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Cuisine in the Philippines is as rich as its culture and history.

Having been a colony of Spain for 300 years and of the U.S.A. for
several decades, the Filipino cuisine can be considered a salad bowl of
Spanish, American and Malayan cooking influences. Due to their
frequent interaction with Chinese people then and now, there is also
community know-how on cooking Chinese disheswith a Filipino
touch.Even with various external influences at play, there are still
original Filipino dishes that can be considered as regional specialties.
Filipinos during the pre-Hispanic era in the Philippines
prepared food by boiling, steaming or roasting. This ranged from the
usual livestock such as kalabaw or water buffalos, cow, chickens and
pigs to seafoods such as fish, shrimps, prawns, crustaceans and
shellfish. There are a few places in the Philippines where the broad
range in their diet extended to monitor lizards, snakes and locusts.
Filipinos have been cultivating rice and corn since the arrival of
Austronesian people from Southern China and Taiwan in 3200 BC. They
brought with them rice cultivation and a lot of other various traditions
that are used in forms today. Pre-Hispanic trade with other Asian
nations introduced a number of staples into Philippine cuisine; most
notable are toyo or soy sauce and patis or fish sauce, as well as the
method of stir-frying and making savory soup bases.
The arrival of Spanish settlers brought with them chili peppers, tomato
sauces, corn, potatoes, and the method of sauting with garlic and
onions, which found their way into Philippine cuisine. They also
introduced the use of vinegar and spices in foods to preserve them due
to lack of refrigeration. Local adaptations of Spanish dishes then
became common, such as paella into its Filipino version arroz
valenciana, chorizo into its local version of longanisa, and escabeche
adobo, which is connected to the Spanish adobado.
During the nineteenth century, Chinese food became a staple
of the panciterias or noodle soup shops around the country, although
they were marketed with Spanish names. Chinese foods include arroz
caldo which is rice and chicken gruel; morisqueta tostada which is an

obsolete term for sinangag or fried rice; and chopsuey.

Today, Philippine cuisine continues to evolve as new techniques and

styles of cooking find their way into one of the most active melting
pots of Asia. The Philippines does not only possess its traditional
cuisine; popular international cuisines as well as restaurant and
fastfood chains are also available around the archipelago. Furthermore,
the Chinese population is famous for establishing Chinese districts
where predominantly Chinese and Chinese-fusion food can be found.

To know the history of the Philippine cookery.
To further understand the factors that affects and influences the
To know why Philippines have different cooking styles in every
To know the different regional cooking styles of the Philippines in
every region.

History and legend say that the Filipinos came

from Indonesia and Malaysia. They founded villages and small
kingdoms in the 7,000 or so islands which make up the Philippines
today. Chinese traders were common visitors to these settlements. So
were Hindu merchants, Japanese fishermen, and later on, Spaniard,
Portuguese, Dutch and English adventurers. In 1521, Ferdinand
Magellan reached the islands in his effort to circumnavigate the world,
reaching the east by sailing west Spain colonized the country soon
after that and gave it the name of Philippines, after the Spanish King,
Philip II. Spanish rule held sway over the Philippines for more than
three centuries until the Americans took over in 1898. The Philippines

gained its independence from the United States in 1946.

Filipino cooking reflects the history of the islands. On a Malayan base,
Chinese, Hindu, Spanish and American ingredients have been added
through centuries of foreign influence and surprisingly, a blend with an
identity of its own has emerged. In the cosmopolitan city of Manila, this
mixture is most in evidence. Far from the capital city, however, one can
still sample the simple dishes that native Filipinos eat Many of these
dishes are remarkably close to native fares still found inIndonesia,
Malaysia, Thailand and other Asian countries.
Native Filipino cooking is not too spicy despite the fact that spices are
plentiful and readily available in the islands. (Europeans, after all,
stumbled upon the Philippines in their search for the fabled Spice
Islands). The basic staple is rice of which hundreds of varieties are
cultivated. Main source of protein is fish which abound in oceans, lakes,
rivers, streams and ponds. Meat, especially pork and poultry, is also
commonly eaten. Beef is readily available but is more expensive; the
cattle industry not being well developed in the country. Veal and lamb
are not too popular but goat meat is considered a delicacy in some
parts of the country as are frogs, rabbits and deer.
It is often when sampling native Filipino dishes that one appreciates
the regional variations in the country. For while it is true that Filipino
culture is homogeneous, there are specific differences in cooking and
food preferences that readily identify the regional origin of many
dishes. Although these differences are not as pronounced as in the
regional variations of Chinese cooking, for instance, they are widely
recognized in the country where regionalism plays an important role
because of its geographical division into many island-groups.
It is generally observed that from a culinary viewpoint, the Philippine
archipelago may be ethnically divided into six regions. Based on the
people's cooking styles and eating habits, the regions from north to
south are:
NORTHERN LUZON the region around the northern tip of Luzon
Island peopled mainly by llocanos, Pangasinans and several minority

