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Syllabus and Course Structure of M.

Tech course in Control Systems


1.2 Course Structure and scheme of evaluation (Semester wise)
Name of the Subject

Hrs. /
Week
L T P

Evaluation (Marks)
Internal
External
Total
(Theory) (Practical)

I-SEMESTER
1. Advanced Control theory
4 - 40
60
100
2. Digital Control Systems
4 - 40
60
100
3. Random Variable Stochastic Process
4. Micro Controller & Applications
4 - 40
60
100
5. Elective-I
4 - 40
60
100
i. Computer Controlled Systems
ii. Control of Special Machines
4 - 40
60
100
6. Elective-II
i. System Identifications and Parameter
Estimations
4 - 40
60
100
ii. Computation Techniques and
Optimization
4 - 40
60
100
7. Control Systems Simulation Lab
- - 3
40
60
100
II-SEMESTER
1. Robotics and Control
4 - 40
60
100
2. Non-Linear Systems Analysis
4 - 40
60
100
3. Advanced Digital Signal Processing
4. Optimal Control Theory
4 - 40
60
100
5. Elective-III
4 - 40
60
100
i. A I Techniques
ii. Embedded Real Time Operating System 4 - 40
60
100
EMS
6. Elective-IV
i. Renewable Energy Sources
4 - 40
60
100
ii. Power Quality Management
4 - 40
60
100
7. Advance Control System Lab
- - 3
40
60
100
III & IV SEMESTERS
1. Seminar
50 (Internal Evaluation)
2. Project Work
Grading
(Excellent / Good / Satisfactory / Not Satisfactory)

SEMESTER I
1. ADVANCED CONTROL THEORY
Unit I
Introductory matrix algebra and linear vector space. State space representation of systems. Linearization
of a non - linear System. Solution of state equations. Evaluation of State Transition Matrix (STM) Simulation of state equation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK program.
Unit II
Similarity transformation and invariance of system properties due to similarity transformations. Minimal
realization of SISO, SIMO, MISO transfer functions. Discretization of a continuous time state space
model. Conversion of state space model to transfer function model using Fadeeva algorithm.
Unit III
Fundamental theorem of feedback control - Controllability and Controllable canonical form - Pole
assignment by state feedback using Ackermanns formula Eigen structure assignment problem.
Unit IV
Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem and solution of algebraic Riccati equation using eigenvalue
and eigen vector methods, iterative method. Controller design using output feedback.
Unit V
Observability and observable canonical form - Design of full order observer using Ackermanns formula Bass Gura algorithm.
Unit VI
Duality between controllability and observability - Full order Observer based controller design. Reduced
order observer design.
Unit VII
Internal stability of a system. Stability in the sense of Lyapunov, asymptotic stability of linear time
invariant continuous and discrete time systems. Solution of Lyapunov type equation.
Unit VIII
Model decomposition and decoupling by state feedback. Disturbance rejection, sensitivity and
complementary sensitivity functions.
Reference Books:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall, India 1997


T. Kailath, T., Linear Systems, Perntice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1980.
N. K. Sinha , Control Systems, New Age International, 3rd edition, 2005.
Panos J Antsaklis, and Anthony N. Michel, Linear Systems, New - age international (P) LTD.
Publishers, 2009.
John J DAzzo and C. H. Houpis , Linear Control System Analysis and Design Conventional
and Modern, McGraw - Hill Book Company, 1988.
B.N. Dutta, Numerical Methods for linear Control Systems - , Elsevier Publication, 2007.
C.T.Chen Linear System Theory and Design - PHI, India.
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 11th Edition, Pearson Edu,
India, 2009.

2. DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS


UNIT I:
Introduction - Advantages of Digital control systems - Practical aspects of the choice of sampling rate
and multirate sampling - Basic discrete time signals - Quantization Sampling theorem - Data
conversion and Quantization - Sampling process - Mathematical modeling - Data reconstruction and
filtering of sampled signals zero - order hold.
UNIT II:
z - transform and inverse z - transform, Relationship between s - plane and z - plane - Difference
equation - Solution by recursion and z - transform - pulse transfer functions of the zero - order Hold and
relationship between G(s) and G(z) Bilinear transformation .
UNIT III:
Digital control systems - Pulse transfer function - z transform analysis of open loop, closed loop
systems - Modified z Transform - transfer function - Stability of linear digital control systems Stability tests.
UNIT IV:
Root loci - Frequency domain analysis - Bode plots - Gain margin and phase margin - Design of
Digital Control Systems based on Root Locus Technique.
UNIT V:
Cascade and feedback compensation by continuous data controllers - Digital controllers - Design using
bilinear transformation - Realization of Digital PID controllers.
UNIT VI:
State equations of discrete data systems, solution of discrete state equations, State transition Matrix: z transform method. Relation between state equations and transfer functions.
UNIT VII
Concepts on Controllability and Observability - Digital state observer: Design of the full order and
reduced order state observer - Pole placement design by state feed back.
UNIT VIII:
Design of Dead beat Controller - some case studies - Stability analysis of discrete time systems based on
Lyapunov approach.
Reference Books:
1. K. Ogata, Discrete Time Control Systems, PHI/Addison - Wesley Longman Pte. Ltd., India,
Delhi, 1995.
2. B.C Kuo, Digital Control Systems, 2nd Edition, Oxford Univ Press, Inc., 1992.
3. F. Franklin, J.D. Powell, and M.L. Workman, Digital control of Dynamic Systems,
Addison - Wesley Longman, Inc., Menlo Park, CA , 1998.
4. Gopal, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, India, 1997.
5. C. H. Houpis and G.B. Lamont, Digital Control Systems, McGraw Hill, 1985.
6. John S. Baey, Fundamentals of Linear State Space Systems, Mc. Graw Hill, 1st edition
7. Bernard Fried Land, Control System Design, Mc. Graw Hill, 1st edition
8. Dorsay, Continuous and Discrete Control Systems, McGraw - Hill.

