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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
A.Background of the Study.
Look at the developing science and technology, language has an
important rule for human life, by using language the people will express
their ideas, emotion, and desires, and it is used as a medium to interact
with one another, to fulfil their daily need. English has been the most
important language in international communication. The people all over
the world speak the language when they meet one another in every
international meeting, workshop, or conference. All countries in the world
have set the language as one of the compulsory subject studied at school.
English has many functions, one of them as stated in the 2004
curriculum that English is means for the students to develop science,
technology, culture and art, and the final objective of teaching and
learning process is the students are expected to master the four skills of
language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Teaching and learning
will be success if they are supported by some factors such as the method
that is used in teaching English, completeness of teaching facilitation,
interesting media, and condition of school environment.
Indonesia as one of the developing countries has also set its
educational curriculum to include English as a foreign language which is
studied from junior high school up to the university level. Being successful
students are not easy, this fact can be seen mostly at eight grader of SMP

Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa, although they have been studying English for


more than a year, but they are still unable to use English in interacting
with their teacher in the classroom.
Speaking is important for them to practice their capability and their
understanding, how to send idea, and how to spell word well; in this case
the students motivation and interest are very needed to make the
process of their understanding more easily. Because of the material of
English subject is very variety, so the teachers are obligated to choose the
suitable approach, strategy, and method in order to achieve the teaching
purposes easily, and the media will make the students to be more
motivated to study. The teacher who is able to present the material easily
will be students idol. The teacher can use some methods in teaching
learning process to help the students understanding about the material
that is explained. In applying method, the teachers have to prepare many
things like; teaching material, classroom management, and many other
aspects because using inappropriate technique can make the students get
difficulties in understanding the teachers explanation and it means that
the teacher may be failed in teaching them.
To make the students have strong interest in teaching and learning
process especially in learning speaking, the teacher should take the best
approach, method, and strategies. Then, the teacher can use media in
teaching of English language, method are used to help the students for
speaking to make interaction between the teacher and students.
Furthermore, the teacher has to prepare the interested aids before

teaching learning process done. In this case, the researcher used board
game as method in teaching learning processes.
The teacher can use board game as method in teaching and
learning processes. According to (Hornby 1995: 486) game is an activity
that you do to have some fun. Board game can be defined as something
or an instrument that is used to attract students motivation to follow the
teaching and learning process because board game can make the
students more focus in learning, because they do not feel that they are
forced to learn. They also enable learners to acquire new experiences
within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical
lesson. Board game can be method that will give many advantages for
teacher and the students either.
Method must be able to increase the students motivation in
learning English, especially in speaking English. And, method has to be
able to manipulate, see able, listenable, and readable. At last the teacher
hopes that method can motivate his students to speak English to
communicate their need especially in the classroom and in their daily
need in general.
Board game as a method of intertwinement can build up the
students motivation and reinforce any language skill as speaking and
listening. The students playing board game in the classroom only for
language learning and help them to increase their speaking skill which
they can apply it outside of the classroom.
Communication is one of the implementation of language function in
society as a means of carrying out the affairs. Students are not easy to
3

speak English fluently if they only study at school generally, they will get
it in real life listening to the native speaker. But, if the school has certain
rule and has good condition of school environment, so the students can
speak English as well.
Speaking is one of four language skills, which is basic function of
language as communication instrument. Students who study at the school
which use certain language will be a good speaker, different from students
who study at the other school. They will get difficulties in using English to
speak each other; it is caused by condition of school environment and
media that is used in teaching them.
B.Focus of the Study
Based on the background of the study above, this study is limited to
find out the increasing of students speaking ability through board game.
The subject of the study is the eighth grade of SMP Muhammadiyah 48
Cikupa.
C.Statement of the Problem
Based on the background above, the problem can be
formulated as follows: How can board game increase the students
speaking ability at the eighth grade of SMP Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa?
D. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to finding out the role of board game in
increasing

studentsspeaking

ability

for

the

eighth

grade

of SMP

Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa.
E. Significance of the Study
The results of this study are expected to give both theoretical and
practical benefits as follows:
-

Theoretically
4

The result of this study is expected to find out strategy of


-

increasing students speaking ability through board game.


