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A

PROJECT REPORT
ON

EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND SECURITY


AT
WORKPLACE

Submitted By:
V.SHANKAR

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Project work on EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND SECURITY AT
WORKPLACE is submitted to the college by the candidate MR.V.SHANKAR, bearing
Student No: is the product of bonafide research carried out by the candidate under my
supervision in the subject of Marketing Management.
All information submitted by him is true and useful to the best of my knowledge.

(GUIDE)
HYDERABAD
OCTOBER, 2011.

MRS.SWAROOPA
Lecturer, marketing management
Great Eastern Management School

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Swaroopa for entrusting me with
a challenging project and along with it, his help and encouragement has been
exemplary.
I wish to place my sincere gratitude to the officials of concerned organization and
libraries who in spite of their busy schedule always spared their time whenever
needed.

ABSTRACT
The workplace environment impacts employee morale, productivity and engagement - both
positively and negatively. The work place environment in a majority of industry is unsafe and

unhealthy. These includes poorly designed workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation,
inappropriate lighting, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack
of personal protective equipment. People working in such environment are prone to occupational
disease and it impacts on employees performance. Thus productivity is decreased due to the
workplace environment. It is the quality of the employees workplace environment that most
impacts on their level of motivation and subsequent performance. How well they engage with the
organization, especially with their immediate environment, influences to a great extent their error
rate, level of innovation and collaboration with other employees, absenteeism and ultimately,
how long they stay in the job. Creating a work environment in which employees are productive
is essential to increased profits for your organization, corporation or small business. The
relationship between work, the workplace and the tools of work, workplace becomes an integral
part of work itself. The management that dictate how, exactly, to maximize employee
productivity center around two major areas of focus: personal motivation and the infrastructure
of the work environment.

INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION

2. OSHA STANDARDS IN INDIA

3. CASE STUDY
INTRODUCTION TO COMPANY

WORK CONDITIONS

ACCIDENT

LOOPHOLES RESPONSIBLE FOR ACCIDENT

HELTH EFFECTS

11

AFTERMATH

12

COMPENSATION

13

4. GLIMPSE OF VARIOUS DECTORS

17

5. RESPONSIBILITIES OF MANAGEMENT

22

6. CONCLUSION

39

7. BIBLIIOGRAPHY

40

INTRODUCTION
First of all everyone needs to know that safety is associated with three different Ms they are
man, machine and material. Every worker has the right to work in a healthy and secure
environment. It the prime duty of the employers to give their labor force with an environment
that is safe healthy and friendly. Workers safety and health should be the prime concern of all the
employers. A worker of an industry or organization is liable to work in an environment where his
safety and health are properly taken care of. The responsibility of the safety and health of the
worker is not only the sole responsibility of the employer; it is also the responsibility of the
workers to take care of their own health and safety. A safe and healthy environment can only be
achieved with the proper coordination of the workers, but the prime responsibility is on the hands
of the employers. They need to take the initiative and invest in the industry, in terms of
eliminating risks that are attached with the work procedures.
Ultimately accidents with the employees not only leads to loss of time, damage to machines in
certain cases, delay in work increasing expenses but also the amount of money need to be given
to the employee as compensation which is an additional overhead and sometimes even loss of a
precious human life which are not even being taken care of by many higher authorities. This
project encompasses all the vital aspect related to each and every prospect with the help of a case
study. In India, occupational accidents, traditional physical ad ergonomic hazards and
occupational diseases are important factors influencing the health of the industrial workers.
Diseases like byssinosis and pneumoconiosis are rampant among the industrial workers in India.
Among other types of occupational diseases prevalent in India are diseases of the circulatory
system, digestive system, urinary tracts, nervous system and sense organs (hearing loss, CNS
effects), blood diseases, etc. However, the present health for the Indian workers is not adequate
enough to cope with the ever-increasing occupational diseases and health problems. The only
health facilities offered specifically to the workers are the health centers under the Employees
State Insurance Scheme.

OSHA (OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT) STANDARDS


IN INDIA
India has had legislation on occupational safety and health for 50 years. But regulatory
authorities are limited to 1,400 safety officers, 1,154 factory inspectors, and 27 medical
inspectors. These numbers are grossly inadequate even for the inspection of formal units that
only employ about 10% of Indias total workforce (around 26 million), let alone the millions who
work in the informal sector with absolutely no safeguards. It is estimated that unsafe work
conditions is one of the leading causes of death and disability among Indias working population.
These deaths are needless and preventable. Unlike growth rates and GDP figures that are
flaunted every quarter, the figures of dying and ailing workers who make this growth possible
are never recorded or spoken about. The only way to get an idea of the scale of the problem is
from data released by the ILO (2), which estimates that around 403,000 people in India die every
year due to work-related problems. To give some idea of the scale -- more than 1,000 workers die
every day from work-related diseases; thats about 46 every hour!
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
Safety and health occupy a significant place in Indias Constitution, which prohibits employment
of children under the age of 14 in factories, mines and hazardous occupations. This policy aims
to protect the health and strength of all workers by discouraging employment in occupations
unsuitable to the workers age and strength. It is the policy of the State to make provisions to
secure just and humane conditions at work. The principal health and safety laws are based on the
British Factories Act. The Factories Act, 1948 has been amended from time to time, especially
after the Bhopal gas disaster. The amendment demanded a shift away from dealing with disaster
to prevention of its occurrence. The Factories (Amendment) Act came into force on December 1,
1987. A special chapter on occupational health and safety to safeguard
workers employed in hazardous industries was added. In this chapter,
pre-employment and periodic medical examinations and monitoring
of the work environment are mandatory for industries defined as
hazardous under the Act. A maximum permissible limit has been laid
2

down for a number of chemicals. The Act is implemented by state factory inspectorates,
supported by industrial hygiene laboratories. There are similar provisions under the Mines Act.
The Factories Act is applicable only to factories that employ 10 or more workers; it covers only a
small proportion of workers. The Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour
Institutes (DGFASLI) assists the labour ministry in formulating national policies on occupational
safety and health in factories and docks, and enforcing them through inspectorates of factories
and inspectorates of dock safety. Similarly, the Director General of Mines Safety (DGMS),
Ministry of Labour, is responsible for the health and safety of mine workers and implementation
of the Mines Act, 1952.
OHAS OBJECTIVES
The organization shall develop and document OHS goals and objectives, in consistent with the
OHS policy. The goals and objectives shall be periodically reviewed and communicated to
employees and other stakeholders. The intent of OHS goals and objectives is to meet OHS
performance expectations, and therefore these must be measurable for each function in the
organization viz.
reduction of risk levels;
introduction of additional
features into the OHSMS; steps taken to improve existing features, or the consistency of
their application;
elimination or the reduction in frequency of undesired incident(s)
KEY OSH LEGISLATIONS

Factories Act, 1948, amended in 1954, 1970, 1976, 1987

Mines Act, 1952

Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act, 1986

Plantation Labour Act, 1951

Explosives Act, 1884

Petroleum Act, 1934

Insecticide Act, 1968

Indian Boilers Act, 1923


3

Indian Electricity Act, 1910

Dangerous Machines (Regulations) Act, 1983

Indian Atomic Energy Act, 1962

Radiological Protection Rules, 1971

Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989

ILO CONVENTIONS
The International Labor Organization frames key conventions for protecting the rights of
workers; many of them are specifically on occupational health and safety. These conventions
once ratified by member states, form guiding principles for the formulation of national policies
and laws. The ILO has 18 conventions that are targeted at addressing the issue of occupational
safety and health (OSH). Though India has ratified 41 ILO conventions and treaties on labor
welfare and labor rights to date, it has ratified only three conventions on OSH. India is still to
ratify important conventions like Convention 155 on occupational safety and health and the
working environment, Convention 161 on occupational health services, Convention 167 on
safety and health in construction, Convention 176 on safety and health in mines, Convention 184
on safety and health in agriculture, Convention 187, the promotional framework for occupational
safety and health.