3. RANDOM VARIABLE STOCHASTIC PROCESS

Unit I: Probability:
Probability introduced through Sets and Relative Frequency: Experiments and Sample Spaces,
Discrete and Continuous Sample Spaces, Events, Probability Definitions and Axioms,
Mathematical Model of Experiments, Probability as a Relative Frequency, Joint Probability,
Conditional Probability, Total Probability, Bayes Theorem, Independent Events:
Unit II: The Random Variable:
Definition of a Random Variable, Conditions for a Function to be a Random Variable, Discrete
and Continuous, Mixed Random Variable, Distribution and Density functions, Properties,
Binomial, Poisson, Uniform, Gaussian, Exponential, Rayleigh, Conditional Distribution,
Methods of defining Conditioning Event, Conditional Density, Properties.
Unit III: Operation On One Random Variable Expectations :
Introduction, Expected Value of a Random Variable, Function of a Random Variable, Moments
about the Origin, Central Moments, Variance and Skew, Chebychevs Inequality, Characteristic
Function, Moment Generating Function, Transformations of a Random Variable: Monotonic
Transformations for a Continuous Random Variable, Nonmonotonic Transformations of
Continuous Random Variable, Transformation of a Discrete Random Variable.
Unit IV: Multiple Random Variables:
Vector Random Variables, Joint Distribution Function, Properties of Joint Distribution, Marginal
Distribution Functions, Conditional Distribution and Density Point Conditioning, Conditional
Distribution and Density Interval conditioning, Statistical Independence, Sum of Two Random
Variables, Sum of Several Random Variables, Central Limit Theorem, (Proof not expected).
Unequal Distribution, Equal Distributions.
Unit V: Operations On Multiple Random Variables:
Expected Value of a Function of Random Variables: Joint Moments about the Origin, Joint
Central Moments, Joint Characteristic Functions, Jointly Gaussian Random Variables: Two
Random Variables case, N Random Variable case, Properties, Transformations of Multiple
Random Variables, Linear Transformations of Gaussian Random Variables.
Unit VI: Random Processes Temporal Characteristics:
The Random Process Concept, Classification of Processes, Deterministic and Nondeterministic
Processes, Distribution and Density Functions, concept of Stationarity and Statistical
Independence. First-Order Stationary Processes, Second- Order and Wide-Sense Stationarity, (NOrder) and Strict-Sense Stationarity, Time Averages and Ergodicity, Mean-Ergodic Processes,
Correlation-Ergodic Processes, Autocorrelation Function and Its Properties, Cross-Correlation
Function and Its Properties, Covariance Functions, Gaussian Random Processes, Poisson
Random Process.
Unit VII: Random Processes Spectral Characteristics:
The Power Spectrum: Properties, Relationship between Power Spectrum and Autocorrelation
Function, The Cross-Power Density Spectrum, Properties, Relationship between Cross-Power
Spectrum and Cross-Correlation Function.

Unit VIII: Linear Systems With Random Inputs:


Random Signal Response of Linear Systems: System Response Convolution, Mean and Meansquared Value of System Response, autocorrelation Function of Response, Cross-Correlation
Functions of Input and Output, Spectral Characteristics of System Response: Power Density
Spectrum of Response, Cross-Power Density Spectrums of Input and Output, Band pass, BandLimited and Narrowband Processes, Properties, Modeling of Noise Sources: Resistive (Thermal)
Noise Source, Arbitrary Noise Sources, Effective Noise Temperature, Average Noise Figures,
Average Noise Figure of cascaded networks.
Reference Books:

1. Probability, Random Variables & Random Signal Principles - Peyton Z. Peebles, TMH, 4th
Edition, 2001.
2. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes Athanasios Papoulis and S.
Unnikrishna Pillai, PHI, 4th Edition, 2002.
3. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, A. Papoulis, International student
edition, Kogakusha Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Communication Systems Analog & Digital R.P. Singh and S.D. Sapre, TMH, 1995.
5. Probability and Random Processes with Application to Signal Processing Henry Stark and
John W. Woods, Pearson Education, 3rd Edition.
6. Probability Methods of Signal and System Analysis. George R. Cooper, Clave D. MC Gillem,
Oxford, 3rd Edition, 1999.
7. Statistical Theory of Communication - S.P. Eugene Xavier, New Age Publications, 2003.
8. Signals, Systems & Communications - B.P. Lathi, B.S. Publications, 2003

