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FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE
TYPES OF DENIM
INTERNATIONAL SOURCING
NATIONAL SOURCING
LEAD TIME & PRICE RANGE
LATEST DENIM DEVELOPMENT
REFERENCES

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INTRODUCTION TO DENIM
Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced twill textile in which the weft passes
under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces the familiar
diagonal ribbing of the denim that distinguishes it from cotton duck.
A coarse, twilled cotton fabric, often blue, traditionally used for overalls an
d work-clothes
and now used for jeans and casual wear. Denims Pants or another garmen
t made of this
fabric.
A similar but finer fabric used in draperies and upholstery.
It is a characteristic of most indigo denim that only the warp threads are
dyed, whereas the weft threads remain plain white. As a result of the
warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the textile then shows the blue warp
threads and the other side shows the white weft threads. This is why
blue are white on the inside. The indigo dyeing process, in which the core
of the warp threads remains white, creates denim's fading characteristics,
which are unique compared to every other textile.
Denims durability is due to the weave, called a twill weave. Twill weaves
have great abrasion resistance, meaning the fabric will absorb a lot of
friction before it breaks apart. The reason for such great durability is the
way the yarns are woven together: one set of yarns floats over another 2
4 set of yarns at regular intervals to create a diagonal textured fabric
surface. It is these yarn floats that absorb the abrasion. When the
floating yarns are worn away, there are still more yarns underneath to
hold the fabric together. Take a look at a pair of worn jeans, and look for
places when the float yarns have worn away, exposing the white yarns
underneath. Denim has always been used for very durable outdoor work
clothing. Because of its weight, rigidity, and thickness, denim is chosen for
casual jackets, skirts, and jeans. Now that so many garment-finishing
techniques are applied to denim, its use has broadened into different
lifestyles. Denim apparel can command high prices, depending on the fit,
finishing, and brand name. Denim is still mostly used for jackets and
pants, with most attention focused on interesting jeans. Spandex yarn is
added to denim to make the denim elastic. Denim without spandex tends
to hold the body. A 25% spandex blend with cotton will stretch the
fabric over the body for a more comfortable fit.
Denim is a woven fabric commonly made with a blue cotton warp yarn
and a white cotton filling yarn. When it was first designed, denim was
primarily used to make work clothes and tough clothing like overalls, but
today it is used for everything from purses and skirts to denim jackets and
other fashionable clothes. Denim is so popular in the twenty-first century
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that you can hardly walk into a store without seeing it on racks and
displays. In fact, its difficult to imagine a time when 9 out of 10 people
were NOT wearing jeans as casual everyday attire. If youre a fan of jeans
and youre curious about how denim is made, then prepare to find out.

HISTORY OF DENIM
The denim fabric originated in the French town of Nimes and owes its
name to the location, which was quickly known as denim abroad.
Spunky Genoese Navy sailors first strutted around in denim back in the
1500s but it wasnt until the 1870s in the gold rush boom that denim
took off. This was when Levi Strauss a name now synonymous with
denim - created a strong style of workers pants with rivets that was
quickly adopted by Californian coal miners. Originally made from
uncomfortable hemp, Strauss eventually discovered and started using the
twilled cotton cloth that originated from the French town of Nimes and
denim, as we know it, was born.

For a long time, it was largely worn by workers but become popular in
American Pop Culture when jeans became symbolic of protest against
conformity. Worn by teenagers and young adults they were often refused
admission to movies, restaurants and other everyday haunts when
wearing them. But the trend grew and during the 1960s wearing blue
jeans become more acceptable and by the 1970s they were truly
established as a fashion trend. The 80s brought with it designer jeans
and denim took to the catwalks. Today jeans are a staple of everybodys
wardrobe and often a key element in seasonal trends and fashion around
the world. Each season brings with it new cuts, features, treatments and
embellishments.

Denim is more than just a cotton fabric; it inspires strong opinions within
the hearts of historians, designers, teenagers, movie stars, reporters and
writers. Interest bordering on passion can be found among textile and
costume historians today, especially in the debate over the true origins of
denim. These experts have put decades of work into their research; here
is a summary of the prevailing opinions about the birth of denim, followed
by a discussion of the way Levi Strauss & Co. has helped to contribute to
denims movement around the world. In 1969 a writer for

FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

American Fabrics magazine declared, Denim is one of the worlds oldest


fabrics, yet it remains eternally young. If continuous use of and interest
in an item makes it eternally young, then denim certainly qualifies. From
the 17th century to the present, denim has been woven, used and
discarded; made into upholstery, pants and awnings; found in museums,
attics, antique stores and archaeological digs; worn as the fabric of hard,
honest work and as the expression of angry rebellion; used for the sails of
Columbus ships in legend; and worn by American cowboys in fact. Legend
and fact are also interwoven when scholars discuss the origin of the name
denim itself.

