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# Basic Safety in Process Design

## OCEP & ECEP for IRPC

Narong Sangsilaparat

Objective:

## To give or increase awareness of process safety related

design aspects for new process designs.
To apply the process design aspects related to Health,
Safety and Environment into the new process designs
or revamping.
To apply basic safety standards in the design phase.
To understand basic knowledge required for HAZOP
study.

## Basic Safety in process design

Course outline:
Identify maximum pressure and temperature level for safe
design of the equipment
Introduction to abnormal or determining cases for relief
valve sizing
Basic knowledge required for HAZOP study
Introduction to Metallurgy and material corrosion
Piping for process designs
Basic refinery equipment and piping & valve arrangements

HAZOP study

## Identify maximum pressure and temperature

for safe design of the equipment

Over-pressure protection
Terminology
1)

## Operating Pressure(OP) or Working Pressure(WP)

is the gauge pressure, which exists inside equipment and
piping during the intended operation.

2)

## Max Operating Pressure(MOP) or Max Working

Pressure(MWP)
is the highest gauge pressure, which provides sufficient
flexibility for the control of the intended operation.

Over-pressure protection
Terminology
3)

## Design Pressure(DP) or Max Allowable Working

Pressure(MAWP)
is the gauge pressure at the top of the equipment in
its operating position that is used to determine the
minimum thickness of equipment.
** Mechanical engineer has to design thickness for any
part of equipment by taking into account for liquid
static/pressure drop**

4)

## Lower Design Pressure(LDP)

is the absolute sub-atmospheric pressure at the top of
equipment in operating position.

Over-pressure protection

## DP = MOP x 110%; but not less than (MOP + 1 barg) and DP

minimum 3.5 barg
Installation of relief device can be avoided in some system
,for examples
1) For liquid full system if the system is connected to pump
and there is chance of blockage, DP must be covered pump
shut-off pressure.
2) For Heat exchanger, DP of the low pressure side shall be
designed > 2/3 of DP of the high pressure side.

## Note: The two-third rule shall not be applied for system

pressure above 70 barg or if the low pressure side
can be isolated without shutdown Heat Exchanger.
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Over-pressure protection
Pressure relief devices (PRV and TRV)
PRV or RV is the Pressure Relief Valve to protect equipment
and/or pipe from over pressure due to process upset
or unstable.
TRV is Thermal Relief Valve to protect liquid full system
(liquid>95%) from over pressure due to external heat
input such as sun shine, hot ambient air, steam
tracing, etc.

Over-pressure protection
Pressure relief devices
1)

## Set Pressure(SP) is the inlet pressure at which

pressure relief valve is set to open under service
condition = DP or MAWP.

## Note: The set pressure is normally equal to design pressure

of the weakest unit/component in the system.
2)

## Overpressure is the pressure increase over the set

pressure of the pressure relief device, during discharge
and is usually expressed as a percentage of the Set
Pressure.

Over-pressure protection
Pressure relief devices
3)

## Accumulation is the pressure increase over the

DP/MAWP of equipment during discharge through the
protecting pressure relief valve and is usually
expressed as a percentage of DP. Normally 110% for
single RV and 116% for multiple RV.

4)

## Relief Pressure (RP) is the sum of the Set Pressure and

the Overpressure.

## Note: Pressure drop in the line between protected

equipment and RV must not exceed 3% of Set
Pressure to avoid valve chatter.

Over-pressure protection
Summary of over pressure protection design

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## Determining the Pressure System

Open system: is the same pressure loop of
the set of equipment then need one set of
RV only.

## Consideration of open system

- No valve in between
- No possibility of fouling
- Relief flow < 3 x (normal design flow)

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Terminology
1)

## Operating Temperature(OT) is the temperature ,which

exists inside equipment and piping during the intended
operation.

2)

## Max Operating Temperature(MOT) is the highest

temperature ,which provides sufficient flexibility for the
control of the intended operation.
MOT is normally used as basis for material selection
with respect to degradation and long term corrosion.
MOT in many cases is the same as OT if process does
not fluctuate.

