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INSTRUCTORS RESOURCE MANUAL

The Enjoyment
of Music
ELEVENTH EDITION

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INSTRUCTORS RESOURCE MANUAL

The Enjoyment
of Music
ELEVENTH EDITION

Alicia M. Doyle
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH

W W NORTON & COMPANY NEW YORK LONDON

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Copyright 2011, 2007, 2003, 1999, 1995, 1990 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
All rights reserved
Eleventh Edition
ISBN 978-0-393-11841-4
W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110
wwnorton.com
W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT
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CONTENTS

Chapter 1 | Introduction

Chapter 2 | Goals and Content

Chapter 3 | Approaches to Teaching


Historical/Chronological Approach
Biographical, or Great Composer, Approach
Listening Approach
Analysis Approach
Development of Styles Approach
Genre Approach
Multicultural Approach
Gender Equity Approach

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Chapter 4 | Teaching Materials Available

Chapter 5 | The Course Plan

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Chapter 6 | Planning an Exam Schedule

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Chapter 7 | Other Assessments of Competence


Quizzes on Specialized Topics
Concert Reports
Special Activities and Listening Assignments

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Chapter 8 | The Course Syllabus

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Chapter 9 | Teaching Guide


Part 1: Materials of Music
Prelude 1: Listening to Music Today
Chapter 1: Melody: Musical Line
Chapter 2: Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
Chapter 3: Harmony
Chapter 4: The Organization of Musical Sounds
Chapter 5: Musical Texture

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vi | Contents
Chapter 6: Form
Chapter 7: Musical Expression: Tempo and Dynamics
Chapter 8: Voices and Musical Instrument Families
Chapter 9: Western Musical Instruments
Chapter 10: Musical Ensembles
Chapter 11: Style and Function of Music in Society
Part 2: Medieval and Renaissance Music
Prelude 2: The Culture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Chapter 12: Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
Chapter 13: Secular Music in the Middle Ages
Chapter 14: Renaissance Sacred Music
Chapter 15: Renaissance Secular Music
Part 3: The Baroque Era
Prelude 3: The Baroque Spirit
Chapter 16: Baroque Opera and Its Components
Chapter 17: The Baroque Cantata and Oratorio
Chapter 18: Baroque Instruments and the Suite
Chapter 19: The Baroque Concerto
Chapter 20: Other Baroque Instrumental Music
Part 4: Eighteenth-Century Classicism
Prelude 4: Classicism in the Arts
Chapter 21: The Development of Classical Forms
Chapter 22: Classical Chamber Music
Chapter 23: The Classical Symphony
Chapter 24: The Classical Concerto
Chapter 25: The Sonata in the Classical Era
Chapter 26: Classical Choral Music and Opera
Part 5: The Nineteenth Century
Prelude 5: The Spirit of Romanticism
Chapter 27: Song in the Romantic Era
Chapter 28: Romantic Piano Music
Chapter 29: Music in Nineteenth-Century America
Chapter 30: Romantic Piano Music
Chapter 31: Absolute Music in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter 32: National Schools of Romantic Opera
Chapter 33: Late Romantic and Post-Romantic Music
Part 6: Impressionism and the Early Twentieth Century
Prelude 6: Modernism in the Arts
Chapter 34: Impressionism and Post-Impressionism
Chapter 35: Early Modern Musical Style
Chapter 36: Music of the Early Modernists
Chapter 37: European National Schools
Chapter 38: American Modernism in Music
Chapter 39: Nationalism in the Americas

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Contents | vii
Part 7: Music beyond the Concert Hall
Prelude 7: The Rise of American Popular Styles
Chapter 40: Ragtime, Blues, and Jazz
Chapter 41: Musical Theater
Chapter 42: Music for Films
Chapter 43: The Many Voices of Rock
Part 8: World War II and Beyond
Prelude 8: New Directions in the Arts
Chapter 44: The New Virtuosity in the Modern Age
Chapter 45: Contemporary Composers Look to World
Music
Chapter 46: Technology and Music
Chapter 47: Some Current Trends

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Chapter 10 | General Resource Guide


Women and Music
Multicultural Music Guide
East Asia/Japan
East Asia/China
South Asia/India
Southeast Asia/Indonesia
Middle East/Turkey
Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa
Eastern Europe/Russia
Eastern Europe/Hungary/Romania/Bulgaria
Eastern Europe/Jewish Culture
Eastern Europe/Roma Culture
Western Europe/Spain
Americas/African American
Americas/British-American Traditional Music
Americas/Latin American
Americas/Native American
Wind Band Music in America
Revolutionary and Civil War Bands
French Military Bands
John Phillip Sousa
Paul Hindemith
William Schuman
Karel Husa
Michael Daugherty
Selected Wind Works by Other Composers

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Chapter 11 | Answers to Study Guide Questions

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Having taught music appreciation at several institutions over


the last two decades, I have found that the course is consistently a popular choice to fulfill a general education arts
requirement, as few people do not appreciate music on a
daily basis. Students come in confident in their understanding
of what they consider good music and what music they like
(and dont like).
Appreciating art music, however, understandably demands
more formal guidance as this music has not been a part of
many students experience. Students often have little prior
knowledge of art music to build upon. Likewise, the body of
available music is so large and dynamic that making analogies to popular music relevant to a majority of students in a
given classroom is very difficult. The first few weeks in a
music appreciation class are typically characterized by a
group of students who are united in their love of music but
struggling with the realization that they are going to be challenged to learn some practical listening skills and examine a
body of music outside of their realm of experience. Initially,
this realization is often uncomfortable, but our goal as
instructors is of course to guide students toward a positive
relationship with complex music, a relationship that will
serve to enrich their education and hopefully last a lifetime.
In a music appreciation course, learning is not relegated to
the students alone, as the classroom is a wonderful place for

the instructor to learn about a diverse array of musics.


Moments of discovery are challenging and thrilling for all
involved, as opening minds (of professors as well as students!) to a world of music is often the true goal in music
appreciation, a goal that extends beyond simply learning
about European art music. Particularly exciting is the moment
when a student recognizes that characteristics of a piece of
art music are also evident in her own favorite music. Witnessing a group of students learn to hear in a more sophisticated
manner and have a deeper, richer relationship with music is
continuously fulfilling.
Since music appreciation is often intended for students
who are not music majors, in many cases it constitutes their
only formal exposure to the world of art music. However,
such a course may also serve as a general introduction for
aspiring music students, and it is generally followed by more
in-depth music history classes. Enrollments for music appreciation understandably vary widely, from large lecture classes
of five hundred or more students to small discussion groups
of a handful of students. Regardless of the class size, this type
of course is invaluable, as it offers the opportunity to introduce the enjoyment of music to vast numbers of students,
enriching their awareness and helping them understand their
musical tastes as well as their connection to our collective
cultural history.

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CHAPTER 2

Goals and Content

What should be the primary goal of a music appreciation


course? According to Joe Machlis, it should be to bring students as far as possible along the road to being music lovers.
I believe this remains the most important goal. This aim can
be accomplished by a variety of means including a maximum
of listening exposure to all styles of music in the classroom,
focusing on the basic elements of music (melody, harmony,
rhythm, etc.), frequent required attendance at concerts, examination of the relationship of music to the sociocultural environment in which it was created, looking in depth at
patronage and politics and their effect on music or vice-versa,
investigating the lives and ideas of musics leading creators,
the composers, or through some combination of all these
methods.
Other issues to address in designing course content are the
balance of popular and traditional music versus art music,
Western music versus world music, and music written or performed by women versus music by men, and whether to follow a chronological outline or to address music by genre,
geographical region, performing forces, or something else
altogether. If you have small enough class, you may have
the luxury to design the course around specific interests of
your students; in a large classroom this is less likely but still
possible.
This new edition of The Enjoyment of Music has been
designed to assist the instructor with these issues and to facilitate an interactive learning experience. The various components of the package are explained further in Chapter 4.
Overall, the text and its organization is streamlined and simplified for easy consumption. Detailed information, such as
lists of compositions with dates and Listening Guide analyses, with clear descriptions of what to listen for in terms of
the musical elements, is presented graphically. This arrangement allows you flexibility in selecting the amount of detail