Practically
a. Teacher
1) Teacher can use the material easier and she/he will have
a new method to teach speaking by using board game.
2) The teacher can make this method to be an interesting
method in other the students easy to understand in
learning english speaking.
b. Students
1) The students will be easy to understand about how to
say something.
2) It will improve the students ability in speaking.
c. Researcher
1) Can use the result of this study to be reference.
2) Can search the same variable.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND ACTION HYPOTHESIS
A.Speaking Ability
In this chapter will discuss about the nature of speaking, the
meaning of speaking, the function of speaking, the aspect of speaking
ability, and macro and micro skill of speaking ability.
1. The Nature of Speaking Ability
Brown (in Islamiyah, 2007: 14) states that speaking is a
productive skill that can be directly and empirically observed, those
observations are invariably collared by the accuracy and fluency.
While, he also states that speaking is the product of creative

construction of linguistic strings, the speakers make choices of


lexicon, structure, and discourse.
Poerdarminta (in Islamiyah, 2007: 14) states that the classical
meaning of speaking is the ability to talk, and to speak. The main
purpose of speaking is to send the message for the other one or to
be able to communicate about something in language and
understood by someone who becomes a listener.
Tarigan (in Islamiyah, 2007: 14) states that speaking is one of
the language skills in oral form to express the speakers ideas to
everybody else. While, speaking is the informal interchange of
thought and information by spoken words.
2. The Meaning of Speaking Ability
Speaking ability consists of two words are speaking and ability.
To avoid misunderstanding about the meaning of speaking ability, it
will clarify one by one. According to Poerwadarminta (1985: 109). It
is also stated by Hornby (1990: 51) that abilitys potential capacity
of power to do something physically or mentally. Those description
may concluded that ability is capability of human which identical
with ability. According to Djiwandono (in Munir, 2005: 16) speaking
is the activity to express thought and feeling orally.
Speaking is an articulation of sound to express thought.
Tarigan (1990: 15), says that speaking is the capability in
pronouncing sound or word to express or convey though, idea or
feeling opinion and wish. Another expert says that speaking is talk
or speaks (Haryanto in Sunardi, 2004: 13). If both speaking and
ability are combined, so it means a capability to utter the

articulation of sound to express or to deliver thought, opinion and


wish to the other person.
3. The Function of Speaking Ability
Brown and Yule in Fauzi (2012: 4) also describe a useful
distinction between two basic language function. These are the
transactional function, which is primarily concerned with the
transfer of information, and the interactional function, in which the
primary purpose of speech is the maintenance of social relationship.
Another basic distinction when considering the development
of speaking ability is between monologue and dialogue. They ability
to give an uninterrupted oral presentation is very clear from
interacting one people and another speakers for transactional and
intersectional purpose, while, all native speakers can and do use
language interaction, not all native speaker have the ability to be
extempore on a given subject to group of listeners. Furthermore,
Brown and Yule in Fauzi (2012: 4) suggest that most language
teaching is concerned with developing skills in short intersectional
exchanges in which the learner is only required to make one or two
utterance at a time.
Based on the above statement, Bygate in Fauzi (2012: 5)
distinguishes that between motor-perceptive skill, which are
concerned with correctly using the sound and structures of
language, and interactional skill, which involves motor perceptive
skill for the purpose of communication motor perceptive skill are
developed in the language classroom through activities such as
model dialogues, patterns practice, oral drills and so on, until
relatively recently, it was assumed that the mastery of motor
7