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Terminology
3)

## Design Temperature(DT) is the highest temperature at

which equipment may be subjected to the upper
and/or lower design pressure.
DT is used for mechanical design of equipment and
piping for the basis of short term corrosion (i.e. wall
thickness) and shall cover all activities such as
steaming out, etc.

4)

## Lower Design Temperature(LDT) is the lowest

temperature at which equipment may be subjected to
its design pressure.
LDT is used for mechanical design to prevent brittle
fracture when service at low temperature such as LPG
service.
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Terminology
5)

## Emergency Design Temperature(EDT) is the maximum

temperature that can be reached under unintended but
possible emergency conditions other than external
fires, such as runaway reaction, decomposition of
unstable material.
Emergency condition should be assumed to occur only
for the time required to correct the situation.

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1)

## The cause of over pressure are considered to be unrelated if no

process or mechanical or electrical linkages exists among them.
Then evaluating relief case can be assumed that certain
failure occur singly. This is the case unless one failure can
lead to another.

2)

## Operator response can reduce the maximum relieving condition

such as stop pump when emergency.
Normally design response is in the range of 10-30 minutes.
However, to take operator response credit, the designer must
ensure that operator always takes appropriate action when
problem occur.
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## Principles of defence against overpressure

3)

Protection by instruments
- Check valve or non-return valve to protect upstream unit (low P)
from back flow from downstream unit (High P), especially when feed
pump fail
- High pressure alarm/trip function
- Tight Shut Off Valve (TSOV) or ESD (Emergency Shut Down)
- IPF/SIL (Instrument Protective Function/Safety Integrity Level)

4)

Locking system such as lock close or lock open for the possible block
valve that can lead to overpressure. However, this is not considered
good and safe practice.

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## Principles of defence against overpressure

Remark
Do not rely on check valve! Passing can happen.
-

## Automatic control valve is not an overpressure

protection instrument! as it can be in manual
mode.

## Lock open on the block valve can be considered as

the same pressure system but must be used with
care!

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## Introduction to abnormal or determining

cases for relief valve sizing

## Determination of relief case for RV sizing

General relief case
-

## Total power failure: all pumps such as feed pump,

compressor, air blower, air-fan cooler fail
Single power failure:
Overhead condenser fan fail
Reflux pump fail
Individual pump or compressor fail
Cooling water system failure
Instrument air system failure
Block outlet
System blockage such as fouling or internal part of
the unit collapse
Heat exchanger tube leak
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## General relief case

-

Temperature runaway
Thermal expansion for liquid full system
External fire

Note: For fire case it is normally assumed that all feed and
product streams and other heat sources to unit are
stopped. Heat absorbed of vessel by fire can estimated
from this equation
For adequate drainage and prompt fire-fighting
Q(kw) = 43.2 * F * [Awet ]0.82
Otherwise

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corrosion.

## Material selection is based on the process composition,

temperature, pressure and environment (corrosion).

## Typical material in refinery

- Carbon steel
- Low and intermediate Alloy Steel (Fe + Cr-Mo)
- Stainless steel (Fe +18Cr-8Ni)
- Exotic Alloy such as Inconel, Incoloy, Monel
Note: In case we are not sure about the material selection,
consult mechanical engineer or inspection engineer.
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Metallurgy
1.
2.
3.

4.