LACKS IMPLEMENTATION
In spite of having a good legal framework for the protection of workers, India suffers from the
chronic problem of lacks in implementation. Regulatory bodies, including the inspectorates, are
ill-equipped and severely understaffed. According to a DGFASLI report (1998), the country has
1,400 safety officers, 1,154 factory inspectors, and 27 medical inspectors. These numbers are
grossly inadequate even for the inspection of formal units that only employ about 10% of Indias
total workforce

CASE STUDY
INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY
4

Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) was established in 1934, when Union Carbide Corporation
(UCC) became one of the first U.S. companies to invest in India. UCIL shares were publicly
traded on the Calcutta Stock Exchange. UCIL was a diversified manufacturing company,
employing approximately 9,000 people and operating 14 plants in five divisions. The Bhopal
plant was built in the late 1970's and was owned and operated by UCIL, an Indian company in
which Union Carbide held just over half of the stock. Indian financial institutions and thousands
of private investors in India owned the remainder of the stock. 50.9% was owned by Union
Carbide

Corporation

(UCC)

and

49.1%

by

various

Indian

investors

at the time, UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of the U.S. company UCC, itself now a subsidiary of
Dow Chemical Company. The plant produced pesticide Sevin using methyl isocyanate (MIC) as
an intermediatefor use in India to help the country's agricultural sector increase its productivity
and contribute more significantly to meeting the food needs of one of the world's most heavily
populated regions.

WORK CONDITIONS

Attempts to reduce expenses affected the factory's employees and their conditions. Kurzman
argues that "cuts...meant less stringent quality control and thus looser safety rules. A pipe leaked?
Don't replace it; employees said they were told ... MIC workers needed more training? They
could do with less. Promotions were halted, seriously affecting employee morale and driving
some of the most skilled ... elsewhere". Workers were forced to use English manuals, even
though only a few had a grasp of the language.
By 1984, only six of the original twelve operators were still working with MIC and the number
of supervisory personnel was also cut in half. No maintenance supervisor was placed on the night
shift and instrument readings were taken every two hours, rather than the previous and required
one-hour readings. Workers made complaints about the cuts through their union but were
ignored. One employee was fired after going on a 15-day hunger strike. 70% of the plant's
employees were fined before the disaster for
refusing to deviate

from the

proper safety

regulations under pressure from management. In


addition, some observers, such as those writing in
the Trade Environmental Database (TED) Case
Studies as part of the Mandala Project from
American University, have pointed to "serious
communication problems and management gaps
between Union Carbide and its Indian operation", characterized by "the parent companies handsoff approach to its overseas operation" and "cross-cultural barriers". The personnel management
policy led to an exodus of skilled personnel to better and safer jobs.

PREVIOUS WARNINGS AND INCIDENTS


A series of prior warnings and MIC-related accidents had occurred:
In 1976, the two trade unions reacted because of pollution within the plant.
In 1981, a worker was splashed with phosgene. In panic he ripped off his mask, thus
inhaling a large amount of phosgene gas; he died 72 hours later.

In January 1982, there was a phosgene leak, when 24 workers were exposed and had to
be admitted to hospital. None of the workers had been ordered to wear protective masks.
In February 1982, an MIC leak affected 18 workers.
In August 1982, a chemical engineer came into contact with liquid MIC, resulting in
burns over 30 percent of his body.
In October 1982, there was a leak of MIC, methylcarbaryl chloride, chloroform and
hydrochloric acid. In attempting to stop the leak, the MIC supervisor suffered intensive
chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases.
During 1983 and 1984, leaks of the following substances regularly took place in the MIC
plant: MIC, chlorine, mono methylamine, phosgene, and carbon tetrachloride, sometimes
in combination.
Reports issued months before the incident by UCC engineers warned of the possibility of
an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal. The reports never reached
UCC's senior management.
UCC was warned by American experts who visited the plant after 1981 of the potential of
a "runaway reaction" in the MIC storage tank. Local Indian authorities warned the
company of problems on several occasions from 1979 onwards.

ACCIDENT
Just four hours after the leak of methyl isocyanate (MIC), the works manager at Union Carbides
Bhopal plant said: Our safety measures are the best in the country. Barely 100 yards from his
office, had thousands of people lain dead and dying? Tens of thousands more were being crippled
for life. People were terrified, as they woke up to find themselves surrounded by dense poison
clouds. Neither Union Carbide nor the local authorities provided direction, support, help or
guidance that night or in the following days. In the intervening years, victims organizations have
fought relentlessly for justice, recognition and support. They have received little either through
the legal process or from the Indian government. Today, the toxic legacy of the disaster continues
with tens of thousands of survivors suffering from chronic illnesses, the persistent presence of
7

poisons in the soil and water and breast milk, the alarming rise in cancers and congenital
problems among children born to exposed people. An initiative in the city, the Bhopal Peoples
Health and Documentation Clinic, started by the Samb havna Trust, demonstrates an important
practical way of supporting and working with communities victimized by corporate crime.
During the night of December 23, 1984, water entered a tank 610 containing 42 tons of MIC
much more than safety rules allowed. Most of the safety systems were not functioning. Many
valves and lines were in poor condition. A runaway reaction started, which was accelerated by
contaminants, high temperatures and other factors. The resulting exothermic reaction increased
the temperature inside the tank to over 200 C (392 F) and raised the pressure. The tank vented
releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere. The gases were blown by northwesterly winds over
Bhopal. The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel
pipelines. It is known that workers cleaned pipelines with water. They were not told by the
supervisor to add a slip-blind water isolation plate. Because of this, and the bad maintenance, the
workers consider it possible for water to have accidentally entered the MIC tank. UCC maintains
that a "disgruntled worker" deliberately connected a hose to a pressure gauge.
Theories differ as to how the water entered the tank. At the time, workers were cleaning out a
clogged pipe with water about 400 feet from the tank. The operators assumed that owing to bad
maintenance and leaking valves, it was possible for the water to leak into the tank. However, this
water entry route could not be reproduced. UCC also maintains that this route was not possible,
but instead alleges water was introduced directly into the tank as an act of sabotage by a
disgruntled worker via a connection to a missing pressure gauge on the top of the tank. Early the
next morning, a UCIL manager asked the instrument engineer to replace the gauge. UCIL's
investigation team found no evidence of the necessary connection; however, the investigation
was totally controlled by the government denying UCC investigators access to the tank or
interviews with the operators.