most appropriate for your classroom and for your individual


teaching style. The Eleventh Edition reflects our technological culture as well, with easy-to-use multimedia resources.
For instructors, these include this online instructors manual
and the newly expanded Instructors Resource Discs with 143
musical excerpts, ready-to-use PowerPoint lecture slides for
each textbook chapter, and PowerPoint-ready Instruments of
the Orchestra videos. New videos of orchestral performances
are also included on the Instructors Resource Discs, and the
Norton Opera Sampler includes over two hours of video
excerpts of Metropolitan Opera performances.
The text is supported for students with StudySpace, a
multilayered online resource that enhances learning through
composer biographies, era overviews, chapter-by-chapter outlines, quizzes, and more. In addition, students who purchase
a new text can access Norton iMusic streaming audio, Metropolitan Opera videos, and Materials of Music Interactive.
For a small fee, students can also access streaming audio of
all the pieces found in the shorter Norton Recordings repertoire, along with interactive listening guides.
Although many academic institutions now offer separate
classes in popular, traditional, film, and world music, the
movement to internationalize the general education curriculum beyond a singularly Western focus has a strong footing
on many campuses. In this new edition, Kristine Forney is
sensitive to this increasingly global trend. Discussions of nonWestern musics are integrated throughout the book, and
included in the Materials of Music Interactive. The Teaching
Guide in this manual offers further resources to enhance these
subjects in your classroom. Furthermore, popular styles of
musicjazz, musical theater, film music, world music, traditional music, hip-hop, and rockare presented in some
detail throughout the text, with supporting music examples.

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CHAPTER 3

Approaches to Teaching

Depending on your particular style and interests, and the


goals you have set for your students (and perhaps institutionally established objectives), there are many different tactics
for approaching and teaching music appreciation. The end
goal is, of course, the same: to create a lifelong love of music
supported by a sophisticated understanding of what is being
heard. The intended outcome is always enjoyment. With this
in mind, there are several ways in which one might approach
the material.
The chronological organization of The Enjoyment of Music
encourages a multidisciplinary view, relating the development
of music to parallel artistic and intellectual trends. In the text,
the prelude for each era focuses on these developments and
provides visual reinforcement in timelines. Each historical
era is also supported by an overview of historical themes,
musical context, and style in the StudySpace online at
wwnorton.com/enjoy.
Whether you as the instructor go through the text methodically in chronological order or use the book as a backstop
against which you introduce ideas you have selected to focus
upon, the book and the ancillary materials are flexible
resources, designed to meet your needs. Below are a few
ideas of different approaches that have met with success in
the classroom.

introductory class for music majors. There are other merits


to this approach: since notated Western art music started out
simply, with one melody and no harmony, the gradual introduction of terms and labeling of sounds at the beginning of a
course is easier for students unfamiliar with music and musical terminology. As the music gets more complex through
history, so does the analysis. Progressively the student continues to build on the foundation of the analytical structure
that has already been established. Some instructors may opt
to begin with the composers with whom students might have
some acquaintanceHaydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, for
exampleand either go back later to pick up the first three
eras of Western art music or leave them out altogether. Some
choose to speed though the Middle Ages and Renaissance,
and then slacken the pace when they reach the Baroque era.
It is, of course, up to the instructor to choose where to begin
and where to stop. Other instructors have found that a complete chronological approach works best, for many reasons.
For example, it is easier to teach the significance of the Dies
irae in Berliozs Symphonie fantastique if the students have
been exposed to Gregorian chant. As contemporary art music
becomes more eclectic and encyclopedic in nature, putting it
in the context of the entire history of Western art music is
often most beneficial.

HISTORICAL/CHRONOLOGICAL APPROACH

BIOGRAPHICAL, OR GREAT COMPOSER,


APPROACH

Probably the most common method for teaching a music


appreciation course is to start at the beginning and go to the
end. This approach allows for a simple and logical introduction to the world of art music; it works especially well in traditional lecture classes, in which interaction between the
student and the teacher is difficult. It also works well for an

The biographical approach works well for a class when the


objective is to produce students who will become informed
patrons of the arts. This approach also encourages classroom
discussion and a more interactive experience in classes with
smaller enrollments.

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4 | Chapter 3
The Enjoyment of Music has long been known for its informative, highly readable biographies of the great masters of
Western art music that include memorable quotes and anecdotes that students retain long after the course is completed.
The biographical information found in the text engages students, allowing them to easily master the material on their
own, while providing a common framework for greater understanding in the classroom. In the text, the principal works of
each composer are discussed and summarized for quick reference. The instructor can use the outline of the composers
life to emphasize selected events and works and bring to light
the students shared humanity with the composers. The text
includes composers who have been deemed the greats (both
men and women) in the Western tradition; this approach will
prepare your students well for most classical concert settings.
StudySpace supports this approach with informative composer
biographies and other information. The iMusic examples
enhance this approach further by offering many pieces by
selected masters beyond the principal works available in the
CD set that accompanies the textbook.

LISTENING APPROACH
Perhaps the single most important teaching tool we have for
music appreciation is the actual listening experience, through
either recordings or live performances. Most music appreciation students will be surprised to find that, in the middle of
a lecture, music is played! These experiences are often the
only exposure to Western art music that students have,
although they may also be familiar with some styles from
sampling in hip-hop and other popular musics, film scores,
and video game music.
A major goal of a listening-based approach is to help the
students become active listeners. This is no small task given
that we, as a sound culture, are bombarded with noise constantly, and we have developed, culturally, skills to tune out
music subconsciously. Technology is helpful to this listening-centered approach as portable audio devices are varied
and omnipresent. Additionally, todays digital natives are well
versed in compiling and manipulating audio files.
A listening-centered approach to the material works best
with a smaller class in which interaction with live music and
performers is manageable, however I have witnessed success
using this approach in a large lecture as well. Recordings are
convenient teaching tools because you can easily highlight
specific moments and replay them for clarity. Of course,
nothing can replace a live performance, and if possible, students should get to see and hear art music performed live by
high-quality performers. In-class demonstration by music students is often quite successful and the peer-to-peer dialog that
takes place in such an event is valuable for all involved. Not
only will the students in the class engage differently with a

classical musician who is their own age (imagine!), but the


student musicians and the instructor will gain insight into the
thoughts of the younger listening audience.
Classroom teaching provides the perfect setting for guided
listening, especially when examining longer, more complex
forms. The electronic Listening Guides, Materials of Music
Interactive activities, and iMusic examples provided on
StudySpace will encourage interaction between listening and
learning in the classroom and will provide a model for students to analyze the music independently. Regular out-ofclass listening can be encouraged through use of the CDs in
The Norton Recordings and through iMusic examples.

ANALYSIS APPROACH
With students who are for the most part not musicians, the
appropriate level of musical analysis needs to be determined.
While it is not suggested to completely avoid the issue of
form and analysis, hearing secondary dominants is perhaps
too much to ask of beginners. Hearing a tonic and the tension
created through the use of chromaticism is certainly possible,
however, and enriches listeners experience, as they grow to
understand that the composer creates musical drama intentionally. Listening Guides provide options: you as the instructor can introduce the general form and go into as much detail
as you wish, or as the level of the class allows. The electronic
Listening Guides and online examples also provide visual
cues to students that will help them find where they are in the
piece. Each guide is designed for the student to follow while
listening. It is probably not possible to cover every work in
the text in analysis-focused course. For those works that you
wish to cover quickly or not at all, the detailed Listening
Guide can simply be left out. The Materials of Music Interactive exercises on StudySpace are also useful tools to aid in
the mastery of formal structures.

DEVELOPMENT OF STYLES APPROACH


Understanding what makes one style different from another
is a complex issue. The Enjoyment of Music provides a solid
approach to understanding style for beginning music students,
offering several features that will facilitate this method. The
genre organization within each part in the book allows students
exposure to all examples of one genre in an era, proceeding
from the earliest to the latest. Tabular summaries assist students
in comparing two consecutive style periods. The multidisciplinary focus of the prelude for each historical era serves to
place music within the context of major artistic styles and
developments. Using these features, a student can learn to
understand the development of a genre through several style
periods. StudySpace reinforces these principles, notably

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Approaches to Teaching | 5
through the overviews, quizzes, and listening excerpts. Stylistic
traits can be emphasized with extra listening on StudySpace.

