Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

ijcrb.webs.

com

JANUARY 2013

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

VOL 4, NO 9

POSTMODERN MARKETING: TOWARDS A CONVERGENCE BETWEEN THE


INDIVIDUALISTIC
APPROACH AND THE TRIBAL APPROACH

Rabeb BLAIECH*
(Corresponding author)
Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management-Tunis-Tunisia
Abderrazak GHARBI*
Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management-Tunis-Tunisia
Manel HAMOUDA*
Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management-Tunis-Tunisia
(*Authors Names are sorted by alphabetical order)
Abstract
This research focuses on the approaches that structure the postmodern marketing framework: the individualistic
approach and the Latin approach. It is a synthesis work elaborated in order to show, firstly, the differences
between these two approaches on the theoretical, epistemological and methodological levels. Secondly, we tried
to overstep these differences by highlighting the common points. Our goal is to diffuse the understanding of
postmodernism and to reduce the postmodern theorization contention by advocating a moderate vision that
combines individualistic and Latin approach.
Key words: Postmodern Marketing, individualistic approach, tribal approach, epistemology, methodology,
convergence.
1. Introduction
Postmodernism was born due to the modernity myth saturation (Maffesoli, 1988 in Basilico, 2003;
Venkatesh, Sherry and Firat, 1993). The origin of this paradigm has its first signs in areas such as art and
architecture. It is that towards the 90s when Marketing and Management became aware of the postmodernism
revolution (Venkatesh, Sherry and Firat, 1993). The growing implications of postmodernism affect, closely,
various marketing subjects, as consumer behavior (Venkatesh, Sherry and Firat, 1993; Firat and Venkatesh,
1995; Joy and Venkatesh, 1994), consumption (Elliott, 1998; Cooper et al., 2005, Holt, 1997; Sandikci et al.,
2002. Sitz and Amine, 2004; Chantelat et al., 2002), communication (Firat and Christensen, 2005; Patterson,
1998; Noah and Venkatesh, 1999) and industrial marketing (Arias et al., 2001). However, studies which have
traced the panorama of the debates dealing with postmodern marketing highlight two main trends: the Latin
versus the Anglo-Saxon. Thus, two distinct contributions were identified. The Anglo-Saxon school of thought
sees that the fundamental change of postmodern marketing is the individualistic side of the consumer and the
consumption (Firat and Venkatesh, 1993). Whereas, the Latin view believes that the tribalism of the consumer
and the consumption experiences (Cova and Badot, 1994 in Cova, 2004) is the major feature that characterizes
the postmodern marketing. Instead of trying to analyze these two trends and to studying their points of
divergence and eventual convergences, the lack of consensus between these two schools of thought, led that
contributions emerging from these debates were ignored (El Rigaux-Bricmont and Kamel, 2011) in consumer
and consumption researches. So, the main question of this study is: to what extent can we reconcile between the
individualistic approach and the tribal approach of the postmodern marketing?

This research aim is, therefore, the study of the convergence points between the two approaches in
order to propose a moderate view. This moderate view enables postmodern marketing to be an analytical
framework adapted to consumer research either alone or in group. So, a literature review was conducted and
which presents, firstly, the research framework through the postmodernism definition and the rise of postmodern

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1294

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

marketing. Secondly, an analysis of the characteristics of each approach will be made by showing its
contributions on the theoretical, epistemological and methodological side. Thirdly and finally, a synthesis of the
two approaches over the discussed sides will be realized in order to identify the convergence points between the
individualistic and tribal approach.
2. Postmodernism and Postmodern Marketing
2.1. Postmodernism
Postmodernism can be defined in different ways, but what seems to gather all the authors who
addressing this subject; it is what Lyotard suggests that the societies do not meet the requirements defined by the
modern thought context. According to him, these societies are defined by a return to the irrational, the
subjectivity and the fragmentation. He proposes to use the term of "postmodern" to refer to the new cultural
system, in which predominates the disbelief towards "metanarratives" (Lyotard, 1979) legitimizing knowledge
and coexistence of multiple "language games" that takes body in the fragmentation of activities, particularly
scientific (Lyotard, 1979, 1988). To better understand postmodernism, three approaches have been identified
(Firat and Vankatech 1995): Critical postmodernism, Affirmative postmodernism and Liberatory
postmodernism.
- Critical postmodernism or skeptical postmodernism. Postmodernists, who adopt a critical perspective, consider
postmodern conditions as the result of an excess of modernism, or what Jameson (1984) calls a "late
capitalism". They stand for a radical break with the culture of late capitalism and a return to some of moral
utopianism (Jameson, 1984, Ziegler, 1991). Skeptical postmodernists have adopted positions addressed with
more inquisition than tolerance. By doing this, they forget even their basic precepts based on the multiplicity of
a text meanings (Cova and al., 2012). So, this postmodern approach is considered as the most extreme
postmodernism formulation. It tackles the basis of social science and questions it radically.
- Affirmative postmodernism also called celebratory postmodernism. This postmodern approach address a direct
criticism to modernism and calls for imminent dissolution of its metanarratives and great projects that seems to
be timeless and unshakable (Vattimo, 1988). It encourages redefinitions and more elaborating research
questions.
- Liberatory postmodernism: This postmodernism approach is advanced by Firat and Venkatesh (1995). They
are closer to "Celebratory postmodernism" in its modernism criticism and its belief in a liberating potential of
postmodern conditions and postmodern ideas towards discourse and epistemology. Liberatory postmodernists
partially agree with Jenks (1987) that postmodern conditions cannot be considered as an interruption and break
of modernism, but an extension and maturation of it.
2.2. Postmodern Marketing
Marketing field has not explicitly recognized postmodernism as a major descriptor of the current social
condition that from the 90s (Lo 'pez-bonilla and Lo' pez-bonilla 2009). Postmodernism was introduced, initially,
in marketing thanks to many authors such as Hirschman, Holbrook, Firat and Venkatesh, and it has resulted in
considerable contributions (Saren, 2011), including a reflection on the paradigms to understand the postmodern
consumption complexity (Hirschman and Holbrook, 1992) and the role of marketing in today's consumer
society (Firat and Venkatesh, 1993; Badot and Cova 1992a, 1992b). The most recent postmodernism definition
applied in marketing studies was proposed by Gerrit Van Raaij (1998) who defined it as: a cultural episode,
characterized by a pluralism of styles (of consumption) and ideologies, a need for hyperreality and selfexpression through consumption.
The lack of consensus on postmodernism definitions and approaches is also transposed to the marketing
discipline as researchers do not agree on marketing approaches applied in postmodernism context. Indeed, these
approaches are marked by the duality individualism / tribalism. This duality in the vision of the postmodern
marketing transformation is expressed even on a geographical way as individualistic approach is advocated by
the North American or Anglo-Saxon view, while the tribal approach is strongly supported by the Latin view.
Otherwise, the anglo saxon view or the individualistic approach applied to postmodern marketing fits rather in
the liberatory postmodernism thought (Firat and Vankatech, 1995) whereas the latin postmodern marketing
view would be integrated into the affirmative postmodernism approach (Cova and Badot, 1994 in Cova,
2004).Table1 summarizes the different approaches of postmodernism and postmodern marketing.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1295