perceptive skill was that needed all one, in order to communicated


successfully.
4. The Aspect of Speaking Ability
Darmodihardjo in Fauzi (2012: 7) states about the aspects of
speaking that is the requirements of effective speaking such as:
intonation, phonetic transcription and environment expression.
The opinion above describes that, to able communicate
effectively, it must be considered that situation of sound utterance,
pronunciation and physical. On the other hand, Valetto in Fauzi
(2012: 7) says that The elements which are in speaking cover
phonetic transcription, grammar, vocabulary, the effective and
speaking
Meanwhile, Haris in Fauzi (2012: 7) clarifies as follows:
Like

writing

speaking

is

complex

skill

requiring

the

simultaneous use of number of the different abilities which often


developed of different rates either four of five components are
generally

recognized

pronunciation

in

concluding

analyze
the

of

the

segmental

speak

process:

(a)

features

vowel,

and

consonants, vocabulary, stress and intonation pattern the flow


speech, (b) grammar, (c) vocabulary, (d) fluency (the case and
speed of the flow speech). The solve probably be added, (e)
comprehension for oral communication certainly requires a subject
the response to speak as well as imitation.
Based on the statement above, it can be concluded that the
aspects of the speaking ability in this research are: (a) pronunciation
competence, (b) grammatical ability, (c) vocabulary mastery, (d) the

fluently of speaking, and (e) the understanding of the topic of


speaking.
5. Macro and Micro Skill of Speaking Ability
a) Macro Skills of Speaking
According to Sharma (2010: 5). There are the skills that should be
implemented in speaking activities.
1. Appropriately accomplish communicative functions according
to situations, participants, and goals.
2. Use appropriate styles, registers, implicative, redundancies,
pragmatic conventions, conversion rules, floor keeping and
yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in
face-to-face conversations.
3. Convey

links

and

connections

between

events

and

communicate such relations as focal and peripheral ideas,


events and feeling, new information and given information,
generalisation and exemplification.
4. Convey facial features, kinesics, body language, and other
nonverbal cues along with verbal language.
5. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as
emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for
interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and
accurately

assessing

how

well

your

interlocutor

is

understanding you.
b) Micro Skill of Speaking
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There are some of the micro skills involved in speaking. The


speakers have to:
1. Pronounce the distinctive sound of language clearly enough so
that people can distinguish them. This includes making tonal
distinctions.
2. Use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of
the language clearly enough so that people can understand
what is said.
3. Use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example,
changes in the tense, case, or gender.
4. Put words together in correct word order.
5. Use vocabulary appropriately.
6. Use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the
situation and the relationship to the conversation partner.
7. Make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents,
such as subject, verb, object, by whatever means the
language uses.
8. Make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or
information.
9. Make the discourse hang together so that people can follow
what you are saying. (Orwig 1999: 23).
B.Board Game
This chapter discusses about the meaning of board game, the
concept

of

board

game,

the

advantages

of

board

game,

the

disadvantages of board game, and teaching speaking by using board


game.
10

1. The Meaning of Board Game


To increase the speaking skill we need method to be used.
One of them is game. The definition of game is an activity that you
do to have some fun Hornby (1995: 486). Therefore, board game
can be defined as something or an instrument that is used to attract
students motivation to follow the teaching and learning process
because board game can make the students more focus in learning,
because they do not feel that they are forced to learn. They also
enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign
language which are not always possible during a typical lesson.
Board game can be method that will give many advantages for
teacher and the students either. Buckby (1994: 82) The useful of
board game are attract the students to learn English because it is
fun and make them want to have experiment, discover and interact
with their environment are:
a) Board game adds variation to a lesson and increase motivation
by providing a plausible incentive to use the target language. For
many children between four and twelve years old, especially the
youngest, language learning will not be the key motivation factor.
Board game can provide this stimulus. Buckby (1994: 82).
b) The game context makes the foreign language immediately
useful to the children. It brings the target language to life.
Buckby (1994: 82).the board game makes the reason for
speaking plausible even to reluctant children.
c) Through playing board game, students can learn English they
way children learn their mother tongue without being aware they
are studying; thus without stress, they can learn a lot.
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d) Even shy students can participate positively.