GENRE APPROACH
Another way to emphasize musical style is to use a genrebased approach. This organization, proceeding chronologically through each vocal and instrumental form, highlights
the stylistic differences found among similar forms composed
in various eras. The survey of each genre covers roughly the
same historical periods, although it points out developments
specific to individual forms. This survey might begin with
vocal music, as generally the words make the students understanding of these works easier. One possible path would begin
with sacred vocal music and then follow with secular vocal
music and opera. Instrumental music could then be presented,
beginning with the most accessible genressuch as program
music and works with simpler formsbefore proceeding to
the larger and more complex sonata cycle.

MULTICULTURAL APPROACH
The main goal of this text is to help the student gain an appreciation of Western art music. The evolution of popular, folk,

and art musics is inseparable, and it is impossible and counterproductive to remove popular and traditional music from
a discussion of art music. Integrated throughout the book are
readings and recordings that give insight into traditional or
popular music relevant to the topic at hand. These developments can be expanded on with supplemental reading, listening, videos, or online resources. The Study Guide also
contains exercises with independent listening projects that
serve to enhance these readings.

GENDER EQUITY APPROACH


Although many institutions have independent courses on
women and music, a general music appreciation class can
easily introduce the role that women have played in music
throughout history. Some instructors may elect to focus on
women as composers, while others may look more broadly
at women as patrons and as performers, both amateur and
professional. The broader approach encourages an understanding of the sociocultural setting of each era and allows a
more balanced perspective of the role gender has played. The
text supports this approach by providing important historical
information in the introduction to each era and by focusing
on particular women performers and pieces written for
women throughout the centuries.

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CHAPTER 4

Teaching Materials Available

A. The Enjoyment of Music, Eleventh Edition


1. Full Version
2. Shorter Version (also available as an eBook)
3. Essential Listening Edition (forthcoming in
2013)
B. The Norton Recordings, Eleventh Edition
1. 8 CDs (for the Full Version)
2. 4 CDs (for the Shorter Version, also available with
Interactive Listening Guides as mp3s on DVD and
as streaming audio)
C. Student Resources at StudySpace
(www.norton.com/studyspace)
D. The Study Guide to Accompany The Enjoyment of
Music, Eleventh Edition
E. The Norton Scores, Eleventh Edition, edited by
Kristine Forney, with textual notes by Roger Hickman
1. Volume I: From Gregorian Chant to Beethoven
2. Volume II: From Schubert to the Present
F. The Norton Opera Sampler (available as DVD for
instructors and streaming video for students)
G. Instruments of the Orchestra (available as DVD for
instructors and streaming video for students)
H. Instructors Resource Manual, by Alicia M. Doyle
I. Instructors Resource Discs
1, Enhanced PowerPoint Slides
2. Art PowerPoints
3. PowerPoint-ready Instruments of the Orchestra
Video
4. Music Example Bank mp3 excerpts
5. Orchestral Performance Videos

J. Test Bank and Computerized Test Bank, by Roger


Hickman
K. Norton Gradebook
L. Music Example Bank (4 CDs)
M. Coursepacks
A. Text Versions
The Enjoyment of Music, Eleventh Edition, is available
in three different versions:
1. The Full Version (595 pp. + appendices) presents
an introduction to the elements of music, followed
by the musical style periods in historical sequence,
beginning with the Middle Ages and ending with
the Contemporary era. This version includes
detailed discussion and listening guides for 97
works, all of which are included on the 8-CD set
of The Norton Recordings.
2. The Shorter Version (425 pp. + appendices) is
also ordered chronologically, with the basic
elements of music at the beginning. Maintaining
the same chapter structure, this version offers an
abridged discussion of some topics, and includes
62 listening guides, the music for which is on the
4-CD set of The Norton Recordings. These
recordings are available in other formats as well
(see below)
3. The Essentials Version, forthcoming in 2012, will
feature a new modular organization.
Features of the Full and Shorter Versions:
a. A simplified two-tiered organizational plan
facilitates the use of the book: the larger division is

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Teaching Materials Available | 7

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

the part (generally comprising an entire era), each


of which begins with an introductory Prelude
presenting the historical and cultural context of the
era, followed by short chapters on a musical genre
or style. The Full and Shorter versions maintain
the same part and chapter structure, allowing for
more flexibility within the package.
Redesigned Listening Guides, or study outlines,
appear in the text for all works discussed in detail
(97 in the Full Version; 62 in the Shorter Version).
The Listening Guides supplement the prose
descriptions of the repertory with a more in-depth
look at each work and are designed for ease of
reading while listening. New color-coded What to
Listen For boxes help students identify key
musical elements and hone critical listening skills.
New Listening Activities placed throughout the
text challenge students to identify musical
elements and to differentiate styles and genres.
Each elements of music chapter features a
listening activity.
Here & There, Then & Now features
(informative text windows) connect the musical
past and the present while highlighting the role
music plays in everyday culture in the West,
around the world, and in popular as well as art
music. They further aid students in making
connections between music and other disciplines
(politics, science, technology, American and world
history, gender studies).
New Meet the Performers boxes, interspersed
throughout the text, introduce students to some of
the worlds most famous musicians and make
recommendations for recordings and videos by
each player or group. Featured artists include
Wynton Marsalis, Yo-Yo Ma, Gustavo Dudamel,
Lang Lang, Mikhail Baryshikov, and many more.
Incisive Critical Thinking questions appear at the
end of each chapter, raising issues for further
study.
By the way . . . (BTW) sidebars engage students
with concise answers to common questions
students ask about composers and music.
Dynamic new repertory constitutes about thirty
percent of the selections in the text. These works
were selected for their accessibility, teachability,
as well as for the balance of genres and styles.
New works span all eras including the famous
medieval canon Sumer is icumen in, Haydns
Emperor Quartet, Stephen Fosters well-known
Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair, Griegs Peer
Gynt Suite, Verdis dynamic Requiem, and Orffs
powerful Carmina burana. In particular, this

edition offers rich coverage of contemporary


music, including John Coriglianos delightful song
cycle Mr. Tambourine Man: Seven Songs of Bob
Dylan, Jennifer Higdons shimmering tone poem
blue cathedral, and John Adamss compelling
opera Doctor Atomic.
i. Enhanced coverage of popular music styles,
including a new musical theater work (Gershwins
Porgy and Bess), new listening activities focused
on classic rock selections (by The Rolling Stones
and Nirvana), and several Meet the Performer
boxes for important rock groups and performers
(Bob Dylan, Mick Jagger, Nirvana). This section
includes chapters on jazz, musical theater, film
music, and rock, all introduced by an informative
prelude setting the sociocultural context for this
music.
j. The role of women as composers and performers
is underscored throughout the book. In this
edition, we endeavored to present a balanced
perspective through history of the role that women
have played in music. Works by seven women
composers are included in the primary repertory,
ranging from early times (Hildegard of Bingen and
Barbara Strozzi) to the twentieth century (Ruth
Crawford Seeger, Billie Holiday, and Jennifer
Higdon). Discussions throughout are genderinclusive, and, where possible, feature women as
important creators, interpreters, and patrons of
music and the arts.
k. A dynamic narrative has been revised for
clarity and accessibility to todays students, and
both versions of the book are a full 10% shorter
than the previous editions.
l. A stunning new design features eye-catching
colors and abundant full-color illustrations that
reinforce learning by making the book more
accessible to todays students.
B. Flexible recording options give instructors and
students choices. The large set of The Norton
Recordings (8 CDs) includes all or some part of the 97
works outlined in Listening Guides in the Full Version.
The recordings for the Shorter Version of the text are
available in three formats: as streaming audio, on a
DVD with mp3 files, and on a 4-CD set. As always, the
recorded selections are carefully chosen for their
performance quality, stylistic validity, and audio
clarity. They represent some of the worlds leading
artists, and many selections feature original instrument
groups for early music examples.
C. StudySpace provides an integrated online learning
environment that includes study plans, chapter