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

3. Postmodern Marketing approaches: theoretical, epistemological and methodological contributions


The divergence of postmodernist approaches and visions applied to marketing is appeared in terms of
theoretical differences related to consumer and consumption nature. On the epistemological side this divergence
is seen by differences in the reality perception as well as in the research methods and evaluation criteria of
scientific production as a methodological differences. Hence, in this section, we will try to study the theoretical,
epistemological and methodological contributions of the individualistic approach and the tribal approach applied
to postmodern marketing research.
3.1. Individualistic approach
The individualistic approach is supported by the proponents of the North American view, Anglo-Saxon
or also called Nordic view. They advocate that the postmodern era is the era of the individualism, which is the
main feature of the postmodern consumption and postmodern consumer behavior.
3.1.1 Theoretical contributions
- Postmodern individualism: This approach initiated by Firat (1991), Van Raaij (1993), Firat and
Venkatesh (1993), is trying to adapt to the fragmentation and the postmodern individualism. It is looking to the
consumer proximity. This approach is also advocated by Lipovetsky (1990), who sees in the postmodern era, an
era of individualism resurgence marked by an authority crisis and a social vacuum. According to him,
postmodern society has no idol, no taboo, no more glorious image of itself, no more inspiring historical project
(Lipovetsky, 1983). The individual is free of all life ideals and societal obligations which he felt bounded in the
modern era, the individual is becoming left to himself. He is completely autonomous. This customization
process, called "trial personalization" by Lipovetsky (1983), begins to have its impact on social relationship as
far the individual triumph group.
In today's societies, expertise and authority are as much more situated on the consumer side than the
supplier one (Keat et al, 1994). Indeed, it is a consumer with developed skills by the accumulation of daily
experiences with a product or service. A consumer with a set of theoretical knowledge acquired through the
information technology proliferation, especially Internet. Knowledge and skills that form the basis of the
consumers power against suppliers power what drive Hemetsberger (2003) to describe the postmodern
consumer as a "prosumer" because consumers are involved in the production process and even seem to be the
first producers of consumer experience. This power shift seems to be explained not only by a growing
institutional distrust and increasing consumers skills, but also by a change in society legitimation systems.
One of the most prominent evidence of this structural change is the heroes of popular culture (Eco,
1978 in Vankatech and Firat, 1993). Nowadays heroes appear more as more simple heroes, not as super heroes
with supernatural and incredible powers. On this regard Eco (1978 in Vankatech and Firat, 1993) states that it is
television which imposed the everyman against the superman, by offering of the everyday man model with his
weaknesses and imperfections: a model in which each one can find himself.
-Postmodern individualism reasons: The main purpose of the individualistic approach is to build,
develop and maintain a relationship with a clearly identified customer, rather than to fill a market composed of a
mass of unknown persons grouped into homogeneous segments (Firat and Venkatesh, 1993). So, this approach
recommends the abandon of mass marketing to direct marketing based on a customers and well known
prospects database relayed by an industrial organization in order to realize a "mass customization".
The principle of marketing practice adapted to the postmodern individual age can then be considered as
follows: a highly personalized marketing form which enables to recognize, understand, appreciate and serve the
interests and needs of consumers whose personal identities and marketing profiles are known (Firat, 1991; Van
Raaij, 1993; Firat and Venkatesh, 1993). The argumentation of this approach is based on the following reasons:
-

If we cannot divide the market into homogeneous and stable segments, so, it remains only to track
individually the consumer (as technology progress including computing permits it);
If the consumer is fickle, in perpetual movement, it is necessary to try at least to predict its behavior
and to be able to react as quickly as possible to its new aspirations through a continuous contact;
If the consumer is individualistic, then, he looks for all which allows him to maintain and develop its
freedom, as a trust relationship with a supplier who releases him from the material life aspects by the
offered service quality;
If the consumer seeks to differentiate itself, he asks for individualized products and services that only a
constant, close and interactive contact, close and interactive enables to provide it.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1296