groups like Ifugaos, Bontocs, Ibanags and Kalingas. Cooking in this

region is very simple relying mainly on native vegetables, fish, poultry
and meat. A preference for native vegetables particularly saluyot (a
leafy green that looks like spinach but turns slippery like okra when
cooked) and the widespread use of bagoong (shrimp paste) give
Northern Luzon cooking a definite identity. The llocanos usually like
their vegetables steamed or plain boiled and dipped in bagoong. For
additional flavor, they may boil their vegetables with pork or broiled
fish as \npinakbet, dinengdeng or inabraw. The Pangasinans are
justifiably famous for the quality of their bangus (milkfish) which are
artificially reared in ponds through an ancient system of aqua-culture.
Generally, Northern Luzon cooking uses locally grown ingredients,
involves simple proceduresand may even be called sparse fare. Life in
this coastal and mountainous region is hard and the people tend to be
thrifty and live simply. These traits are well reflected in their dishes.
CENTRAL PLAINS inhabited in large numbers by Tagalogs and Pampangos and occupying the rice growing central part of Luzon Island and
the area around the capital region of Manila. Central Plains cooking is
the most sophisticated in the country. This is most evident in Manila
and surrounding areas where foreign cuisines have left the people with
a taste for rich sauces and fancy desserts. The people have a passion
for meat especially pork and poultry. Their cooking is marked by clever
combinations of many different ingredients in a single dish, long and
elaborate preparations and festive looks. They are fond of stuffed main
dishes and are well admired for their^llenong manok or bangus
(stuffed, boned whole chicken or fish), morcon (stuffed rolled beef) and
embutido (stuffed pork sausage) all wtth rich, spicy sauces.They
usually like their vegetables sauteed in garlic, onions and tomatoes
with pork and shrimps.
SOUTHERN TAGALOG homogeneously Tagalog speaking area south
of Manila and the country's major source of coconuts as well as rice
and fruits. Their cooking and eating habits are strongly influenced by
their products and the availability of certain foodstuffs in the region.
For instance, they have a strong preference for fresh water fish which
abound in streams and rivers and which are usually sold swimming in
buckets of water in the market. Their cooking tends to be sour with

their constant use of vinegar and sour fruits like kamias,tamarind and
over-ripe guavas.Vinegar seasoned with garlic, salt and pepper, is used
as a marinade for fish before frying or as a dip. Tamarind and other
sour fruits are used to s6ur the broth of sinigang, a favorite way of
cooking fresh water fish. But the southern Tagalogs are well known for
their native cakes and delicacies such as espasol, suman, hinalo,
sinukmani and bibingka, the main ingredients of which are glutinous
rice and coconuts.
BICOL another ethnically homogeneous region on the southern tip of
Luzon Island where inhabitants speak the Bicol dialect. Its cooking is
notable for the general use of coconut and hot chilies. The combination
results in many rich, spicy dishes the most nationally known of which is
laing, a chili hot mixture of meat or shrimps and vegetables seasoned
with bagoong, wrapped in gabi (taro) leaves and boiled in cdconut milk
until the milk is reduced to a thick sauce.
VISAYAS the region that includes islands that occupy the middle part
of the Philippine archipelago and parts of Mindanao island inhabited by
Christian Filipinos: The two main dialects spoken in the region are
Hiligaynon and Cebuano. The people thrive on salt water fish abundant
in the Sibuyan, Visayan, Sulu and Mindanao seas surrounding them,
not to mention the China Sea and Pacific Ocean. Fish and seafoods not
immediately consumed are preserved in salt and dried in the sun. The
region is noted for these various types of dried salted seafoods such as
daing, tuyo, pus it, hipon and kalkag. Visayan cooking tends to be salty
not only because of its dried salted foods but also because of its liberal
use of guinamos, a type of bagoong that is different from that used in
Northern Luzon. Bagoong in Northern Luzon is made of shrimp or fish
fermented in a salty sauce. Guinamos is made of fermented shrimp or
fish and salt pounded to a paste and has no sauce. It has a much
stronger flavor and odor than the other type. Visayan cooking is
simple. The people like their fish broiled over live coals or boiled in well
seasoned vinegar as in pinamarhan which is similar to the Tagalog's
paksiw na isda but cooked until it is almost dry. Some even eat their
fish raw as in kinilaw, a dish of sliced raw fish marinated in seasoned
vinegar with onion, tomatoes and slices of unripe mango. Like the

