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Modulation for Analog

Communication

Yao Wang
Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY11201
http://eeweb.poly.edu/~yao
Outline

• Baseband communication: bandwidth requirement


• Modulation of continuous signals
– Amplitude modulation
– Quadrature amplitude modulation
– Other modulation techniques: frequency/phase modulation
• Frequency division multiplexing
• Application of modulation
• Demo of AM and QAM

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 2


Baseband Communications

• Signal strength attenuates with distance. Needs


repeaters to amplify the signals in stages
• Received signal is corrupted by noise
– R(t)=A S(t)+ n(t)
• Received signal quality depends on channel noise and
noise between repeaters accumulate
• To transmit a signal with bandwidth B, we need >=B Hz
in channel bandwidth
• If the signal is low-pass (0-B), must the channel operate
at 0-B range of frequency?
• How do we send multiple signals over the channel?

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 3


A Typical Communication System

Modulator Transmitter
Signal to be
transmitted
(analog or
digital)

Demodulator Receiver
Received
signal

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 4


Modulation = Frequency Shifting

Baseband Modulated
signal signal

0 fc Frequency

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 5


Why do we need “modulation”?

– A communication channel only operates at a certain frequency


range
• telephone cables, terrestrial (over the air broadcast), ethernet,
optical fiber, etc.
– Modulation translates a signal from its baseband to the operating
range of the channel
– By modulating different signals to different frequency bands,
they can be transmitted simultaneously over the same channel
 frequency division multiplexing

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 6


Frequency Division Multiplexing

• To transmit the
three signals over
the same channel,
each signal is
shifted to a
different carrier
frequency and
then summed
together.

• From Figure 7.22


in Signals and
Systems

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 7


How do we shift the frequency of a
signal?

• By multiplying with a sinusoid signal !

x(t ) y (t ) = x(t ) cos(ω c t )

cos(ω c t )
carrier signal
ω c : carrier frequency

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 8


Basic Equalities

• Basic equality
x(t )e j 2πf ct ↔ X ( f − f c )
x(t )e − j 2πf ct ↔ X ( f + f c )

x(t )cos(2πf c t ) ↔
1
( X ( f − f c ) + X ( f + f c ))
2

• Proof on the board

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 9


Frequency Domain Interpretation of
Modulation

From Figure
7.5 in
Signals/Syste x(t )
ms

cos(ω c t )

y (t ) = x(t ) cos(ω c t )

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 10


How to get back to the baseband?
(Demodulation)

• By multiplying with the same sinusoid + low pass


filtering!

H (ω )
w(t )
2
y (t ) x (t )

− ωm − ωm
cos(ω c t )
LPF

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 11


Frequency Domain Interpretation of
Demodulation

Figure 7.7 in
Signals and
Systems

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 12


Temporal Domain Interpretation

Modulation :
y (t ) = x(t )cos(2πf c t )
Demodulation :
w(t ) = y (t ) cos(2πf c t ) = x(t )cos 2 (2πf c t )

Using the equality cos 2 (θ ) =


1
(1 + cos(2θ ) )
2
w(t ) = (1 + cos(4πf c t ) )x(t ) = x(t ) + x(t ) cos(4πf c t )
1 1 1
2 2 2
The LPF will retain the first term and remove the second term.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 13


Example

• How to transmit a signal with frequency ranging in (-5KHz,5KHz) using a channel


operating in (100KHz,110KHz)? What should be the carrier frequency ? Draw the
block diagrams for the modulator and demodulator, and sketch the spectrum of the
modulated and demodulated signals.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 14


Frequency Division Multiplexing:
Frequency domain interpretation

Figure 7.22 in
Signals and
Systems

ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t )

ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t )

ya (t ) = xa (t ) cos(ω a t )

w(t ) = ya (t ) + yb (t ) + yc (t )

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 15


FDM Transmitter

Figure 7.21 in Signals and Systems

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 16


FDM Receiver

Demultiplexing Demodulation
cos(ω a t )

Figure 7.23 in Signals and Systems

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 17


Example

• How to transmit two signals each with frequency ranging in (-10KHz,10KHz) over a
channel operating in the frequency range (300KHz,340KHz)? Draw the block
diagrams for the modulator and demodulator, and sketch the spectrum of the
modulated and demodulated signals.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 18


Demo: modulating a sound signal
(amplitude_modulation.m)

