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Original Title: 2 Dp2 Prestress Losses Full

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Giorgio MALERBA

DESIGN PRACTICE

Notes on Prestressed Members

BRIEFINGS CONTENTS

1. PRESTRESSING TECHNIQUES

2. MATERIALS

3. LOSSES OF PRESTRESS

4. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES (BENDING AND SHEAR)

5. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES (BENDING AND SHEAR)

6. DIFFUSIVE ZONES NEAR THE ANCHORAGES AND SUPPORTS.

Prestress Losses (according to Eurocode: prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E))

(5.10.4)

(5.10.5)

(5.10.5.1)

(5.10.5.2)

5. Losses at anchorage

(5.10.5.3)

6.

Time

(5.10.6)

dependent

During the stressing process: losses due to friction at beds (in the case of curved wires or

strands) and losses due to wedge draw-in of the anchorage devices.

Before the transfer of prestress to concrete: loss due to relaxation of the pretensioning

tendons during the period that elapses between the tensioning of the tendons and

prestressing of the concrete.

At the transfer of prestress to concrete: loss due to elastic deformation of concrete as the

result of the action of pre-tensioned tendons, when they are released from the anchorages.

Account should be taken of the loss in tendon force corresponding to the deformation of

concrete, taking into account the order in which the tendons are stressed.

This loss may be assumed as a mean loss in each tendon as follows:

j c ( t )

P = A Esp

Ecm ( t )

el

sp

where:

c ( t ) is the variation of stress at the centre of gravity of the tendons applied at time ( t )

( j ) is a coefficient equal to:

( n 1) 2 n where ( n ) is the number of identical tendons successively prestressed. As an

approximation ( j ) may be taken as 1 2

1 for the variations due to permanent actions applied after prestressing.

The losses due to friction in post-tensioned tendons may be estimated from:

( + kx )

P ( x ) = P 1 e

max

Where:

is the sum of the angular deviations in all planes over a distance x irrespective of direction or sign)

is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its duct

k is an unintentional angular deviation (wobble factor) for internal tendons (per unit length)

x is the distance along the tendon from the point where the prestressing force is equal to P

(the force at the

max

The value of

and depends on the surface characteristics of the tendons and of the duct, on the presence of

The value of k for unintentional angular deviations depends on the quality of workmanship, on the distance

between tendon supports, on the type of duct or sheath employed and on the degree of vibration used in

placing the concrete.

Coefficient

Friction Coeff.

(from Table 5.1 prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E))

Internal tendons

0,17

0,19

0,65

0,33

Strand

Deformed bar

Smooth round bar

When the strands are locked off in the anchorage, the wedges move through a fixed distance of 6 mm.

This value is independent of the tendon unit, the nominal diameter of the strand and its grade.

By assuming a linear loss of tension due to friction, the values

in of the wedges and the loss of force at the anchorage

l =

c

E A

w

sp

Pw

P = 2 p

Where:

Asp

p=

m m]

In general this losses dont not have significant influence since the force required in the tendons is determined by the

governing moment that is usually located at a point unaffected by distance w . For short tendons with small curvature

or where high normal stresses are required near a support or anchorage it may be advisable to compensate these

losses.

Time dependent losses of prestress for pre- and post-tensioning (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.3)

The time dependent losses may be calculated by considering the following two reductions of stress:

due to the reduction of strain, caused by the deformation of concrete due to creep and shrinkage, under the permanent

loads;

the reduction of stress in the steel caused by due to the relaxation under tension. The relaxation of steel depends on

the concrete deformation due to creep and shrinkage. This interaction can generally and approximately be taken into

account by a reduction factor 0.8.

A simplified method to evaluate time dependent losses at location x under the permanent loads is given by the

Equation:

E + 0,8 +

cs

P

c+s+r

= A

p

c+s+r

=A

p

pr

E

p

( )

t,t

0

c,Q p

cm

A

A

1+

1 +

z

E A

I

cm

2

cp

1 + 0,8 t,t

( )

0

where:

p ,c + s + r

is the absolute value of the variation of stress in the tendons due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at

location x at time t;

cs

E is the modulus of elasticity for the concrete (Table 3.1);

is the absolute value of the variation of stress in the tendons at location x at time t due to the relaxation

of the prestressing steel. It is determined for a stress of p = p ( G + Pm 0 + 2Q ) , where where is the

sp

cm

pr

initial stress in the tendons due to initial prestress and quasi-permanent actions.

( t ,t0 ) is the creep coefficient at a time t and load application at time t0 ;

c ,QP

is the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons, due to self-weight and initial prestress and other

c ,QP

depending on the stage of construction considered.

Asp is the area of all the prestressing tendons at the location x;

= (G + P + Q ) ,

c

I is the second moment of inertia of the concrete section;

z is the distance between the centre of gravity of the concrete section and the tendons.

Compressive stresses and the corresponding strains should be used with a positive sign.

m0

cp

10

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