Northern Luzon people, they also like their vegetables simply boiled or
steamed but dipped in guinamos with a squeeze of lemon. Being the
country's main producer of sugar, the region is well known for its
native snacks such aspinasugbu, turrones, banana chips, utap, and the
traditional cookies and biscuits of Panaderia de Molo (Bakery of Molo, a
town in llorlo). Native sweets such as biko and baybaye are made of
coconut and glutinous rice.
MINDANAO that part of Mindanao Island inhabited by ethnic groups
having Islam as a common religious bond. There are several groups in
this region: the Maranao that inhabit the shores of Lake Lanao, the
Maguindanao which occupy the province of Cotabato, the Tausugs,
Badjaos and other maritime groups that live in the Sulu Sea area, etc.
Ethnically, however, because of the strong religious affinity among
them, these groups can be seen as one. Mindanao cooking is marked
by simplicity and the, non-use of pork which is universally used in the
rest of the country. It is closely similar to Indonesian and Malaysian
native fares in the use of hot chilies and strongly flavored spices such
as curry. The more popular dishes are tiola sapi (spicy boiled
beef)/piarun (fish with chilies), and lapua (blanched vegetables
seasoned with salt and vinegar or guinamos).

The most easily identifiable difference in Filipino culture is of course

reflected in religion. The Christian Filipinos, found mostly in the large
island of Luzon and the Visayas make up about 96 per cent of the
country's population of about 50 million. Filipino Muslims, on the other
hand, are concentrated on the southern part of Mindanao Island close
to the borders of Indonesia and Malaysia.
Among Christian Filipihos there are many variations in cooking. The
fragmented nature of the islands, the fact that they were probably
settled at different times by people coming from different parts of
Malaysia and Indonesia, and the difficulties of communication and
transportation have woven various threads into the tapestry which is
Philippine culture.
As in other cultures there are food favorites in each region in the

Philippines. For example,even in staples, most Filipinos living in Luzon

Island prefer rice while Visayans in the Island of Cebu, Leyte, and
Sarnar like corn. People in Luzon and some iff the Visayas will eat roots
crops (sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, etc.) as desserts or snacks but
to eat them as staples in these regions would indicate that one is poor.
In Mindanao, however, panggi (cassava) is the staple food in many
Preferences in food are also determined by the ready availability of
certain foods. For example, Bicolanos and Tagalogs especially those in
southern Luzon use a lot of coconut in their cooking. Coconut trees
dominate the landscape in these regions. Coconut milk comes from the
meat of the mature coconut which is grated, mixed with a little water
and squeezed between the palms to get the milk out. Added to dishes,
coconut milk makes them thick and oily, imparting to the foods the
unmistakable taste of coconut.
While hot peppers are found in all parts of the Philippines, only
Bicolanos in the southern tip of Luzon and the Muslims of Mindanao eat
them raw or use them extensively in cooking. Many varieties of pepper
are found in the country but the hottest ones are tiny red devils known
as labuyo. Added to meat, fish or vegetables, they give dishes a mouth
burning quality. Among the Bicolanos, the wide use of coconuts and hot
peppers give their cooking a regional identity all its own.
Meat and fish are common throughout the Philippines but there are
also regional differences. Generally, people living in coastal areas or
river streams eat a lot of fish while inland people prefer meat. The
most popular meat for Christian Filipinos is pork followed closely by
chicken, duck and other poultry. However, Muslims do not eat pork and
Pampangos are generally known as eaters of dog meat as are so called
non-Christian tribes in northern Luzon (Igorots, Bontocs, IfUgaos and
Among fish eaters, variations exist between those who prefer salt
water fish or fresh water varieties. Most Visayans prefer 'salt water fish
such as sardines, tuna, bonito and mackerel which abound in the seas
surrounding them. Many Tagalogs, Pampangos, llocanos and