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

- Individualistic postmodern consumption: At the consumption level and in the context of the individualistic
approach, postmodern consumer behavior researchers, privileged an experiential vision which emphasize the
regret values as well as the individual subjectivity (Addis and Holbrook, 2001) rather than a functional and
progressive consumption vision. From a micro-economic and psychological origin, the functional and
progressive vision highlights the information search and influence multi-attribute mechanisms processing to
optimize a transaction made by a single individual. Whereas, in the experiential perspective of consumption, the
individual is considered as no more seeking to maximize a profit but as claiming a hedonistic gratification.
The market is, thus, characterized by a " re enchanted " offer and emotions produced by imaginary
projections which not only trying to meet needs, but it affecting the consumer's quest for identity (BudRenault, 2007; Filser, 1996). Individualistic approach precursors speak of a "reenchantment of consumption"
(Firat and Vankatesh, 1995) to report the break with the modern disenchantment consumption which had
rationalized consumers lives and made everything measured in terms of utility. Hence, the simple act of
consumption is a means to enchant consumer daily life, indeed, Firat and Dholakia (1998. p96) argued that:
for the postmodern consumer, consumption is not a mere act of devouring, destroying, or using things. It is also
not the end of the (central) economic cycle, but an act of production of experiences and selves or self-images . . .
The way to enhance and enchant life is to allow multiple experiences, to be sensed emotionally as well as
through reason, utilizing all the aspects of being human . . . Life is to be produced and created, in effect,
constructed through the multiple experiences in which the consumer immerses.
3.1.2. Epistemological and methodological contributions
The epistemology is the study of science. It ensures to completely ignore things that are aimed by
science, but it considers the science itself as an object. It assigns as the exclusive domain of study what science
says, not what science carries about (Blanch, 1972). The use of a research method is based on the choice of a
mode among three investigation modes: a quantitative, qualitative and mixed mode (both quantitative and
qualitative). This choice is, often, the result of an epistemological choice (positivism / constructivism, ....).
The individualistic or Anglo-Saxon approach applied to postmodern marketing slots rather into the
liberatory postmodernism which considers that the postmodern conditions can not be in a complete break with
modernism, but an extension of it (Firat and Venkatesh, 1995).
Therefore, according to this approach, marketing researchers do not reject epistemologies and
methodologies of previous research. Indeed, these epistemologies and methodologies remain valid in the context
of social science research in general and in marketing research in particular. Moreover, the marketing literature
review conducted to study the postmodern consumer as an individual (as advocated by the North American
individualistic approach) shows that research within this approach involve several types of study mainly
quantitative, qualitative, or both, consequently these research are positioning on more than an epistemology
(Firat and Shultz, 2001; Kniazeva and Venkatesh, 2007, Elliott, 1994; Mustonen and Honkanen, 2007).
Within the individualistic approach generated by the Anglo-Saxon school of thought, researchers do
not advocate the abandonment of the "scientific procedures which use for example cognitive psychology
methods, information processing and mathematical modeling in so far as liberatory postmodernism never
suggests a complete rupture in the scientific process (Firat and Venkatesh, 1995). Liberatory postmodernism
researchers, simply, argue that "scientific" knowledge is not the only source of knowledge and that science does
not have to aim at a universal knowledge. The scientific argument should combine with the narrative discourse
to produce a richer scientific texture that enables a better knowledge of the consumer as well as his consumption
process. Liberatory postmodernism researchers consider postmodernism as a post-universal science and not as a
post-science (Firat and Venkatesh, 1995).
Besides, this approach, suggests, the adoption of new epistemological positionings jointly with the
existing positionings and consequently the use of new mode of investigation such as the ethnographic
investigations (Belk et al., 1988; Kates 2000, 2002; Schouten and Alexander Mc 1995) performed especially
when it comes to study the individual behavior in a community or a specific subculture. Phenomenological
studies have been initiated by several researchers in studies on possessions and relationship between objects
(Belk, 1988; Sherry 1993, 1995) or within the critical hermeneutics context (Hudson and Ozanne, 1988). The
individualistic approach proposes to extend these phenomenological studies in the postmodern framework.
Venkatech speaks even about the apparition of a new paradigm called the "ethno-consumerism," which refers to
other ways of reflection about consumption practices (Venkatesh, 1995).

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1297

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

3.2. Tribal approach


The Latin marketing (meridian or south) is to integrate in the broader approach of affirmative
posmodernism (Cova and Badot, 1994 in Cova, 2004). This school tries to provide an alternative model to
what is called "the American way of life" by promoting a southern thought (Mediterranean) applied to
marketing that takes into account the specificities of this geographical area.
3.2.1. Theoretical contributions
- Postmodern tribalism: This approach is grounded on the Latin way of life, characterized by
consumers who like to live together in tribes, especially in a time marked by individualism. Similarly, their daily
practices are made of objects and symbols re appropriation from the market system rather than a simple
participation in it (Cova, 1999; 2004). Tribal marketing is more communal than individual and at its center we
found tribes or communities. Relations in these groups relies more on social ties than market relationship
(Remy, 2001; Badot and Cova, 1995). Tribes are considered as the unit of analysis of the Latin approach. They
are defined by Maffesoli (1988, in Roncaglio and Cova, 1999), the spiritual father of this concept, as
crystallized event, societal effervescence, more than socio-economic object clearly defined: its a temporary
and highly emotional grouping of dissimilar persons. It is not a closed object, it is an open system.
The use of tribal metaphor seems to be in perfect harmony with postmodern re rooting of individuals
and the resurgence of archaic values (local particularities, religiosity, group narcissism ). In fact, emotional
communities (Badot and Cova, 1995) or affectual (Maffesoli, 1996 in Cova and Cova, 2002) try to refresh the
ideal neighborhood community or village without necessarily being spatially defined. Some use all the resources
of new media (computers, tablets ...) to form virtual tribes, where face to face and physical co-presence are not
always required (Badot and Cova, 1995; Cova and Cova, 2002).
- Postmodern consumption: The new vision advocated by the Latin school affects two important
aspects of marketing: consumption and value. In fact, this approach considers the consumption from a micro
social perspective. In other terms, it focuses on the interaction between persons. It is also called "societal level"
(Maffesoli, 1996 in Cova and Cova, 2002) or "primary level of sociality" (Godbout and Caille, 1992 in Cova
and Cova, 2002), done with daily interactions and emotions. The micro-social level of analysis would then
disclose elements imperceptible if we take them one by one, but discerned through collective experience (Cova
and Cova, 2002).
- The value of goods and points of sales: To characterize the postmodern social dynamics, Maffesoli
(1988 in Cova, 2004) focuses on the tribal atmosphere that grows increasingly. Whereas, Certau (1980 in Cova,
2004) considers that the ordinary man invents his daily through the art of turning away objects and codes in
order to reclaim at his manner the use and the space. Among the contributions of the Latin school that can be
highlighted due to their relevance to the whole theory and practice of marketing, is the concept of product and
services "link value" (Cova, 1997) and therefore "tribal marketing" (Cova and Cova, 2002b). The link value is a
concept borrowed from recent work in anthropology and sociology. It has been defined by Godbout and Caill
(1992, in Cova, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2002 and 2003) as: "the value of a good or a service in the construction or
strengthening of links between persons, past or present, real or imagined." Thus, to satisfy their desire for
community, postmodern individuals are more looking for product and services for their linking value than for
their use value, whether functional or symbolic (Godbout and Caille, 1992 in Badot and Cova, 1995). Tribalism
seems to command a redefinition of products and services value. They play the role of cult product and place
supporting link and interdependence between persons.
The cult item is a product or a service that acts as a support for the strengthening of neo-tribal
relationships (Badot and Cova, 2003; Cova and Cova, 2001). It represents a vector of communion such as the
totem for primitive tribes. The cult item serves as a magnet for the postmodern tribes and as a support for their
rituals (Badot and Cova, 1995; Cova, 1997). The valorization of social aspects is a relatively new phenomenon.
Hence, products that enable to connect and be close are rare. Consequently, postmodern individuals try to found
vectors of link out of the market or to turn away vectors in the market from their original purpose (Badot and
Cova, 1995). Similarly to the cult objects, places play the role of social ties support. These distribution sites
can be perceived and conceived as favorite territory for tribes to practice their rituals. They become both
servuction places and ritualization places (Badot and Cova, 1995; Cova, 1997) or "living space" (Remy, 2001).
In cult places, consumers can develop social link with sellers or other clients (Badot and Cova, 2003). Thus, to
give to the modern places of distribution a hint of link value, some propose to put the emphasis on the funfair