LOOP HOLES THAT LEAD TO ACCIDENT


It emerged in 1998, during civil action suits in India that the plant was not prepared for problems.
No action plans had been established to cope with incidents of this magnitude. This included not
8

informing local authorities of the quantities


or

dangers

of

chemicals

used

and

manufactured at Bhopal.
The MIC tank alarms had not
worked for four years.
There was only one manual back-up
system, compared to a four-stage
system used in the US.
The flare tower and the vent gas scrubber had been out of service for five months before
the disaster. The gas scrubber therefore did not treat escaping gases with sodium
hydroxide (caustic soda), which might have brought the concentration down to a safe
level. The maximum pressure the scrubber could handle, provided it had been operating,
was only a quarter of the pressure during the leak. The flare tower could only hold a
quarter of the gas that leaked in 1984.
To reduce energy costs, the refrigeration system was idle. The MIC was kept at 20
degrees Celsius, not the 4.5 degrees advised by the manual.
The steam boiler, intended to clean the pipes, was out of action for unknown reasons.
Slip-blind plates that would have prevented water from pipes being cleaned from leaking
into the MIC tanks through faulty valves were not installed. Their installation had been
omitted from the cleaning checklist.
The water pressure was too weak to spray the escaping gases from the stack. They could
not spray high enough to reduce the concentration of escaping gas.
According to the operators the MIC tank pressure gauge had been malfunctioning for
roughly a week. Other tanks were used rather than repairing the gauge. The build-up in
temperature and pressure is believed to have affected the magnitude of the gas release.
UCC investigation studies have disputed this hypothesis.

Carbon steel valves were used at the factory, even though they corrode when exposed to
acid.
UCC admitted in their own investigation report that most of the safety systems were not
functioning on the night of December 3, 1984.
The design of the MIC plant, following government guidelines, was "Indianized" by
UCIL engineers to maximize the use of indigenous materials and products. Mumbai
based Humphreys and Glasgow Consultants PVT. Ltd. were the main consultants, Larsen
and Toubro fabricated the MIC storage tanks, and Taylor of India Ltd. provided the
instrumentation.
Other factors identified by the inquiry included: use of a more dangerous pesticide manufacturing
method, large-scale MIC storage, plant location close to a densely populated area, undersized
safety devices, and the dependence on manual operations. Plant management deficiencies were
also identified lack of skilled operators, reduction of safety management, insufficient
maintenance, and inadequate emergency action plans.

The chemical process, or "route", used in the Bhopal plant reacted methylamine with
phosgene to form MIC (methyl isocyanate), which was then reacted with 1-naphthol to
form the final product, carbaryl. This route differs from MIC-free routes used elsewhere,
in which the same raw materials are combined in a different manufacturing order, with
phosgene first reacted with the naphthol to form chloroform ate ester, which is then
reacted with methyl amine. In the early 1980s, the demand for pesticides had fallen, but
production continued, leading to buildup of stores of unused MIC.

SEVERAL OTHER FACTORS


Storing MIC in large tanks and filling beyond recommended levels
Poor maintenance after the plant ceased MIC production at the end of 1984
Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance)
Safety systems being switched off to save moneyincluding the MIC tank refrigeration
system which could have mitigated the disaster severity.
10

The problem was made worse by the mushrooming of slums in the vicinity of the plant, nonexistent catastrophe plans, and shortcomings in health care and socio-economic
rehabilitation.

HEALTH EFFECTS
SHORT TERM HEALTH EFFECTS
Reversible reaction of glutathione (top) with methyl isocyanate (MIC, middle) allows the MIC to
be transported into the body. The leakage caused many short term health effects in the
surrounding areas. Apart from MIC, the gas cloud may have contained phosgene, hydrogen
cyanide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, monomethyl amine (MMA)
and carbon dioxide, either produced in the storage tank or in the atmosphere. The gas cloud was
composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air, stayed close to the ground and
spread outwards through the surrounding community.
The initial effects of exposure were coughing, vomiting, severe eye irritation and a feeling of
suffocation. People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Those who ran
inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. Owing to their height, children and other
people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. Many people were trampled trying to
escape. There were mass funerals and mass cremations as well as disposal of bodies in the
Narmada River. 170,000 people were treated at hospitals and temporary dispensaries. 2,000
buffalo, goats, and other animals were collected and buried. Within a few days, leaves on trees
yellowed and fell off. Supplies, including food, became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears.
Fishing was prohibited causing further supply shortages.
A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected", affecting a population
of 520,000. Of these, 200,000 were below 15 years of age, and 3,000 were pregnant women. In
1991, 3,928 deaths had been certified. Independent organizations recorded 8,000 dead in the first
11

days. Other estimations vary between 10,000 and 30,000. Another 100,000 to 200,000 people are
estimated to have permanent injuries of different degrees. The acute symptoms were burning in
the respiratory tract and eyes, blepharospasm, breathlessness, stomach pains and vomiting. The
causes of deaths were choking, reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema.
Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema,
tubular necrosis of the kidneys, fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis.

LONG TERM HEALTH EFFECTS


It is estimated 100,000 to 200,000 people have permanent injuries. Reported symptoms are eye
problems, respiratory difficulties, immune and neurological disorders, cardiac failure secondary
to lung injury, female reproductive difficulties and birth defects among children born to affected
women. The Indian Government and UCC deny permanent injuries were caused by MIC or the
other gases.
AFTERMATH OF THE LEAKAGE
Medical staffs were unprepared for the
thousands of casualties.
Doctors and hospitals were not informed of
proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation. They were told to simply give cough
medicine and eye drops to their patients.
The gases immediately caused visible damage to the trees. Within a few days, all the
leaves fell off.
2,000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed of.
"Operation Faith": On December 16, the tanks 611 and 619 were emptied of the
remaining MIC. This led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal.
Complaints of a lack of information or misinformation were widespread. The Bhopal
plant medical doctor did not have proper information about the properties of the gases.
An Indian Government spokesman said that "Carbide is more interested in getting
information from us than in helping our relief work."
12

As of 2008, UCC had not released information about the possible composition of the
cloud.
Formal statements were issued that air, water, vegetation and foodstuffs were safe within
the city. At the same time, people were informed that poultry was unaffected, but were
warned not to consume fish.

COMPENSATION FROM UNION CARBIDE


The Government of India passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act that gave the
government rights to represent all victims in or outside India.
UCC offered US $350 million, the insurance sum. The Government of India claimed US$
3.3 billion from UCC. In 1989, a settlement was reached under which UCC agreed to pay
US$470 million (the insurance sum, plus interest) in a full and final settlement of its civil
and criminal liability.
When UCC wanted to sell its shares in UCIL, it was directed by the Supreme Court to
finance a 500-bed hospital for the medical care of the survivors. Bhopal Memorial
Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) was inaugurated in 1998. It was obliged to give
free care for survivors for eight years.
ECONOMIC REHABILITATION

After the accident, no one under the age of 18 was registered. The number of children
exposed to the gases was at least 200,000.