4. MICRO CONTROLLER & APPLICATIONS

Unit-I: 8051 Microcontrollers


Introduction to Intel 8 bit & 16 bit Microcontrollers, MCS-51 Architecture, Registers in MCS-51,
8051 Pin Description, 8051 Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports, Memory Organization
Unit II: MCS-51 Addressing Modes and Instructions
8051 Addressing Modes, MCS-51 Instruction Set, 8051 Instructions and Simple Programs, Using
Stack Pointer, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Development Systems and Tools, Software
Simulators of 8051
Unit-III: MCS-51 Interrupts, Timer/Counters and Serial Communication
Interrupts, Interrupts in MCS-51, Timers and Counters, Serial Communication, Atmel
Microcontrollers (89CXX and 89C20XX), Architectural Overview of Atmel 89C51 and Atmel
89C2051, Pin Description of 89C51 and 89C2051, Using Flash Memory Devices Atmel 89CXX and
89C20XX
Unit-IV: Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers
Applications of MCS-51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers- Square Wave
Generation- Rectangular Waves- Pulse Generation- Pulse Width Modulation- Staircase Ramp
Generation- Sine Wave Generation- Pulse Width Measurement- Frequency Counter
Unit- V: PIC Microcontrollers
PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, FSR(File Selection Register)
[Indirect Data Memory Address Pointer], PIC Reset Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections, PIC
Memory Organizations, PIC PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts
in PIC 16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71 Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
Unit- VI: PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers
Introduction, Pin Diagram of 16F8XX, STATUS Register, OPTION_REG Register, Power Control
Register (PCON), PIC 16F8XX Program Memory, PIC 16F8XX Data Memory, DATA EEPROM
and Flash Program EEPROM, Interrupts in 16F877, I/O Ports, Timers
Unit- VII: Interfacing and Microcontroller Applications- Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Push
Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections, Keyboard Interfacing, Interfacing 7-Segment Displays, LCD
Interfacing, ADC AND DAC Interfacing with 89C51 Microcontrollers
Unit- VIII: Industrial Applications of Microcontrollers - Measurement Applications, Automation
and Control Applications
Reference Books:
1. Microcontrollers-Theory and Applications by Ajay V Deshmukh, McGraw Hills
2. Microcontrollers by Kennith J ayala, Thomson publishers
3. Microprocessor and Microcontrollers by Prof C.R.Sarma

5.1 COMPUTER CONTROLLED SYSTEMS (Elective-I)


Unit I: Multivariable Controls
Multivariable control- Basic expressions for MIMO systems- Singular values- Stability normsCalculation of system norms- Robustness- Robust stability.
2

Unit II: H / H Theory


2

H / H Theory- Solution for design using H / H - Case studies. Interaction and decoupling- Relative
gain analysis- Effects of interaction- Response to disturbances- Decoupling- Introduction to batch process
control.
Unit III:
PLC Basics: PLC system, I/O modules and interfacing, CPU processor, programming equipment,
programming formats, construction of PLC ladder diagrams, devices connected to I/O modules.
Unit IV:
PLC Programming: Input instructions, outputs, operational procedures, programming examples using
contacts and coils. Drill press operation.
Unit V:
Digital logic gates, programming in the Boolean algebra system, conversion examples. Ladder diagrams
for process control: Ladder diagrams and sequence listings, ladder diagram construction and flow chart
for spray process system.
Unit VI: Large Scale Control Systems
SCADA: Introduction, SCADA Architecture, Different Communication Protocols, Common System
Components, Supervision and Control, HMI, RTU and Supervisory Stations, Trends in SCADA, Security
Issues
Unit VII: Distributed Control Systems
DCS: Introduction, DCS Architecture, Local Control (LCU) architecture, LCU languages, LCU - Process
interfacing issues, communication facilities, configuration of DCS, displays, redundancy concept - case
studies in DCS.
Unit VIII: Real Time Systems
Real time systems- Real time specifications and design techniques- Real time kernels- Inter task
communication and synchronization- Real time memory management- Supervisory control- direct digital
control- Distributed control- PC based automation.
Reference Books:
1. Shinskey F.G., Process control systems: application , Design and Tuning, McGraw Hill
International Edition ,Singapore,1988.
2. Be.langer P.R. , Control Engineering: A Modern Approach, Saunders College Publishing ,
USA, 1995.
3. Dorf, R.C. and Bishop R. T. , Modern Control Systems , Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1999
4. Laplante P.A., Real Time Systems: An Engineer.s Handbook, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi, 2002.
5. Stuart A. Boyer: SCADA-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, Instrument Society of
America Publications,USA,1999
6. Efim Rosenwasser, Bernhard P. Lampe, Multivariable computer-controlled systems: a transfer
function approach, Springer, 2006
7. Programmable Logic Controllers Principle and Applications by John W. Webb and Ronald
A. Reiss, Fifth Edition, PHI
8. Programmable Logic Controllers Programming Method and Applications by JR.Hackworth
and F.D Hackworth Jr. Pearson, 2004.

5.2 CONTROL OF SPECIAL MACHINES (Elective-I)

Unit I: Stepper Motors


Constructional features, Principle of operation, Modes of excitation torque production in Variable
Reluctance (VR) stepping motor
Unit II: Characteristics of Stepper Motors
Dynamic characteristics, Drive systems and circuit for open loop control, closed loop control of
stepping motor.
Unit III: Switched Reluctance Motors
Constructional features, Principle of operation. Torque equation, Characteristics, Control
Techniques, Drive Concept.
Unit IV: Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors
Commutation in DC motors, Difference between mechanical and electronic commutators, Hall
sensors, Optical sensors, Multiphase Brushless motor, Square wave permanent magnet brushless
motor drives, Torque and emf equation, Torque-speed characteristics, Controllers-Microprocessors
based controller.
Unit V: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Principle of operation, EMF, power input and torque expressions, Phasor diagram, Power
Controllers, Torque speed characteristics, Self control, Vector control, Current control Schemes.
Unit VI: Servomotors
Servomotor Types Constructional features Principle of Operation Characteristics - Control
Microprocessor based applications.
Unit VII: AC Tachometers
Schematic diagram, Operating principle, numerical problems
Unit VIII: Linear Motors
Linear Motors: Linear Induction Motor (LIM) Classification Construction Principle of operation
Concept of Current sheet Goodness factor DC Linear Motor (DCLM) types Circuit equation
DCLM control-applications.
Reference Books:
1. Miller, T.J.E. Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives, Clarendon
Press,
Oxford, 1989.
2. Kenjo, T, Stepping Motors and their Microprocessor control, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.
3. Naser A and Boldea I, Linear Electric Motors: Theory, Design and Practical Application,
Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey,1987
4. Floyd E Saner,Servo Motor Applications, Pittman USA, 1993.
5. Kenjo, T and Naganori, S Permanent Magnet and brushless DC motors, Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1989.
6. Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines P.S.Bimbra-Khanna publications-5th edition-1995

