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Business Communication Class-Meeting 2

What is the main idea to


be
delivered/communicated
?

CONTENT

Expert Thinking Skills

Complex Communication Skills

Complex Thinking Skills?

Analytical / High Level

Critical

Creative

Meta-cognitive

Level of Thinking

Example

Knowledge

What is the concept of Cost and Benefit


Analysis?

Comprehension

How Do you use the concept and why we


use it?

Application

Apply the concept in a problem and in a


real life situation

Analysis

Compare and contrast with other decision


making concept

Evaluation

Which one is more superior? Which one is


suitable for a situation and which one is for
b.

Synthesis

Can you think of a concept that is good for


x situation or can you combine the concept

KNOWLEDGE
Recalling Basic Facts
COMPREHENSION
Understanding The Idea is The Key
APPLICATION
Using Facts to Find Solutions to Problem
ANALYSIS
Examining Parts in Relationship to Whole
EVALUATION
Judging The Value of Ideas or Products
SYNTHESIS
Creating New or Original Ideas or Products
TR-4.03(OT1)

Disciplined, self-directed thinking that


exemplifies the perfections of thinking
appropriate to a particular mode or domain of
thinking.
Thinking that displays mastery of intellectual
skills and abilities.
The art of thinking about your thinking while
you are thinking in order to make your thinking
better: more clear, more accurate, or more
defensible.
Thinking that is fully aware of and continually
guards against the natural human tendency to
self-deceive and rationalize in order to selfishly
get what it wants.
Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of
Professional and Personal Life (R.W. Paul & L. Elder, 2002)

Thinking Skills by
Robert Marzano

Level 3
Analysis (Cognitive System)
Level 2
Comprehension (Cognitive System)
Level 1
Retrieval (Cognitive System)
Levels Of Processing

Pyschomotor Procedures

Level 4
Knowledge Utilization (Cognitive System)

Information

Level 5
Metacognitive System

Mental Procedures

Level 6
Self-System

the identification of accurate statements


regarding terms, facts, and time sequences
(Details); generalization & principles
(Organizing Ideas)

Involves separating the essential from non


essential elements
Describes the background reasons of why things
happen
Explains using your own words

Integrating

Symbolizing

INTEGRATING

With information

involves
separating the
essential from non
essential
elements

With mental procedures

Involves
Articulating the
important steps of
specific skills or
process

With Psychomotor procedures

Involves identifying the


steps involve in the
skill or process and
the logic underlying
those steps

To ANALYZE is to examine knowledge


with the intent of generating new
conclusions.
How do you examine knowledge to
generate new conclusions?

Matching
Classifying
Analyzing Error
Generalizing
Specifying

5 Analysis Processes:
Matching
Classifying
Analyzing errors
Generalizing
Specifying

Identifying similarities and differences.


How to match: Distinguish / Differentiate / Discriminate

Identifying similarities and differences.


How to match: Distinguish / Differentiate / Discriminate
Create analogy

Example:
Explain how the
relationship
between
people
and
oxygen
is
similar
to
the
relationship
between plants and
carbon dioxide

Identifying similarities and differences.


How to match: Distinguish / Differentiate / Discriminate
Create analogy

Example:
Explain
the
following
metaphor: Helen
Keller was the
Frederick
Douglass of her
family.

Characteristic s of
item 1
Frederick Douglass

Create metaphor
Common
General
Characteristics

Characteristic s of
item 2
Helen Keller

Was a slave as a young boy

Had a rough
beginning

Got sick as a baby, which


left her deaf and blind

Learned to read and write


anyway

Achieved goals even


when difficult

Learned how to read


Braille and write; also
went to college

Wrote books and gave


speeches against slavery

Worked to help other


people who suffered
like they did

Through speech tours


and writing, inspires
others to overcome
disabilities

Identifying similarities and differences.