Pangasinans prefer fresh water fish caught in rivers, lakes and streams.
In Pangasinan and Pampanga the cultivation of fish in ponds
(aquacuiture) is a well developed art. The most popular "cultured" fish
is the bangus (milkfish) which is grown in ponds of brackish water.
Mudfish, catfish, carp and tifapia are not as carefully cultivated as
milkfish but they are also somewhat "domesticated" in that they
usually co-exist with wet rice (paddy) cultivation.
There are many peculiarities in food habits among Filipino ethnic
groups which are extremely hard to explain. For example, though the
leafy green vegetable known as saluyot can be grown in any part of
the country, only the llocanos seem to like it a lot. To others,the
slippery leaves are very unappetizing. Visayans eat fish raw, though
unlike the Japanese, they marinate it first in a mixture of vinegar,
garlic, onions and salt. Tagalogs and Pampangos eat frogs, others
rarely touch them.
Cookiog styles and seasonings also vary from region to region although
all basic cooking methods are used. Some places, however, tend to use
one method more than the others. The Northern Luzon people,for
instance, boil most of their foods and season them with bagoong
(shrimp paste). The Southern Tagalogs tend to marinate their meat,
fish and poultry in seasoned vinegar and then fry them. Central Luzon
people favor sauteing in, garlic, onion, and tomatoes and the use of
soy sauce and gravies. The Visayans also favor frying as well as boiling
while the Muslims prefer to boil or roast their food over a live fire.
(Sinugba or inasal means broiled.)
The basic cooking methods commonly used in the Philippines are
boiling, roasting, frying and steaming. Freshly caught fish is usually
broiled over live coals or a wood 'fire. The fish is simply skewered from
end to end with a bamboo stick and broiled. The burnt scales are then
peeled off to reveal the tender meat. Fresh kalamansi (native lemon)
juice or vinegar with a little salt is placed in a small dish and the fish
dipped into this before it is eaten usually with handfuls of plain boiled
rice. Meat and poultry are also cooked this way.
On special occasions a small suckling pig may be roasted in the festive

lechon. The pig is cleaned, stuffed with rice, .tender tamarind leaves
and arbmatic herbs. A long bamboo pole is thrust through the pig from
head to tail and the pig is roasted over live coals until it is golden red,
the skin crispy and its curling tail signals it is ready. This most festive of
Filipino dishes is eatpn with a sweet-sour liver sauce that is spiced with
lots of garlic, onions and peppercorns.
Most daily fares are boiled with the ingredients thrown into the pot in
the order of how fast they cook. Certain fruits or vegetables are boiled
with fish or meat to impart their peculiar taste, usually sour, to the
dish. Kamias, tomatoes, guavas, fruits, flowers and even young leaves
of the tamarind tree are often used. They are boiled, crushed through a
sieve and the puree poured back into the pot. One such favorite Filipino
dish is called sinigang a boiled sour dish of fish, shrimps, pork, beef
or chicken mixed with vegetables. Similar dishes seem to be popular
throughout Asia where it is called sayur asam in Indonesia and tomiam
in Thailand.
Fresh vegetables are sometimes boiled and dipped in a vinegar and
bagoong mixture before eating. Often, however, they are simply
washed and placed on top of boiling rice just before the rice is fully
cooked, thus achieving a steamed effect. They may also be cut into
small pieces and sauteed in garlic, onions and tomatoes with pieces of
pork and shrimps. Some, like eggplants, may be sliced thinly, dipped in
batter and deep fried not unlike the Japanese tempura.
Frying seems to have been introduced to Philippine cooking by the
Chinese. Coconut oil must have been used in the beginning as it is still
often used now although lard and other vegetable oils have become
popular. Most Filipino dishes follow the Chinese example of cutting,
dicing or chopping ingredients into small pieces. This method makes
preparation a bit longer especially since Filipinos also like to combine
several different ingredients in one dish. But cooking is short because
the small pieces cook fast in the short time they are sauteed or fried.
While this method of preparation is convenient for the Chinese who use
chopsticks, it is also suitable for the Filipinos who often eat with their