6.1 SYSTEM IDENTIFICATIONS AND PARAMETER ESTIMATIONS (Elective-II)


UNIT I
Review of probably theory and random variable, random process, A Family of Transfer function
Models-Equation Error Model Structure-Linear Regression- ARMAX Model Structure- Other
Equation- Error-Type Model Structures-Output Error Model Structure- Box- Jenkins Model
Structure- A General Family of Model Structures- Continuous Time Black -Box Model.
UNIT II
Recursive methods, Recursive least squares (RLS), Consistency of estimation, Weighted LS,
Prediction error and pseudo linear regression methods.
UNIT III
Parametric models, LS estimation, bias; generalized least squares (GLS) and instrumental variable
(IV) method.
UNIT IV
Persistently exciting input signal, Likelihood functions and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE),
Singular value decomposition (SVD).
UNIT V
Stochastic approximation algorithm (STA); Model order and structure determination.
UNIT VI
Kalman filter state and parameter estimation, Adaptive Estimation via Parallel Processing, Adaptive
Estimation via Extended Least Squares
UNIT VII
Extended Kalman Filters for discrete time systems, the Kalman Filter, Best Linear Estimator
Property of the Kalman Filter, Identification as a Kalman Filtering Problem, Application of Kalman
Filters.
UNIT VIII
Multi-variable system representation, controllability and observability indices, Feedback system
identification.
Reference Books:
1. Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Process- Papoulis and Pillai, McGraw Hill,
2002.
2. Lessons in Estimation Theory for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control- Jerry M.
Mendel, Prentice-Hall, 1995.
3. Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory: Karl J Astrom, Mathematics in Series and Engg.,
Vol.70.
4. Filtering and System Identification A Least Squares Approach- Michel Verhaegen and
Vincent Verdult, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.
5. Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice Using Matlab- M.S. Grewal and A.P. Andrews, John
Wiley, 2008.
6. Optimal filtering, Brian.D.O.Anderson and John B Moore, PRENTICE-HALL, INC.
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632.

6.2 COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES AND OPTIMIZATION (Elective-II)

Unit-I: Solution Of Algebraic And Transcendental


Successive bisection method, Regula-Falsi method,
approximation method, Simultaneous equations: Gauss
method, Relaxation method, LU decomposition method,
method, Gause-Seidel method.

Equations: Zeros of a function,


Secant method and Successive
elimination method, Gause-Jordan
numerical solution by Gauss-Jacobi

Unit-II: Interpolation And Curve Fitting: Lagrange interpolation, Newtons divided


difference Interpolating polynomial, Newton-Gregory forward and backward interpolating
polynomial, Cubic splines. Lease square approximation of functions, Linear and Polynomial
regression,power exponential, parabolic, hyperbolic and sinusoidal curve fitting, multiple linear
regression.
Unit-III: Evaluation of Definite Integrals: Newton-Cotes formula, Trapezoidal rule,
Simpsons 1/3 rule & 3/8 rule, Weddles Error analysis, evaluation of double integrals.
Unit-IV: Numerical Solution of Differential Equations: Eulers method, Picards method,
Predictor-Corrector method, Runge-Kutta Second and Fourth order equations.
Unit-V: Linear Programming: Standard form of linear programming problem, Geometry of
L.P.P., Graphical solution, Simplex algorithm, Big-M method, Two phase method.
Unit-VI: Non Linear Programming: Single-Dimensional minimization methods: Unimodal
function, three interval search method, Fibonacci method, Golden mean search method.
Unconstrained Optimization Techniques, Descent Methods: Steepest Descent method, Conjugate
gradient method, Quasi Newton method. Constrained Optimization Techniques, Interior and
exterior penalty methods.
Unit-VII: Linear and Nonlinear Optimization: Necessary and sufficient conditions for
optima; convex analyisis; unconstrained optimization; descent methods; steepest descent,
Newtons method, quasi Newton methods, conjugate direction methods; constrained
optimization; Kuhn-Tucker conditions, Quadratic programming problems; algorithms for
constrained optimization; gradient projection method, penalty and barrier function methods,
Linear programming, simplex methods; duality in optimization, duals of linear and quadratic
programming problems.
Unit-VIII: CPM and PERT: Basic Terminology, Network representation of project, critical
path-The PERT method, Optimum scheduling by CPM, LP formulation of CPM-PERT
problems.
Reference Books:
1. Krishnamurthy E.V. and Sen S.K. Numerical Algorithms: Computations in Science &
Engg., Affiliated East-West Press, 1993
2. S.S. Rao - Optimization Theory and Applications, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi. 1991
3. Schaums Series Operation Research, Tata Mcgraw Hill. 1997

4. S.S. Sastry Introductory Methods in Numerical Analysis PHI. 1994


5. Gerald and Wheatley Applied Numerical Analysis, PHI. 2005 M.Tech ( Control Systems)
Syllabus
6. E. Kreyzig Advanced Engineering MathematicsJohn Wiley. 1999
7. Luenberger D.G. Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming, (2e) Addison Wesley
1984
8. Fletcher R. Practical methods of Optimization, John Wiley. 1980