Low-Temperature Ductility:
Metal becomes brittle at low temperature.
Creep:
Metal deforms after under a constant load. The higher
temperature, the higher creep rate.
Embrittlement:
Cr-Mo steel becomes brittle near ambient temperature
after it has been held at high temperature for long
time.
Hot Hydrogen attack:
Steel under hot H2 is attacked to change from
carbides to iron : Fe3C + 2H2 CH4 + 3Fe

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Corrosion
1. Electro-Chemical Corrosion or Aqueous Corrosion
Iron Rust
2. Stress Corrosion Cracking
- Stainless Steel in hot chloride containing water
- Carbon steel in hot caustic solution
- Copper alloys in ammonia containing media
3. Dew point corrosion
Corrosion by SO2/SO3 in flue gas when temperature
drop below 140-160 degC
4. Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI)
Corrosion outside pipe surface if water trapped in
insulation

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## Piping for process designs

Concern on piping design
-

Piping class
Cause of pipe failure
Corrosions
Dead legs or stagnant part that can lead to
microbial growth and start corrosion process
Cavitations or hammering
Pressure surge when flow suddenly change
Vibration

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Piping

Identification of piping
Example 150-P23017-31010
150
Nominal
Diameter
(mm)

P 23 017 3

01

Unit No.
Pipe
Material

0
Variation
No.

Line no.

Fluid type

ANS class
rating

Service
Limitations

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Piping

## Service (Type of Fluid)

P
G
S
W
A
D
F
R
B

PROCESS
INERT GAS
STEAM/CONDENSATE
WATER
AIR
DRAIN
FUEL
REFRIGERATION
BLOW-DOWN and RELIEF

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Piping

## ANS class rating:

A piping class will indicate the temperature and pressure
limit for the service.
class
(1)
150
(3)
300
(6)
600
(9)
900
(15) 1500
(25) 2500

barg@50 C
19.3
50.0
100.0
150.0
250.5
415.0

Type of units
CDUs, SWS, Utilities
Debut./Depro./LPG treating
HDT/HDS, TCU, HP steam
HCU
HCU/HyCON
HCU/HyCON

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Piping

## Pipe material selection:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Carbon Steel
Low & Intermediate Alloy Steel
Stainless Steel
Aluminium & Al.Base Alloys
Copper & Copper Base Alloys
Nickel & Nickel Base Alloys
Non-metallic materials
Carbon steel with LINING

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## Pipe line pressure surge:

P = x A x V
N/m2.S
P = Pressure rise
N/m2
= Density of fluid
kg/m3
V = Velocity change rate
m/s2
A = Sound speed in the medium
m/s
Typically sound speed is about 1260 m/s for oil and about
1440 m/s for water.
Max possible pressure rise reached if
t < T = 2 x L/A
t = Valve closure time
T = Wave travelling time up&down the line
L = Length of pipeline

sec
sec
sec
m

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## Basic refinery equipment and piping & valve

arrangements.

Equipment Arrangements
EFD or PEFS or P&ID is a pictorial representation of a plant
which shows all the equipment, including spare and
the associated piping, valve, instrumentation, heat
tracing and insulation.
Note: Before doing HAZOP we shall have EFD in order to
know the arrangement of equipment and consequence
of any failure.

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## Typical basic refinery equipment and piping

& valve Arrangements
1.) Pressure vessel
2.) Heat Exchanger
3.) Pump
4.) Compressor
5.) Piping and valve
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1) Pressure vessel
-

## Horizontal vessel (see Fig. 1)

Vertical vessel (see Fig. 2)
Column (see Fig. 3)

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## Engineering Requirements of Pressure vessel

Process
- Vapor and liquid outlet and inlet shall be located at the
opposite site.
- Liquid outlet nozzle shall be provided with vortex breaker.
Piping
- Minimum nozzle size on vessel should be DN50 (2) for
strength reason.
- Vessel shall have low point valve drain with blind flange,
generally between bottom line and the first pipeline shutoff
location(valve or spade).
- Drain line shall be sized for gravity flow within two hours.
- For LPG or liquid drain to flare shall use manual valve
located 0.6 m upstream spring loaded valve to prevent
freezing and to be operable.
- Vessel shall have high point vent with blind flange.
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## Engineering Requirements of Pressure vessel

Instrumentation
- Vessel shall be installed with PG especially in vapor
phase.
- If temperature indicator is needed, it is preferable
installed at the top outlet line.
- Alarm
Equipment Protection
- Pressure Relief Valve
- Remote depressurizing valve is required for process
containing LPG at least 2 tons.