Most reference books say that denim is an English corruption of the French
serge de Nimes; a serge fabric from the town of Nimes in France.
However, some scholars have begun to question this tradition. There are a
few schools of thought with regard to the derivation of the word denim.
Pascale Gorguet-Ballesteros, of the Musee de la Mode et du Costume in
Paris, has done some interesting research on both of these issues. A fabric
called serge de Nimes, was known in France prior to the 17th century. At
the same time, there was also a fabric known in France as nim. Both
fabrics were composed partly of wool.

There are various theories about the origin of the term "denim." The most
common theory is that the fabric was originally produced during the
Middle Ages in Nmes, France (under the name of "serge de Nmes") and
that America shortened it to "denim" in the 1800s. Another theory claims
the fabric originated in England.
The term "jeans" or "jean" is has become synonymous with "denim" in
todays terminology, but the terms werent always interchangeable. Jeans
actually originated in Genoa, Italy, and were made from fustian (a cotton,
linen and/or wool blend) instead of denim. Denim was slightly more
expensive than jean and was woven from one colored thread and one
white thread (jean was woven from two threads of the same color).

Levi Strauss is credited with making the first denim jeans. Strauss was a
young German immigrant who went to California in 1853, during the gold
rush, to sell a rough canvas to make tents and wagon covers. Prospectors
complained that what they really needed were pants that were strong
enough to last in the mines; so, Strauss made his first jeans from the
rough canvas and then began using denim when the miners complained
that the canvas pants chafed. The official birthday of "blue jeans" did not

FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

come until 1873, when Strauss and a Nevada tailor named Jacob Davis copatented the idea of using rivets to add strength to the jeans.

PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE
The term "Denim" has originated from the city of Nimes in France where
"serge de Nimes" was manufactured. Denim is made from a vat dye,
the Indigo dye, which is applied to cotton fabricin loosely held form in
layers. As far as manufacturing process of denim is concerned, it is similar
to that of Grey fabric up to the process of weaving with the only difference
that in case of Denim Fabric, it is dyed at the stage of sizing where as in
case of Grey Fabric, the decision regarding dyeing stage depends upon
the
finished
product..

SPINNING
The initial processes of denim manufacturing consist of the regular
activities of opening and blending of cotton fibers. Carding is done to
remove any foreign matter and the short fibers so that cotton takes the
form of a web which is then converted into a rope-like form, the sliver.
Then drawing process produces a single, uniform sliver from a number of
carded slivers. Yarn is then spun through Open-End Spinning or Ring
Spinning. Roving is also carried on, if the spinning has to be done through
Ring Spinning. Generally, denim fabric are 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric
made from a yarn dyed warp and an undyed weft yarn. Normally dyed and
Grey ring or open- end yarns are used in warp and weft respectively.
Traditionally speaking, the warp yarn is indigo dyed.

FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

Warp Preparation - Dyeing and Sizing Processes


Warp yarns are indigo dyed and sized with the help of two
methods.
(i) Threads from several back beams are
combined to form a warp sheet and dyed and
same machine.

sized on the

(ii) Threads, about 350-400 in number are


formed into
ropes. 12-14 ropes run adjacent to each other through the continuous
dyeing unit. After dyeing, the ropes are dried on drying cylinders and then
collected in a can. After that, a worker's beam is prepared. Sizing is then
done in the conventional manner.
There are various dyeing and sizing processes, which can be classified into
four categories.
o

Continuous Indigo-Rope dyeing and sizing.

Continuous Indigo dyeing and sizing.

Indigo-back beam dyeing and sizing.

Continuous dyeing and sizing.


WEAVING
The weaving process interlaces the warp, which are the length-wise indigo
dyed yarn and the filling, which are the natural-colored cross-wise yarn.
The warp thread is in the form of sheet. The weft thread is inserted
between two layers of warp sheets by means of a suitable carrier, such as
Shuttle, Projectile, Rapier, Air current, Water current, etc. The selection of
carrier depends upon the type of weaving machinery used. The two
different technologies available for weaving machines are - Conventional
Shuttle Weaving System which is done by Ordinary Looms or Automatic
Looms; and the Shuttle less Weaving System which is done by Airjet,
Waterjet,
Rapier,
or
a
Projectile
weaving
machine.
The
Conventional Shuttle loom results in lesser production due to slow speed
and excessive wear and tear of machinery. As such, now denim is
generally woven through Shuttle less Weaving System namely, Airjet
looms, rapier looms or projectile looms.

FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

FINISHING
The final woven fabric, wound on a cloth roll, is
taken out from weaving machines at particular
intervals and checked on inspection machines so
that any possible weaving fault can be detected.
In this quality control exercise, wherever any fault
is seen, corrective measures are taken then and
there only. The woven Denim Fabrics then goes
through various finishing processes, such as brushing, singeing, washing,
impregnation for dressing and drying. Brushing and singeing eliminate
impurities and help to even the surface of denim fabric. Dressing
regulates the hand and rigidity of the fabric while compressive shrinking
manages its dimensional stability. The standard width denim fabrics is
then sent for making up. In this process, the fabric is cut into the desired
width according to the size required. The made- up denim fabric is then
thoroughly checked for defects such as weaving defects, uneven dyeing,
bleaching and dyeing defects, oil stains, or patches. After inspection, the
final product is categorized quality-wise. The fault less fabrics are sent to
the packaging department while the defective ones are sent for further
corrections.

TYPES OF DENIM FABRICS


ORDINARY DENIM
This basic jean is an all-time favorite. The weft is left undyed and it is wrap
faced and dyed in indigo. The best part of using indigo is that, it bleeds
when washed.
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ECRU DENIM
Ecru refers to the color of undyed denim and is the natural hue of cotton.
Jeans that have not been dyed with indigo are called ecru jeans; however,
they are more difficult to find.

STRECH DENIM
Stretch denim incorporates an elastic component, such as spandex. This
creates a certain amount of "give" in garments made from stretch denim.
Only a small percentage (about 3%) of spandex is required within the
fabric to create a significant stretching capacity of about 15%. However,
this feature will shorten the wearing life of the garment. It has a Lycra
content.

SOFT DENIM
It is basically a twill weave runs diagonally from right to left, which
produces denim that is a bit softer also called as Left Hand Twill providing

FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

soft texture after washing. However it is more difficult to produce because


it requires more attention in the finishing stages.

REUSED DENIM
It is a technology developed technique which contains 50 percent cotton
and 50 percent reclaimed denim.

SODA POP DENIM


It has been developed from 100 percent recycled plastic pet bottles.
Developed by an US-based company Fortel Ecospun, this denim is already
being used by Levi Strauss and Reebok.

OVERDYED DENIM
Overdyeing is a process where the fabric is either dyed for too long or
dyed a second time. It is most often used on denim to add an overtone of
color to the indigo. No longer are the denims conventional indigo blue.
The market is now flooded with denim available in many different shades.
Over dyed with sulfur:
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MERCERISED BLACK
This variety of fabric involves a pretreatment process that uses a special
technique to cause swelling of the fabric, thus improving the density of
the dye in the fabric. This process also imparts the denim fabric extra
strength particularly useful when the fabric has to undergo intensive
washing or abrading.

RING DENIM
Ring-ring, or dual-ring spun, denim is created from ring-spun yarn, a type
of yarn created by rolling rather than pressing the fibers into shape. It has
an uneven look surface appearance and feel and is considered more
valuable and unique than open end denim. Stone washing can be used to
enhance the irregularities. Coarse ring denim has prominent streaks on its
surface. Fine ring denim is more subdued. Ring-ring denim differs from
ring-spun denim in that the ring-spun yarn is used for both the warp and
weft during the weaving process rather than just the warp threads. It is
the most expensive choice out of ring-ring, ring-spun, and open end
denim.
Uneven thickness of ring-ring denim:

NATURAL DYED DENIM


Conventional cotton requires either bleaching to make it white or
bleaching and dyeing to add colour. Both processes release a large
amount of toxic chemicals into the environment. But coloured cotton
requires neither bleaching nor dyeing. Natural dyed denim is made from

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coloured cotton grown primarily to manufacture denim. The colour of the


denim unlike others actually intensifies with more washing.