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1298

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

others propose a set of micro-community-based events. All those initiatives tend to promote intimate contact
between customers in a space designed to enable the conduct of ritual activities around an ethic theme (Badot
and Cova, 1995). To do this, the Latin school proposes to go beyond the proximity state advocated by the
Nordic School, to that of intimacy (Cova, 199; Rmy, 2002). In other words, not just to be close to customers
without sharing anything with them.
3.2.2. Epistemological and methodological contributions
Tribal marketing belongs to the affirmative postmodern paradigm and joins its epistemological
evolution with the shift from positivism to interpretativism. This is called by Sherry (1991, in Merle, 2003) the
"interpretativist turn in consumer behavior research." Tribal marketing fits in the interpretative thought (Cova
and Roncaglio, 1999) which focuses on the consumer experiences to observe and interpret them through many
views as offered by different theories and methods (Arnould and Price, 1993 and Roncaglio in Cova, 1999;
Arnould and Thompson, 2005). Thus, most of the research on communities and subcultures, when trying to
enroll in a postmodern epistemological position, use ethnographic investigations (Belk et al., 1988; Kates 2000,
2002; Schouten and Mc Alexander, 1995).
The researcher becomes at the same time an instrument of collection and of analysis as he has to immerse in the
studied phenomenon. Introspection is a methodological approach advocated by Latin postmodernist, as
deconstruction and interpretation (Rosenau, 1992).
To understand consumer, Cova opts for the ethnosociological view which mitigates the psychological
view adopted by the majority of marketing researchers (Cova and Roncaglio, 1999). Psychology focuses on the
influence of A on B (A being an individual or a group), the power of A over B, the contamination of B by A or
imitation of A by B. however, ethno sociology is interested in what makes the link between A and B or better to
the being together AB, to the emotion shared between A and B. (Cova and Roncaglio; Cova, 1999; Cova and
Cova, 2002). So, to be included within the Latin postmodern paradigm, researches on groups behavior should
focus on the how rather than the why. In other terms they should focus on the link rather than on its
psychological and social antecedents. Similarly, methods of analysis should focus and even be limited to what is
qualitative (Merle, 2003). Thus, some Nordic research like those of Bagozzi et al. (2002, 2006) although they
are interested in the study of consumers as members of virtual communities, are not considered by the Latin as
falling within the postmodern paradigm (Merle, 2003) insofar they tend to mathematically model the behavior
of a postmodern person defined as volatile and unpredictable.
4. Convergence between the individualistic and the tribal approach of postmodern marketing: Towards a
temperate (moderate) Vision
The characteristics of individualistic and tribal approaches can raise many points of divergence, which
supports the lack of consensus between advocates of the two schools.
First of all Nordic and Latin school disagree about the unit of analysis. Indeed, while the first focuses on the
study of individuals, even if they may be considered in the context of their community membership, the second
focuses on the group dimension as an object of study. At this level, it is important to note that the
conceptualization of communities or tribes as called by southern school is different from their Anglo-Saxon
counterparts. This difference is more salient in the context of virtual communities. In fact, Bernard (2004) was
inspired by Rheingolds definition (1995) to elicit two conditions necessary in order to qualify a group of
virtual community. These conditions are: members number and interactions continuity in time. However,
Latin researchers are prudent in their use of virtual community nomination and consider that these two criteria
are necessary but not sufficient. So, they add the conditions put forward by Muniz and O'Guinn (2001), namely
consciousness of communities members to form a group, the existence of rituals and traditions and a sense of
moral responsibility.
Secondly, Nordic and Latin school differ according to consumption. Whereas the first one focuses on
individuals, the second one is based on the study of postmodern consumers grouped around a common passion
or ethos. This new sight opens the door to the so called community approaches of consumption (Badot and
Cova, 1995; Cova, 1997; Cova and Pace, 2005). On the other hand, the Latin approach is thus distinguished by
its holistic vision of consumption (Cova and Cova, 2002). It is interested in the person as a member of a tribe,
and not as an independent being trying to gather as much experience as possible. This side is relatively
neglected by Nordic approaches (Ostergaard and Jantzen, 2000, in Cova and Cova, 2002). We spend so "the
study of consumer behavior" to that of "the study of consumption behavior" (Ostergaard and Jantzen, 2000, in
Cova and Cova, 2002). In this context, the meanings and symbols associated to products and services are built
within the tribal culture.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1299