Immediate relief was decided two days after the tragedy.

Relief measures commenced in 1985 when food was distributed for a short period and
ration cards were distributed.

Widow pension of the rate of Rs 200/per month (later Rs 750) was provided.

13

One-time ex-gratia payment of Rs 1,500 to families with monthly income Rs 500 or less
was decided.

Each claimant was to be categorised by a doctor. In court, the claimants were expected to
prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that death or injury in each case was attributable to
exposure. In 1992, 44 percent of the claimants still had to be medically examined.

From 1990 interim relief of Rs 200 was paid to everyone in the family who was born
before the disaster.

The final compensation (including interim relief) for personal injury was for the majority
Rs 25,000 (US$ 830). For death claim, the average sum paid out was Rs 62,000 (US$
2,058).

Effects of interim relief were more children sent to school, more money spent on
treatment, more money spent on food, improvement of housing conditions.

The management of registration and distribution of relief showed many shortcomings.

In 2007, 1,029,517 cases were registered and decided. Numbers of awarded cases were
574,304 and number of rejected cases 455,213. Total compensation awarded was Rs.1,
546.47 crores.

On June 24, the Union Cabinet of the Government of India approved Rs1265cr aid
package. It will be funded by Indian taxpayers through the government.

OCCUPATIONAL REHABILITATION

33 of the 50 planned work-sheds for gas victims started. All except one was closed down
by 1992.

1986, the MP government invested in the Special Industrial Area Bhopal. 152 of the
planned 200 work-sheds were built. In 2000, 16 were partially functioning.

It is estimated that 50,000 persons need alternative jobs, and that less than 100 gas
victims have found regular employment under the government's scheme.
14

HABITATION REHABILITATION
2,486 flats in two- and four-story buildings were constructed in the "Widows colony" outside
Bhopal. The water did not reach the upper floors. It was not possible to keep cattle.
Infrastructures like buses, schools, etc. were missing for at least a decade.
HEALTH CARE
In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the health care system became tremendously
overloaded. Within weeks, the State Government established a number of hospitals,
clinics and mobile units in the gas-affected area.
Radical health groups set up JSK (the People's Health Centre) that was working a few
years from 1985.
Since the leak, a very large number of private practitioners have opened in Bhopal. In the
severely affected areas, nearly 70 percent do not appear to be professionally qualified.
The Government of India has focused primarily on increasing the hospital-based services
for gas victims. Several hospitals have been built after the disaster. In 1994, there were
approximately 1.25 beds per 1,000, compared to the recommendation from the World
Bank of 1.0 bed per 1,000 in developing countries.
The Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) is a 350-bedded super
speciality hospital. Heart surgery and hemodialysis are done. Major specialities missing
are gynecology, obstetrics and pediatrics. Eight mini-units (outreach health centers) were
started. Free health care for gas victims should be offered until 2006. The management
has faced problems with strikes, and the quality of the health care is disputed.
Sambhavna Trust is a charitable trust that registered in 1995. The clinic gives modern and
Ayurvedic treatments to gas victims, free of charge.
ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION

15

Variations in economic structure, social set-up, conditions of work, quality of the work
environment all have an impact on the standard of occupational safety and health. As such the
social aspects have been considered while assessing the health and safety status of the industrial
workers. There are also special occupational settings and types of enterprises, economic
activities and undertakings in which work and workplace deviate substantially from the norm.
Major changes in social and economic systems result in weakening of the infrastructure for
occupational health and safety.
When the factory was closed in 19851986, pipes, drums and tanks were cleaned and
sold. The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there, as are storages of different residues.
Isolation material is falling down and spreading.

The area around the plant was used as a dumping area for hazardous chemicals. In 1982
tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. UCC's laboratory tests
in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory and inside
the plant were toxic to fish. Several other studies have shown polluted soil and
groundwater in the area.
Reported polluting compounds include naphthol, naphthalene, Sevin, tarry residue,
mercury, toxic organochlorines, volatile organochlorine compounds, chromium, copper,
nickel, lead, hexachloroethane, hexachlorobutadiene, and the pesticide HCH.
16

In order to provide safe drinking water to the population around the UCC factory, there is
a scheme for improvement of water supply.

GLIMPSE OF VARIOUS SECTORS FACING SIMILAR PROBLEMS


Most workers in India (90%) work in the vast informal sector. The variable and insecure nature
of the work means that more and more workers are pushed into taking up hazardous and
precarious employment both in the informal economy as well as informal work in the formal
sector. For these workers, employment not only fails to bring about a successful escape from
poverty, it may contribute to existing vulnerabilities.
There are other contributory factors that lead to poor working conditions in the informal sector:
There is very little awareness about workplace hazards due to lack of access to
information, or even any kind of formal education. Then too, OSH is given very low
priority among informal workers, as having work is more important than the quality of
the job. As many workers say: We might die of work, but if we dont work our families
will die of hunger.
No proper work hours; piece-rate work often leads to exploitation and extended exposure
to hazardous chemicals and processes.
Diagnosis of occupational diseases is difficult even in the formal sector; in the informal

sector it is almost impossible. In the absence of proper diagnosis, treatment of


occupational illness is next to impossible for workers in this sector.

17

No clear distinction between living and working area complicates the problem and
exposes relatives and others living in the vicinity to work-related risks
COMPUTER RELATED HEALTH PROBLEMS AND THEIR REMEDIES:
Some of the key problems associated with the IT/BPO/KPO/LPO sectors are short term eye
burning, itching, tearing, eye soreness and eye strain. Backaches and neckaches are also
widespread. There may also be a tendency for computer users to suffer from cumulative motion
disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by repetitive use of the hands and arms at
uncomfortable angels. OSHA has no specific standards that apply to computer workstations.
But still in India the government has provided certain guidelines regarding the use of computer
screens. These include:
Give employees rest break for duration of 3-5 mins for every 20-30 mins of work.
Design maximum flexibility into the work station so it can be adapted to the individual
operator.
Reduce glare with devices such as shades over windows, and recessed or indirect
lighting.
Give workers a complete preplacement vision exam to ensure properly corrected vision
for reduced visual strain.
Put the screen at or just below eye level, at a distance of 18-30 inches from the eyes.
Put the feet flat on the floor or on a footrest.
SAFETY HAZARDS IN VARIOUS SECTORS
EQUIPMENT/