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8 | Chapter 4
outlines, overviews, flashcards, and Quiz+
assessments; these materials are free, open content.
With the purchase of a new text, the standard content
also provides streamed video of the Metropolitan
Opera excerpts, iMusic examples and Materials of
Music Interactive activities, and listening activities and
quizzes. StudySpace Plus, available for purchase as a
recording option, provides all 62 works in the Shorter
Version in streaming format, as well as eBook access
and redesigned interactive Listening Guides (iLGs)
that offer a sequential listening pedagogy (each with
Overview, Journal, Guide, Listen For and Quiz
modules). Registration codes for this option ($12.50)
are packaged with The Enjoyment of Music.
D. The Study Guide, written by Kristine Forney, is a
workbook designed to help students with listening
exercises (drawn both from the texts main repertory
and short iMusic examples), exam preparation, and
special music projects, such as writing concert reports.
This ancillary includes the following:
Review exercises, based on the most important
terms, concepts, and historical information
presented in the text; these exercises aid students
in preparing for quizzes and exams.
Listen exercises that guide the study of musical
selections outlined in the text and included on the
recording sets.
Explore studies that review the factual information
presented in the Here & There, Then & Now
boxes in the text and suggest outside assignments
(listening or Web-based) that enhance the
understanding of certain works and traditional
musics.
Musical Activities that allow students hands-on
experience with music, either as individuals or in
small groups.
Concert Report outlines that can be completed
during or after a concert and may serve as the
basis for concert credit or as an outline for a prose
report.
Surveys, one to be completed at the beginning of
the course and one at its close, to be used either by
students or faculty. These can help students gauge
how their own tastes and experiences have
changed as a result of the course, and assist faculty
with knowing the musical preferences and
backgrounds of their students.
E. The Norton Scores, edited by Kristine Forney, with
textual notes by Roger Hickman, is a two-volume
study anthology that includes scores for nearly all the
primary repertory in The Enjoyment of Music. (Several
contemporary and world music examples are not
available.) The scores are essential for the instructors

classroom use and lecture preparation; they can also


assist students, especially beginning music majors,
with music-reading and score-reading skills. The
unique highlighting system used in the full orchestral
and instrumental chamber music scores helps the
untrained eye follow the music: the most prominent
line at any time is highlighted in white and an
arrowhead directs the user to the appropriate line in the
next musical system. A stylistic commentary places
works in their historical context. The scores also
provide dates for composers and works, as well as
recording locators in both CD sets and index numbers
for internal tracks throughout the pieces. The scores
include directions for how to follow the highlighted
scores, notes on performance practices, and
explanatory footnotes for individual pieces.
Appendices include a list of instrument transpositions
and commonly-used foreign-language names of
instruments, a glossary of terms used in the scores, an
index of forms and genres, and a concordance table for
recordings and listening guides.
F. New to this edition, The Norton Opera Sampler is a
DVD that includes over two hours of stunning live
opera excerpts, with English subtitles, from the New
York Metropolitan Opera Company. Seven classic
operas from The Enjoyment of Music repertory are
included in this resource: Mozarts Don Giovanni,
Bizets Carmen, Wagners Die Walkre, Verdis
Rigoletto, Puccinis Madame Butterfly, Bergs
Wozzeck, and John Adamss Doctor Atomic. This
resource, featuring some of operas greatest stars,
brings extraordinary theatrical performances alive in
the classroom. This exclusive DVD, the result of a
ground-breaking collaboration between W. W. Norton
and the esteemed Metropolitan Opera, is free to all
adopters of The Enjoyment of Music and the
performances will be available to students on
StudySpace with every purchase of a new textbook.
G. The Instruments of the Orchestra DVD includes 45
instrument videos (including 11 of percussion
instruments) made by the talented students of the
Eastman School of Music to demonstrate orchestral
instruments. Ideal for classroom use, these full-screen
videos can be accessed alphabetically or by family,
complete with a basic description of each instrument.
The videos are also available online at StudySpace.
(ISBN 978-0-393-10692-3)
H. The Instructors Resource Manual, by Alicia Doyle,
is available as a PDF and includes an overview of all
ancillaries accompanying The Enjoyment of Music,
Eleventh Edition. It further provides suggested
approaches to teaching, a sample course syllabus,

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Teaching Materials Available | 9


possible exam schedules, chapter outlines, the answers
to the Study Guide questions, and other useful
resources for instructors.
I. The Instructorss Resource Discs provide many
classroom presentation tools: Enhanced Lecture
PowerPoint slides include lecture notes in the notes
field and slides for the Shorter Version of the text
included in the embedded media (video, audio, and
graphical materials); Art PowerPoints feature all the
photographs, art, painting and drawings from the book;
Performance videos include professional instrumental
ensembles playing seminal eighteenth-century works
from the texts repertory (J. S. Bachs Contrapunctus I
from The Art of Fugue; Mozarts Eine kleine
Nachtmusik; Mozarts Piano Concerto in G major, K.
453; and Beethovens Symphony No. 5); 143
electronically-indexed mp3 excerpts from the Music
Example Bank are easily navigable in the classroom;
and a PowerPoint-ready version of the Instruments of
the Orchestra Video (see above) makes this resource
easily incorporated into the lecture.
J. Test Bank Edited by Roger Hickman, this resource
includes over 2,000 multiple-choice, true/false, and
essay questions that span the entire content of the text.
The Test Bank is available on CD-ROM, in Microsoft
Word, PDF, and RTF as well as ExamView test
generator Software, which allows instructors to create,
administer, and manage assessments, create paper
exams with algorithmically generated variables, and
export files directly to Blackboard, Angel, and WebCT.
This time-saving resource also ranks each question
according to its difficulty level.

K. Norton Gradebook allows instructors to easily access


student practice-quiz results from StudySpace and
avoids email inbox clutter. This resource is free and
easy to use, with no course setup required. More
information on this resource is provided in an audio
tour of the Gradebook; visit
wwnorton.com/college/nrl/gradebook.
L. The Music Example Bank, compiled by Richard
Viano, is a rich resource of 4 CDs including 270 short
musical excerpts, selected to illustrate all major
concepts, genres, and styles discussed in the text. The
accompanying booklet includes a table of contents of
the discs, with a complete citation (composer, title,
movement and/or excerpt); an alphabetical listing by
composer, including the concepts illustrated by the
excerpt; and an alphabetical listing by concept,
providing several appropriate examples for each. 143
selections from the Music Example Bank appear on the
Instructors Resource Discs (see above), with
electronic indexing. (ISBN 978-0-393-10756-2)
M. Coursepacks for online or hybrid courses are available
at no cost to instructors or students in a variety of
formats, including all versions of BlackBoard and
WebCT. The content includes chapter-based
assignments, test banks and quizzes, interactive
learning tools, and other materials from StudySpace.
N. Downloadable Instructors Resources include
content for use in lectures and in distance education.
These include the Instructors Resource Manual,
coursepacks, test banks, PowerPoint lecture slides,
images, figures, and more.