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

Thus, we observe a significant divergence between the two schools in the overall vision of marketing.
The Anglo-Saxons (Firat and Venkatesh, 1993) perceive marketing as a system reducing the lack of community.
So, they set in the society representations and meanings to compensate for the individuals isolation. Whereas,
southern researchers consider marketing as community link vector by setting in the society objects and places
designed to support multiple tribal affiliations. However, despite the differences between the two schools, many
common points could be identified advocating a moderate approach. These points of convergence are analyzed
according to three aspects: theoretical, epistemological and methodological.
4.1. The theoretical convergence
Anglo-Saxon approach differs from its Latin counterpart by its emphasis on functionality of the offer
and customer service. It also focuses on the establishment of a personal relation between the company and its
customers. Latin researchers go beside those aspects by according importance to the sharing link and the
reinforcement of relations between the customers themselves (Badot and Cova, 1995). But despite differences
between the two approaches, they have on the theoretical level one thing in common: they closely study
consumers (Brown, 1993, 1994) that are either alone or in groups. A better understanding of the consumer is, in
fact, the ultimate goal of both approaches.
According to the unit of analysis (individual versus group), we can also shed the light on a second point
of convergence between the two approaches. Indeed, Anglo-Saxons are more flexible and their research on
virtual communities include chat rooms, bulletin boards, discussion groups (Dholakia et al., 2004; From Valck
et al., 2009; Pentina, 2008) and online forums in general. This perspective opens the opportunity to study a
larger number of groups influencing online consumer behavior. It may, however, overestimate their potential by
the excessive use under the label "virtual communities". While Latin are very restrictive in their use of the term
virtual communities as a unit of analysis and its application is only plausible under certain brand communities
called "cult" (Badot and Cova, 1995; Cova, 1997). Thus, researches remain limited in this regard to some brand
communities as "Harley Davidson" and "Apple". In this research we can bring closer the two perspectives in
favor of a moderate position. It considers that a group is described as a community only if: (1) it contains a
sufficient number of people (2) interacting for a sufficient and enough time (3) for human relationships to be
forged.
On the other hand, whether Latin or Nordic, both schools agree on what they call the "re-enchantment
of consumption" (Firat and Venkatesh, 1995), indicating the liberation from rationalist (meeting consumer
needs) and assert a sensualist claim (Badot and Cova, 2003). Distribution and consumption while leaving their
economic function and status would go to replace the religions (Patterson, 1998; Badot and Cova, 2003). In
addition, the redefinition of postmodern consumption by the two approaches as "re enchanted" or "experiential"
emphasizes the importance of taking into account the affective dimension. A long neglected aspect by
modernism in favor of the rational individual acting to maximize his profit. At the end of this observation, the
Nordic propose to be close to new experiences essentially created by postmodern people. While Latin try to
overstep this state of proximity to that of intimacy through placing in the market products and spaces that
support the link between group members. That helps living extraordinary experiences in the terms of Arnould
and Price (1993). Therefore, whatever it is proximity value or link value, the two definitions tend in the new
conceptualization of consumption to focus on the hedonistic dimension with varied degrees of interventions
from companies.
4.2. The epistemological and methodological convergence
In theory, postmodern epistemology applied to social sciences is post-positivist and anti-positivist
(Rosenau 1992). Linked to the refusal of "metanarratives" (Lyotard 1979), epistemology shows the need for
contextualized theories until there is no objective reality, but realities corresponding to the meanings attributed
by those who perceive them (Rosenau 1992). On the other hand, the historical reality was that postmodernism
had several aspects. One aspect of postmodernism is that it is a state of knowledge and expression of theoretical
thought. The thinker who reasons about this aspect of postmodernity will therefore focus on expression of
theoretical thought. In other words, they are discourse (theoretical) which constitute the object of his analysis.
He expressed them in a metalanguage, that is to say, a language of second degree referred to an object (Bauman,
1992).
According to the individualistic approach, although it uses interpretativism and existing epistemologies
in order to have a richer scientific production on consumer and consumption. In one hand, it tends to favor
positivism in the majority of its work. On the other hand, it uses within a given research either interpretativism
and narrative discourse or statistical tools, but not a combination of both.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1300