How to match:

Distinguish / Differentiate / Discriminate

Create analogy
c

Create metaphor

Categorize

Example:
Organize these individuals into 2 or more groups and
explain how the individuals within each group are
similar, and how they are different from group to group.
Alexander Graham Bell
Gelileo
George Washington Carver
Amelia Earhart
Sally Ride
Martin Luther King, Jr

What is typically thought of as categorizing is


considered Matching in the New Taxonomy, with
focus on similarities and differences.

Classifying in the New Taxonomy


involves identifying the superordinate
and subordinate categories of knowledge
How to classify:Sort elements into superordinate categories

Example:
Classify
fruits,
vegetables,
butter,
steak, and pasta into
3 categories; protein,
fat, vitamin.

Protein

Steak

Fat

Vitamin

Butter

Fruits

Pasta

Vegetables

Classifying in the New Taxonomy


involves identifying the superordinate
and subordinate categories of knowledge
elements into superordinate categories
How to classify:Sort
Identify subordinate categories

Example:
Identify
types
of
Fiction
and
Non
Fiction
texts
in
Literature.

This involves identifying factual or logical


errors in knowledge or processing errors
in the execution of knowledge
How to analyze error:

Determine the extent to which information is reasonable,


given what students already know about a topic

Example:
Humans were responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Based on your understanding of the earths early history, identify
the problems with this argument

Logical Errors:
Faulty Logic

(Contradiction, Accident, False Cause, Begging


the question, evading the issue, arguing from ignorance,
composition-division)

Attacks

(poisoning the well, arguing against the person,


appealing to force)

Weak Reference

(biases, sources lack credibility, appealing


to authority, appealing to the people, appealing to authority)

Misinformation (confusing the facts or concepts)

Framework for supporting a claim:


Grounds

(common knowledge, expert opinion, experimental


evidence, factual information)

Backing (establish validity of grounds)


Qualifiers (stating the degree of certainty)

This involves identifying factual or logical


errors in knowledge or processing errors
in the execution of knowledge
How to analyze error:

Determine the extent to which information is reasonable,


given what students already know about a topic

Example:
Humans were responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Based on your understanding of the earths early history, identify
the problems with this argument

Identify errors that someone is making or has made


while executing a mental or psychomotor procedure
Example:
Videotape your performance on an instrument if your choice.
Identify errors in a specific aspect of your technique and explain
how you might address these errors.

This
involves
inferring
new
generalizations and principles from
information that is known or stated.
How to generalize:

Infer generalizations and principles from specific terms, facts,


or events
Characteristic 1:

Who Governs

Characteristic 2:

Decision-making

Characteristic 3:

Current Examples

Conclusions

Item 1:

Democracy
Item 2:

Republic
Item 4:

Dictatorship
Conclusions

Summary
Generalization

This
involves
inferring
new
generalizations and principles from
information that is known or stated.
How to generalize:

Infer generalizations and principles from specific terms, facts,


or events
Construct conclusions about a set of skills
Example:
Based upon your experience in oil and watercolor painting, what
can be said about the things to watch out for when layering one
color over another?

This involves making and defending predictions about


what might happen or will necessarily happen in a
given situation
How to specify:

Identifying what might be true about a specific item based on an


understanding of the class category to which that item belongs
Example:

The recent December snowstorms provide evidence that earths climate is


not changing

What principles would you argue are being assumed about the nature of
climate change? What principles are being ignored?

Identifying what must happen or might happen during the execution


of the skill or process under specific conditions.
Example:
If you change the dimensions of a square but keep it as a rectangle with the
same unit area, how will its perimeter change?

Each of the analysis task involves


examining
knowledge
(information,
mental, and psychomotor procedures) to
generate new conclusions.

Matching
Classifying
Analyzing Error
Generalizing
Specifying

Decision Making
Problem Solving
Experimenting
Investigating

Specifying Goals
Process Monitoring
Monitoring Clarity
Monitoring Accuracy

Examining
Examining
Examining
Examining

Importance
Efficacy
Emotional Response
Overall Motivation