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The Course Plan

CHAPTER 5

Every instructor designs a course differently, focusing on a


variety of repertories because of personal interests, connections to performances, the interests of students, and so
forth. Often instructors bring in additional material to supplement/enhance material found in the text. The following
information is designed to serve as a general guide, useful
for both those who have supplemental materials and those
attempting to cover all or most of the material in the textbook.
In the following chart, you will find suggestions for apportioning the available class hours in order to cover the material
in the text. The chart is arranged to reflect an historical/
chronological approach, but it can be arranged to reflect any

Part

30 hours = quarter course (10 weeks) of 3 units


40 hours = quarter course (10 weeks) of 4 units
45 hours = semester course (15 weeks) of 3 units
60 hours = semester course (15 weeks) of 4 units
or 2-quarter course (20 weeks) of 3 units
90 hours = 2-semester course (30 weeks) of 3 units

30

40

Total hours
45
60

90

Materials of Music

10

Medieval and
Renaissance Music

The Baroque Era

10

Eighteenth Century
Classicism

12

The Nineteenth Century


of Music

12

Impressionism and the


Early Twentieth Century

10

Music Beyond the


Concert Hall

10

World War II and Beyond

10

12

5
6
7
8

Exams/vacations
10

mode of teaching. The chart reflects hours for a course using


either the Full or Shorter Version of the text, including hours
dedicated to exams. Offering online tests is a way to regain
several days of instruction. The columns refer to the following
course lengths:

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Planning an Exam Schedule

CHAPTER 6

W. W. Norton has excellent online resources including a test


bank and coursepacks designed to work with the most popular course management systems (WebCT, Blackboard). If
assessments are attempted via a course management system
coursepack, the scores for each student are automatically
recorded in the instructors course management gradebook.
By utilizing these online assessment tools for concept and
context quizzes, instructors are able to free up valuable class
time for discussion, extended listening instruction, and other
assessments. The first and last examples below make full use
of the online capabilities of the Enjoyment of Music course

management system coursepacks. If your institution does not


support a course management system, score for the same
quizzes can be uploaded to your personal gradebook via the
free, easy-to-use Norton Gradebook (no course setup
required). Typically, if the online quizzes are utilized, students are required to sign an integrity oath, as the instructor
does not monitor the online quizzes.
These charts are arranged to reflect an historical/chronological approach, but they can be arranged in any manner to
reflect the instructors agenda.

PLAN A:
ONLINE CONCEPT QUIZZES, IN-CLASS LISTENING QUIZZES
Using any version of the text
Part 1: The Materials of Music

Online quiz on terminology

Part 2: Medieval and Renaissance Music

Online quiz on Medieval and Renaissance Music concepts


In-class quiz on Medieval and Renaissance Music listening

Part 3: The Baroque Era

Online quiz on Baroque Era concepts

Part 4: Eighteenth-Century Classicism

Online quiz on Eighteenth-Century Classicism concepts


In-class quiz on Baroque Era and Eighteenth-Century
Classicism listening

Part 5: The Nineteenth Century of Music

Online quiz on The Nineteenth Century of Music concepts

Part 6: Impressionism and the Early Twentieth Century

Online quiz on Early Twentieth Century listening


In-class quiz on Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century
listening

Part 7: Music Beyond the Concert Hall

Online quiz on Music Beyond the Concert Hall concepts

Part 8: World War II and Beyond

Online quiz on World War II and Beyond concepts


In-class final quiz on Music Beyond the Concert Hall and
World War II and Beyond listening.
11

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12 | Chapter 6
Advantages to Plan A
1. Lower anxiety level for students as the quizzes are all equally counted.
2. Allows students to master vocabulary and concepts by era prior to being quizzed on the
listening of that era.
3. Allows for manageable amount of material and listening for each examination by frequent
testing.
4. Fits traditional scheme of testing in many institutions.
5. Works well with 3- or 4-unit quarter-system courses.
6. Keeps grading and paperwork to a minimum, especially important for large-enrollment classes.
7. Provides students more demonstrations of competence as listening and concepts are separated.
8. Allows for comparison of styles and examination of evolution of styles.
PLAN B:
IN-CLASS ASSESSMENT, SEPARATE LISTENING AND
CONCEPT QUIZZES ARE SEMI-CUMULATIVE
Using any version of the text
Part 1: The Materials of Music

Quiz on terminology and/or application of terms to


music examples

Part 2: Medieval and Renaissance Music

Quiz on Medieval and Renaissance Music listening

Part 3: The Baroque Era

Quiz on Baroque Era listening


Midterm on Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque concepts

Part 4: Eighteenth-Century Classicism

Quiz on Eighteenth-Century Classicism listening

Part 5: The Nineteenth Century of Music

Quiz on The Nineteenth Century of Music listening


Midterm on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century concepts

Part 6: Impressionism and the Early Twentieth Century

Quiz on Early Twentieth Century listening

Part 7: Music Beyond the Concert Hall

Quiz on Music Beyond the Concert Hall listening

Part 8: World War II and Beyond

Quiz on World War II and Beyond Listening


Final exam on Impressionism, Early Twentieth Century,
Music Beyond the Concert Hall, and World War II and
Beyond concepts.

Advantages to Plan B
1. Allows for manageable amount of material and listening for each listening examination by
frequent testing.
2. Provides students more demonstrations of competence as listening and concepts are separated.
3. Makes it possible to drop lowest test grade (or not give makeups for a missed exam).
4. Takes pressure off students by not having a comprehensive final exam.
5. Works well with 3- or 4-unit semester-system courses.
6. Allows for comparison of styles and examination of evolution of styles.

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Planning an Exam Schedule | 13


PLAN C:
IN-CLASS ASSESSMENT, SECTIONAL QUIZZING
Using any version of the text
Part 1: The Materials of Music

Quiz on terminology and/or application of terms to


music examples

Part 2: Medieval and Renaissance Music

Quiz on Medieval and Renaissance Music listening


and concepts

Part 3: The Baroque Era

Quiz on Baroque Era listening and concepts

Part 4: Eighteenth-Century Classicism

Quiz on Eighteenth-Century Classicism listening and concepts

Part 5: The Nineteenth Century of Music

Quiz on The Nineteenth Century of Music listening


and concepts

Part 6: Impressionism and the Early Twentieth Century

Quiz on Early Twentieth Century listening and concepts

Part 7: Music Beyond the Concert Hall

Quiz on Music Beyond the Concert Hall listening


and concepts

Part 8: World War II and Beyond

Quiz on World War II and Beyond listening and concepts

Advantages to Plan C
1. Lower anxiety level for students as the quizzes are all equally counted and test material is
not cumulative.
2. Allows for manageable amount of material and listening for each examination by frequent
testing
3. Fits traditional scheme of testing in many institutions.
4. Works well with 3- or 4-unit quarter-system courses.
PLAN D:
ALL ONLINE ASSESSMENT, SECTIONAL QUIZZING USING W. W. NORTON ONLINE RESOURCES
Using any version of the text
Part 1: The Materials of Music

Online quiz on terminology and/or application of terms to


music examples

Part 2: Medieval and Renaissance Music

Online quiz on Medieval and Renaissance Music listening


and concepts

Part 3: The Baroque Era

Online quiz on Baroque Era listening and concepts

Part 4: Eighteenth-Century Classicism

Online quiz on Eighteenth-Century Classicism listening


and concepts

Part 5: The Nineteenth Century of Music

Online quiz on The Nineteenth Century of Music listening


and concepts

Part 6: Impressionism and the Early Twentieth Century

Online quiz on Early Twentieth Century listening


and concepts

Part 7: Music Beyond the Concert Hall

Online quiz on Music Beyond the Concert Hall listening


and concepts

Part 8: World War II and Beyond

Online quiz on World War II and Beyond listening and concepts

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14 | Chapter 6
Advantages to Plan D
1. Lower anxiety level for students as the quizzes are all equally counted and test material is
not cumulative.
2. Allows for manageable amount of material and listening for each examination by frequent
testing.
3. Fits traditional scheme of testing in many institutions.
4. Works well with 3- or 4-unit quarter-system courses.
5. Works for online or hybrid music appreciation courses.

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CHAPTER 7

Other Assessments of Competence

QUIZZES ON SPECIALIZED TOPICS


1. Listening (use Instructors Resource Discs, orchestra
and chamber music videos, Music Example Bank,
iMusic, and Instruments of the Orchestra DVD to
prepare)
a. Elements of music: understanding and application
of terms to listening examples
b. Identification of instruments
c. Identification of required repertory
d. Identification or comparison of styles
2. Objective (use the Test Bank)
a. Materials of music (elements, instruments,
ensembles)
b. Other sections of text (terms, forms, etc.)
c. Musical notation in Appendix I
Note: Quizzes can be conveniently created from the electronic test bank. Quizzes can be very short (10 to 15 questions), so they do not take up too much class time to
administer. Depending on how many quizzes are given during
the course, the lowest grade or missed quiz could be dropped.