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

Depending on to the tribal approach of postmodern marketing, changes in the nature of knowledge
sought for, is naturally accompanied by upheavals in research methodologies: with the passage from social
psychology, which focuses on the individual in society, to more ethnographic methods, focusing on groups as
the unit of analysis (Cova and Cova, 2001).
Various studies under the postmodern marketing clearly show that both individualistic and tribal
approaches have used multiple epistemologies (positivism, constructivism and interpretativism). At this level of
analysis, we consider that in order to understand the persons behavior in all its complexity, it is useful to use
multiple methods and modes of investigation: qualitative, quantitative, but also mixed without departing from
the scope of postmodern analysis. This research tries to advocate a moderate vision between the Latin school
and the Nordic School of postmodernism. It opens the way for the study of individuals with the ethnology tools.
It also allows the study of postmodern groups by tools of social psychology. Not to mention the possibility of
combining two different analytical methods within the same search. Indeed, in the postmodern perspective,
marketing researcher can handle anything that arouses their interest and they can implement with their acquired
knowledge. The researcher can deepen areas already studied before. When he adopts a different perspective or if
he manages to expose different conclusions or even more detailed than the previous results, it then produces
new scientific knowledge. It is a revolutionary interpretation: modernism invited researchers to investigate only
what we already knew, while postmodernism does not pay attention to the research field, but only to the theory
generated. This implication relative to the field of inquiry is closely related to postmodernism effects on possible
methods of investigation adopted. It is not the adoption of a particular method which makes scientific a
discipline, but the theory generated. Then, the researcher has the right to use any method. Of course, the
quantitative methods are valid, but qualitative methods can be used in conjunction therewith, from ethnography
to the narrative and discourse analysis (Addis and Podesta, 2005). Thus we can conclude that, as a methodology
of social sciences in general and marketing in particular, the postmodern is not a set of operating rules, but
rather a set of innovations whose content remains to be explained (Bourdieu, 1993). The postmodern
epistemology seems rather bring the researcher to what Bourdieu (1993) calls a combination of various
fragments of epistemology. At this level we agree with Cova (2004) to say there are as many forms of
postmodernism as there are postmodernists provided that the various attempts bring more into the explanation
of the person in all its complexity.
5. Conclusion
The table 2 summarizes the different elements that we have just discussed by drawing the points of
divergence between the Latin and the Nordic schools of thought. It highlights the convergence which can
combine the two individualistic and tribal approaches in a moderate vision.
The purpose of this research was to reduce the debate on the differences between the individualistic
approach and the tribal approach which tends to prevail the most appropriate approach to better conduct studies
and research undertaken within the postmodern marketing framework. Following a study of the contributions of
each approach, several points of differences were highlighted. While individualistic approach views
postmodernism as an era of individualism resurgence and therefore consider the postmodern consumer as
individualistic and suggests to combine several methodologies in order to study him; The tribal approach judges
the postmodern marketing as a " community link vector" and consequently sees the postmodern consumer not
asking for products and services to be more free (as recommended in the North American vision) but he is
looking for objects and services places to connect with others. And this approach recommends the adoption of
an interpretivist turn in the research related to this postmodern consumer.
However, a synthesis of the contributions of both approaches in the postmodern marketing research has
shown that in spite of the differences between the two visions, they have many points in common. On the
theoretical level, on one hand, both approaches are looking for better understanding the consumer, on other
hand, they agree on the new role of consumption which is facing the postmodern individual (either alone or in a
group), a consumption described as "re enchanted." On the epistemological and methodological level, we found,
firstly, that in the postmodern perspective, the marketing researcher can get into all subject that attract his
interest and, secondly, we noted that in the social sciences methodology in general and marketing methodology
in particular, the postmodern researcher is not tied to a set of fixed rules, but rather a set of epistemologies and
methodologies which may be used separately or simultaneously. It is in this sense that Goulding (2003 In El
Kamel and Rigaux-Bricmont, 2011) argues that postmodernism is "amorphous" as far as the pluralism
represents its central feature.
So, the reconciliation between both approaches seems imminent because their ultimate goal is to get
closer to the consumer. Thus, the postmodern marketing researcher is no longer obliged to have a positioning
regarding the approach that he will adopt in his research because, at the end, both approaches converge and may
form a single temperate, moderate or even mixed approach.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1301

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

References
Addis, M. & Holbrook, M.B. (2001), On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential
consumption: An explosion of subjectivity, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 1, 1, 5066.
Arias, J.T.G. & Acebron, L.B. (2001), Postmodern approaches in business-to-business marketing and marketing
research, The Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 16, 1, 7 20.
Arnould, E. & Price, L. (1993), River Magic: extraordinary experience and The extended service encounter,
Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 1, 24-45.
Badot, O & Cova, B. (1992a), Des marketing en mouvement vers un nomarketing, Revue Franaise du
Marketing, 136, 5-27.
Badot, O & Cova, B. (1992b), Le no-marketing, Paris, ditions ESF.
Badot, O. & Cova, B. (1995), communaut et consommation : prospective pour un marketing tribal, Revue
Franaise du Marketing, 151, 5-17.
Badot, O. & Cova, B. (2003), No-marketing ,10 ans aprs : pour une thorie critique de la consommation et du
marketing renchants, Revue Franaise du Marketing, 159, 79-94.
Bagozzi, R.P. &Dholakia, U.M. (2002), Intentional social action in virtual communities, Journal of Interactive
Marketing, 16, 2, 2-22.
Bagozzi, R.P. & Dholakia, U.M. (2006), Antecedents and purchase consequences of customer participation in
small group brand communities, International Journal of Research in Marketing, N 23, pp.45-61.
Basilico, S. (2003), Tribus et rseaux : nouveaux modes de communication et de relation, Revue Electronique de
Sociologie : Esprit Critique, 5, 4, 1-2.
Baudrillard, J. (1983), Simulations, New York, Semiotexte.
Bauman, Z. (1992), Intimations of Postmodernity. London&New York, Routledge.
Belk, W., Wallendorf M. & Sherry J. F. (1989), The Sacred and the Profane in Consumer Behavior: Theodicy
on the Odyssey, Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 1-38.
Bernard, Y. (2004), La netnographie: une nouvelle mthode denqute qualitative base sur les communauts
virtuelles de consommation, Dcisions Marketing, 36, 49-62.
Blanch, R. (1972), L'pistmologie, Paris, P.U.F.
Bourdieu, P. (1993), The Field of Cultural Production, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Bourgeon-Renault, D. (2007), Marketing exprientiel et hyperralit dans le domaine de la culture, 7me
Congrs des Tendances du marketing, Venise, 1-19.
Brown, S. (1995), Postmodern Marketing, London, Routledge.
Brown, S. (1993), Postmodern marketing?, European Journal of Marketing, 27, 4, 19-34.
Chantelat, P., Vignal, F. & Nier, O. (2002), Le march des biens sportifs doccasion : consommation
postmoderne ou rationalisation, Revue Franaise de Marketing, 188, 5-14.
Christensen, L.T., Torp S. & Firat A.F. (2005), Integrated marketing communication and postmodernity: an
odd couple?, Corporate Communications, 10, 2, 156-168.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1302

