soils under lateral loads considering fixed head and

floating tip type piles are presented. Parametric studies have been carried out to evaluate the influence of

pile and soil properties on the flexural response of piles. Pile responses under dry and submerged

conditions are studied. The present study also takes into account the short pile and long pile behaviour.

Deflection and bending moment coefficients are evaluated for a chosen pile length. Solutions are obtained

for pile response with various cohesionless soils.

The parametric study carried out shows that for short rigid piles, about 49% increase in deflections

was observed for loose sands from dry state to submerged condition. The increase in deflections for

medium sand and dense sand in submerged condition with respect to dry state are about 30% and 33%

respectively. However for flexible piles, the pile deflections under submerged conditions are increased by

37%, 25% and 29% respectively for loose sand, medium sand and dense sand from that of dry soil

condition. It was also observed that the pile response is increased by about 3.87 times in loose sand

compared to dense sand under dry condition, where as in submerged condition the pile response is

amplified by about 4.36 times in loose sand compared to dense sand for short rigid piles. For flexible

piles the response in loose sand is amplified by about 3.13 times from the dense state considering dry

state and the amplification is about 3.33 times in submerged condition for loose sands with respect to

dense sands.

1261

REFERENCES

1. Bowles, J.E. (1968). Foundation Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

2. Broms, B. (1964a).The Lateral Resistance of piles in cohesive soils. Journal of Soil Mechanics &

Foundation Division, ASCE, 90 (SM2), 27-63.

3. Broms, B. (1964b).The lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils Journal of Soil Mechanics &

Foundation Division,ASCE, 90 (SM3), 123-56.

4. Das, B.M. (2004). Principles of Foundation Engineering. 5th Edition, 2nd reprint, Nelson

Engineering.

5. Davisson, M.T. and Gill, H.L. (1963). Laterally loaded piles in a layered soil system. Journal of

Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering, ASCE, 89(3), pp 63-94.

6. Davisson, M.T. and Prakash, S. (1963). A review of soil pile behavior. Highway Research

Record, No. 39, 25-48.

7. Hansen, J.B. (1961). The ultimate resistance of rigid piles against transversal forces. Danish

Geotechnical Institute, Bulletin no.12, Copenhagen, 5-9.

8. Hetenyi, M. (1946). Beams on Elastic Foundation; Theory with Applications in the Fields of

Civil and Mechanical Engineering. The University of Michigan press, Ann Arbor.

9. Jamilokowski, M. and Garassino, A. (1977). Soil modulus for laterally loaded piles. Proceedings

of 9th Int. Conf. Soil Mechanics Foundation Engineering, Tokyo, 8792.

10. Karthigeyan, S., Ramakrishna V.V.G.S.T., and Rajagopal, K. (2006). Influence of vertical load

on the lateral response of piles in sand. Computers and Geotechnics, (33), 121-131.

11. Liyanapathirana, D.S. and Poulos H.G. (2005a). Seismic lateral response of piles in liquefying

soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131, 14661479.

12. Liyanapathirana, D.S. and Poulos H.G. (2005b). Pseudo-static approach for seismic analysis of

piles in liquefying soil. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131,

14801487.

13. Madhav, M.R., Rao, N.S.V.K., and Madhavan, K. (1971). Laterally loaded piles in elasto-plastic

soil. Soils and Foundations, 11(2), 1-15.

14. MATLAB (2004), Programming, version 7, The Math Works, Inc.

15. Matlock, H. and Reese, L. C. (1960). Generalized solutions for laterally loaded piles. Journal of

Soil Mechanics & Foundations Division, ASCE, 86, 63-91.

16. Palmer, L.A. and Thompson, J.B. (1948). The earth pressure and deflection along the embedded

lengths of piles subjected to lateral thrusts. Proceedings of 2nd Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and

Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam, 5, 156-161.

17. Phanikanth, V.S., Choudhury, D. and Reddy G.R. (2010). Response of single pile under lateral

loads in cohesionless soils. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 15(10)-H, 813-830.

18. Poulos, H. G. (1971a). Behaviour of laterally loaded piles I- single piles. Journal

Mechanics & Foundations Division, ASCE, 97(SM5), 711-731.

- 1261 -

of Soil

19. Poulos, H. G. (1971b). Behaviour of laterally loaded piles II- pile groups. Journal of Soil

Mechanics & Foundations Division, ASCE, 97(SM5), 733-751.

20. Poulos, H.G and Davis, E.H. (1980). Pile Foundation Analysis and Design, John Wiley and Sons,

New York.

21. Randolph, M.F. (1981). The response of flexible files to lateral loading. Geotechnique, 31(2),

247-259.

22. Reddy, A.S. and Valsangkar, A.J. (1970). Generalized solutions for laterally loaded pile in elasto

plastic soil. Soils and Foundations, X(3), 67-80.

23. Reese, L.C. and Matlock, H. (1956). Non-dimensional solutions for laterally-loaded piles with

soil modulus assumed proportional to depth. Proceedings of the 8th Texas Conference on Soil

Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Austin, Texas, 1-41.

24. Tabesh A. and Poulos H.G. (2007). Design charts for seismic analysis of single piles in clay.

Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers Geotechnical Engineering, 160(GE2), 85-96.

25. Terzaghi, K. (1955). Evaluation of coefficients of subgrade reaction. Gotechnique, (4), 297-326.

26. Winkler, E. (1867). "Die Lehre von der Elastizitat und Festigkeit," Dominicus, Prague.

27. Zhang L., Silva F., and Grismala R. (2005). Ultimate lateral resistance to piles in Cohesion-less

soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, 131(1):78-83.

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