Traditional Filipinos rarely use cutlery for eating. They form small balls
of rice with their fingers while pressing them against the plate. The rice
balls are then conveyed into the mouth one by one at the tip of the
fingers and pushed in from behind with the thumb. Western influence
introduced cutlery in the Philippines. Filipinos learned to eat with a
spoon and fork which were practical for getting at the rice and chopped
meat and vegetables with a bit of broth. But the traditional Filipinos
still use the most convenient way even today his hands.
Next to boiling, the most common method of cooking Filipino dishes is
by sauteing. This can be traced to both Chinese and Spanish origins.
Usually, a small amount of pork fat or vegetable oil is heated in a
skillet. Garlic is added and sauteed until brown, then onions are cooked
until clear and tomatoes until mushy. This combination forms the base
for most sauteed dishes. Patis (fish sauce) is used for seasoning.
The use of heavy sauces is not a traditional Filipino style of cooking but
can be traced directly to Spanish influence. Gravy dishes, however, are
reserved for special occasions such as town fiestas, Christmas,
weddings, or for "rich families" Sunday dinner. Usually, such dishes are
common in the Central Plains and Southern Tagalog region. Pampango
and Tagalog cooking are widely regarded as the country's best
examples of good festive cooking.
No Filipino meal is.complete without dessert whether it is a simple fruit
(banana, mango, watermelon, etc.) or prepared sweets like glazed
kamote, kaong in syrup or special desserts like leche flan or macapuno.
A great variety of native cakes are prepared from rice and coconut
milk. Of late, pastries, cakes, cookies and coffee breads have been
introduced by foreign cookery and baking is becoming more and more
The interaction of Philippine traditional cooking and foreign influences
may be seen in typically Spanish paella seasoned with local patis or
American pork chops eaten with rice and bagoong sauteed in lots of
onions and tomatoes. Steak is marinated in kalamansi juice and soy
sauce and served smothered in onions. Jhe Filipinos have turned into
native fare even the Chinese pancit {sauteed noodles with meat and

vegetables). The Philippine version called pancit luglug (meaning to

dip) uses rice noodles placed in long handled bamboo baskets and
dipped into salted boiling water until done. Then they are drained,
turned onto serving plates, covered with a red sauce, topped with
sauteed pork, seafoods and powdered sitsaron (pork rind), garnished
with egg slices, celery and green onions. It is often served with
patis and kalamansijuice for further seasoning,
The one-dJsh-meal puchero is another example of the delicious
blending of east and west in Philippine cooking. It is the Philippine
version of the Spanish boiled dinner, cocido. It is beef, pork or chicken
or a combination of these meats boiled with Spanish sausage and
vegetables like cabbage, potatoes, bananas and chickpeas. Then they
are all sauteed in garlic, onions and tomatoes and put back into the
broth. Puchero is usually served with a sauce of mashed eggplant and
squash seasoned with lots of garlic, salt, pepper and vinegar.
The resufts>.of the blending of traditional Philippine cooking and
foreign borrowings are generally tasty without being too spicy, simple
but not bare, exciting but not strange and extremely good to eat
without being too rich nor fattening. It may be said that in the meeting
of east and west in Filipino cooking the best of both worlds have been
distilled and achieved.

This research will benefits every reader specially students to further
understand the history and different cooking styles of the Philippines
and in different region. This research also explained why every region
has different cooking styles and how their natural resources how
mainly affect their cooking styles and delicacies. Also those food
oriented people and those who are planning to open a food business
who offer Filipino food will be benefited by this research.

Stuffed pork sausage- embutido

Shrimp paste bagoong

Kinilaw - a dish of sliced raw fish marinated in seasoned vinegar with
onion, tomatoes and slices of unripe mango
Guinamos -is made of fermented shrimp or fish and salt pounded to a
paste and has no sauce
Tiola sapi - spicy boiled beef
Lapua- blanched vegetables seasoned with salt and vinegar or


Cooking methods in the Philippines may appear strange to

foreigners at first glance. This is because of the complexity of Filipino
foods due to its varied origins such as Malay, Chinese and Spanish. Yet,
these cooking methods are rather simple. Philippine cuisine is as
diverse as the different cultural groups that make up the Filipino
people. It is flavored by a rich variety of herbs and spices found all over
the islands. Aside from the many tropical fruits and vegetables grown
in the mountains and plains, fish, meat and poultry are also a major
part of the Filipino diet. Rice is a staple food.Contact with foreign
cultures resulted in interesting blends of flavors with Philippine
cuisine. Spanish and Chinese cooking are among the many influences
on Filipino food preparation.
Dishes in the Philippines are quite simple to prepare and
wouldrequire less cooking utensils. A Chinese wok should do the trick
when cooking food in the Philippines. Well discuss some of the basics
of cooking in the Philippines. Well also discuss the cooking styles in
the Philippines, as well as the common ingredients used.
In the Philippines, when you are cooking food, you dont need any
special styles or skills. Most dishes in the Philippines are stewed,
sauteed, broiled, braised, or fried. You will rarely find baked dishes in
Philippine cooking. That is typical for a tropical cuisine.