e) Make your classroom a lively place through the use of attractive
wall displays, displays of pupils work, etc. language classroom is
noisy with the language (English) is good because it will make
the classroom more live in English (practice).
f) Motivate pupils to want to learn English by using interesting and
enjoyable learning activities. E.g., project work, board game,
drama. It means learning by playing.
g) Create warm and happy atmosphere where teacher and pupil
enjoy working together. Teacher arranges good atmosphere in
classroom and make the students interested.
h) Help pupils to develop personal reasons for learning English. For
example by encouraging out-of school class activities, e.g. pen
friends, project, reading story books.
i) Make learning English enjoyable and fun-remember you are
influencing their attitude to language learning. (Lower as
affective filter). It means teacher has to try in order to students
are having fun in learning (learning by playing). Remember
teacher is influencing their attitude to language learning.
j) Do not worry about mistakes. Be encouraging make sure
children feel comfortable, and not afraid to take part. It means
teacher does not blame directly to students, teacher must give
support to students while repair their mistakes.
k) Use a lot of gestures, actions, pictures to demonstrate what you
mean. It means teacher has to try to accompany her explanation
with method in order to students understand easily. Dont force
the students to use the language directly, just give them
examples by gestures.

12

l) Talk a lot to them in English, especially about things they can


see. Teacher must teach them by using English, especially about
anything in their surroundings.
m) Play board game, singsongs, say rhymes and chants together. It
means teacher has skills in playing board game, singsong etc to
make them enjoy and interest in learning.
n) Tell simple theories in English, using pictures, acting with
different voices.
o) Do not worry when they use their mother tongue. You can answer
a mother tongue question in English, and sometimes recast in
English what they say in their mother tongue. It means if the
students use their mother tongue, the teacher translate to
English and repeat again, again and again to make them always
remember what teacher means.
p) Constantly recycle new language but do not be afraid to add new
things or to use words they will not know. Teacher gives new
language while remember the last topic.
q) Plan lesson with varied activities, some quiet, some noisy, some
sitting, some standing and moving, it means teacher must
demonstrate

his

teaching

with

several

activities

(moiling

teaching), sometimes teacher sit, stand up in front of or behind


the students.
2. The Concept of Board Game
Hammond (2011: 1). While the concept of a board game is not
new, the playing of board games is timeless. Many of us enjoy
playing a good board game now and then. Perhaps some of us have
a regular "game night." Whether you go for the traditional Monopoly
or Yates or prefer more unique games like Gator Golf and

13

Bolkus, board games can be very entertaining. A lot of companies


are making educational board games that teach things such as
adding or phonics. While these are obviously educational, any type
of board game can teach kids many important concepts.
This study will address 5 important concepts that playing
board games can teach children.
1. Taking Turns and Having Patience: In board games, kids are
taught to wait for their turn. Sometimes this can be hard as kids
tend to get anxious. However, as this skill is practiced, it will get
easier for them in board games and in playing with friends and
siblings in general.
2. Playing Fair: It is so easy for kids to get upset when they lose a
turn or things don't go the way they planned, but it is important
for them to learn that cheating is not fair. In a way it follows the
golden rule because they wouldn't want someone else to cheat
so they need to not cheat. Learning this concept will help kids as
they grow older and have different disappointments when things
don't turn out as planned. It will also teach them to be honest in
school and, later on, the workplace.
3. Reasoning and Strategy Skills: Playing board games will help kids
reason and strategize about the best way to "play their cards" to
their best advantage. This is an important concept in making
everyday life decisions throughout.