CONCERT REPORTS (REQUIRED OR OPTIONAL)


Since the main objective of a music appreciation course is to
have students actively engaged in listening to music, most
courses contain required concert reports.
1. Use outlines provided in the Study Guide
a. Instrumental music (orchestra, band, chamber
music, solo recital)
b. Choral/vocal music (choir/chorus, chamber
choir/madrigal choir, solo vocal recital)

c. Dramatic music (opera/operetta, musical/play with


incidental music)
d. Popular music (jazz combo/ensemble, rock group,
solo singer)
e. World music
2. Use free essay format
Note: The five Concert Report outlines in the Study Guide
will be useful for diverse types of concerts. In each report
the student is asked to record certain information about the
event (date, place, performers, repertory) and to write about
several of the played selections. While it is suggested that
three Concert Reports be required, more might be accepted
for extra credit. The reports could be graded or simply
marked Pass/Fail. The latter places the emphasis on attending concerts rather than on the correct application of terms
and information.

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES AND LISTENING


ASSIGNMENTS
1. Musical activities for active participation or hands-on
experience
a. Keep a music journal and record all music
exposure over a period of days.
b. Start a music blog where you write about your
musical observations.
c. Create a slide show and select appropriate music
to accompany it.
d. Interview a musician.
e. Interview two musicians from different styles and
compare their experiences.
f. Create a radio station on Pandora (internet radio)
using a single musician or group as a starting point
15

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16 | Chapter 7

g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
m.
n.
o.
p.
q.

r.

and compare two or more musicians/groups that


Pandora has determined sounds like the one you
started with.
Create a piece of music or song using
GarageBand.
Experience traditional music live.
Experience new original classical compositions on
Pandora and YouTube.
Explore PBS/Public Radio music programming.
View a recorded opera or musical theater work at
home.
View a performance of the Metropolitan Opera
live in HD at a local movie theater.
Explore a music video network on cable/satellite
television.
Explore a classical music channel on satellite
radio.
Sing karaoke.
Interview an international student about music of
his or her homeland.
Create a short piece in ternary form and design the
notation to be performed by others (does not need
to be traditional notation!).
Write a rap song or blues lyric.

s. Play in a percussion ensemble.


t. Discover and listen to a music group on the Web.
u. Discover and listen to a modern composers music
on the Web.
v. Create a classical music video.
w. Find a piece that would be a suitable alternative
for a scene in a movie or a part of a video game.
x. Find a piece of music from your own collection
that exhibits a particular musical characteristic
(disjunct melody, dissonant harmony, syncopation,
polyphony, rondo form, etc.).
y. Compare music played at different stores in the
mall.
z. Compare music played at the same supermarket at
different times of the day and/or week.
2. Outside Listening and Web assignments (given under
Explore exercises in the Study Guide and focused on
traditional, popular, and non-Western musics)
3. StudySpace content and listening quizzes
4. Set up a discussion group/thread on a course
mangagement system such as WebCT or Blackboard;
require responses from students to questions posed and
monitor participation.

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CHAPTER 8

The Course Syllabus

It is essential that all students have access to the basic information about the courses in which they are enrolled. In addition to summarizing basic information, the syllabus can be
an important learning tool that will not only reinforce the content goals and expected outcomes but also outline attitudes
and strategies that you will use to promote active, engaged,
effective learning. Your syllabus can be an important point of
interaction between you and your students, both in and out
of class.
The traditional syllabus is primarily a source of information for your students, but a good syllabus should also provide
specific information about course requirements and course
outcomes. Often institutions have strict guidelines with regard
to attendance, makeup work, and accommodations for disabilities; clearly your syllabus must be in line with them.
Given todays technological climate, many instructors
choose not to distribute a printed syllabus but rather to deliver
it electronically. If the syllabus is only distributed electronically, the instructor must provide detailed instructions on how
to access the syllabus. In the case of distance-learning classes
that do not meet in person in the same physical setting, the
enrolled students need to be provided with the electronic
address, access instructions, and required information either
by mail or e-mail.
The following are suggestions for what to include in your
syllabus:
1. Course name, number, semester, and prerequisites
2. Instructor contact information
3. Office hours and location
4. Course meeting location and times
5. Mode of content delivery (lecture, discussion, online,
hybrid)

6. Course description from catalog


7. Course goals and/or objectives and/or expected student
learning outcomes
8. Required and optional textbooks and recordings
a. Link to Nortons The Enjoyment of Music Web site
www.wwnorton.com/enjoy
9. Types and sequence of assignments and basis for
assigning course grade
a. Due dates for assignments
b. Test and exam dates
c. Reading assignments
d. Concert Reports or other listening assignments
e. Makeup policy for exams and quizzes
f. Grading rubric for subjective work
10. Attendance policy
11. Reminder that it is the students responsibility to
notify the instructor in advance of the need for
accommodation of a university-verified disability
12. Other information essential to the course; for example,
safety information, information about accessing online
resources, information about assignments that must be
accomplished at off-campus locations (e.g., field trips,
service learning)
13. Week-by-week plan with reading and listening
assignments
If some of the information is subject to change, that fact
should be noted in the syllabus (examples: due dates, exam
dates).
Online courses often require more information about issues
specific to online instruction such as:
17

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18 | Chapter 8
1. How the instructor will communicate with the students
and how the students will communicate with each
other;
2. How online participation will be assessed and graded;
3. How the instructor will monitor the online activities of
the students;
4. How the standards of appropriate online behavior will
be maintained;
5. The level of technical competence required of the
students;

6. What the minimum computer hardware and software


requirements are for the class, and what department,
college, or university facilities are available to support
these requirements for students who cannot afford to
buy the technology;
7. The alternative procedures for submitting work in the
event of technical breakdowns;
8. The on-campus meeting requirements, if any;
9. How academic honesty will be enforced.

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CHAPTER 9

Teaching Guide

This section of the manual is intended to assist with the efficient preparation of your in-class lectures and activities.
Detailed outlines for each chapter, which can be used as lecture notes, appear here and include a summary of each piece
found in the Listening Guides (LG). Also provided here are
overviews for each part, as well as suggested teaching goals
and discussion topics for each chapter. Listed for each chapter
are appropriate iMusic and Music Example Bank (MEB)
selections for each composer and concept. (On the Music
Example Bank, see p. 9 in this Instructors Resource Manual
and the booklet accompanying the CDs.) Individual chapter
overviews and goals are included when the Part overview is
not sufficient. Each part concludes with suggestions for further reading; in some parts, individual chapters are afforded
individual suggested reading lists.
The outlines found here directly correlate to both the Full
and Shorter Versions of The Enjoyment of Music and can be
useful in preparing lectures. Asterisks indicate those points
that are only covered in the Full Version. Also useful are the
PowerPoint presentations included on the Instructors
Resource Discs; many instructors find that a PowerPoint presentation helps students to organize their notes in class and
saves valuable instructional time since it eliminates the need
to write on a board or overhead projector. In large classes this
is particularly beneficial as the slides can be projected on a
large overhead screen, making them visible to every seat in
the room. In smaller classes they can be projected on a
smaller screen or dry-erase board, or even the wall. With the
slides there will be no questions as to the spelling of terms
mentioned in class and other distracting issues that take away
from class time. Slides can also be posted to WebCT or
BlackBoard Coursepacks. Many instructors have their students print out the slides before class and have the students
take notes right on the slide printout.