7. CONTROL SYSTEMS SIMULATION LAB


List of Experiments
The following experiments may be implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.
1. Preliminary Transformations:
(a) Transfer function to State space models vice- versa.
(b) Conversion of Continuous to Discrete time systems vice- versa.
(c) Verification of controllability and observablity of a given system.
2. Design of state feedback controllers.
3. Stability analysis of a given system using:
(a) Root Locus.
(b) Bode plot.
(c) Lyapunov stability.
4. Implementation of Kalman Filter.
5. Implementation of Least squares error method.
6. Implementation of PID controller and its effects on a given system.
7. Design of Lead, Lag, Lead- Lag compensators using frequency domain analysis.
8. Construction of Simulink model for an Induction motor.
Note: At least four problems may be implemented from the following
9. Solving steady state Ricatti Equation.
10. Construction of Simulink model foe single area and multi area Power system.
11. Solving an optimal control problem using Ricatti equation.
12. Implementation of Full order and minimum order Observer.
13. Implementation of Back-Propagation Algorithm.
14. Implementation of simple Fuzzy controller.
15. Implementation of storage and recall algorithm of Hopfield network model.

SEMESTER-II
1. ROBOTICS AND CONTROL

Unit I: Introduction-Robot Anatomy


Coordinate frames-mapping- mapping Between rotated frames-mapping between translated
frames-mapping between rotated and translated frames-description of objects in spacetransformation of vectorsinverting homogeneous transform-fundamental rotation matrices
Unit-II: Symbolic Modeling of Robots Direct Kinematic Model
Mathematical structure and notations-description of links and joints-kinematic modeling of the
manipulator- Denavit-Hatenberg notation-kinematic relationship between adjacent linksmanipulator transformation matrix
Unit III: The Inverse Kinematics
Manipulator work space Solvability of kinematic model- -Solution techniques- closed form
solution-guidelines to obtain closed form solution.
Unit IV: Manipulator Differential Motion and Statics
Linear and angular velocity of a rigid body - Relationship between transformation Matrix and
angular velocity - Mapping velocity vector-Velocity propagation along links-Manipulator
Jacobian - Jacobian Inverse- Jacobian Singularities- Static Analysis
Unit V: Dynamic Modelling
Lagrangian Mechanics Two degree of freedom Manipulator-Dynamic Model Lagrange
Euler formulation - Newton Euler Formulation comparison of LagrangeEuler & Newton
Euler Formulations Inverse Dynamics
Unit VI: Trajectory Planning
Definitions and planning tasks- terminology-steps in trajectory planning- Joint space techniquesCartesian space techniques- Joint space Vs Cartesian space Trajectory planning.
Unit VII: Control of Manipulators
Open and close loop control The manipulator control problem Linear control schemesCharacteristics of second order linear systems- Linear Second order-SISO model of a
manipulator joint- Joint Actuators- partitioned PD control scheme PID control scheme
computed torque control- force control of robotic manipulators description of force control
tasks Force-control strategies-Hybrid position/ force control- Impedance Force/Torque control
Unit VIII: Robotic Sensors and Applications
Sensing- Sensors in robotics Kinds of sensors used in robotics- -Robotic vision- Robotic
vision- Industrial applications of vision controlled robotic systems- process of ImagingArchitecture of robotic vision systems- Image Acquisition- Image representation-Image
processing Industrial applications material handling Process applications Assembly

applications Inspection application Principles of Robot applications and application planning,


Justification of robots- Robot safety
Reference Books:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Robotics and control RKMittal And I J Nagrath TMH Publishers-1st edition-2003


Mikell P,Weiss G.M.,Nagel R.N., Odrey N.G., Industrial Robotics, McGraw Hill,1986.
Deb.S.R- Robotics Technology and flexible automation, Tata McGraw Hill, 1994.
Asfahi C.R. - Robotics and manufacturing automation, John wiley ,1992.
Klafter R.D.- Chimielewski T.A & Neign M., Robotics engineering: An integrated
approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., 1994.

2. NON-LINEAR SYSTEMS ANALYSIS


UNIT I
Linear versus nonlinear systems - Describing function analysis: Fundamentals, common
nonlinearities (saturation, dead - zone, on - off non - linearity, backlash, hysteresis) and their
describing functions.
UNIT II
Describing function analysis of nonlinear systems. Reliability of describing method analysis.
Compensation and design of nonlinear system using describing function method.
UNIT III
Phase plane analysis: Phase portraits, Singular points characterization. Analysis of non - linear
systems using phase plane technique.
UNIT IV
Existence of limit cycles. Linearization: Exact linearization, input - state linearization, input output linearization.
UNIT V
Concept of stability, stability in the sense of Lyapunov and absolute stability. Zero - input and
BIBO stability. Second (or direct) method of Lyapunov stability theory for continuous and
discrete time systems.
UNIT VI
Aizerman's and Kalman's conjecture. Construction of Lyapunov function - Methods of
Aizerman, Zubov, Variable gradient method. Lure problem.
UNIT VII
Popov's stability criterion, generalized circle criterion, Kalman - Yakubovich - Popov Lemma.
Popov's hyperstability theorem.
UNIT VIII
Concept of variable - structure controller and sliding control, reaching condition and reaching
mode, implementation of switching control laws. Reduction of chattering in sliding and steady
state mode. Some design examples of nonlinear systems such as the ball and beam, flight control,
magnetic levitation and robotic manipulator etc.
Reference Books:
1. J. E. Slotine and Weiping LI, Applied Nonlinear Control, Prentice Hall,
2. Hassan K. Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, Prentice Hall, 1996.
3. Sankar Sastry, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Stability and Control.
4. M. Vidyasagar, Nonlinear Systems Analysis, Prentice - Hall International editions,1993.

3. ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

UNIT-I
Short introduction, Analog to digital and Digital to Analog conversion, sampled and Hold circuit,
Continuous time Fourier Transforms.
UNIT-II
Discrete-time signals and systems, Discrete-time Fourier transform- its properties and
applications, Fast Fourier Transform (in time-domain and Frequency domain) , IDFT and its
properties.
UNIT-III: z- Transform:
Definition and properties, Rational z-transforms, Region of convergence of a rational zTransform, The inverse z- Transform, Z-Transform properties, Computation of the convolution
sum of finite-length sequences, The transfer function
UNIT-IV: Digital Filter Structures:
Block Diagram representation, Equivalent structures, Basic FIR Digital Filter structures, Basic
IIR Digital Filter structures, Realization of Basic structures using MATLAB, All pass filters,
Computational complexity of Digital filter structures.
UNIT V: IIR Digital Filter Design:
Preliminary considerations, Bilinear transformation method of IIR Filter design, Design of low
pass IIR Digital filters, Design of High pass, Band pass and band stop IIR digital filters, Spectral
Transformations of IIR filter, IIR digital filter design using MATLAB, Computer aided design of
IIR digital filters.
UNIT VI:FIR Digital Filter Design:
Preliminary considerations, FIR filter design based on windowed Fourier series, Computer aided
design of Equiripple Linear phase FIR filters, Design of Minimum phase FIR filters, FIR digital
filter design using MATLAB, Design of computationally efficient FIR digital filters.
UNIT VII: Analysis of Finite word length effects:
The quantization process and errors, quantization of Fixed point numbers, Quantization of
floating point numbers, Analysis of coefficient quantization effects, Analysis of arithmetic round
off errors, Low sensitivity digital filters, Reduction of product round off errors using error
feedback, Round off errors in FFT algorithms.
UNIT VIII
The basic sample rate alteration devices, Multi rate structures for sampling rate conversion,
Multistage design of decimator and interpolator, The Polyphase decomposition, Arbitrary-rate
sampling rate converter, Nyquist Filters and some applications of digital signal processing.
Reference Books:
1. S.K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing-, Tata McGraw-Hill, Third Edition, 2006.
2. B.P. Lathi, Principle of Signal Processing and Linear Systems-, Oxford International
Student Version, 2009
3. M. Mondal and A Asif, Continuous and Discrete Time Signals and Systems, Cambridge,
2007
4. Li Tan, Digital Signal Processing- Fundamentals and Applications-, Indian reprint,
Elsevier, 2008.
5. Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, and John R.Buck, Discrete- Time Signal
Processing-, Pearson Edu, 2008.

4. OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY


UNIT I
An overview of optimization problem - concepts and terms related to optimization - constrained and
unconstrained problems and their solutions using different techniques.
UNIT II
Convex set and convex function - convex optimization problem - quadratic optimization problem Karush - Kuhn - Tucker (KKT) necessary and sufficient conditions for quadratic programming problem.
UNIT III
Interior point method for convex optimization - linear programming - primal and dual problems and basic
concept of multi - objective optimization problem.
UNIT IV
Concept of functional, different types of performance indices, Euler - Lagrange equation.
UNIT V
Calculus of variation to optimal control problem - Fundamental concepts, functionals of a single
function, functional involving several independent functions, necessary conditions for optimal control,
linear regulator problems.
UNIT VI
Linear quadractic regulator, remarks on weighting matrices, solution of Riccati equation.
UNIT VII
Frequency domain interpretation of linear quadratic regulator, robustness studies.
UNIT VIII
Dynamic programming, Pontrygins minimum principle, time optimal control, concept of system and
signal norms, statement of problem and its solution.
Reference Books:
1. Jasbir S. Arora, Introduction to optimum design, Elesevier, 2005.
2. A Ravindran, K.M. Ragsdell, and G.V. Reklaitis, Engineering optimization : Methods and
applications, Wiley India Edition.
3. Donald E.Kirk, Optimal Control Theory an Introduction, Prentice - Hall Network series - First edition,
1970.
4. D.S. Naidu, Optimal control systems, CRC Press, First edition, 2002.
5. Arturo Locatelli, Optimal control: An Introduction, Birkhauser Verlag, 2001.
6. S.H.Zak, Systems and Controll, Indian Edition , Oxford University, 2003.
7. Niclas Anreasson, Anton Evgrafov and Michael Patriksson, An introduction to continuous
optimization, Overseas Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.

5.1 AI TECHNIQUES (Elective-III)


Unit I: Introduction to Neural Networks
Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological
and Artificial Neuron Models. introduction-neural network models-architectures-knowledge
representation learning process-learning tasks.
Unit- II:Feed Forward Neural Networks
Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and Multi-Category, Training
Algorithms: Discrete and Continuous Perceptron Networks, Perceptron Convergence theorem,
Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications.
UnitIII: ANN Paradigm-back propagation-RBF algorithms-Hope field networks.
Unit IV : Genetic Algorithms-introduction-encoding-fitness function-reproduction operators
Unit V: Genetic Modelling-genetic operators-cross over and mutation-generational cyclecoveragence of genetic algorithm.
Unit VI: Classical and Fuzzy Sets
Introduction to classical sets - properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership,
Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.
UNIT VII: Fuzzy Logic System Components
Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making
ystem,Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.
UNIT VIII: Application of AI Techniques
Fuzzy control systems: simple fuzzy logic controllers & GA with examples, image processing,
room heating system, Neural Networks: character recognition networks, inverted pendulum
neuro controller, Neural network for Robot kinematics
Reference Books:

1. Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applications by


Rajasekharan and Rai PHI Publication.
2. Introduction to Artificial Neural Systems - Jacek M. Zuarda, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.