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

Cooper, S, Mc Loughlin D. & Keating A. (2005), Individual and neo-tribal consumption: tales from the
Simpsons of Springfield, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4, 5, 330-345.
Cova, B. (1997), Community and consumption: towards a definition of the linking value of products or
services, European journal of marketing, 31, 3/4, 297-316.
Cova, B. (1999), Tribal marketing: a Latin deconstruction of a northern construction, Paper Selected to the First
International Conference on Critical Management Studies, UMISI. July 1999.
Cova, B. (2004), Une pense mridienne du marketing ? Prospective pour un marketing mditerranen, Cahier
de Recherche, Available : www.visionnarymarketing.com/articles/cova/marketingmeridien1.html, (May 27,
2007).
Cova, B. & Badot, O. (1994), Le marketing lpreuve du postmoderne, Actes du 10me congrs de
lAssociation Franaise du Marketing, Paris, 413-441.
Cova, B. & Cova, V. (2002), Tribal marketing: the tribalisation of society and its impact on the conduct of
marketing, European Journal of Marketing, 36, 5/6, 595-620.
Cova, B. & Pace, S. (2005), Tribal branding sur le net : le cas de my nutella the community, Available :
http://escp-eap.net/conferences/marketing/2005_cp/Materiali/Paper/Fr/Cova_Pace.pdf, (November 29, 2012) .
Cova, B. & Roncaglio, M. (1999), Reprer et soutenir des tribus de consommateurs, Dcisions Marketing, 16,
29-41.
Cova, B., Prvot, F., & Spencer, R. (2012), Ahoy all postmodern navigators! Conceptual havens in a stormy
ocean, Industrial Marketing Management, 41, 365367.
Cova, B. & Svanfeldt, C. (1993), Societal innovations and the postmodern aesthicization of everyday life,
International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10, 297-310.
De Valk, K., Langerak, F., Verhoef, P.C. & Verlegh, P.W.J. (2007), Satisfaction with virtual communities of
interest: effect on members visit frequency, British Journal of Management, 18, 241 256.
Dholakia, U.M., Bagozzi, .P. & Pearo, L.K. (2004), A Social influence model of consumer participation in
network and small group based virtual communities, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21,
241-263.
Elliott, R. (1998), Absolute consumption: postmodern tribe or false consciousness?, in European Advances In
Consumer Research, Vol.3, ed.s. Basil G. Englis and Anna Olofsson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer
Research, 123-124.
Elliott, R. (1994), Addictive consumption: Function and fragmentation in postmodernity, Journal of Consumer
Policy, 17, 2, 159-179
El Kamel, L. & Rigaux-Bricmont, B. (2011), Les apports du postmodernisme lanalyse des univers virtuels
comme exprience de consommation. Cas de Second Life, Recherche et Applications en Marketing, 26, 3, 7192.
Filser, M. (1996), Vers une consommation plus affective, Revue Franaise de Gestion, 90-99.
Firat, A. F. (1991), The consumer in postmodernity, Advanced in Consumer Research, 18, 70-76.
Firat, A.F. & Dholakia N. (1998), Consuming people, from political economy to theaters of consumption,
London, Routledge.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1303

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

Firat, A.F. & Shultz C.J. (2001), Preliminary metric investigation into the nature of the postmodern consumer,
Marketing Letters, 12, 2, 189-203.
Firat, A.F. & Venkatech, A. (1993), Postmodernity: the age of marketing, International Journal of Research in
Marketing, 10, 227 249.
Firat, A.F. & Venkatesh, A. (1995), Liberatory Postmodernism and the Reenchantment of Consumption,
Journal of Consumer Research, 22, 3, 239- 267.
Gerrit, A. & Van Raaij, F.W. (1998), Consumer Behavior, a European perspective, Chichester, Wiley.
Goulding, C. (2003), Issues in representing the postmodern consumer, Qualitative Market Research, 6, 3, 152160.
Hemetsberger, A. (2003), When consumers produce on the Internet: the relationship between cognitiveaffective, socially-based, and behavioural involvement of prosumers, Revised version submitted to The Journal
of Psychology.
Holt, D. (1995), How Consumers Consume: A Typology of Consumption Practices, Journal of Consumers
Research, 22 (June), 1-16.
Honkanen, A. & Mustonen, P. (2007), Tourism consumption revisited - an empirical study of Finnish
consumers, Research on Finnish Society, 1, 4358.
Jameson, F. (1984), Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, New Left Review, 146 (JulyAugust), 59-72.
Joy, A. & Venkatesh, A. (1994), Postmodernism, feminism, and the body: The visible and the invisible in
consumer research, International Journal of research in Marketing, 11, 333 357.
Keat, R., Whiteley, N. & Abercrombie, N. (1994), The Authority of the Consumer, London & New York,
Routledge.
Kniazeva, M. & Venkatesh, A. (2007), Food for thought: A study of food consumption in postmodern US
culture, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 6, 419-435.
Lipovetsky, G. (1983), Lre du vide, Paris, Gallimard.
Lipovetsky, G. (1990), Virage culturel, persistance du moi, Le Dbat, 3, 60, 233-237.
Lo pez-bonilla, L.M & Lo pez-bonilla, J.M, (2009), Postmodernism and Heterogeneity of Leisure Tourist
Behavior Patterns, Leisure Sciences, 31, 6883.
Lyotard, J.F. (1979), La condition postmoderne, Paris, ditions de Minuit.
Lyotard, J.F. (1988), Le postmoderne expliqu aux enfants, Paris, Editions Galile.
Maffesoli, M. (2004b), Sociologie et Postmodernit, Sminaire avec Michelle Maffesoli, Actes de Confrences
Le Rythme de la vie, variations sur les sensibilits postmodernes , la Table Ronde, 2004.
Merle, A. (2003), Apports du point de vue postmoderne ltude des comportements de consommation de
groupe: un dbut de clarification, "actes
des 2me
journes nomades de recherche sur la
consommation, socits et consommation , IAE de Caen, 31 Mars-1er Avril 2003.
Muniz, A.M. Jr & OGuinn, T. (2001), Brand community, Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (march), 412432.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1304