RAMIE-DENIM
Denim is also sometimes blended with the plant fiber ramie, which
reduces wrinkling and gives the fabric a softer feel. Ramie fiber is pure
white in colour, lustrous, moisture absorbent, and readily dyed. The fibre
is stronger than flax, cotton, or wool. Fabric made from ramie fibre is
easily laundered, increasing in strength when wet, and does not shrink or
lose its shape. It dries quickly and becomes smoother and more lustrous
with repeated washings. Ramie is resistant to mildew and other types of
micro-organism attack and good fastness to sun. Because ramie is brittle,
spinning it is difficult and weaving is complicated because ramie has a
very hairy yarn surface.
A visual of ramie cloth:

POLY-DENIM
Poly-denim blends look like a dressier denim, and are more lightweight,
which makes them more convenient to wash and dry. They also are more
resistant to wrinkling. A type of fibre known for its strength, dye affinity
and high luster. Polyester is derived from coal, air, water and oil. Polyester
is well known for being blended with cotton to create a fabric (polyestercotton blend) that is used in many different materials today including
denim.
Originally called Terylene, polyester was first discovered by the British
company ICI in 1941. It is produced from petroleum by-products such as
PET, and can even be created from recyclable materials such as soda
bottles (polar fleece is produced in this way). Polyester is the most popular
synthetic fiber in the world and is often used in blends to increase a
fabrics strength, durability, wrinkle resistance, and water resistance. Jean
manufacturers sometimes use polyester instead of spandex to make their
denim stretchier.

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SOURCING
INTERNATIONAL SOURCING

The sourcing hubs have evolved in the South East Asia over the year in
the oriental countries like China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan & Indonesia
Chemitex is the largest Textile Trading Company in Europe, with its
sourcing hubs in Pakistan, China, India, Indonesia, Africa, etc.,. They
specialized in all types of woven & denim fabrics.
Their consistent quality & competitive prices have made it possible for
them to sell 700,000 Meters Fabric per Day.

A&A TEXTILES
7F., No.53, Dongsing Rd., Sinyi District,
Taipei City 110, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
TEL:+886 2 8768 1133
FAX:+886 2 8768 1212
E-MAIL:Dollen@aatextile.com.tw
ABSOLUTE DENIM
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FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

No.99, Absolute Denim Room P6a Fl.


Sukhumvit Soi 6, Klongtoey,
BKK - 10110
Thailand
Tel : +66 2 255 4999
Fax : +66 2 255 4999 ext. 188
info @absolutedenim.com
ADM DENIM
Plot No. 5-9, 23-26, Sector-16,
Korangi Industrial Area,
74900 Karachi, Pakistan.
Tel: +92 21 111-236-236
Fax: +92 21 3505 4652
sales@admdenim.com
ADVANCE DENIM
Address: #3 Xinyoudong Road, Ronggui High-tech
Development Park of Shunde Foshan City,
Guangdong Province, P.R.C. 528306
Telephone: +86-757-29322698
Fax: +86-757-28385198
Email: qjjeans@advancedenim.com
ANANTA DENIM
Ananta Plaza
136, Elephant Road
Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
Phone: +88-02-9660159-60
Fax: +88-02-8615738
E-mail: info@ananta-bd.com
ARGONDENIMS
REGISTERED OFFICE
Plot-33, section 7, Mirpur.
Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh.
Phone: +88 02 9020491-5, +88 02 9004405
Fax: +88 02 9020490.
BEXTEX LIMITED
Beximco Industrial Park
Sarabo, Kashimpur, Gazipur
Bangladesh
Phone: 8618220-7,8611891-5
Email: sardar@beximet.com
BLUEDIP GMBH
Fockenstegge 3 48683 Ahaus
Fon: +49 (0) 2561 429295
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Fax: +49 (0) 2561 429296


E-mail :info@bluedip.de

CHITTAGONG DENIM MILLS LTD


Chittagong Denim Mill Ltd
House# B-123,Road# 21
New D.O.H.S , MohaKhali
Dhaka-1206
Telephone : 88-02 9886131, 88-02 9886247 88-02 8713508
Email : sales@chittagongdenim.com
HAMEEM DENIM
198/A,TEJGAON I/A
DHAKA-1208, BANGLADESH
Tel: +88-02-9889628
Email : sales@hameemdenim.com
INDIGO DENIM
Suite 214, the Cotton Exchange I.I.
Chundrigar Road, P.O.Box No. 4124,
Karachi, 74000, Pakistan.
Phone: (92-21) 3241-3204-5
Fax: (92-21) 3242-7647
Email:info@indigo.com.pk
JAMUNA GROUP
KA-244, Kuril, Progoti Sharani, Baridhara, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Phone : 88-02-8413760-4, Fax : 88-02-8416050
E-mail : info@jamunagroup.com.bd
sales@jamunagroup.com.bd
marketing@jamunagroup.com.bd
MAHMUD GROUP
House - 25, Road - 10, Sector - 6,Uttara Model Town,
Dhaka- 1230, Bangladesh
Hotline number : +88-02-8961594
Hotline number : +88-02-8961652
Fax number : +88-02-8961508
EMAIL : info@mahmudgroup-bd.com
MARFANI DENIM