5.2 EMBEDDED REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS EMS (Elective-III)


UNIT I: INTRODUCTION
History of Embedded Systems, Major Application Areas of Embedded Systems, Purpose of Embedded
Systems, Core of the Embedded System, Sensors and Actuators, Communication Interface, Embedded
Firmware.
UNIT II: HARDWARE SOFTWARE Co-DESIGN and PROGRAMME MODELLING
Characteristics of an Embedded System, Quality Attributes of Embedded Systems, Fundamental Issues in
Hardware Software Co-Design, Computational Models in Embedded Design, Introduction to Unified
Modeling Language (UML),Hardware Software Trade-offs.
UNIT III: EMBEDDED HARDWARE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
Analog Electronic Components, Digital Electronic Components, VLSI and Integrated Circuit Design,
Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Tools, Embedded Firmware Design Approaches, Embedded
Firmware Development Languages.
UNIT IV:REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS (RTOS) BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM
DESIGN
Operating System Basics, Types of Operating Systems, Tasks, Process and Threads, Multiprocessing and
Multitasking, Task Scheduling, Threads, Processes and Scheduling :Putting them Altogether, Task
Communication, Task Synchronization, Device Drivers, How to Choose an RTOS.
UNIT V: DEVICES AND COMMUNICATION BUSES FOR DEVICES NETWORK
IO Types and Examples, Serial Communication Devices, Parallel Device Ports, Sophisticated Interfacing
Features in Device Ports, Wireless Devices, Timer and Counting Devices, Watchdog Timer, Real Time
Clock, Networked Embedded Systems, Serial Bus Communication Protocols, Parallel Bus Device
Protocols- Parallel Communication Network Using ISA, PCI, PCI-X and Advanced Buses, Internet
Enabled Systems- Network Protocols, Wireless and Mobile System Protocols.
UNIT VI: PROGRAM MODELING CONCEPTS
Program Models, DFG Models, State Machine Programming Models for Event-controlled Program Flow,
Modeling of Multiprocessor Systems, UML Modeling.
UNIT VII: REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS
OS Services, Process Management, Timer .Functions, Event Functions, Memory Management, Device,
File and IO Subsystems Management, Interrupt Routines in RTOS Environment and Handling of
Interrupt Source Calls, Real-time Operating Systems, Basic-Design an RTOS, RTOS Task Scheduling
Models, Interrupt Latency and Response of the Tasks as Performance Matrices, OS Security Issues.
UNIT VIII: DESIGN EXAMPLES AND CASE STUDIES OF PROGAM MODELING AND
PROGRAMMING WITH RTOS-2
Case study of Communication between Orchestra Robots, Embedded Systems in Automobile, Case study
of an Embedded System for an Adaptive Cruise Control(ACC) System in a Car, Case study of an
Embedded System for a Smart Card, Case study of a Mobile Phone Software for Key Inputs.

Reference Books:
1. Introduction to Embedded System- Shibu KV, Mc-Graw Hill Higher Edition.
2. Embedded Systems Architecture, Programming and Design- Raj Kamal, Second Edition, McGrawHill Companies.
3. Embedded System Design by Peter Marwedel, Springer.
4. Embedded System Design A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction-Frank Vahid, Tony D.
Givargis, John Wiley, 2002.
5. Embedded/ Real Time Systems-KVKK Prasad, Dreamtech Press, 2005.
6. An Embedded Software Primer- David E. Simon, Pearson Ed. 2005.

6.1 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (Elective-IV)


Unit-I
Solar Energy - Availability - Solar radiation data and measurement - Estimation of average solar
radiation- Solar water heater types - Heat balance Flat plate collector efficiency Efficiency of heat
removal - Thermo siphon flow calculation - Forced circulation calculation - Evacuated collectors - Basics
of solar concentrators
Unit-II
Solar Energy Applications - Solar air heaters Solar Chimney - Crop driers - Passive solar system Active solar systems - Water desalination - Output from solar still Principle of solar ponds.
Unit-III
Wind Energy Nature of wind Characteristics Variation with height and time Power in wind
Aerodynamics of Wind turbine Momentum theory Basics of aerodynamics Aerofoils and their
characteristics HAWT Blade element theory Prandtls lifting line theory (prescribed wake analysis)
VAWT aerodynamics Wind turbine loads Aerodynamic loads in steady operation Yawed operation
and tower shadow.
Unit-IV
Wind Energy Conversion System Siting Rotor selection Annual energy output Horizontal axis
wind turbine (HAWT) Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) Rotor design considerations Number of
blades Solidity - Blade profile Upwind/Downwind Yaw system Tower Braking system Synchronous and asynchronous generators and loads Integration of wind energy converters to electrical
networks Inverters Control system Requirement and strategies Noise Applications of wind
energy
Unit-V

Biomass energy - Bio fuel classification Examples of thermo chemical, Pyrolysis, biochemical
and agrochemical systems Energy farming Direct combustion for heat Process heat and
electricity Ethanol production and use Anaerobic digestion for biogas Different digesters
Digester sizing Applications of Biogas - Operation with I.C.Engine
Unit-VI
Ocean Energy - OTEC Principle - Lamberts law of absorption - Open cycle and closed cycle - heat
exchanger calculations Major problems and operational experience.
Unit-VII
Tidal Power - Principles of power generation - components of power plant Single and two basin
systems Turbines for tidal power - Estimation of energy Maximum and minimum power ranges - tidal
powerhouse.
Wave Energy Concept of energy and power from waves Wave characteristics period and wave
velocities - Different wave energy conservation devices (Saltor duck, oscillating water column and
dolphin types) operational experience.
Unit-VIII
Geothermal Energy - Classification- Fundamentals of geophysics - Dry rock and hot aquifier energy
analysis - Estimation of thermal power - Extraction techniques - Prime movers.