There are two major cooking styles of preparing and cooking food in
the Philippines. The first cooking style has vinegar as a major theme.
Youll find that popular dishes in the Philippines like adobo, paksiw, and
sinigang are based on the sour taste. Dishes like these are not
necessarily based on the sour taste alone but more on the preserving
effects of vinegar.
This first major cooking style in the Philippines focuses more on
preserving the food. Dishes prepared in this cooking style are meant to
last longer even without refrigeration. The foodcreated in this cooking
style seems to taste better after some time.
The second major cooking style in the Philippines has Patis as its major
theme. Patis is the Philippine equivalent of the Vietnamese Nuoc
mam or the Thai nampla. It is a very salty, thin, fish or shrimp
This cooking style focuses on accentuating the taste of the foodusing
Patis. Though Patis is kind of rare and sometimes is really hard to find,
it still remains a major theme among many dishes in the Philippines.
Where patis is not found, salt is used as a substitute in this cooking
The ingredients used in Philippine cooking have either an Oriental
(more Chinese by the way) or Hispanic influence. Lets take a look at
the common ingredients used in Philippine cooking.
Coconut milk is common in Philippine cooking, quite popular in the
Bicol region. Anatto seeds (known in the Philippines as achuette) can
be bought in the Philippines at the local wet market or in groceries in
four or eight ounce bottles. This can be bought in oriental stores in the
Bagoong (fermented shrimp or fish paste) is quite popular in the
northern and southern regions of the Philippines. This can also be
bought in any oriental food store.
The Chinese influence in Philippine cooking comes in through several
ingredients such as dried Chinese mushrooms, Chinese sausages, bak
choy, and an array of different kinds of noodles. All these can be

bought at local food markets or in oriental stores in the East and West
coasts of the United States.
Cooking the dishes of the Philippines is quite easy to begin with. The
ingredients are readily available and if not, substitute ingredients can
still be used. The cooking styles in the Philippines were developed with
practicality in mind. Try them out and enjoy a taste that is uniquely
The food culture in the Philippines is just as interesting as its diverse
society and immensely rich history. The country has derived influences
from various nations, which gives birth to a unique set of all-Filipino
dishes and delicacies. The Filipinos are known for their love for food,
whether there is a celebration or just an ordinary day. The country has
so much to offer when it comes to wining and dining. The culinary
schools in the Philippines have been a huge influence in improving the
food scene in the country.
For individuals who have the strong desire to have a career in culinary
arts, you do not have to look too far to find a school to enroll into.
Whether it is in Luzon, Visayas or Mindanao, there is a school which
can provide top-notch culinary education. What is even better is that
culinary schools in the Philippines do not only enrich the knowledge of
students when it comes to Filipino cooking. They also learn about
international cuisines, specialized techniques and other world-class
Philippine cuisine consists of the food, preparation methods and eating
customs found in the Philippines. The style of cooking and the food
associated with it have evolved over many centuries from
its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine of Malay, Spanish, Chinese,
and American, as well as other Asian and Latin influences adapted to
indigenous ingredients and the local palate.

Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and
rice, to the elaborate paellas and cocidoscreated for fiestas of Spanish
origin, and spaghetti and lasagna of Italian origin. Popular dishes
include: lechn (whole roasted pig), longganisa (Philippine
sausage), tapa (cured beef), torta (omelette), adobo (chicken and/or
pork braisedin garlic, vinegar, oil and soy sauce, or cooked until
dry), kaldereta (meat in tomato sauce stew), mechado (larded beef in
soy and tomato sauce), puchero (beef in bananas and tomato
sauce), afritada (chicken and/or pork simmered in a peanut sauce with
vegetables), kare-kare (oxtail and vegetables cooked in peanut
sauce), pinakbet (kabocha squash, eggplant, beans, okra, and tomato
stew flavored with shrimp paste), crispy pata (deep-fried pig's
leg), hamonado (pork sweetened in pineapple sauce), sinigang (meat
or seafood in sour broth), pancit (noodles), and lumpia (fresh or fried
spring rolls)
During the pre-Hispanic era in the Philippines, the preferred
Austronesian methods for food preparation were boiling, steaming and
roasting. The ingredients for common dishes were obtained from
locally raised livestock. These ranged from kalabaw (water
buffaloes),baka (cows), manok (chickens) and baboy (pigs) to various
kinds of fish and seafood. In 3200 BCE, Austronesians from the
southern China Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and Taiwan settled in the
region that is now called the Philippines. They brought with them
knowledge of rice cultivation and other farming practices which
increased the number and variety of edible dish ingredients available
for cooking.
Direct trade and cultural exchange with Hokkien China in the
Philippines in the Song dynasty (9601279 AD) with porcelain,
ceramics, and silk being traded for spices and trepang in Luzon. This
early cultural contact with China introduced a number of staple
food into Philippine cuisine, most notably toyo (soy
sauce; Chinese: ; Pee h-e-j: tu-yu), tokwa; (tofu; Chinese: ; Pee h-ej: tu-koa), toge(bean sprout; Chinese: ; Pee h-e-j: tu-koa),
and patis (fish sauce), as well as the method of stir frying and making
savory soup bases. Many of these food items and dishes retained their