ANATOMICAL/

CHEMICAL

BIOLOGICAL

UNSAFE WORK

PHYSIOLOGICAL

HAZARDS

HAZARDS

CONDITIONS OR

/PSYCHOLOGICAL

PRACTICES

DEMANDS

rotating equipment

poorly designed equip fire/explosions

allergies

forklifts

work organization

silica

animal bites

ladders or lifts

workload

benzene

parasites

underground work

pace of work

lead

viruses

18

electrical hazards

prolonged sitting

slippery walking and poorly designed tools

anesthetic gases
cancer causing agents

working surfaces
scaffolds

manual

material personal

protective

handling

equipment

cranes/hoists

prolonged standing

compressed gases

Noise pressure

awkward postures

vapors

storage

poorly

areas/warehouses

workstations

products/detergents

electricity

shift work

solvents

temperature extremes

repetitive work

disinfectants/antiseptics

designed cleaning

STATISTICS
Death toll
Aviation
349

1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision (India, 1996)

213

Air India Flight 855 (India, 1978)

158

Air India Express Flight 812 (India, 2010)

94

Alitalia Flight 771 (Mumbai, India, 7 July 1962)

86

Japan Airlines Flight 471, (Delhi, India, June, 1972)

69

Indian Airlines Flight 257, Imphal, India, 1991

56

Indian Airlines Flight 491, Aurangabad, India

Coal mine disasters


375

Coal mine (Bihar, India, 1965)


19

Industrial disasters
20,000
22

Bhopal Disaster (India, 1984)


Hindustan Petroleum Refinery fire 14-Sep-1997, Vishakhapatnam,

Andhra Pradesh, India,


Maritime
625

1947 Ramdas Ship Disaster, SS Ramdas (Bombay, 1947)

438

Baccha Singh (Manihari Ghat, Bihar, River Ganges, 6 August 1988)

Structural fires
538

Dayananda Anglo Vedic private school fire ( Mandi Dabwali, India,

December 23, 1995)


Train accidents and disasters
500-800

Bihar train disaster (Bihar, India, 1981)

358

Firozabad rail disaster (India, 1995)

285

Gaisal train disaster (India, 1999)

212

Khanna rail disaster (India, 1998)

154

Mardaiyar river bridge derail disaster, (Tamil-Nadu, India, 1956)

107

Patna train derailed, (Bihar, India, 1937)


Most Frequently Cited OSHA Standards

20

Fatal and Non-fatal Injuries in Factories (P)


States/

2008

Union

Fatal

2009
Non Fatal

Fatal

Andaman & Nicobar 0


Andhra Pradesh

2010
Non Fatal

Fatal

Non Fatal

66

Injuries
0

49

Injuries
..

..

162

1525

165

927

188

923

Assam

15

65

48

46

Bihar

48

14

34

15

Chandigarh

Chhattisgarh

103

343

114

342

84

341

D & D,D & N

12

44

14

13

14

31

Delhi

54

14

26

15

39

Goa

161

10

134

12

97

Gujarat

195

2725

173

2984

221

2430

Haryana

45

128

51

104

38

51

Himachal Pradesh

19

32

..

..

Jammu & Kashmir

247

52

Nil

99

Jharkhand

23

214

36

180

43

149

Territories

21

Karnataka

91

1052

80

927

92

779

Kerala

15

158

41

106

79

Madhya Pradesh

41

1093

51

1173

68

848

Maharashtra

218

3094

217

2911

225

2540

Manipur

..

..

..

..

..

..

Meghalaya

14

12

Nagaland

Orissa

81

483

122

426

103

457

Pondicherry

235

102

10

46

Punjab

39

135

35

248

14

212

Rajasthan

49

607

56

699

65

534

Tamil Nadu

67

1252

137

826

75

860

Tripura

Uttar Pradesh

87

142

61

235

64

152

Uttaranchal

15

65

20

33

24

West Bengal

78

18615

65

18947

97

19264

Total

1369

32570

1509

31584

1454

30035

RESPONSIBILTIES OF MANAGEMENT
Management are supposed to get personally involved in safety activities in terms of providing
safety matters high priority in meetings and production scheduling, giving the company security
officer high rank and status and include safety training in their work culture. Along with all these
the management must also include:
Managements commitment with a safety policy, and publicize it.
Analyze the number of accidents and safety incidents and then set specific achievable
safety goals.
REDUCING UNSAFE CONDITIONS
Injuries and accidents are common here due to the highly risky procedures. Working in or even
around a construction site can be dangerous. The location need not be a building site; it can be
22

any construction related area. What matters is you being aware of the hazards lurking around at
such sites and how much dangerous they can possibly be for you as a worker.
Thousands of people are killed at the construction sites every year. Construction industry has
reported largest number of fatalities as compared to any other industry sectors. The main trouble
is not that risks and hazards are unknown but the trouble is that it is difficult to control risks and
hazards

in

the

constantly

changing

environment

in

the

world

place

today.

The safety hazards at the construction site will fall from the motor vehicle crashes, height,
machines, electrocution, being struck with the falling objects and equipments. Due to the nature
of the work, the workers at the construction site face higher risks of injury and accidents as
compared to almost any other normal industry.
People must be aware of conditions that can contribute to an accident and then work to remove
exposure to these conditions. Examples are enclosing live electrical circuits or providing workers
with the proper protective equipment. Of course, it is difficult to eliminate all unsafe conditions,
and it's even more difficult to predict or anticipate where such conditions may exist or develop
on construction jobs involving lead. To eliminate unsafe actions and conditions in and around
construction sites, many advanced traffic, propping equipments and propping accessories are
available. These high quality propping and traffic equipments will ensure workers safety. Using
good quality bridge supports, roof supports, and wall supporting applications will prove helpful.
The employer can also choose from various props to best suit the purpose. Propping equipments
like a crow props, multi props, tilt props and titan props to name a few offers safety and support
for most construction sites. Taking proper measures for reducing unsafe actions and eliminating
unsafe conditions should ensure workers safety.
REDUCING UNSAFE ACTS
Each worker must make a conscious effort to work safely despite the hazardous conditions that
may exist at any site. A high degree of safety awareness and training must be maintained so that
the safety factors involved in a job become an actual part of the job. By being conscious of the
task you are performing, the environment in which it is being performed, as well as how you are
going to actually perform the task, you will be capable of identifying potential hazards that will
cause you to act in an unsafe manner. Safety is the condition of being secure from hurt, injury, or
loss. Therefore, to be safe, you act in two ways, proactively and reactively. When you act
23

proactively, you anticipate problems before they occur


and take steps to make sure accidents don't happen.
When you act reactively, you are responding to
problems after they occur. Workers are best protected
when they act proactively.
From an employees perspective he needs to take care
of the following checklist