14

4. Good Sportsmanship: Many kids get so worked up about having


to win the game and boast if they do. Then if they don't win they
may be bitter or say hurtful things. Kids need to know that
having fun is the most important part of playing the game and to
be humble and have good sportsmanship no matter who
wins. Learning this concept can help them in any friendships they
have as well as to be happy about others achievements.
3. The Advantages of Board Game
According to Carly (2010: 21). There are many advantages of
using board game in the classroom they are:
1. They are motivating and challenging.
2. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort.
3. Board game helps students to make and sustain the effort of
learning.
4. Board game provides language practice in the various skillsspeaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.
7. Speaking skill board game bring real world context into the
classroom, and increase students use of English in a flexible,
meaningful and communicative way.
8. Board games usually involve friendly competition and they keep
students interested in learning the language.
9. Board game can help them (children) learn and hang on to new
words more easily.
4. The Disadvantages of Board Game
Dewar (2009: 15). There are many disadvantages of using
board game in the classroom:
1. Most people play with house rules (ex. money under free parking,
not using the auctions, etc) that cause the game to last much
longer than it should.
15

2. Player elimination. Players can get knocked out of the game


early.
3. Too dependent on luck. Once all the properties are bought &
traded, the game is just rolling the dice until everybody goes
bankrupt.
4. Doesn't scale well to the number of players. 4 players seem to be
ideal.
5. Players takes too long and 2 players is completely pointless
(without trades, it's all luck).
6. The game is almost 100 years old. Much better designed games
have been released since then (Acquire, Power Grid, Settlers of
Catan, Railroad Tycoon).
5. Teaching Speaking By Using Board Game
One of game in teaching speaking English is Board Game. The
effort of the linguist has strong basic because the learner
entertained with their everyday life, give chances to the student to
more creatively because Board Game as method in teaching
speaking English is very effective and more interested because the
students will be memorized the vocabulary and, the enjoying the
picture in the board. So that using Board Game in teaching speaking
will give achievement acquiring English.
Board Game can increase motivation to learn the English for
the students. They also have to add advantage of being memorable
the words much less likely that the students will forget the words,
and therefore the language practice in it, whereas language practice
in even well constructed drill is usually very quickly forgotten and
finally, Board Game which helps to bring the students memorize
more words.

16

The teachers begin to explain the materials, the teachers use


Board Game in order to make the students have more interests,
attention and understand about the material. There are five steps
that can be applied when the teacher use Board Game: (1) take
pictures in front of the class (2 try to attract the students
understanding about Board Game (3) the teachers begin to explain
what does the Board Game talk about; (4) in order to know the
achievement of the students, the teachers ask one of the students
to repeat again what does the teachers do before and, (5) after the
teachers feel that all the students have understood of the material,
the teacher continue to another topic.
C.Relevant Study
The studies that have relevant with this study are: first this study
which has relevance with this research was conducted by Nugroho Noto
Susanto (2007 / 2008) on the Contribution of Speaking Practice with The
Native Speaker Toward Students Speaking Capability: A Case Study at
Second Year of SMAN 7 Mataram in Academic Year of 2007 / 2008.
The problem of his study, those were: What Contributions can the
Native Speaker Provide to the Students Speaking Capability through
Study Tour Program in the Second Year Students of SMAN 7 Mataram?
The researcher used in his study was Experimental design in which
his divided the sample into two groups that is Experimental group and
Control group with a test formula and the result of his research showed
that the mean scores of critical value test equals to 2.851, this critical

17

value is higher than that of degrees of freedom 400-60 at confidence level


0.05 (95 %) with 1.67 and at confidence level 0.01 (99 %) equal to 2.39.
Furthermore, the difference of his research can be seen on the
design

used.