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Plot No.26, Sector 15


Korangi Industrial Area,
Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Phone: 9221-5070373 / 5070371 / 5057996.
Fax: 9221-5058091
Email: info@marfanidenim.com ,
Email: marfanidenim@cyber.net.pk
SHASHA DENIM
Head Office:
Mascot Plaza (10th Floor)
Plot-107/A, Sonargaon Janapath Road. Sector 7,
Uttara C/A, Dhaka 1230
Phone: +88 (02) 8952801-3
Fax: +88 (02) 8952748
Email : info@shashabd.com
SIDDIQSONS
7th Floor- Siddiqsons Towers Plot # 3, Block
D-53 S.I.T.E, Karachi, Pakistan
(92-21) 3257-7480-9
Fax: (92-21) 3256-4613
UAN: 111-111-001
Email: siddiqsons@siddiqsons.com
SOORTY DENIM
Plot Survey : 332, Deh Landhi
Bin qasim, National Highway
Karachi Pakistan
T: + 92 21 34102633

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NATIONAL SOURCING

In India, Surat, Ahmedabad & Tirpur has emerged over the period of time
as the Manchester of the East and taken over the market as the sourcing
hub for most of the fabrics and trims. Noida IS also upcoming centers for
sourcing of Denim fabric.

AARVEE DENIM & EXPORTS LIMITED


188/2, Ranipur Village,
Opp. CNI Church, Narol,
Ahmedabad 382 405 Gujarat, India.
Tel : +91-079-30417000, +91-079-40707000 (Central Boardline Number)
Fax : +91-079-30417070 (Central Boardline Number)
Mobile No : +91-9825600689, +91-9825600690
Mail : info@aarvee-denims.com
ADVANCE MULTITECH LTD
Regd office:
36, Kothari Market,
Opp. Hirabhai Market, Diwanballubhai Road,
Ahmedabad : 380 022.
Phone : + 91 79 - 25450609, 25454795
Fax : 079 25454586
E-mail : advance93@hotmail.com
E-mail: info@advancemulti.com

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ANUBHA INDUSTRIES
Registered office address
104, mahade complex, ghb road, fatehnagar
Surat 394221
Gujarat, india
info@anubhaindustries.com
ARVIND MILL
The Arvind Mills Limited
Naroda Road
Ahmedabad 380025
Gujarat ,India
Tel: +91-79-22203030
Fax: +91-79-22201270
BEST TEXTILE LTD
B-85, Okhla Phase-II,
New Delhi -110020,
INDIA
Email: customercare@besttextiles.in
Email: sales@besttextiles.in
ASHIMA
Texcellence Complex
Khokhra Mehmedabad
Ahmedabad - 380 021.
INDIA
Tele. : 91-79-6777 7000
Fax. : 91-79-2277 3061
BLUE BLENDS (INDIA) LTD.
DENIM DIVISION
603, Sahajanand, Shaibaug Road,
Ahmedabad - 380 004,
Gujarat (India)
Tele : +91-79-25622141, 91-79-25622571, 91-79-25625481
Email ID: blueblends@dataone.in
ETCO DENIM
142, Andheri Industrial Estate, Nr Janki Centre,
Off. Veera Desai Road, Andheri (west)
Mumbai - 400 053.
Tel.: (022) 4238 2800/49 Fax.: (022) 2673 0130.
Email.: marketing2@etco.in , info2@etco.in
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GINNI INTERNATIONAL LIMITED


2nd floor, Shanti Chamber,
11/6b pusa road,
New delhi-110005(india)
phone :+91-11-40088000
email : plant@ginnniint.com
JINDAL TEXTILES
Jindal House" Opp. D-Mart,
IOC Petrol Pump Lane, Shivranjani
Shyamal 132 Ft Ring Road, Satellite,
Ahmedabad 380015
Tele: +91 - 079 71001500
KANCHAN INDIA
Registered office:19-20,
Bhilwara Textile Market, Pur Road,
Bhilwara (Rajasthan) 311001 India
Phone:+91-1482-247001
Email: info@kanchanindia.com
KG DENIM LIMITED
Then Thirumalai
Coimbatore - 641302
India
Phone: +91 4254 235401
Fax : +91 4254 235400
Email: custrel@kgdenim.in
MAFATLAL INDUSTRIES LTD
Kaledonia, 6th Floor, Sahar Road, Andheri (E), Mumbai 400069
Telephone: +91-22-6771 3800 / 3900
Fax No: +91-22-6771 3924 / 25
Email: marketing@mafatlals.com, sales@mafatlaldenim.com