The PowerPoint slide set included in the Instructors


Resource Discs follows the book in detail. Also on the discs
are Enhanced PowerPoint slides, Art PowerPoint slides (with
all of the photographs, art, paintings, and drawn figures from
the text), and a PowerPoint-ready Instruments of the Orchestra video.
Classroom response systems are compatible with PowerPoint as well. Integrating quizzes for use with the slides
(iClicker, for example) is quick and easy.
The PowerPoint slides for the Shorter Version of the text
are enhanced with images, maps, hyperlinks to Listening
Guide PDFs, and sound files. The instructor can simply use
the slides as they are or change them to meet the needs of the
class. Most instructors will want to personalize the slides to
their style of teaching, but they can be used as is. The slides
are divided by chapter, so whether you choose to teach
chronologically, by genre, or by any other modular method,
the slide content can be easily rearranged, edited, or omitted.
Of course, personalized information that is not included
can be added to a slide or slides (exam dates, extended readings, upcoming concerts, etc.). In order to personalize the
slides, simply save the presentation to your computer, then
open the application and add or subtract information as
needed. You will need PowerPoint software to edit the slides.
This software typically comes standard in the Microsoft
Office suite. The slides provided for you then will create a
lecture framework and will hopefully be a time-saving device.
Each of the eight Parts includes a list of suggested readings.
Sources on composers are included in chapters where life and
works are discussed; these references are not repeated in other
chapters where composers may reappear. (For example,
Verdis biographical sources appear in the chapter on National
Schools of Romantic Opera, where Rigoletto is discussed, and
not in the later chapter on Romantic Choral Music.)

19

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20 | Chapter 9
PART 1: MATERIALS OF MUSIC
Prelude 1. Listening to Music Today
Overview
The introductory section is designed to make students think
about how the technological society in which they live has
affected how, why, and when they listen to music. It justifies
the need to establish a working vocabulary of terms and
explains the goals behind using this information to build a personal understanding of all styles of music. It further offers
some practical suggestions on how to study for a music course,
emphasizing both the importance of active listening (to recordings and live concerts) and basic issues of concert attendance.
There is a preview of the listening guides and listening activities using O fortuna from Carl Orffs Carmina burana.
Part I introduces the first of the component parts that make
up music. These elements are presented in an order that
moves from the simplest and most familiarmelodyto the
most complex, including issues of structure and musical
expression. Part I presents a working vocabulary of terms,
each of which is defined and illustrated with a music example, most of which are selected from traditional music. This
first part of the book further defines the properties of each
musical sound, the world instrument classification system,
and the families of Western instruments. It further provides
basic information about the history and traditional role of
individual instruments. Various vocal and instrumental musical ensembles are introduced, as are Western and non-Western music, as well as popular and classical. The role of the
conductor is featured, along with graphic representations of
the standard conducting patterns for duple, triple, quadruple,
and sextuple meter. The content is summed up with two
videos on StudySpace: Brittens The Young Persons Guide
to the Orchestra and the Instruments of the Orchestra videos.
These videos reinforce visual as well as aural familiarity with
orchestral instruments, present detailed information about the
construction of various instruments, and show a professional
conductor in action. The relationship between musical style
and social function is discussed, as are the means of transmission (oral and notated). The discussions emphasize the
universality of certain musical concepts, citing various world
cultures as examples. The concepts presented in these eleven
chapters are reinforced by graphic summaries, and marginal
side heads assist with locating the definitions of terms. Pertinent listening examples, chosen from both recording sets,
are suggested at the end of each chapter. Music Example
Bank and iMusic examples are also listed.
Goals for students in Part I
To become aware of the individual elements or
components of music and the role of each
To develop a working vocabulary of terms for use
throughout the course

To recognize the universality of certain musical


concepts in various world cultures
To perceive form as a conscious unifying feature in
music
To become attuned to the subtleties of expression
possible in music
To become aware of the different classification
systems, means of sound production, and characteristic
sound and effects of each instrument
To understand the development of the Western
orchestra and its instruments
To know the basic makeup of other musical ensembles,
such as choirs,bands, jazz groups, and rock bands
To appreciate and understand better the role of the
conductor in an ensemble
To recognize the role music plays in various societies
To discern differences in musical styles
Discussion Topics:
What are some challenges encountered when discussing
music as opposed to other arts (painting, sculpture,
theatre, film, dance, etc.)?
What is different between listening to a recorded
performance and a live performance?
What are some concert traditions in the Western
tradition?
How are concert programs helpful to listeners?
Chapter 1. Melody: Musical Line
I. Defining Melody
A. Horizontal aspect of music
B. Succession of single pitches perceived as a
whole; tune
1. range: distance between lowest and highest
notes
a. narrow, wide
2. contour: shape
a. ascending, descending, wave, static
3. interval: distance between two pitches
4. conjunct: melodies connected with small
intervals
5. disjunct: melodies connected by larger
intervals
II. The Structure of Melody
A. Phrase: musical unit within larger structure of
melody
1. component parts (like parts of a sentence)
2. cadence: resting place, where phrases are
punctuated
a. inconclusive or conclusive (like comma
and period)
3. rhyme scheme: ending of text lines coincide
with musical phrase

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Teaching Guide | 21
B. Climax: high point in the melodic line
C. Countermelody: added melody of secondary or
equal importance
Discussion Topics
The universality of the concept of musical line
The central role of melody in music
The diversity of melody
Melody as the horizontal element in music
Music Example Bank
Range, narrow
IV/2
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, Ode to Joy
IV/1
Shall We Gather at the River, American
Traditional
IV/5
Havah nagilah, Jewish Traditional
I/1
Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III
I/29
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
I/40
Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major
(Italian), IV
II/24
Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1 in Bflat minor, III
Range, medium
IV/2
Joy to the World, American Christmas carol
I/2
Copland, Appalachian Spring, III
I/67
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
I/30
Greensleeves, British Traditional
II/45
Weelkes, Welcome sweet pleasure
Range, wide
IV/3
III/74
I/52
I/50
I/3
III/70
Shape, wave
IV/1
IV/3
I/36
I/4

The Star-Spangled Banner, American


national anthem
Bernstein, On the Waterfront, Love Theme
Debussy, Syrinx
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
Strauss, Don Juan
Villa-Lobos, Bachianas brasileiras No. 5, I
Shall We Gather at the River, American
Traditional
The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
Barber, Adagio for Strings, Op. 9
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II

Shape, ascending
II/65
Bach, J. S., The Well-Tempered Clavier I,
Prelude No. 1
III/3
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, IV

I/3

Strauss, Don Juan

Shape, descending
IV/2
Joy to the World, American Christmas carol
I/54
Bizet, Carmen, Habanera
II/41
Josquin, El grillo
Saint-Sans, Le carnaval des animaux,
II/15
Fossiles
I/5
Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker, Act II, Pas de
deux
Conjunct movement
IV/5
Havah nagilah, Jewish Traditional
IV/2
Joy to the World, American Christmas carol
IV/1
Shall We Gather at the River, American
Traditional
I/6
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
I/36
Barber, Adagio for Strings, Op. 9
II/30
Beethoven, String Quartet in F major, Op.
59, No. 1
(Razumovsky), I
Disjunct movement
IV/3
The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
I/7
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op.
77, III
I/51
Debussy, Golliwogs Cakewalk
II/14
Strauss, Burleske in D minor
Phrase/cadence
IV/4
Amazing Grace, Traditional hymn
I/8
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26
I/4
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
I/30
Greensleeves, British Traditional
II/45
Weelkes, Welcome sweet pleasure
Melody, climax
IV/3
The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
I/3
Strauss, Don Juan
I/50
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
iMusic Examples
Conjunct movement, small range: America (patriotic
song)
Disjunct movement, large range: Ride of the Valkyries
(Wagner)
Wavelike contour: La Marseilleise (French national
anthem)
Regular phrasing/cadence: My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean
(folk song)
Countermelody: Stars and Stripes Forever, Trio (Sousa)

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22 | Chapter 9
Chapter 2. Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
I. Rhythm: Movement of Music in Time
A. Propels music forward
B. Beat: basic unit of rhythm
1. accented: strong beats, provide rhythmic
pulse
C. Meters: organized groups of beats
1. measures: meters marked off notationally
2. measure lines: vertical lines that mark off
measures
II. Metrical Patterns
A. Regularly recurring patterns of beats
1. downbeat: first accented beat in each pattern
2. meters
a. duple: alternating strong and weak beats
b. triple: three beats per measure, strongweak-weak
i. waltz, minuet
c. quadruple: four beats per measure,
strongest-weak-strong-weak
d. simple: meters with duple subdivisions
e. compound: beats subdivided into three
i. sextuple most common, strongweak-weak-strong-weak-weak
3. upbeat: music begins with last beat of the
measure
B. Syncopation: accents fall on offbeats
1. offbeats: weak beats, between the stronger
beats
2. used in African-American dance rhythms,
jazz
C. Polyrhythm: simultaneous use of conflicting
rhythmic patterns
D. Additive meter: grouping of irregular numbers of
beats
1. beats add up to larger pattern, (e.g. 14 =
2 + 4 + 4 + 4)
a. music of India
E. Nonmetric: no strong sense of beat or meter
1. early Christian chant
Discussion Topics