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other
garment or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts,
electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and infection, for job-related occupational safety and health
purposes, and in sports, martial arts, combat, etc.
Personal armor is combat-specialized protective gear. In British legislation the term PPE does not
cover items such as armor. The terms "protective gear" and "protective clothing" are in many
cases interchangeable; "protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and
"gear" is a more general term and preferably means uniquely protective categories, such as pads,
guards, shields, masks, etc. Items such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits are equipment to
24

support the personal protection of the subject. Police


use handcuffs, tasers, battens and handguns as PPE.
The goal of personal protective equipment is
to prevent the transfer of hazardous material
from victims or the environment to rescue or
health care workers.
Different types of PPE may be used depending on the hazard present. The types of
hazards addressed here include biological warfare agents (BWAs), chemical warfare
agents (CWAs), and radioactive agents.
The most common routes of exposure to these hazards include inhalation (breathing,
from the air), skin contact, and ingestion (eating or drinking).
The use of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when
engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to
acceptable levels.
CONDUCT SAFETY AND HEALTH
AUDITS AND INSPECTIONS
Purpose
Inspection of work areas and audits of safety programs are tools that can be used to identify
problems and hazards before these conditions result in accidents or injuries. Audits also help to
identify the effectiveness of safety program management and can be used as a guide to assure
regulatory compliance and a safe workplace.
Responsibilities
Design and schedule audit and inspection procedures for all work areas, processes and
procedures.
Conduct routine audits and inspections
25

Ensure audits are conducted by employees who understand the various safety programs
and policies
conduct informal daily safety inspections and ensure all unsafe conditions are corrected
conduct documented weekly inspections and ensure all unsafe conditions are corrected
Corrections
All safety deficiencies found during audits and inspections should be corrected as soon as
possible. Documentation of corrections should be made on the audit or inspection sheet. And
conditions that present hazards are to be corrected or controlled immediately.
Types of Inspections
Supervisor & Management Daily Walk-through: this is an undocumented inspection that is made
daily prior to startup and shift change to ensure the facility and equipment are in safe conditions
for Employees. All noted unsafe areas are placed in a safe condition prior to Employees working
in the area.
Weekly Supervisor Inspections are conducted and recorded with an Employee. This documented
inspection provides a focus to ensure current hazard controls are still effective, equipment is in
safe condition and safe work practices are in use. Discrepancies are listed on the inspection
sheet, recorded on work orders for correction. The inspection sheet is forwarded to the Safety
Manager for review and logging to track discrepancy correction.
Monthly Safety Committee Inspection
Each month members of the Safety Committee will tour the entire facility with the Safety
Manager. This tour is to ensure Safety Committee Members are familiar with all areas of the
operation. Record of problem areas, committee recommendations and deficiencies will be
recorded and provided to management. Noise Surveys are conducted at least annually, or
whenever facility modifications are made that impact the ambient or specific work area noise
levels, Noise surveys are conducted by qualified persons with calibrated instruments. Equipment
26

Inspections are conducted to ensure specific safety equipment is in good working order and will
function when needed. Examples and frequencies are:
Sprinkler Inspection - Monthly
Boiler Checks- Weekly
Emergency Lighting Test - Monthly
Fire Extinguisher Inspections - Monthly
Safety Equipment Inventories - Monthly
Boiler Tests - Monthly
Emergency Lighting 90 Min. Test - Semiannually
Respirator Inspections- Before / After Use (Monthly at a minimum)
Boiler Internal Inspections - Annually (by qualified inspector)
Program Audits are conducted to check the administration of specific safety and health programs.
Program Audits of the following shall be conducted annually.
Accident Prevention
Fire Prevention
Material Handling
Flammable Material Storage
Lockout-Tag out
Hazard Communication
Personal Protective Equipment
Confined Space Entry
27

Asbestos Controls
Boiler Safety
Blood borne Pathogens
Contractor Safety
Electrical Safety
Tool Safety
Hot Work
Respiratory Protection
BASIC INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE PROGRAM
Managing exposure hazards like these comes under the category of industrial hygiene ,and
involves recognition ,evaluation, and control. First, the facilitys health and safety officers must
recognize possible hazards. This typically involves conducting plan/facility walk around surveys,
employee interviews, records, and reviews of government and non-governmental standards
regarding various occupational exposure hazards. Having identified a possible hazard, the
evaluation phase involves determining how severe hazard is. This requires measuring the
exposure, comparing the measured exposure to some benchmark, and determining whether the
risk is within tolerances.
AVOIDING ALCOHOLISM OR SUBSTANCE ABUSE
DURING WORK
Drug-using employees are over three and half times more likely to be involved in workplace
accidents. Some experts estimate that as many as 50 % of all problem
employees are actually alcoholics. One estimate places the cost of
substance abusers damage to a company at $7,000 per abuser per day.
Both the quality and quantity of the work decline, in the face of a sort of
on-the-job absenteeism. The alcoholics on-the-job accidents usually dont
28

increase significantly, apparently because he or she becomes much more cautious. The off-thejob accident rate is higher than for nonalcoholics. Morale of other workers drops as they have to
shoulder the alcoholics burdens.
SUPERVISOR TRAINING
Supervisor training has far reaching benefits. When you improve the performance of supervisors
you

are

improving

the

performance

of

everyone

in

the

company.

Good supervisors with proper training will be able to direct and lead the staff better to help
increase efficiency and make employees perform better. The possible effects of supervisor
training can range from a simple change in the quality of work to helping to lower costs.
When you train management to be better at their jobs they will help their direct reports are better
at their jobs. It is also possible through such improvement to see a change in the company as a
whole. When employees feel happy at work their efforts almost always increase and therefore
that will help the company to become more stable and able to advance and grow.
As you can see supervisor training is something that will help to make your company a better
place to work and help make it a better overall company

REDUCING JOB STRESS


Increasing Employees' Sense of Control and Participation in the Workplace
The key point here is to increase real control and participation; not the illusion of control.
Possible workplace strategies:
Using staff meetings more effectively to encourage participation and input.
Develop autonomous work groups

For example:
29

Blue-Collar employees in a British confectionary company reported low scores on three job
characteristics (autonomy, task identity and feedback), low work motivation, low job satisfaction
and high levels of emotional distress. Increases in group autonomy were attempted by shifting
responsibility and control to work teams and away from the supervisor. Teams had control over
the work place, organization of rest breaks, and allocation of overtime and assignments. Six
months and 18-month follow up revealed reduced emotional distress and lasting increases in
autonomy.
Increasing the Skill Levels of Employees
Healthy work is skillful work. It allows for the ongoing development of new skills and the
opportunity to use them. There has been a great deal of discussion at the national level
concerning the importance of high skill, high wage work in increasing the productivity of U.S.
companies. Unfortunately, many of the jobs being added to the economy are extremely low skill
ones. Possible workplace strategies to counter this deskilling effect:
Increased skill based training.
Use of career ladders to reward skill development
Use of job rotation to expand skills
Use of job redesign to increase range of skill needed
Healthy use of computers for skill development.
Increasing Levels of Social Support
Key components to social support in the workplace are supervisory support and coworker
support. Possible workplace strategies:
Training in proactive supervision.
This supervisory approach emphasizes positive feedback, employee growth and

development, open lines of communication, and strong levels of support.


Training in conflict resolution and team building.
30

Appropriate use of staff retreats.