LNJ DENIM
Bhilwara tower, A-12 sector 1
Nodia- 201301 (NCR DELHI)
INDIA
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Tel:+91 120 4390000/300


Rohit.menon@lnjbhilwara.com
NAHAR
Nahar Tower Industrial Area-A
Ludhiana-141003 (india)
Tel:+91-161-2600701
E-mail : nahar@owmnahar.com
RAINDOW DENIM
#51-52, free press house,
215, Nariman point,
Mumbai, pin 400021
INDIA
Phone:+91 22 2283 4123
RAYMOND UCO DENIM
#C-1, MIDC, LOHAR,
Yavatmal-445001,
Maharashtra
Phone: 91-7232-304570

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LEAD TIMES & PRICE RANGES OF CURRENT DENIM


FABRICS WHICH ARE IN TREND
LATEST DENIM DEVELOPMENTS
SILK DENIM:
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Denim/jeans have made their way into our everyday lifestyle, diluting its
association as a working class garment. Recent development of silk
denims which are soft, light and comfortable in all seasons, have added a
new dimension to the denim and fashion world.
In the present global economy, the future of silk will increasingly depend
on the industrys ability to relentlessly innovate new range of products.
Product development has been a pressing need of the Indian silk industry
and diversification into casual wear to address the changing market needs
is critically important.
Central Silk Technological Research Institute (CSTRI), Bangalore has been
engaged in product development in silk and silk blends. The Cocoona
Product Design, Development and Diversification (P3D) Cell under the
institute, established with broader objectives of quality upgradation,
investment
generation,
technology
upgradation,
productivity
improvement and employment generation, is involved in revival of
traditional products as well as development of innovative silk products,
meeting the consumer preferences and market needs. The product range
includes eri fleece fabrics, eri dress materials, eri shawls, silk non-wovens,
silk stretch fabrics, silk-knits, eri silk and wool blends, silk x cotton/linen
union fabrics etc.
Silk denim is another such successful
effort in this direction giving a new
dimension to both denim and silk
segments of the textile sector. The initial
attempt by the institute to develop silk
denim using eri silk has been reported
earlier (Indian Silk, July, 2005
Development of silk denim fabrics
Natural silk has been one of the most popular fabrics because of its
unique properties like, softness, suppleness and strength. Silk is preferred
for its lightness with warmth, sheerness with strength and delicacy with
resiliency. Silk fabrics retain their shape and resist wrinkling rather well.
Silk has pliability and suppleness that aided by elasticity and resilience,
give it excellent drapability. Also, silk being fine and strong, can be woven
into light weight denim fabrics.
The denim is a coarse twill weave
cotton
fabric, also commonly
known as blue jeans/jeans. Taking
clue from the history that denims/
jeans were originally made of silk,
wool, cotton and linen, an attempt has been made to develop different
combinations of silk denim fabrics. The mulberry silk of 20/22 denier in 6
and 12 ply organize twisted and eri silk of 2/60s, 2/80s and 2/ 120s were
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FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

used in warp. The warp yarn was dyed to indigo blue shade with acid
dyes. The mulberry silk in 6 and 12 ply tram twisted and eri silk of 2/60s,
2/80s and 2/120s grey yarns were used in weft for development of 100%
silk denim fabric. The cotton yarn of 2/60s, 2/ 100 Ne and linen yarns of
40s, 50s Le were also used in weft on the silk warp. Further, mulberry raw
silk of 20/22 denier that can be doubled and twisted in the required plies
and eri mill spun silk yarn available in the counts of 2/40s,2/60s,2/80s,
2/100s and 2/120s Nm and 20s Ne noil yarn can also be used for
development of different varieties of silk denim fabrics.

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FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING & EXIM DOCUMENTATION

REFERENCES

DENIM A BOOK FOR ALL


VOUGE MAGZINE
www.denimclub.com
www.fiber2fashion.com
The information regarding suppliers, Price, Lead time,
MOQ & monthly mill capacity were collected by the Fabric
Merchandisers of Gokaldas Exports & Shahi Exports.

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