original Hokkien names, such as pancit (Chinese: ; Pee h-e-j: pin--si et)
(Chinese: ; pinyin: bin sh), and lumpia (Chinese: ; Pee h-e-j: jn-pi,
ln-pi).[3] The Chinese food introduced during this period were food of
the workers and traders, which became a staple of the noodle shops
(panciterias), and can be seen in dishes like arroz
caldo (congee), sinangag (fried rice), chopsuey.
Trade with the various neighboring kingdoms
of Malacca and Srivijaya in Malaya and Java brought with it foods and
cooking methods which are still commonly used in the Philippines
today, such
as Bagoong (Malay: Belacan), Patis, Puso (Malay: Ketupat), Rendang, K
are-kare and the infusion of coconut milk in condiments, such
as laing andGinataang Manok (chicken stewed in coconut milk).
Through the trade with the Malay-Indonesian kingdoms, cuisine from
as far away as India and Arabia enriched the palettes of the local
Austronesians (particularly in the areas of
southern Luzon, Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan, the Visayas and Bicol, where
trade was strongest). These foods include various dishes eaten in areas
of the southern part of the archipelago today, such as puto derived
from Indian cuisine puttu, kurmah, satti and biryani.
Spanish colonizers and friars in the 16th century brought with them
produce from the Americas like chili peppers, tomatoes, corn, potatoes,
and the method of sauting with garlic and onions. Chili leaves are
frequently used as a cooking green. Spanish (and Mexican) dishes were
eventually incorporated into Philippine cuisine with the more complex
dishes usually being prepared for special occasions. Some dishes such
as arroz a la valenciana remain largely the same in the Philippine
context. Some have been adapted or have come to take on a slightly
or significantly different meaning. Arroz a la cubana served in the
Philippines usually includes ground beef picadillo.
Philippine longganisa despite its name is more akin to chorizo than
Spanish longaniza (in Visayan regions, it is still known
as chorizo). Morcon is likely to refer to a beef roulade dish not the
bulbous specialty Spanish sausage.

Today, Philippine cuisine continues to evolve as new techniques, styles

of cooking, and ingredients find their way into the country. Traditional
dishes both simple and elaborate, indigenous and foreign-influenced,
are seen as are more current popular international viands and fast
food fare. However, the Filipino diet is higher in total fat, saturated fat,
and cholesterol than other Asian cuisines

Filipino cuisine is distinguished by its bold combination of sweet

(tamis), sour (asim), and salty (alat) flavors. While other Asian cuisines
may be known for a more subtle delivery and presentation, Filipino
cuisine is often delivered all at once in a single presentation.
Counterpoint is a feature in Philippine cuisine which normally comes in
a pairing of something sweet with something salty, and results in
surprisingly pleasing combinations. Examples include: champorado (a
sweet cocoa rice porridge), being paired with tuyo (salted, sun-dried
fish); dinuguan (a savory stew made of pig's blood and innards), paired
with puto (sweet, steamed rice cakes); unripe fruits such
asmangoes (which are only slightly sweet but very sour), are eaten
dipped in salt or bagoong; the use of cheese (which is salty) in
sweetcakes (such as bibingka and puto), as well as an ice
cream flavoring.
Vinegar is a common ingredient. Adobo is popular not solely for its
simplicity and ease of preparation, but also for its ability to be stored
for days without spoiling, and even improve in flavor with a day or two
of storage. Tinapa is a smoke-cured fish while tuyo, daing,
and dangitare corned, sun-dried fish popular because they can last for
weeks without spoiling, even without refrigeration.
Cooking and eating in the Philippines has traditionally been an informal
and communal affair centered around the family kitchen. Filipinos
traditionally eat three main meals a
day:agahan or almusal (breakfast), tanghalan (lunch),