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2) Heat Exchanger
-

## Horizontal Heat exchanger (See Fig. 4 and 5)

Vertical Heat exchanger (high pressure)
Steam Reboiler (See Fig.6)
Water cooler (See Fig.7)

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2) Heat Exchanger-Horizontal HE

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## Engineering Requirements of Shell & Tube HE

Process
- The heated fluid should flow upward to avoid gas
building up.
- More fouling or corrosive fluid should be on tube
side.
- High viscous fluid should be on shell side for better
heat transfer but must consider for fouling.
- High pressure side or fluid that require expensive
material should be on tube side.
- Heat Exchanger should be horizontal type except
thermo-syphon or special requirement i.e. space
limitation.

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## Engineering Requirements of Shell & Tube HE

Piping
- Vent and drain on Heat Exchanger shell should be avoid as
much as possible except
on shell cover of horizontal floating head
on shell cover of vertical floating head
process reason such as inert venting on the line is not
able to do.
- Vent and drain with valve and blind flange shall be installed
on piping of sizing DN40 minimum.
- Isolation valve and by-pass can be installed for
maintenance purpose but need separate PRV on individual
pressure loop.

## - Spade and spectacle blind are used for isolation prior to

inspection, testing, maintenance or entry of personnel.
- Vent and drain shall connect to flare if service for LPG.
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## Engineering Requirements of Shell & Tube HE

Instrumentation
- PGs are often installed on in and out lines for fouling
monitoring.
- TGs are adequate where requirements are infrequent
such as for trouble shooting or test runs. If require
trend, TR shall be installed.
Equipment Protection
- Thermal Relief Valve shall be installed if liquid either
shell or tube side can be blocked in.
- Typically relief valve for heat exchanger is not
designed for fire case because inventory is limited
and less chance of block in during fire.

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## Engineering Requirements of Shell & Tube HE

Failure mode:
- Tube leak or tube burst
Tube leak or burst has to be taken into account in the design
stage by having low pressure different between shell and tube
side otherwise install RV and apply the following guideline
(APIRP-521)

Apply 2/3 rule if isolation of both high and low pressure side is
possible. 2/3 rule is designed of low pressure side at 2/3 times of
the high pressure side.

## Apply equal pressure when isolation is only possible at low

pressure side and continued operation on the high pressure side.

Apply 2/3 rule or install PRV when isolation of high pressure side
is only possible.

## In case of tube rupture, upstream and downstream unit has to

be ensure adequate overpressure protection of equipment
connection.
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## Engineering Requirements of Shell & Tube HE

Failure mode:
- Tube leak or tube burst

## In steam reboiler, if process side pressure is higher

than steam, check valve on steam side is needed to
protection reverse flow from process to steam
header.
Isolation valve of steam side in reboiler should be
designed for high pressure side.

Excessive fouling

## Typically fouling is slow process and temperature of

the process will indicate fouling.

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3) Pump
-

## Centrifugal pump (See Fig. 8)

Reciprocating pump (See Fig. 9)
Rotary pump (See Fig. 10)

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## Engineering Requirements of Pump

Process
- Spare of individual pump is recommended but common spare
pump has to design with care for mis-operation.
- Minimum flow protection is required for centrifugal pump if pump
has chance of running below minimum flow for a certain period
(typically 30% of flow at best efficiency) but spill back to suction line
has to consider of overheating.
- NPSHa > NPSHr
- Priming for centrifugal pump before start.
- Flow control of centrifugal pump is achieved by throttling valve at
the discharge line.
- Flow control of positive-displacement pump is achieved by variable
speed or stroke.
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## Engineering Requirements of Pump

Piping

- Suction line shall not be routed higher than lowest level of liquid
supply.