He

used

Experimental

Design

and

the Present

researcher used class room action research.Meanwhile, the similarity of


this research is the reseacher same discuses about Speaking Ability.
Second. Nurul Hidayah (2008/2009) on the Effect of English
Speaking Club (ESC) towards the Students Speaking Ability for the
Second Year Students of SMA NW Pancor in the School Year of 2008/2009.
The problem of her study, those were: Does the of English Speaking
Club (ESC)towards the Students Speaking Ability for the Second Year of
SMA NW Pancor in the School Year of 2008-2009? To what extent English
Speaking Club (ESC) as the best program to optimize Teaching Speaking
Ability for the second year of SMA NW Pancor in the school year
2008/2009.
The research used in her study was Quantitative design by using Expost

FactoResearch. The

result

of

his

study

shown in

testing

the

hypothesis the researcher used t-test 3.55 on significance level 0.05


(df=38) was 0.320 (3.55>0.320) it means that Ha (Alternative Hypothesis)
was accepted.
Furthermore, the differences of her research can be seen on the
design used. She used Quantitative design by using Ex-Post Facto and the
Present researcher used class room action research. Meanwhile, the
similarity of this research is the researcher the methodin teaching and
learning process.
18

D. Theoretical Framework
Based on the relevant studies result can be proposed the theoretical
framework of the research, that may used as a basic of hypothesis
formulation and to comprehend the inter variable relation.
Speaking is one of language component that is function to express
feeling, opinion, ideas, and emotion. One of strategy to increase speaking
is discussion. By board game is one method in teaching speaking which
encourage students to speak as much as possible.
According to Hornby (1995: 486). The definition of game is an
activity that you do to have some fun. Therefore, board game can be
defined as something or an instrument that is used to attract students
motivation to follow the teaching and learning process because board
game can make the students more focus in learning, because they do not
feel that they are forced to learn. They also enable learners to acquire
new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible
during a typical lesson. Board game can be method that will give many
advantages for teacher and the students either.
Based on the statement above, board game is as method may help
the students in learning English especially in speaking ability. Likewise, the
writer wants to investigate increasing students speaking ability through
board game.
E. Action Hypothesis
The hypothesis of the result study is formulated as follows: the
implementation of board game can increase students ability in speaking
for the eighth grade of SMP Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa.
19

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design
The present researcher categorized into a classroom action
research. Classroom action research design to help a teacher to find
out what is happening in his or her classroom, and to use that
information to make the wise decisions for the future. The approach
used in the classroom action research can be qualitative or
quantitative, descriptive or experimental. According to Kurt Lewin
(in Suharsimi, 2002), there are four components of action research,
they are, planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. Action research
is categorized, as qualitative research although the data collect can
be in a form of quantitative. Meanwhile, Kemmis (in Suharsimi,
2002: 84). States that action research is a form of self-reflective
inquiry under taken by participants in a social (including education)
situation in order to improve the rationality and of (a), their own

20

social or educational practices justice, (b) their understanding of


their practice, and (c) situations on which practice are carried out.
Because this study is an action research, than this study focuses on
practical, not statistical significance and present raw data

Table 1. Acting & Observing

Research is design as the attempt to plan and de term ne all of


the possibilities and the material that be need in a qualitative
research. Research design is used in this research is the classroom
action research. According to Suharsimi, (2002: 82) that action
research is a solving problem strategy which is use the real action in
form of innovative development process in detecting and solving
problem.
The procedure of the classroom action research consists of
cycles. The cycle is administrated based on the progress being
21

achieved. To identify the students ability in English pronunciation,


the students were given diagnostic test functioning as initial
evaluation. This initial observation is conducted in order to determine
appropriate action in increasing English. Form evaluation and the
observation, it is determine in the reflection that to increase students
English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
In classroom action research design, there are four components
that will be done, there are planning, action, observing and reflecting
(Lewin in suharsimi 2002: 83), in the same page, Kammis and Mc
Teggart united the second and third component, those are acting and
observing. Then the components show cycles or the ongoing
activities that can be seen in this component below:
1. Planning
Before beginning the first cycle, however at the very
beginning step as the preliminary, a diagnostic evaluation was done
to investigate the degree of the students English pronunciation in
reading aloud focusing on the narrative text. It is done by applying a
pre-test to the students. The result of pre-test is telling the
researcher how far the students ability.
The details of the research planning can be describe as
follows; before implementing the determined action, the teacher will
prepare all need and supportive material as well as the steps
applied. They are:
a) Making the lesson plan i, e, the step of presenting the teacher
material based on the there-phase technique and the activity
as done by the students.