and hapunan (dinner) plus an afternoon snack called merinda (also

called minandl or minindl). Snacking is normal. Dinner, while still the
main meal, is smaller than other countries. Usually, either breakfast or
lunch is the largest meal. Food tends to be served all at once and not
in courses. Unlike many of their Asian counterparts Filipinos do not eat
with chopsticks. Due to Western influence, food is often eaten using
flatwareforks, knives, spoonsbut the primary pairing of utensils
used at a Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork not knife and
fork. The traditional way of eating is with the hands, especially dry
dishes such as inihaw or prito. The diner will take a bite of the main
dish, then eat rice pressed together with his fingers. This practice,
known as kamayan, is rarely seen in urbanized areas. However,
Filipinos tend to feel the spirit of kamayan when eating amidst nature
during out of town trips, beach vacations, and town fiestas.
As with most Asian countries, the staple food in the Philippines
is rice. It is most often steamed and served during meals. Leftover rice
is often fried with garlic to make sinangag, which is usually served at
breakfast together with a fried egg and cured meat or sausages. Rice is
often enjoyed with the sauce or broth from the main dishes. In some
regions, rice is mixed with salt, condensed milk, cocoa, or coffee. Rice
flour is used in making sweets, cakes and other pastries. While rice is
the main staple food, bread is also a common staple.
A variety of fruits and vegetables are often used in
cooking. Bananas (the saba variety in
particular), kalamansi, guavas (bayabas), mangoes, papayas,
and pineapples lend a distinctly tropical flair in many dishes, but
mainstay green leafy vegetables like water spinach (kangkong),
Chinese cabbage (petsay), Napa cabbage (petsay wombok), cabbage
(repolyo) and other vegetables like eggplants (talong) and yard-long
beans (sitaw) are just as commonly used. Coconuts are ubiquitous.
Coconut meat is often used in desserts, coconut milk (kakang gata) in
sauces, and coconut oil for frying. Abundant harvests of root crops like
potatoes, carrots, taro (gabi), cassava (kamoteng kahoy), purple yam
(ube), and sweet potato (kamote) make them readily available. The

combination of tomatoes (kamatis), garlic (bawang), and onions

(sibuyas) is found in many dishes.
Meat staples include chicken, pork, beef, and fish. Seafood is popular
as a result of the bodies of water surrounding the archipelago. Popular
catches include tilapia, catfish (hito),milkfish (bangus), grouper (lapulapu), shrimp (hipon), prawns (sugpo), mackerel (galunggong, hasahasa), swordfish, oysters
(talaba), mussels (tahong), clams (halaan andtulya), large and
small crabs (alimango and alimasag respectively), game fish, sablefish,
tuna, cod, blue marlin, and squid/cuttlefish (both called pusit). Also
popular areseaweeds, abalone, and eel.
The most common way of having fish is to have it salted, pan-fried or
deep-fried, and then eaten as a simple meal with rice and vegetables.
It may also be cooked in a sour broth of tomatoes or tamarind as
in pangat, prepared with vegetables and a souring agent to
make sinigang, simmered in vinegar and peppers to make paksiw, or
roasted over hot charcoal or wood (inihaw). Other preparations
include escabeche (sweet and sour), relleno (deboned and stuffed), or
"kinilaw" (similar to ceviche; marinated in vinegar orkalamansi). Fish
can be preserved by being smoked (tinapa) or sun-dried
(tuyo or daing).
Food is often served with various dipping sauces. Fried food is often
dipped in vinegar, soy sauce, juice squeezed
from Kalamansi (Philippine lime or calamansi), or a combination of two
or all. Patis (fish sauce) may be mixed with kalamansi as dipping sauce
for most seafood. Fish sauce, fish paste (bagoong), shrimp
paste (bagoong alamang) and crushed ginger root (luya)
are condiments that are often added to dishes during the cooking
process or when served.


This research is made by conducting several research in books

and majority through internet, by the use of internet and books were
able to gathered additional information about Philippines cookery and
the factors that affect its cooking styles.


As a result of this research, we found out that there are several
factors that affect Philippine cookery and how Filipinos cook food. We
also found out that Philippines cuisine and style of cooking and the
food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from
its Austronesian origins to a mixed cuisine of Malay, Spanish, Chinese,
and American, as well as other Asian and Latin influences adapted to
indigenous ingredients and the local palate. Every regions has its own
and unique specialty in term of food and preparation. Natural resources
and abundance of it affect the specialty and style of cooking in every


Based on this research we found out that studies and literature

about Philippine cuisine and cookery is very limited in terms of its
content and number of research conducted, therefore we recommend
to other person who are concern about Philippine cuisine and cookery
to further investigate and conduct further research about this topic for
us to dig deeply the root of Philippine cuisine and cookery.