- Each pump shall have isolation block valve with spectacle blind both
suction side (upstream strainer) and discharge side.
- Each pump shall have strainer either Y strainer or bucket strainer.

## - Check valve is at the discharge line upstream block valve and

downstream of RV (for reciprocating pump)
- Pump is normally fitted with welded vent and drain otherwise flange,
not thread.

- Warm up steam or heat tracing for spare pump for viscous oil service
may apply.
- TSOV at the suction in case service LPG or hydrocarbon above its
auto-ignition temperature.
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## Engineering Requirements of Pump

Instrumentation
- Pump discharge shall install PG.
- Local start switch shall be provided with ammeter.
Equipment Protection
- Pressure Relief Valve for reciprocating pump and
rotary pump to safeguard against block outlet.
Flushing
- Flushing facility is normally provided for pump that
handling:
viscous or solidifying liquid when cold
Toxic products
Fouling process streams
- Back flow protection should be installed for the
flushing medium if it is fixed connection to pump, i.e.
check valve, spade.
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## Engineering Requirements of Pump

Shaft sealing
- In order to prevent leakage out of the pump where
rotating shaft pass through the pump, it needs to
have seal either packing or single mechanical seal or
double mechanical seal.
Seal type selection has to consult mechanical engineer to
comply with standard.
Failure mode
- Loss of NPSH resulting in severe vibration and pump
damage Instrument safeguarding may need.
- Reverse flow for the spare pump when check valve
passing.
- Pump vibration and mechanical seal leak.

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## Engineering Requirements of Pump

Equipment design
- Selection
Centrifugal pump: widely use/ easy flow
control/ smooth operation/ require little
maintenance.
Reciprocating pump: good for high pressure but
low capacity/ good for handle corrosive
material.
Rotary or positive displacement pump is good
for viscous liquid at small capacity but pump is
more expensive.

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4) Compressor
-

## Centrifugal compressor (See Fig. 11)

Reciprocating compressor ( See Fig. 12)

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53

## Engineering Requirements of Compressor

Process
- Flow control of centrifugal compressor can be achieved by suction
throttling or vary motor/turbine speed for good efficiency.

## - Flow control for reciprocating can be achieved by recycle discharge

or variable motor/turbine speed.
- Anti-surge control is required for individual compressor because
the performance will be unstable at some reduced flow point.

## - Entrainment knock out facilities.

- Snubber drum for reciprocating compressor is needed for both
suction and discharge.

## - Inter-stage cooling for energy saving and to prevent overheating

at discharge is required. Normally control discharge temp are < 150
degC for reciprocating and < 180 degC for centrifugal compressor.
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## Engineering Requirements of Compressor

Piping
- Suction line between knock-out drum and compressor shall be as
short as possible and slope down to knock-out drum.

## - Complete isolation from process shall be possible for both suction

and discharge side. Valve at the suction shall have the same pressure
rating as discharge.
- Air compressor do not need suction isolation.
- Conical strainer at suction line shall be installed.
- Check valve at the discharge line shall be installed downstream the
recirculation(anti-surge) line.
- Recycle line shall route back to inlet knock out drum via the cooler.
- N2 purge should be provided for air removal before
commissioning.

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## Engineering Requirements of Compressor

Instrumentation
- Flow, Temp, Pressure should be provided for performance checking
or anti-surge tuning.

Equipment Protection
- PRV at discharge of reciprocating compressor shall be installed
upstream of the block valve to safeguard against block outlet and
normally be routed to flare.
- Safeguarding to trip compressor shall have
- High liquid level in knock-out drum
- High discharge temperature for each cylinder
- Low suction pressure
- Low lube oil pressure
- High speed of turbine
- High surge pressure
- Low discharge flow
- High differential pressure for reciprocating
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## Engineering Requirements of Compressor

