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School Bag

Compiler :
Ahmad Syahid Zakaria
Julia Eka Citra
Mutia Tri Ramadhian
Nabila Qisthina
Reshinta Ananda
Rizky Intan Prazna Putri

Department :
Industrial Engineering

Statement of Authorship
We the undersigned declare that the following paper is purely our own work. No work
of others that we use without mentioning the source. This paper has never been used or
presented for other assignment. We understand that this paper may be reproduced and or
communicated for the purpose of detecting plagiarism.

Name: Ahmad Syahid Zakaria

Name: Julia Eka Citra

NPM: 1406531454

NPM:

Signature:

Signature:

Title of paper: School Bag

Title of Paper: School Bag

Date:

Date:

Subject: Engineering Materials

Subject: Engineering Materials

Name: Mutia Tri Ramadhian

Name: Nabilla Qisthina

NPM : 1406531366

NPM: 1406564490

Signature:

Signature:

Title of paper: School Bag

Title of Paper: School Bag

Date:

Date:

Subject: Engineering Materials

Subject: Engineering Materials

Name: Reshinta Ananda

Name: Rizky Intan Prazna Putri

NPM : 1406531271

NPM : 1406531435

Signature:

Signature:

Title of paper: School Bag

Title of Paper: School Bag

Date:

Date:

Subject: Engineering Materials

Subject: Engineering Materials

Preface

First at all, give thanks for Gods love and grace for us. Thanks to God for helping me
and give me chance to finish this assignment timely. And I would like to say thank you to Mr.
Wahyuaji N. Saputra and Mrs. Bondan T. Sofyan as the lecturer that always teaches us and
gives much knowledge about Introduction about Materials Engineering.
This assignment 6 is the one of Introduction about Materials Engineering task that
composed of paper about Polymer especially that used to make school bags. I realized this
assignment is not perfect. But I hope it can be useful for us. Critics and suggestion is needed
here to make this assignment be better. Hopefully we as a student of Industrial Engineering
can work more professional by using English as the second language whatever we done.
Last but not least, we want to say sorry if there isnt much information about the
school bag. We hope that this paper will give more informatiom about school bag.

Depok, 27 November 2014


Author

Table of Contents

Cover Paper.........................................................................................................................
Statement of Authorship......................................................................................................
Preface.................................................................................................................................
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................
Chapter I Introduction.........................................................................................................
A.
B.
C.
D.

General.....................................................................................................................
Purpose....................................................................................................................
Problem Formulation...............................................................................................
Objectives of This Writer.........................................................................................

Chapter II Discussion..........................................................................................................
A.
B.
C.
D.

The type and major properties of the materials, which compose the school bag....
The manufacturing process of the school bag.........................................................
The range of basic price of the school bag..............................................................
The companies that make the school bag................................................................

Chapter III Conclusion........................................................................................................


References...........................................................................................................................

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

A. General
B. Purpose
Our purpose in discussing this matter is
C. Problem Formulation
1. What is the type and major properties of school bag?
2. What is the manufacturing process of the school bag?
3. What is the range of basic price of school bag?
4. What is the companies that make the school bag?
D. Objectives of This Write
1. To explain the type and major properties of the school bag
2. To explain the manufacturing process of the school bag
3. To explain the range of basic price of the school bag
4. To tell the companies that make school bag.

Chapter II
DISCUSSION
A. The type and major properties of the materials, which compose the school bag
A school book bag must support more weight than a hand bag and provide adequate
wear resistance to survive the school environment for at least a couple of semesters.
The most common materials chosen for this design are natural or polymer fabrics:
nylon and polyvinylchloride (PVC) are examples.
Type: Nylon and Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
Major Properties:
1. Nylon

Density

General Properties:

Electrical Conductivity

()
luster: Thermal Conductivity
nylon has the ability to
Variation

of

1.15 g/cm3
1012 Siemens (unit)/m
0.25 Watt/ (m.Kelvin)
463624 Kelvin

be very lustrous, semi Melting Point

190350 Celcius

lustrous or dull.