X1 Waveform X1 Spectrum
0
10
0.2

0
-10
fs=22k 10
-0.2

5 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 0 5 10


4 4
x 10 x 10
Modulated X1: Waveform 0
Modulated X1: Spectrum
10

0.2

0
-10
10
-0.2
fc=50k

5 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 0 5 10


4 4
©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog
x 10Communications x 10 19
DeModulated X1: Waveform DeModulated X1: Spectrum
0
10
0.5

-10
-0.5 10

5 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 0 5 10


4 4
x 10 x 10
Reconstructed X1: Waveform Reconstructed X1: Spectrum
0
10
0.2

0 -10
10

-0.2

5 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 0 5 10


©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog
4 Communications 4 20
10 10
Lowpass Filter

0.12
0

Magnitude (dB)
0.1 -50

-100
0.08

-150
0 2 4 6 8 10
0.06 Frequency (Hz) 4
x 10

0
0.04

Phase (degrees)
-200

-400
0.02
-600

0 -800
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency (Hz) 4
x 10

Length=20, Cut-off freq=11k

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 21


Original and Reconstructed Waveform

0.3 original
reconstructed
0.2
original
0.1

-0.1

-0.2

-0.3

5000 5005 5010 5015 5020 5025 5030 5035 5040 5045 5050
reconstructed

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 22


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

• With amplitude modulation: a signal with bandwidth B


needs 2B channel bandwidth
– This is called double sideband (DSB) AM
– Other techniques can reduce the bandwidth requirement
• Single sideband (SSB)
• Vestigial sideband (VSB)
• By using QAM, we can send 2 signals each with
bandwidth B over a channel bandwidth of 2B
– Equivalent to each signal with bandwidth B

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 23


Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
(QAM)

• A method to modulate two signals onto the same carrier


frequency, but with 90o phase shift

cos( 2π f1t ) cos( 2π f1t )


s1 ( t ) s1 ( t )
m (t ) LPF
m (t )

LPF
s2 (t )
s2 (t )
sin( 2π f1t ) sin( 2π f1t )

QAM modulator QAM demodulator

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 24


QAM in more detail

Proof (in time domain) the demodulator can separate the signal on board!
Discuss the sensitivity of the system to synchronization of the carrier signal.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 25


Other Modulation Methods

• Amplitude modulation y (t ) = x(t ) cos(2πf c t +θ 0)

– The amplitude of the carrier signal is controlled by the modulating signal


– Pitfall of AM: channel noise can corrupt the amplitude easily.

• Frequency modulation dθ (t )
y (t ) = cos(θ (t )), = 2πf c t + k f x(t )
dt
– The frequency of the carrier signal is proportional to the modulating
signal

• Phase modulation y (t ) = cos(2πf c t + θ 0 + k p x(t ))

– The phase of the carrier signal is proportional to the modulating signal

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 26


Application of Modulation and FDM

• AM Radio (535KHz--1715KHz):
– Each radio station is assigned 10 KHz, to transmit a mono-channel
audio (bandlimited to 5KHz)
– Using Amplitude modulation to shift the baseband signal
• FM Radio (88MHz--108 MHz):
– Each radio station is assigned 200 KHz, to transmit a stereo audio.
– The left and right channels (each limited to 15KHz) are multiplexed into
a single baseband signal using amplitude modulation
– Using frequency modulation to shift the baseband signals
• TV broadcast (VHF: 54-88,174-216MHz, UHF:470-890MHz)
– Each station is assigned 6 MHz
– The three color components and the audio signal are multiplexed into a
single baseband signal
– Using vestigial sideband AM to shift the baseband signals.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 27


What Should You Know

• Understand the bandwidth requirement


– Channel bandwidth > signal bandwidth
• Understand the principle of amplitude modulation
– Know how to modulate a signal to a certain frequency
– Know how to demodulate a signal back to the baseband
– Can write the equation and draw block diagram for both modulation and
demodulation
– Can plot the signal spectrum after modulation and demodulation
• Understand the principle of frequency division multiplexing
– Can write the equation and draw block diagram for both modulation and
demodulation, for multiplexing of two to three signals.
• Understand how do AM and FM radio and analog TV work in terms
of modulation and multiplexing.

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 28


References

• A. M. Noll, Chapter 10.


• A. V. Oppenheim and A. S. Willsky, Signals and Systems, 2nd
edition, Chapter 8, Sec. 8.1-8.3 (copies provided)

©Yao Wang, 2006 EE3414: Analog Communications 29