22

b) Preparing all facilities and supportive material in presenting


the teaching materials, such as; English pronunciation in
reading aloud focusing on the narrative text.
c) Designing a test to find out the increase implementation of
English pronunciation in reading aloud focusing on the
narrative text.
2. Acting
In implementing the action the research is assisted by his
collaborator the research acted as the teacher who is taught how
the students increases English pronunciation in reading aloud
focusing on the narrative text. The main stops in the students and
learning activated were designed as follows;
a) Pre-activity
1. The teacher greets the students and checks the students
attendance.
2. The teacher asking for the students attention by giving some
questions about their last week activities.
3. The teacher tells the students about the objective of the
lesson.
b) While-activity
1. The teacher introduces some pronunciation in peaking ability
to the students.
2. The teacher explanation how the way of speaking easily.
3. The teacher asks the students in difficulties to speaking easily.
c) Post-activity
1. The teacher makes reflection on the students activities.
2. Distributed the students test.
3. Check the students works.
3. Observing
Observing the action is the process of recording and gathering
all relevant data about any aspects that was happening during the
teaching and learning process. In classroom action research, the
observation is focus on collecting what the data relating with the

23

treatment activity this observation took an important role in this


research since what happens within the process of treatment may
influence the result of this research.
4. Reflection
Reflection is an activity to think what is has been done, how
the result, and what is has not been completely done. The result of
this reflection will become the standard of determining the following
steps until the objectives of the research were achieved. The result
of reflection may show either the action is successful or not, then
follow up can be plan after, if the reflection result tells the action is
successful, the cycle is over, but if is not, the next cycle must be
plan with is any improvement.
B. Setting of the Study
The setting of the study refers to the place and time to
conducting the study. This study will be conducted at the first
semester of the eighth grade of SMP Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa. The
researcher did classroom action research for 1 month.
C. Subject of the Study
The subject of the study is all students of the eighth grade
of SMP Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa. The number of the students
consists of 2 classes, that are VIII A which consists of 40 students,
VIII B which consists of 39 students. So, the number of subject is 79
students. The present researcher will take VIII A as a subject of the
study.
D. Data Collection
1. Performance Indicator
The action as well as the research carried out can be said to
be successful when the learning achievement of class VIII A SMP
Muhammadiyah 48 Cikupa in the school is at least 70 individually

24

and 80% classically. The percentage is decided based on the


criteria of mastery learning set in the school. It can be said that if
a student get 70 of learning achievement, he or she reaches the
mastery learning. Then, if 80% of the students in the class get
70, means that, the class reaches the mastery learning and
the researcher will not go to the next cycle, it is based on the
action planned above.
2. Technique of Data Collection
A researcher will be used many kinds of data collection like
questioner, interview, or test. It will be noted, that all methods of
data collection should be objective. The kinds of data that use in
classroom action research are quantitative data:
In this case, the researches use only the result of the
increasing students speaking ability through board game.
3. Instrument
In this study, the instruments used were (1) first evaluation
test, (2) final test, and (3) observation paper.
1) First evaluation test
This evaluation was done to know the students
basic ability in understanding the definition and the
characteristics of narrative text.
2) The final test
This test was given in the form of a jumbled
sentences game which was arranged using certain rules.
Maximum score was 100 and minimum score was zero if
there was no correct answer. It was done by all students
in which they were divided into six groups.
3) Observation paper
Observation paper was an observation device that
consisted of names of subjects and factors that were

25

observed. In this study, it was used to obtain the data of


the learning process.
E. Data Analysis
After the data are collected then the data are classified again
to identification. The result of identification of the data is to
classified based on students ability in speaking. To analysis the data
through the interview method and observation is that using
descriptive methods, In this case, the writer used the observation,
interview and speech test as the technique to analysis the data.

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