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Main Braking system :

We will be Using Hydraulic Disc Brakes for Main
braking system. The Master Cylinder and Brake Pedal
will be located on the side of Steering, such that it is
comfortably acessible to driver and the disc is fitted in rear axle of Kart on
side of Sprocket , offset from centre. When Driver Presses on the Brake
Pedal, Brake Fluid Flows through the Brake Line and calliper is pressed to
apply the clamping force and thus rear axle locks and thus Braking is
Reason For Using HYDRAULIC DISC BRAKES For Main Braking System :
1. High Efficiency of Hydraulic Disc Brake ,which is main requirement
of Main Braking System.
2. Shorter Response Time , leading to smaller braking Time.
3. Easier Maintenance .
4. Suitable in all kinds of Road Conditions and work well in all kinds of
5. Heat is dissipated easily , because Disc is exposed to atmosphere.

Drum Brake will be used for Hand Braking. The Hand Brake Actuator is
located in right side of the Driver. Drum Brakes Come Inbuilt with the Front
tires used. When Driver Presses the Hand Brakes Brake shoe Presses on
the Inner Rim of the Drum and thus braking is Done.
Reasons For Using DRUM BRAKES for Hand Braking :
1. Drum Brake assembly comes Inbuilt with Tyres, so there is not much
difficulty in fitting them and ,making them work.
2. Drum Brake Can be easily actuated by Hand which is very difficult to
do in Disc or any other Brake so we Chose ,Drum Brake for Hand
3. Lesser Cost,Light weght and space saved are the common criterias
kept in mind while choosingDrum Brakes for Hand Braking.





Brake Calculations :
Mass of Vehicle 150 kg (approx.)
Coefficient of friction of dry road- 0.75
Outer Diameter of brake disc- 190mm
Inner Diameter of brake disc(d)- 100mm
Maximum speed of Vehicle(V)- 50km/hr (13.89 m/s )
Pedal Ratio-4:1
Coefficient of friction between brake pads and disc- 0.4
Maximum stopping distance allowed -20m
Diameter of Master Cylinder- .025 m
Area of Brake Pad = 0.0018 m^2
Volume of Brake Disc= 94123.57 mm^3
Density of Brake Disc Material= 7850 Kg/m^3
Specific Heat Capacity of Brake Disc Material(c)=475 J/Kg/K
Thermal Conductivity of Brake Disc Material(k)= 44.5 W/(m K)
Ambient Temprature (Tamb.)= 22 (C)

Calculations :
Deceleration of Vehicle Coeff. Of .fric. * g = 0.75 * 9.81 = 7.35 m/ s^2
Stopping Distance ( V^2) / 2*coeff. Of fric. *g = (13.89)^2 / 2*0.75 *
9.81 = 13.125 m
Kinetic Energy of Vehicle * 150 * 13.89 *13.89= 14467.6 J
Stopping Time Stopping Distance / Deceleration = 13.125 / 7.35 = 1.89
Braking Force coeff. Of fric. * mass of vehicle * g = 0.75 * 150 * 9.81 =
1102.5 N
Effective disc Radius =1/3* (D^3 d^3)/(D^2-d^2)= 74.83 mm
Braking Torque (Braking Force ) * (Radius of Brake Disc ) = 1102.5 * .
7483= 82.497 N m
Clamping Force- 1102.5 / 0.4 = 2756.25 N
Required Brake Pressure = (Clamping Force/Brake Pad area )=2756.25 /
0.0018= 1531.250 K Pa

Maximum Brake Pressure Applicable in Brake Disc 2300 K Pa

Since allowable Pressure is greater than the Pressure applicable in current
case therefore the brake disc chosen for braking is suitable.
Average Power (P)= Kinetic Energy (E)/Stopping Time (T)
=14467.6/1.89=7654.815 W
Maximum power at the onset of braking = 2* Average Power
Heat Flux into one side of the Disc= 4P/3.14*(D^2-d^2)= 4*7654.815 /
3.14* (.19^2- .1^2)
Maximum Temprature=(.527 *Q *t^1/2) /(Density of brake disc Material
*c* k)+ T(amb.)
(Single Stop)

= (.527*373615.2*1.38)/(7850*44.5*475)^1/2
=43.1 (C)

Fade Stop Temprature Rise = P*t / (Density of Brake disc material *c *V)
= 7654.815*1.89 /(7850*475*.0000941)
= 41.233 (C)