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Prof. P.

Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

DESIGN PRACTICE
Notes on Prestressed Members
BRIEFINGS CONTENTS
1. PRESTRESSING TECHNIQUES
2. MATERIALS
3. LOSSES OF PRESTRESS
4. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES (BENDING AND SHEAR)
5. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES (BENDING AND SHEAR)
6. DIFFUSIVE ZONES NEAR THE ANCHORAGES AND SUPPORTS.

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Lecture #2: Prestress Losses


Prestress Losses (according to Eurocode: prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E))

1. Immediate losses of prestress for pre-tensioning

(5.10.4)

2. Immediate losses of prestress for post-tensioning

(5.10.5)

3. Losses due to instantaneous deformation of concrete

(5.10.5.1)

4. Losses due to Friction

(5.10.5.2)

5. Losses at anchorage

(5.10.5.3)

6.

Time
(5.10.6)

losses of prestress for pre- and post-tensioning

dependent

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Immediate losses of prestress for pre-tensioning (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.4)

The following losses occurring during pre-tensioning should be considered:

During the stressing process: losses due to friction at beds (in the case of curved wires or
strands) and losses due to wedge draw-in of the anchorage devices.
Before the transfer of prestress to concrete: loss due to relaxation of the pretensioning
tendons during the period that elapses between the tensioning of the tendons and
prestressing of the concrete.
At the transfer of prestress to concrete: loss due to elastic deformation of concrete as the
result of the action of pre-tensioned tendons, when they are released from the anchorages.

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Immediate losses of prestress for post-tensioning

(prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5)

Losses due to instantaneous deformation of concrete.

(prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.1)

Account should be taken of the loss in tendon force corresponding to the deformation of
concrete, taking into account the order in which the tendons are stressed.
This loss may be assumed as a mean loss in each tendon as follows:

j c ( t )
P = A Esp

Ecm ( t )
el

sp

where:

c ( t ) is the variation of stress at the centre of gravity of the tendons applied at time ( t )
( j ) is a coefficient equal to:
( n 1) 2 n where ( n ) is the number of identical tendons successively prestressed. As an
approximation ( j ) may be taken as 1 2
1 for the variations due to permanent actions applied after prestressing.

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Losses due to Friction (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.2)


The losses due to friction in post-tensioned tendons may be estimated from:
( + kx )

P ( x ) = P 1 e

max

Where:
is the sum of the angular deviations in all planes over a distance x irrespective of direction or sign)
is the coefficient of friction between the tendon and its duct

k is an unintentional angular deviation (wobble factor) for internal tendons (per unit length)
x is the distance along the tendon from the point where the prestressing force is equal to P
(the force at the

max

active end during tensioning).


The value of

and depends on the surface characteristics of the tendons and of the duct, on the presence of

rust, on the elongation of the tendon and on the tendon profile.


The value of k for unintentional angular deviations depends on the quality of workmanship, on the distance
between tendon supports, on the type of duct or sheath employed and on the degree of vibration used in
placing the concrete.

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Mean values (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.2)


Coefficient

k for unintentional angular deviations:

0,005 < k < 0,01 rad/m

Friction Coeff.

of post-tensioned internal tendons.


(from Table 5.1 prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E))

Internal tendons
0,17
0,19
0,65
0,33

Cold drawn wire


Strand
Deformed bar
Smooth round bar

Note: For tendons which infill about half of the duct

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Losses at Anchorage (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.3)


When the strands are locked off in the anchorage, the wedges move through a fixed distance of 6 mm.
This value is independent of the tendon unit, the nominal diameter of the strand and its grade.
By assuming a linear loss of tension due to friction, the values
in of the wedges and the loss of force at the anchorage

l =
c

E A
w

sp

Pw

may be computed as follows:

P = 2 p

Where:

draw-in of wedges (6 mm)

E sp modulus of elasticity of post tensioning steel (195.000 [ N mm2 ])

Asp

steel cross section [ mm ]

p=

( P P ) loss of force per unit of length [ N

of the distance affected by the draw-

m m]

In general this losses dont not have significant influence since the force required in the tendons is determined by the
governing moment that is usually located at a point unaffected by distance w . For short tendons with small curvature
or where high normal stresses are required near a support or anchorage it may be advisable to compensate these
losses.

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

Time dependent losses of prestress for pre- and post-tensioning (prEN 1992-1-1:2003 (E), 5.10.5.3)

The time dependent losses may be calculated by considering the following two reductions of stress:
due to the reduction of strain, caused by the deformation of concrete due to creep and shrinkage, under the permanent
loads;
the reduction of stress in the steel caused by due to the relaxation under tension. The relaxation of steel depends on
the concrete deformation due to creep and shrinkage. This interaction can generally and approximately be taken into
account by a reduction factor 0.8.
A simplified method to evaluate time dependent losses at location x under the permanent loads is given by the
Equation:

E + 0,8 +
cs

P
c+s+r

= A
p

c+s+r

=A
p

pr

E
p

( )

t,t
0

c,Q p

cm

A
A
1+

1 +
z
E A
I

cm

2
cp

1 + 0,8 t,t

( )
0

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

where:

p ,c + s + r

is the absolute value of the variation of stress in the tendons due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation at

location x at time t;

cs

is the estimated shrinkage strain according to eq. 3.1.4(6) in absolute value;

E is the modulus of elasticity for the prestressing steel (3.3.3 (9));


E is the modulus of elasticity for the concrete (Table 3.1);
is the absolute value of the variation of stress in the tendons at location x at time t due to the relaxation
of the prestressing steel. It is determined for a stress of p = p ( G + Pm 0 + 2Q ) , where where is the
sp

cm

pr

initial stress in the tendons due to initial prestress and quasi-permanent actions.
( t ,t0 ) is the creep coefficient at a time t and load application at time t0 ;

c ,QP

is the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendons, due to self-weight and initial prestress and other

quasi-permanent actions where relevant. The value of

c ,QP

may be the effect of part of self-weight and initial

prestress or the effect of a full quasi-permanent combination of action


depending on the stage of construction considered.
Asp is the area of all the prestressing tendons at the location x;

= (G + P + Q ) ,
c

A is the area of concrete section;


I is the second moment of inertia of the concrete section;
z is the distance between the centre of gravity of the concrete section and the tendons.

Compressive stresses and the corresponding strains should be used with a positive sign.

m0

cp

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

10

Prof. P. Giorgio MALERBA

BRIDGE THEORY AND DESIGN

1 INFLUENCE LINES

Lecture #2

Slide #2

POLITECNICO DI MILANO

Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering