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Fireproofing A form of passive fire protection , protect against intense and prolonged heat exposure

Fireproofing

A form of passive fire protection , protect

against intense and prolonged heat exposure that can cause the weakness of

steel and eventually collapse of

unprotected equipment , vessel and support and lead to the spread of pool fire

and substantial loss of SHE

collapse of unprotected equipment , vessel and support and lead to the spread of pool fire
Hazards A sudden collapse of supporting steel structures could result in injury to personnel or

Hazards

Hazards A sudden collapse of supporting steel structures could result in injury to personnel or in

A sudden collapse of supporting steel

structures could result in injury to

personnel or in the release of large quantities of flammable products and/or

toxic materials, leading to effects which

might even extend beyond the property limit.

of flammable products and/or toxic materials, leading to effects which might even extend beyond the property

Example

Example
Effects of Radiation on Steel Simple Rules: • Time to failure in minutes = 0.8*

Effects of Radiation on Steel

Simple Rules:

Time to failure in minutes = 0.8* thickness in mm. Normally no concern for 8 Kw/m 2 . Metal temperature is a critical parameter. Normally 12.5 Kw/m 2 is used as cut-off to apply cooling.

. • Metal temperature is a critical parameter. • Normally 12.5 Kw/m 2 is used as

Determination of required

fire protection measures

Reference API 2218

Conduct fire hazards evaluation

( Develop fire scenarios , impact , level of

protection )

measures Reference API 2218 • Conduct fire hazards evaluation ( Develop fire scenarios , impact ,

Ex . Determination of required

fire protection measures

Heat radiation level of 12.5 kW/m2 or less. At that radiation level the unprotected

metal's temperature stabilises at about 300

°C, which will not endanger its integrity.

However, at a heat radiation level of

37.5 kW/m2 unprotected steel equipment

will quickly exceed the critical metal temperature (just above 400 °C)

level of 37.5 kW/m2 unprotected steel equipment will quickly exceed the critical metal temperature (just above

Scenario

Typical effect

Heat radiation

In Flame

Flame

> 50 KM/m2

Impingement

Close to Flame

Rapid escalation

~ 37.5 KW/m2

If on fire

protection

applied

Near Flame

Escalation for long exposure , no protection

8

~ 12 KW/m2

Sterile area

Personnel

5

~ 6 KW/m2

Injury

 

Clear Sunny day

Sun Burn

0.8 KW/m2

The extent of the FP

(and the resulting extent of fireproofing) shall be

established in a fire safety

assessment of the particular plant

the FP (and the resulting extent of fireproofing) shall be established in a fire safety assessment
RESISTANCE AGAINST FIRE • A minimum of 30 minutes protection time • UL 1709 Cables

RESISTANCE AGAINST FIRE

RESISTANCE AGAINST FIRE • A minimum of 30 minutes protection time • UL 1709 Cables in

A minimum of 30 minutes protection time

UL 1709

Cables in trays

IEC 60331-21

RESISTANCE AGAINST FIRE • A minimum of 30 minutes protection time • UL 1709 Cables in
• AMERICAN STANDARDS Rapid rise fire tests of protection materials for structural steel UL 1709

AMERICAN STANDARDS

Rapid rise fire tests of protection materials for structural steel UL 1709 Issued by:

Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 333, Pfingsten Rd.,

Northbrook IL60062 USA

BRITISH STANDARDS

Structural use of concrete Issued by:

British Standards Institution

389 Chiswick High Road

London W4 4AL UK

IEC 60331-21

Issued by:

Central Office of the IEC

3, Rue de Varembé

CH 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Copies can also be obtained from national standards organizations.

BS 8110

Rue de Varembé CH 1211 Geneva 20 Switzerland Copies can also be obtained from national standards
Extent of fireproofing
Extent of fireproofing
Extent of fireproofing
Extent of fireproofing

The extent of the FP is defined as a

• The extent of the FP is defined as a function of liquid pool fires as

function of liquid pool fires as follows:

The FP is a volume with a cylindrical shape.

The cylinder shall have a radius of 9 m from

the source and a height of 8 m above HZL

In general it is not cost effective to apply

fireproofing on supporting steel structures to

protect against jet fires.

In general it is not cost effective to apply fireproofing on supporting steel structures to protect
8 meters 9 meters 8 meters Potential source of leak
8 meters
8 meters

9 meters

8 meters

Potential source of leak

8 meters 9 meters 8 meters Potential source of leak
8 M EX: Fireproofing , steel structure 9 M
8 M EX: Fireproofing , steel structure 9 M

8 M

EX:

Fireproofing , steel structure

8 M EX: Fireproofing , steel structure 9 M
8 M EX: Fireproofing , steel structure 9 M

9 M

8 M EX: Fireproofing , steel structure 9 M

EX. Brainstorming

Fin-Fan Air Cooler

EX. Brainstorming Fin-Fan Air Cooler
QUALITY CONTROL • Particular attention shall be given to at least the following: - condition

QUALITY CONTROL

QUALITY CONTROL • Particular attention shall be given to at least the following: - condition of

Particular attention shall be given to at

least the following:

- condition of the steel surfaces to be fireproofed;

- placing of mesh reinforcement;

- application of the fireproofing material;

- the joints between steel work and

fireproofing where exposed to the weather;

- weatherproofing, where required.

- the joints between steel work and fireproofing where exposed to the weather; - weatherproofing, where
Column/vessel skirts Column and vessel skirts located within a FPZ shall be fireproofed on the

Column/vessel skirts

Column and vessel skirts located within a FPZ

shall be fireproofed on the outside if one or more

of the following criteria apply:

1 The column/vessel contains a total of more than 2 tonnes of flammable product.

2. The total mass of the column/vessel (including

contents) is more than 10 tonnes.

3 The column/vessel contains toxic material.

4. Failure of the column/vessel may lead to

consequences beyond the site perimeter

including environmental damage.

4. Failure of the column/vessel may lead to consequences beyond the site perimeter including environmental damage.

Pipe rack and pipe supports

Steel structures supporting overhead pipe racks and individual pipe supports, located within an FPZ, shall be fireproofed if one or more of the following criteria apply:

1. The pipe is a flare line or an emergency depressurising

vent line.

2. The pipe contains a toxic material.

3. The pipe is connected to equipment which would be

severely damaged by additional nozzle loading in the

event of loss of pipe support.

4. The pipe runs beneath an air cooler whose steel support structure is fireproofed (including horizontal members).

5. The pipe carries fire-fighting water and/or other utilities which would reduce the fire-fighting capability in the event

of loss of support.

6. The pipe is an instrument air line or hydraulic control line whose loss would interfere with the ability to shut down the plant.

Furnace support structures

stanchions shall be fireproofed from

grade level to full height of stanchion.

All structural members incorporated to reduce the effective buckling length of

these stanchions shall be fireproofed.

All structural members incorporated to reduce the effective buckling length of these stanchions shall be fireproofed.

Process vessels, storage vessels and piping

An example of such a case is found in

large propane refrigerant systems, where

the probability of a BLEVE caused by a jet fire is reduced by means of passive fire

propane refrigerant systems, where the probability of a BLEVE caused by a jet fire is reduced
Process safety design : Failure clip
Process safety design : Failure
Process safety design : Failure
Process safety design : Failure clip
Process safety design : Failure clip