Changes that Improve Physical Working Conditions
There is extensive evidence that poor physical working conditions contribute not only to physical
hazards, but stress levels as well. Possible workplace strategies:
Improving indoor air quality.
Reducing levels of physical hazards such as noise, toxins, chemicals, etc.
Job redesign to reduce incidence of repetitive strain injuries (that is, reducing repetitive
work, awkward work postures and/or heavy lifting.
Healthy Use of Technology
Healthy use of computers
More and more of our working time is spent in front of computers. While they can be a
tremendous help in our work, they can also increase stress levels if the computer work is poorly
designed. Cumulative trauma disorders can be a particular physical hazard of increased computer
use. Good ergonomics is a key to healthy computer use. State health departments usually have
someone who is an expert in this area. They can help you with proper equipment, lighting and
pace of work issues. They can also help you reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries among
your staff.
2) Staff involvement in choosing new equipment:
This is a common sense strategy that is often overlooked. This can have payoffs for both job
satisfaction and productivity.
For example:
A large state human service agency was planning to buy new computer work stations for its 3000
employees. This represented a tremendous expenditure for the agency. Instead of making a
31

unilateral decision, they put three different work stations in one office and left them there for two
months.
Maintaining Job Demands at Healthy Levels
Human beings can become sick if they work too long at a high sustained pace. They are at their
most productive and healthy if they can work at a manageable level. Possible workplace
strategies:
1) Reduced use of overtime
2) Caseload restrictions
3) Brake mechanism - an administrative group designed to reduce the amount of change the
organization initiates.
4) Formation of "What don't we need to do?" committee - an internal group charged with finding
low priority or unnecessary tasks. Job reduction is not a goal of this approach.
Changes that Provide for Job Security and Career Development
Frequently, workplace changes occur in a climate of job insecurity or downsizing. From the
perspective of occupational stress, changes that are intended to eliminate jobs are usually
incompatible with efforts to improve the quality of the working environment. Employees are
particularly resentful of participating in changes that may well lead to their own job loss such as
time and motion studies. More positive approaches attempt to use the skills of existing
employees in a more effective manner. Possible workplace strategies:
1) Extension of career ladders.
2) Expansion of responsibilities and tasks.
For example:
A private company in Sweden provided mechanisms for their clerical employees to increase their
skill levels, job responsibilities and depth of specialization. Nearly half of the secretaries were
eventually promoted to higher job classifications, opening up new career opportunities for them.
This process also generated a number of proposals for improved productivity at the company.
32

Changes that Provide Healthy Work Schedules


Work schedules can have positive or negative health consequences. A number of studies have
associated poorer physical and psychological functioning with rotating shifts. On the other hand,
more flexible work schedules have the potential of improving employee satisfaction and
reducing stress. Possible workplace strategies:
1) Reduced use of forced overtime
2) Rotating shifts in a forward (day to night) schedule.
3) Use of flextime and other alternative work week schedules.
For example:
A public sector agency responsible for environmental protection implemented an Alternative
Workweek Program for some of its employees. After the program had been in place for
approximately 8 months, participants, non-participants and managers were surveyed regarding
their satisfaction with the plan. Strong majorities in all three groups expressed satisfaction with
the program. Virtually all participants reported that the program improved the quality of their
working life, gave them increased flexibility and control over their schedules, improved their
productivity, reduced their stress levels, and allowed them to more easily balance work and
family responsibilities. Participants in the program also had a significant drop in sick day use
compared with non-participants.
Strategies to Improve Personal Coping Mechanisms
Individual strategies are easier to initiate but should never be seen as an equivalent substitute for
organizational change. These strategies can, however, be very useful companions to structural
change efforts. One good distinction for person change strategies is the difference between
functional and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. All human beings have coping mechanisms.
Unfortunately, these mechanisms are not always the most effective or functional. The goal is to
replace dysfunctional coping mechanisms with functional ones. Some healthy choices:
1) Improving the diet of employees:
33

Possible work place strategies: bring in a nutritionist for a day of training, encourage employees
to keep diet diaries for a week, offer nutritional foods at the worksite, form a healthy snacks club.
2) Encouraging the employees to exercise.
Possible work place strategies: start a walking club at lunch time, look for group discounts at
nearby health clubs, bring in a fitness trainer for an in-service day, and provide exercise
equipment or facilities.
For example:
One intervention study found that combining a health risk assessment with behavioral counseling
was effective in reducing some cardiovascular risk factors. This program gave workers a health
assessment, education on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and provided them some
behavioral counseling. Among other suggestions, the counseling sessions encouraged workers to
stop smoking improve their diet and increase their exercise level.
3) Training in deep muscle relaxation techniques.
Psychologists have known for some time that anxiety and deep muscle relaxation are mutually
exclusive. That is, you can't be anxious and relaxed at the same time. This finding has been used
to successfully treat many phobias, but it can also be a useful strategy for dealing with stress. The
goal is to train your employees to be able to become relaxed on demand, thereby cutting the
stress cycle short. It is an effective method for training individuals how to relax their major
muscle groups. There are other useful techniques available for employees working on computers.
Possible workplace strategies: Many stress management consultants are able to train your
employees in these techniques. A good use of an in-service training day would be to bring in a
consultant and either has them train all your employees, or intensively train a small group who
would then become your in-house trainers.
4) Training in effective cognitive strategies.

34

There are several potentially useful techniques here. Remember that something is not stressful
unless it is perceived or appraised as stressful. Cognitive psychologists have developed
techniques that replace negative cognitions. Another useful strategy is called thought stopping.
Since we know that negative thoughts can increase anxiety and therefore stress symptoms,
psychologists have learned to train individuals too literally "stop" these thoughts before they
become too repetitive. These techniques have been found to be extremely useful for people who
have serious problems with anxiety or depression.
Some possible workplace strategies: Realistically, these techniques require a trained professional.
You should find a competent cognitive psychologist in your area and ask him/her to come in for
an in-service day or work through an Employee Assistance Program.
5) Training in Substance Abuse Awareness.
Individuals who are under a great deal of stress begin to self-medicate themselves in order to feel
better. They may drink more, take more prescription medication, or take illegal drugs. Every
organization has individuals who may already have serious problems in this regard. These
individuals probably need professional help. Substance abuse awareness is best used as a
preventative measure.
Possible work place strategies: there are many resources available in the community for
substance abuse awareness training. Many human service agencies are willing to do this kind of
outreach for free, and many schools are now hiring well qualified counselors who could be an
important resource to your employees, or you can establish your own employee assistance
program.

6) Organize discussion groups on healthy stress reducers.