ijcrb.webs.com

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

JANUARY 2013
VOL 4, NO 9

Patterson, M. (1998), Direct marketing in postmodernity: neo-tribes and direct communications, Marketing
Intelligence and Planning, 16, 1, 68-75.
Pentina, I., Prybuto, k. & Zhang, X. (2008), The role of virtual communities as shopping reference groups,
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9, 2, 114 136.
Podest, S. & Addis, M. (2005), Rflexions sur les futures orientations possibles de la recherche en marketing,
in Silva, F. Car, A. et Cova, B. (eds.), Marketing Mditerranen et Postmodernit, Euromed, Marseille.
Rmy, E. (2001), Le lien social dans le marketing des services, Revue Franaise du Marketing, 81, 97-108.
Rosenau, P.M. (1992), Postmodernism and the social sciences, Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Rheingold, H. (1995), Les communauts virtuelles, (traduit de langlais par Lionel Lumroso). Edition AddisonWesley, France (1995), Available: http://www.lumbroso.fr/lionel/03_Plume/VC_sommaire.htm
Sandikci, O. & Ger, G. (2002), In-between modernities and postmodernities: theorizing Turkish consumptions
cape, Advances in Consumer Research, 29, 465-470.
Saren, M. (2011), Marketing empowerment and exclusion in the information age, Marketing Intelligence &
Planning, 29, 1, 39-48.
Schouten, J.W. & Mc Alexander, J.H. (1995), Subculture of Consumption: An Ethnogrpahy of the New Bikers,
Journal of Consumer Research, 22, 1, 43-61.
Sherry, J. F. (1993), Having and Being Had: A Review Essay on the Cultural Psychology of Material
Possessions, Journal of Macromarketing, 13, 75-78.
Sherry, J. F. (1995), Contemporary Marketing and Consumer Behavior, London, Sage publications.
Sitz, L. & Amine, A. (2004), Consommation et groupes de consommateurs, de la tribu postmoderne aux
communauts de marque : pour une clarification des concepts, Actes des 3mes journes Nomades de la
Consommation, Rouen, Mars.
Van Raaij, W.F. (1993), Postmodern consumption, Journal of Economic Psychology, 14, 541-563.
Vattimo, G. (1985), Les aventures de la diffrence, Paris, ditions de Minuit.
Venkatesh, A. (1995), Ethnoconsumerism: A New Paradigm to Study Cultural and Cross-Cultural Consumer
Behavior, in ed. Janeen Costa & Gary Bamossy, Marketing in a Mulicultural World, (pp. 26-67), Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Venkatesh, A. & Noah, P. (1999), Postmodernism perspectives for macromarketing: an inquiry into the global
information and sign economy, Journal of Macromarketing, 19 (December), 153-169.
Venkatesh, A., Sherry, J.F. & Firat, A.F. (1993), Postmodernism and the marketing imaginary, Journal of
Research in Marketing, 10, 215- 223.
Ziegler, H. (1991), The End of Postmodernism: New Directions, Stuttgart, M&P.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1305

ijcrb.webs.com

JANUARY 2013

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS

VOL 4, NO 9

Annexure
Tables

Table 1: Postmodernism and Postmodern Marketing approaches


(Source : Authors Compilation)
Postmodernism
Approach

Authors
Baudrillard (1983)
Jameson (1984)
Ziegler (1991)

Vattimo (1988)
(Cova and Badot, 1994)

Critical
postmodernism /
Skeptical postmodernism
Affirmative postmodernism
/Celebratory postmodernism

Firat andVenkatesh
(1995)

Liberatory postmodernism

Position towards
Modernism

Postmodern
Marketing
Approach

Break

Redefinition

Extension

Latin

Anglo-Saxon/Nordic

Table 2: Towards the convergence of the tribal and the individualistic approach of Postmodern
Marketing (Source: Authors Compilation)
Individualistic approach / Anglo
Tribal approach /
saxon(Nordic) school of thought
Latin school of thought

Analysis unit

Postmodern groups
Terminology

Convergence

Consumption analysis
unit

Consumption analysis
level

Products and places


value notion

Analysis object
Individuals
-Affectual tribes
Individuals as a community
members
Are considered only as postmodern Are considered as postmodern group and
groups and called tribes, the
interchangeably called tribes or community,
groups which meet the criteria
any group of persons overstepping the
advanced by Muniz and O'Guinn
modern links to a common passions.
(2001)
It is important to exceed the individual analysis framework to a wider framework
taking into account postmodern groups
-

Consumption Nature
Purchase Act (selection and
- Consumption Act (experiences)
decision criteria)
- Consumption Act
(experiences)
- Individual Level
- Micro social level (holistic level)
- Studying consumer behavior
- Studying consumption behavior within
whether alone or as a part of a
groups
community belonging
Customer proximity notion: a
Intimacy notion or "link value" : a system
system which enables to fulfill the
which enables to provide the market with
lack of community
goods and/or places to support community
links (cult objects, cult places and passions
sellers)
-

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1306

ijcrb.webs.com

JANUARY 2013

INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS


Convergence

Epistemological
fundaments

Adopted Disciplines

Research method

Convergence

VOL 4, NO 9

Need to adapt the consumption conceptualization in order to reflect its re


enchanted, more hedonic and more experiential character, which is unanimously
accepted by the two schools of thought.
Epistemology and methodology
Post-positivist (extension of
Anti-positivist (interpretivist turn )
modern positivist methods by
using interpretivist methods)
Social psychology
Or
Ethnography,
Anthropology,Sociology

Ethnography, Anthropology, Sociology

statistical tools
Field
studies,
photography,
video,
Or
introspection
Field studies, photography, video,
introspection
Need to resort to several epistemologies to be able to understand the postmodern
consumer, the postmodern consumption, the influence mechanisms as well as the
links mechanisms. In conclusion, using all available disciplines in order to capture
the multiple facets of the postmodern person and to lead him to his experiential
quest.

COPY RIGHT 2013 Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research

1307