374663 Fahrenheit

Durability: high tenacity fibers

High elongation

Excellent abrasion resistance

Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)

Paved the way for easy-care garments

High resistance to insects, fungi, animals, as well as molds, mildew, rot and
many chemicals

Melts instead of burning

Good specific strength

Transparent to infrared light (12dB)

1. Polyvinylchloride (PVC)

Major properties:
a. Physical properties
PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties are usually categorized based on rigid
and flexible PVCs.
Property
Density [g/cm3]
Thermal Conductivity [W/(m.Kelvin)]
Yield strength[psi]
Youngs modulus [psi]
Flexural strength (yield) [psi]
Compression strength[psi]
Coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) [mm/(mm C)]
Vicat B[C]
Resistivity [ m]
Sheet resistance []
b. Mechanical properties

Elongation at break

Mechanical properties
2040%

Rigid PVC
1.31.45
0.140.28
45008700
490,000
10,500
9500
5105
65100
1016
10131014

Flexible PVC
1.11.35
0.140.17
14503600

Not recommended
10121015
10111012

Notch test
Glass transition temperature
Melting Point

Effective heat of combustion


Specific Heat Capacity (c)
Water absorption (ASTM)
Dielectric Breakdown Voltage

25 Kilojoule/m2
82 oC
100260 C
17.95 MJ/kg
0.9 Joule/Kilogram.Kelvin
0.040.4
40 V/m

c. Thermal and fire properties


The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the addition of a heat stabilizer during
the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties. PVC starts to
decompose when the temperature reaches 140 C, with melting temperature starting
around 160 C. The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good
flame retardancy, the Limiting oxygen (LOI) being up to 45 or more. The LOI is the
minimum concentration of oxygen, expressed as a percentage that will support
combustion of a polymer and noting that air has 20% content of oxygen.
d. Electrical properties

PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties, but because of its higher
polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non-polar polymers
such as Polyethylene and Polypropylene.
Since the dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent value, and volume resistivity
are high, the corona resistance is not very good, and it is generally suitable for
medium or low voltage and low frequency insulation materials.
B. The manufacturing process of the school bag
The process starts with the identification of cloth and design of bags. The raw
materials are nylon polyester fabric that shaped like sheet. Fabric is arranged in layers
& cut according to the product pattern followed by stitching. The most common
joining method used for fabrics is stitching. Stitching is a very versatile and fast
process, though selecting the thread, fabric layup and stitching the pattern are skilled
design processes. All the body parts such as front back body, gusset, and handle of a
bag are stitched together in stitching machine. Embroidery or other accessories like
chain, button etc. is fixed after stitching. Finally, after stitching the finished bags are
quality checked for any kind of errors. If any error is found then it is mended &
rectified. After that the product is clean before packaging.

Cutting the raw materials according to design.

Stitching

C. The range of basic price of the school bag


A school book bag must support more weight than a hand bag and provide adequate
wear resistance to survive the school environment for at least a couple of years.In
addition, the design and materials are also becoming the one of the most important
reasons when buying a bag. However, the price will be growing as well as the good
quality of the bags. In this case, the most common materials chosen for this design are
natural

or

polymer

fabrics:

canvas

polyvinylchloride (PVC) are examples.


This is the list price of the bag based materials:
Nylon Rp380.000

(usually cotton-based), nylon and

PVC Rp70.000

Polyester Rp290.000

PU leather Rp180.000

D. The companies that make the school bag


VF Corporation from USA that makes Jansport since 1967
Exsport from Bandung, Indonesia
Kipling that usually made from nylon was founded in Belgia and under VF

Corporation
Eastpak from Boston, USA and under VF Corporation
Dakine from Hawai, USA

Chapter III
CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

www.jutebags.com.au/manufacturing-process/bags
www.materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/short/OCR/bags/
www.alicegordenker.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/cutting.jpg
www. Nstfdc.nic.in/userfiles/school_bags(1).pdf

www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd
www.youtube.com/watch?v=SN83EJK4O50
www.g04.s.alicdn.com/kf/HT16dIJFI8cXXagOFbXb/201995348/HT16dIJFI8cXXagOFbXb.jpg