Failure mode
- High vibration either radial or axial
- High temperature
- Liquid carry over
Equipment design
- Selection
- Axial compressor is more efficient and can handle
large volume flow but limit to fouling.
- Reciprocating compressor: good for high pressure
but low capacity and large number of stage.
- Centrifugal compressor can handle large flow with
a reasonable stage and can run continuously for
long period.
- Rotary compressor for small flow but large
pressure.
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## 5) Piping and Valve

Typical piping isolation

## The piping isolation is required when want to separating the

systems. Isolation can be categorized according to tightness
as following:

Standard isolation
Positive isolation
Special function of valve

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Standard isolation
- Single valve isolation: sufficient for equipment
isolation that pressure level lower than 100 bar at
ambient temp
- Double valve isolation
Two valve in series in case of no small leak
allowed

## Double block and bleed: typical employed to

avoid contamination of products or when want
to connect utility for short notice or drain liquid
out

## - Double block and bleed to safe location when

service for toxic will consist of two bleed valves in
series

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Positive isolation
Positive isolation is to guaranteed physical separation
between systems
- Spade is normally used for temporary isolation.

## - Spectacle blind when want to have permanent

installation or if there is a risk of affecting alignment
when install spade.
- Removable spool piece for infrequently used.

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## Special properties of Valves

- Tight Shut-Off (TSO) is applied for safety or loss

## Trip systems protecting against break through to

low pressure downstream unit.

develop.

## - Emergency De-pressuring Valve (EDP) is normally

closed and mostly actuated by a push button on local
or control panel.
- Remote Operable Valve (ROV) is normally installed
instead of hand valve to enable isolation of leaking or
burning pump from its suction vessel.
- Motor Operated Valve (MOV) is applied for automatic
operation instead of manual.
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HAZOP Study

## HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability)

HAZOP is the application of a formal systematic critical
examination of the process and engineering intentions of
the new facilities, to assess the hazard potential of maloperation or malfunction of individual items of equipment
and the consequent effects on the facility as a whole.

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## HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability)

The success or failure of hazop depends on the following
1.
2.
3.
4.

## The accuracy of drawing and other basic data for the

hazop study.
The technical skills and insight of the team.
The ability of the team to use the approach as an aid
to their imagination in visualizing deviations, cause and
consequences.
The ability of the team to maintain a sense of
proportion, particularly when assessing the seriousness
of the hazards.

63

Step to do hazop
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Prepare the most update EFD with proposed

modification line work.
Separate NODE or loop to do hazop. Typically it is
line-by-line.
Apply guide words for inducing process deviations.
Brain storming to identify problem and protection.

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## Guide words/Hazop form

Proposal No.:

Deviation

Project No.:

Possible causes

Title :

Unit No.:

Consequences

Protection

Area:

Action by

No flow
More flow
Less flow
Reverse flow
High temp
Low temp
High pressure
Low pressure
Others

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Example of Hazop
Proposal No.: 07048
Deviation
No flow

Possible causes

## Title : Node2: Line Mogas from P-3301B to T-3651

2 line UG91 from P3301A to T-3651
Consequences

Area: D

Protection

Action by

- P-3301A damage

Work instruction

Op

- P-3301A damage

Work instruction

Op

-P-3301A trip

op

Work instruction

Op

## - SOV fail close

- P-3301A damage

Work instruction
Alarm SOV openning status

Op

More flow

## - High Level alarm

- Work instruction

op

Less flow

- Partially open/Throttled

## Long topping up time

Operator monitoring

op

## Long topping up time

Operator monitoring

op

## Pump loss suction and damage

Operator monitoring

op

Reverse flow

- Wrong line up

Product contamination

## Sealing at day tank B/V inlet

op/excise/security

High temp

N/A

Low temp

N/A

High pressure

- Thermal expansion

leak at flange

## Hardware designed cover

Product contamination

## 1) car seal lock close or spade off

cross over 8"
2) car seal Lock open 8" in line no.
P36203

Low pressure

Contamination

Others

## Same as less flow

- Cross over block valve 8" pass
- P3912 discharge block valve pass

op

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