Reference Books:
1. Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell and Tony Weir / E & F.N.Spon
2. Renewable Energy Resources Basic Principles and Applications / G.N.Tiwari and M.K.Ghosal /
Narosa
3. Solar Energy - Principles of thermal collection and storage/ S.P. Sukhatme / TMH
4. Solar Energy Thermal Processes,/Duffie & Beckman
5. Solar Heating and Cooling / Kreith & Kreider
6. Wind Energy Handbook / Tony Burton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins and Ervin Bossanyi /
WileyWind Electrical Systems / S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha and S.Banerjee / Oxford
7. Biogas Technology - A Practical Hand Book / K.Khendelwal & S.S. Mahdi / McGraw-Hill

6.2 POWER QUALITY MANAGEMENT (Elective-IV)


Unit I: Introduction To Power Quality
What is Power Quality?, Voltage Quality, Why are we concerned about power quality?, The power
quality evaluation procedure-Need for a consistent-Vocabulary, General classes of power quality
problems,
Transients, Long-Duration voltage variations, Short-Duration voltage variations, Voltage
Imbalance, waveform distortion, voltage fluctuation, Power frequency variations, Power quality terms,
Ambiguous Terms,
CBEMA and ITI curves
Unit- II: Power Frequency Disturbances
Introduction-Common power frequency disturbances-Cures for low frequency disturbances-Voltage
tolerance criteria
Unit III: Voltage Sags And Interruptions
Sources of sags and interruptions-Estimating Voltage sag performance-Fundamental principles of
protection-Solutions at the End-User level-Evaluating the economics of different ride_ through
alternatives-Motor_ starting sags-Utility system fault_ clearing issues
Unit IV: Transient Over Voltages
Sources of transient over voltages-Principles of over voltage protection-Devices for over voltage
protection-Utility capacitor_ switching Transients-Utility system Lightning protection-Managing
Ferroresonance-Switching Transients problems with loads-Computer tools for transient analysis.
Unit-V:Fundamentals Of Harmonics
Harmonic Distortion-Voltage versus current distortion-Harmonic versus Transients-Power system
Quantities under non sinusoidal conditions-Harmonic indices-Harmonic sources from commercial loadsHarmonic sources from industrial loads-Locating harmonic sources-System response characteristicsEffects of harmonic distortion- Inter harmonics
Unit VI: Applied Harmonics
Harmonic distortion evaluations-Principles for controlling harmonics-Where to control harmonicsHarmonic study-Devices for controlling harmonic distortion-Harmonic filter design-Case studiesStandards on harmonics
Unit-VII: Long Duration Voltage Variations
Principles of regulating the voltage-Devices for voltage regulation-Utility voltage regulator applicationCapacitors for voltage regulations-End user capacitor application-Regulating utility voltage with
distributed resources-Flickers
Unit VIII: Power Quality Monitoring
Monitoring considerations-Historical perspective of power quality measuring instruments-Power quality
measurement equipment-Assessment of power quality measurement data-Application of intelligent
systems-Power quality monitoring standards
Reference Books:
1.Electrical power systems quality-Roger C.Dugan- McGraw- Hills
2.Power quality- C.Sankaran, CRC Press

7. ADVANCE CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB


List of Experiments
1. To obtain the moment of inertia and then develop the transfer function of the given DC Motor
for (a) Armature controlled case and (b) Field controlled case. Draw the relevant block
diagrams.
2. To conduct experiments on the given amplidyne for (a) To obtain the transfer function (b) To
obtain the load characteristics under different levels of compensation (c) To obtain the
characteristics of a metadyne.
3. To design a Lag-Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using
MATLAB. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of
passive elements.
4. To set up a system for closed loop voltage regulation for a dc separately excited generator
using amplidyne and to obtain its characteristics
5. To obtain the model of the Inverted pendulum and study the closed loop performance using
experiments on Bytronic Inverted Pendulum
6. To conduct experiments on the Level Process Control Station and to study the working of a
level control loop.
7. To set up a closed loop feedback control system using the FEEDBACK MS150 DC Modular
Servo System-with velocity(rate) feedback.
8. Temperature controller using PID.
9. To set up an open loop control system using Micro-processor for controlling the stepper motor
10.To design a Lead compensator and to obtain the characteristics by simulation using
MATLAB. Verify the performance using experiments with the compensator circuit made of
passive elements.
11. Effect of P, PD, PI, PID Controller on a second order systems
12. Programmable logic controller Study and verification of truth tables of logic gates, simple
Boolean expressions and application of speed control of motor?
Reference Books:
1. Gene F Franklin, J David Powell, Abbas Emami Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic
Systems, 4th Ed, Pearson Education Asia, 2002

2. Graham C Goodwin, Stefan F Graebe, Mario E Salgado, Control System Design, Prentice
Hall India, 2003.
3. John J DAzzo, Constantine H Houpis, Stuart N. Sheldon, Linear Control System
Analysis & Design with MATLAB, 5th Ed, Marcel Dekker, 2003
4. John E Gibson, Franz B. Tuteur, Control System Components, McGrawHill, 1958
5. Users Manual for FEEDBACK MS150 AC Modular Servo System
6. Users Manual for 8085n Microprocessor kit, Vi MicroSystems.
7. www.mathworks.com
8. Users Manual for Bytronic Inverted Pendulum.
9. Users Manual for Level Process Station, Vi McroSystems