The idea is to get employees to share effective strategies with each other.
Possible workplace strategies: this strategy does not need external resources. You can simply pull
together a meeting where people share the stress reducers that work for them. You may want to
35

prepare a handout ahead of time that reviews examples of healthy coping mechanisms. This will
help to structure the discussion and provide an opportunity for some additional training. An
added benefit of this approach is that it also provides a mechanism for giving social support to
employees.
7) Transition time.
Many employees leave their jobs only to return to stressful conditions at home. They may have
families to take care of, meals to cook, or older parents to visit. Remember that it can take a good
20 to 30 minutes for the body to return to baseline after experiencing a stressor. If the employee
walks into their door "stressed out" and then has to deal with a difficult situation at home, their
chances of having long-term health consequences increase. Obviously the work place isn't
responsible for solving employee's domestic problems. But it is in your interest to have the
healthiest possible workers. Transition time can be a useful technique in short circuiting the
stress response at home. The basic idea is to train employees to find a way to relax for 20-30
minutes before assuming family responsibilities. This allows the body's autonomic responses to
return to baseline.
8) Leaving stress at the front door - training on family dynamics and parenting skills.
There's been a good deal of research showing that, as stress increases, so do family problems. It
is very easy for angry, frustrated employees to take stress out on their families. Even healthy,
supportive families can go through some rough times. Parents who had few problems with their
children suddenly have major difficulties with them in adolescence. Again, the work place is not
responsible for domestic violence. But improving your employees' abilities to handle pressures at
home can have major payoffs for your organization.
WORKPLACE SMOKING
People smoke for many reasons and once they start, it is nearly impossible to quit. A study
published in The New England Journal of Medicine showed that a mere 2% of Indians quit
smoking and that too after falling ill. In the corporate culture, smoking is a fad. People smoke
even if that involves getting out of the office and taking a long walk. But there are some like the
36

fitness freak even hates the smell of it, and is uncomfortable with people smoking during
informal meetings. The law prohibits smoking in the workplace.
"Workplace" means an enclosed structure where employees perform services for an
employer or, in the case of an employer who assigns employees to departments, divisions
or similar organizational units, the enclosed portion of a structure where the unit to which
the employee is assigned is located. "Workplace" does not include any portion of a
structure that also serves as the employee's or employers personal residence
HOW SMOKING COSTS THE EMPLOYER
Weis, Kristein and others have found that smoking activity by employees increases costs in many
areas. Some of these areas are:
Absenteeism: On average, smokers are absent 50 percent more often than nonsmokers. As long
ago as 1974, Dow Chemical Company found that cigarette smoking employees were missing 5.5
more work days per year than their nonsmoking peers. Costs for these absences include
temporary replacements and lowered productivity and morale among employees who are on the
job and must cope with the absences.
Productivity: One has only to visualize the smoking ritual to realize the time lost by smokers.
Add to that inefficiency and errors caused by higher CO levels in smokers, eye irritation, and
lower attentiveness. Research is documenting lower productivity in smoking employees and
increases in productivity when smoking is limited or banned.
Insurance: Additional health-care cost per smoker in this country is slightly over $300 per year
in 1983 dollars, and this estimate is conservative. Some insurers, recognizing the differential in
mortality rates between smokers and nonsmokers, are offering up to 45 percent discounts on
premiums for term-life coverage for nonsmokers with medical examinations. They represent
another area of potential savings when smoking is either banned or restricted in the workplace.
Smokers have twice the accident rate of nonsmokers due in part to loss of attention, smoking
hand occupied, eye irritation, and cough. Researchers have estimated fire accident costs due to
smoking to be $10 per year per smoker. Dr. Weis says that health and fire insurance premiums
can be 25 to 35 percent lower for smoke-free businesses, and morbidity and fire statistics suggest
37

that premium discounts should be as high as 70 percent. Disability and early retirement payments
can be cut by as much as 75 percent.
Ventilation: The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers
notes that "higher ventilation rates are specified for spaces where smoking is permitted because
tobacco smoke is one of the most difficult contaminants to control at the source." Requirements
for outdoor air are two to three times greater when smoking is a factor, and filters must be
cleaned or changed much more frequently.
Maintenance Costs: Employers who have banned smoking report dramatic decreases in the
maintenance costs of their businesses. Building maintenance services are enthusiastic about the
change in the amount of cleaning required. Furniture and drapes last longer and have to be
cleaned less often. Many chores done on a monthly basis can be scheduled semiannually or
annually.

EVACUATION PLANS
A disorganized evacuation can result in confusion, injury, and property damage. When there is an
emergency, getting workers out of poses special challenges. Preparing in advance to safely
evacuate the building is critical to the safety of employees who work there.
What actions should employers take to help ensure safe evacuations?
Don't lock fire exits or block doorways, halls, or stairways
Test regularly all back-up systems and safety systems, such as emergency lighting and
communication systems, and repair them as needed
Develop a workplace evacuation plan, post it prominently on each floor, and review it
periodically to ensure its effectiveness
Identify and train floor wardens, including back-up personnel, who will be responsible
for sounding alarms and helping to evacuate employees
Conduct emergency evacuation drills periodically
38

Ensure that during off-hour periods, systems are in place to notify, evacuate, and account
for off-hour building occupants
Post emergency numbers near telephones
What should employers do when an emergency occurs?
Sound appropriate alarms and instruct employees to leave the building
Notify, police, firefighters or other appropriate emergency personnel
Take a head count of employees at designated meeting locations, and notify emergency
personnel of any missing workers
What actions should employees know before an emergency occurs?
Be familiar with the work site's emergency evacuation plan
Know the pathway to at least two alternative exits from every room/area at the workplace
Recognize the sound/signaling method of the fire/evacuation alarms
Know who to contact in an emergency and how to contact them
Know how many desks or cubicles are between your workstation and two of the nearest
exits so you can escape in the dark if necessary
Know where the fire/evacuation alarms are located and how to use them
Report damaged or malfunction safety systems and back-up systems

CONCLUSION
39

Occupational health and safety is not limited in scope only to prevent and control specific
occupational diseases. Workers health and safety programs should deal with the complete
relationship between work and total health of man. However, the present occupational health and
safety infrastructure in India has not been able to achieve these objectives.
The Indian legislations fail to consider the numerous problems existing in India industry. The
legislations fail to reflect the importance of attitude of the organizational system and the
capacities or performance of working people. The present state of Indian industry does not
provide any incentive to the employers/entrepreneurs to invest in safety measures. There is little
awareness about safety aspects among the Indian trade unions. The small unorganized industrial
units spread over the length and breadths of the country are not covered by any occupational
health services.
Besides all these it is the responsibility of the management to work with ethics so as ensure the
safety and security of the employees and make sure that they are more than happy and
comfortable in the area of their working premises providing all sorts of essential needs and
comforts. When all these are met ultimately workers will be giving their best in terms of
productivity in an organization, which is really concerned about them. It is more than easy if we
could just take small and precautionary measures to avoid such a huge disaster like the
BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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http://dgfasli.nic.in/info1.htm
http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/lang--en/index.htm
http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/lang--en/index.htm
http://www.iitk.ac.in/che/jpg/cwrep2.pdf
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-1203/india/28061521_1_compensation-gas-affected-persons-bhopal-gastragedy
http://www.aiche.org/uploadedfiles/ccps/about/bhopal20yearslater.pdf
http://www.rrojasdatabank.info/urban/euv14n1p89.pdf
http://labour.nic.in/ilas/indiaandilo.htm
http://www.citehr.com/research.php?
q=reducing+unsafe+conditions+in+an+organization&submit=reSearch
Human resource management book by- Gary Dessler and Bijju Varkkey

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