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Managing Projects

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Product Development Process


Planning
Planning

Concept
System-Level
System-Level
Concept
Development
Design
Design
Development

Detail
Detail
Design
Design

Testing
Testingand
and
Refinement
Refinement

Production
Production
Ramp-Up
Ramp-Up

Project management is necessary throughout the development process.

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Two Phases of Project Management


Project Management

Project Planning

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Project Control

Three Fundamental Activity Relationships


(a) Sequential
Receive and
Accept
Specification

(b) Parallel

Concept
Generation/
Selection

Design Beta
Cartridges

Produce Beta
Cartridges

Design Beta
Cartridges

Test Beta
Cartridges
Develop
Testing
Program

(c) Coupled

Test Beta
Cartridges

Design
Production
Cartridge

Design
Mold

Select
Assembly
Equipment

Sequential tasks are


dependent on the
output of other tasks

Parallel tasks are


independent but
dependent on the
same task
Coupled tasks are
mutually dependent
(simultaneous or
iterative process)

Design
Assembly
Tooling

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U


Example:

Kodak Cheetah Microfilm Cartridge

The Design Structure Matrix:


An Information Exchange Model
A B C D E F G H I J K L

Interpretation:
Task D requires information from tasks E, F,
and L.
Task B transfers information to tasks C, F,
G, J, and K.
Note:
Information flows are easier to capture than
work flows.
Inputs are easier to capture than outputs.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

Donald V. Steward, Aug. 1981


IEEE Trans. on Eng'g Mgmt.

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

The Design Structure Matrix


(Partitioned, or Sequenced)
B C A K L J F I E D H G

Task
Sequence

B
C
A
K
L
J
F
I
E
D
H
G

Sequential

Parallel

Coupled

Note:
Coupled tasks can be identified uniquely.
The display of the matrix can be manipulated to
emphasize certain features of the process flow.
Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

FIAT Auto Digital Layout Process


Responsible

Activity

Top Management

Approve product architecture/configuration

Layout Team Leader

Define extended layout team

Systems

Determine project quality objectives

Layout Team Leader

Establish the need for prototypes

Systems

Establish prototype specifications

Layout Team Leader

Establish DMU, PMU and prototypes to be developed

Layout Team Leader

Prepare activity/resource plan

Systems

Approve layout team leader's activity/resource plan

Planning
Systems

Verify the feasibility of the LO team's plan with other plans


Approve no. of DMU, PMU and prototypes to be developed

i
j

Layout Team Leader


Platform Director

Verify that planning phase is complete


Authorize go ahead to next phase

k
l

Concurrent Engineering

Provide CAD models in PDM

Provide style models

Core Layout Team


Concurrent Engineering

Extract CAD models from PDM


Convert non-standard CAD models

o
p

Core Layout Team

Construct DMUs from CAD models

Core Layout Team

Verify DMU completeness

Layout Team Leader


Core Layout Team

Review issues document from past project


Define volumes for new components

s
t

Core Layout Team


Layout Team Leader

Construct DMU for the verification process


Request missing CAD models

u
v

Concurrent Engineering

Provide missing CAD models in PDM

Core Layout Team

Verify DMU using checklist # 80195

Core Layout Team

Verify style compatibility

Core Layout Team

Prepare alternate solutions

Core Layout Team

Analyze issues with appropriate members of the layout team aa

Extended Layout Team

Verify overall DMU with all stakeholders

bb

Core Layout Team

Update issues document

cc

Concurrent Engineering

Modify CAD models

dd

Styling Center
Core Layout Team

Modify styling
Modify component positioning in DMU

ee
ff

Top Management
Core Layout Team

Select two models of style


Freeze DMU (STEP1)

gg
hh

Layout TL/Production TechDefine information required for assembly process

ii

Core Layout Team


Concurrent Engineering

Specify component connectivity constraints


Perform detail design for component connectivity

jj
kk

Production Technology

Verify assembly feasibility

Safety Center

Verify safety objectives

mm

Vehicle Maintenance
Layout Team Leader

Verify vehicle maintenance feasibility


Establish/communicate modifications to be done

nn
oo

Top Management
Core Layout Team

Select one model of style


Freeze DMU (STEP 2)

pp
qq

m n

z aa bb cc dd ee ff gg hh ii

jj

a
b

Project Planning

d
e

e
f

f
g

g
h

h
i

I
j

CAD Data Collection

j
k

k
l

l
m

DMU Preparation

o
p

DMU Verification

r
s

s
t

t
u

u
v

v
w

w
x

x
y

y
z

z
aa

aa
bb

bb
cc

cc
dd

dd
ee

ee
ff

ff

Extended
Verifications

gg
hh
ii

Core Layout Team

Verify that all critical CAD models are present

rr

Prepare reference list of CAD drawings for prototyping


Build prototypes for design validation (DV1)

ss
tt

Road Testing

Run experiments on prototypes

uu

Core Layout Team


Platform Director

Verify project quality objectives


Authorize go ahead to next phase

vv
ww

Core Layout Team

Freeze DMU (STEP 3)

xx

jj
kk

kk
ll

ll
mm

mm
nn

nn
oo

oo
pp

pp
qq

qq
rr

rr
ss

ss
tt

tt
uu

uu
vv
ww

m n

z aa bb cc dd ee ff gg hh ii

gg
hh
ii

jj

ll

Core Layout Team


Testing

kk ll mm nn oo pp qq rr ss tt uu vv ww xx

Styling Center

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

jj

xx
kk ll mm nn oo pp qq rr ss tt uu vv ww xx

vv
ww
xx

Project Management Example:


Kodak Cheetah Microfilm Cartridge

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Example of a Design Process

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Gantt Chart

Traditional way to show timing

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

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PERT Charts

PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) Charts represent both


dependencies and timing
Doesnt show loops and iterations and coupled tasks should be grouped
Critical path is the longest chain

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

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Project Baseline is Established Based on:

The contract book


Project task list
Team staffing and organization
Project schedule
Project budget
Project risk plan

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

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PERT Charts
4

Start

Simple network diagrams are easy to


understand.
We cannot represent the
coupled/iterative task relationships.

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

Finish

days activity and duration

activity precedence
critical path
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Techniques for Accelerating Projects

Start the project earlier


Manage the project scope
Facilitate the exchange of information
Complete individual tasks on the critical paths more quickly
Eliminate waiting delays for the critical path resources
Overlap selected critical tasks
Pipeline large tasks- breaking up a single large task into small tasks whose results can
be passed along as soon as they are completed
Perform the iterations more quickly
Decouple tasks to avoid iterations
Aggregate safety time- remove safety times and add a single project buffer

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

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Critical Chain Method

Fall2005- ENGR 3200U


Ref: E.M. Goldratt, Critical Chain, North River Press, 1997.

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Tasks for Cooking Dinner


Wash and cut salad vegetables (15 minutes)
Toss the salad (2 minutes)
Set the table (8 minutes)
Start the rice cooking (2 minutes)
Cook rice (25 minutes)
Place the rice in a serving dish (1 minute)
Mix casserole ingredients (10 minutes)
Bake the casserole (25 minutes)
Bring the food to the table (2 minutes)
Call the family for dinner (1 minute)
Fall2005- ENGR 3200U

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