IV/44
I/14
III/2
IV/61
I/56
I/10
Meter, duple
IV/6
I/9
IV/61
I/29
I/28
II/26
II/35
Meter, triple
IV/4
IV/8
IV/7
IV/3
IV/24
IV/25
II/20
I/56
I/10

El Jarabe Tapato, Mexican Traditional


Borodin, Polovetsian Dances (Section D)
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major
(Surprise), III
Hopkinson, Presidents March
Verdi, Rigoletto, La donna mobile
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III
Yankee Doodle, American Traditional
Beethoven, The Ruins of Athens, Turkish
March
Hopkinson, Presidents March
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
Mahler, Symphony No. 1 in D major, III
Poulenc, Gloria in G major, Laudamus te
Sousa, The Stars and Stripes Forever
Amazing Grace, Traditional hymn
America, American Traditional
Goodbye, Old Paint, American Traditional
The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
O Tannenbaum, German Christmas carol
Chopin, Mazurka, Op. 53, No. 3
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Verdi, Rigoletto, La donna mobile
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III

Meter, quadruple
IV/41
Battle Hymn of the Republic, American
Traditional
IV/57
La Cumparsita, Argentinian Traditional
IV/1
Shall We Gather at the River, American
Traditional
IV/17
Simple Gifts, American Traditional
II/66
Bach, C. P. E., Trio Sonata in G major, I
I/11
Brahms, Symphony No. 1 in C minor,
Op. 68, IV
I/67
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
III/4
Mozart, Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and
Viola in E-flat major, I

Music Example Bank

Meter, compound
I/30
Greensleeves, British Traditional
II/61
Corelli, Violin Sonata in A major, Op. 5,
No. 9, Gigue
I/55
Handel, Messiah, No. 9, O thou that tellest
I/12
Prokofiev, Violin Concerto in G minor, II
III/70
Villa Lobos, Bachianas brasileiras No. 5, I

Beat, accented
IV/41
The Battle Hymn of the Republic, American
Traditional

Upbeat
IV/7
IV/17

The relationship between rhythm and physical movement


Means of organizing music in time
Additive versus divisive meters
Rhythmic complexities of some world musics

Goodbye, Old Paint, American Traditional


Simple Gifts, American Traditional

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Teaching Guide | 23
IV/24
IV/3
I/61
I/11
I/55
II/10
I/40
I/6
Syncopation
IV/21
IV/48
IV/31
IV/59
II/48
IV/19
I/14
I/7
I/1
IV/62
I/18
II/24
Offbeat
IV/5
IV/49
IV/43
I/15
II/11
I/29
II/26
II/15
Polyrhythm
IV/51
IV/47
IV/52
III/38

O Tannenbaum, German Christmas carol


The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
Boccherini, Cello Concerto in B-flat major,
III
Brahms, Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op.
68, IV
Handel, Messiah, No. 9, O thou that tellest
Mendelssohn, A Midsummer Nights
Dream, Nocturne
Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major
(Italian), IV
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
Beethoven Medley (disco arr.)
Santa Rosa, Que manera de quererte
Tres Lindas Cubanas, II, Cuban Traditional
Youssou NDour, Live Television
Anonymous villancico, Ru, ru, chu
Bernstein, Mass, Trope I dont know
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances
(Section D)
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major,
Op. 77, III
Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III
Price, Piano Sonata in E minor, II
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Dance of the
Youths and Maidens
Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1 in
B-flat minor, III
Havah nagilah, Jewish Traditional
Marley, One Love
Trevino, Doctor Time
Glire, The Red Poppy, Russian Sailors
Dance
Grof, Grand Canyon Suite, On the Trail
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
Poulenc, Gloria in G major, Laudamus te
Saint Sans, Le carnaval des animaux,
Fossiles
Atine, African Traditional, Ghana (Ashanti
kete)
Congo Satiaguera, Cuban Traditional
Reich, Music for Pieces of Wood
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Sacrificial
Dance of the Chosen One

Meter, additive
IV/38
Aki Dudas Akar Lenni, Hungarian
Traditional
IV/9
Shankar, Bhimpalasi

Nonmetric
II/36
II/37

Psalm 94, Venite, exsultemus Domino


Whitsunday Mass, Alleluia, emitte spiritum

iMusic Examples
Duple meter: Camptown Races (Stephen Foster)
Triple meter: Lullaby (Brahms)
Quadruple meter: O Canada (Canadian national
anthem)
Sextuple meter: Pop Goes the Weasel (traditional, UK)
Offbeat: Oh! Susannah (Stephen Foster)
Syncopation: Pine Apple Rag (Scott Joplin)
Shifting meter: El Cihualteco (Mexico, mariachi song)
Polyrhythm: Osain (Cuba, Santera)
Nonmetric: Kyrie (Hildegard of Bingen)
Chapter 3. Harmony
I. Harmony: Vertical Relationships of Intervals Form
Chords
A. Implies movement and progression
B. Chord: three or more tones sounded together
C. Scale: collection of pitches arranged in
ascending or descending order
1. do-re-mi-fa-sol-la-ti-do, or 12345678
D. octave: interval spanning eight notes of the scale
E. triad: three-note chord, every other note of scale
combined
II. The Organization of Harmony
A. Tonic: first note of a scale
1. home base to other notes
B. Tonality: music organized around the tonic
1. scale chosen determines tonality
III. Consonance and Dissonance
A. Dissonance: discordant combination of tones
1. unstable: needs resolution
B. Consonance: concordant, agreeable combination
of tones
1. resolution: relaxation, fulfillment
C. Asian cultures, European folk music: simpler
harmonies
1. drone: single sustained tone
Discussion Topics
How do composers use dissonance and consonance to move
the listener?
Harmony as the vertical element in music
Harmony as providing perspective in music
Tonality as an organizing structure in music
The role of dissonance in music
Varying use of harmony in Western art music versus
traditional and non-Western styles

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24 | Chapter 9
Music Example Bank

II/10

Chord
II/65

I/8

I/16
IV/7
I/4
Major scale
IV/2
IV/4
IV/17
II/3
IV/6
Minor scale
IV/23
IV/20
Rondo
IV/62
I/21

Bach, J. S., The Well-Tempered Clavier I,


Prelude No. 1
Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
Goodbye, Old Paint, American Traditional
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
Joy to the World, American Christmas carol
Amazing Grace, Traditional hymn
Simple Gifts, American Traditional
Vivaldi, Concerto for Piccolo in C major, I
Yankee Doodle, American Traditional
Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby), Op. 49, No.
4
Mozart, Adagio and Rondo in C minor for
Glass Armonica,
Price, Piano Sonata in E minor, II
Vivaldi, Concerto Grosso in D minor, Op.
11, No. 3, III

Diatonic scale
II/65
Bach, J. S., The Well-Tempered Clavier I,
Prelude No. 1
II/9
Haydn, Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat
major, III
Chromatic scale
I/17
Bach, J. S., Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue
in D minor
II/1
Bozza, Scherzo for Woodwind Quintet, Op.
48
I/29
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
III/29
Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, Prelude
Dissonance
III/46
III/40
I/18
IV/32
Consonance
IV/41
IV/15
II/9

Ives, 67th Psalm


Schoenberg, Suite for Piano, Op. 25, I
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Dance of the
Youths and Maidens
Taruna Jaya, Balinese Traditional
(gamelan)
Battle Hymn of the Republic, American
Traditional
Billings, Chester
Haydn, Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat
major, III

Drone
III/61
III/60

Mendelssohn, A Midsummer Nights


Dream, Nocturne
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26
Shankar, Bhimpalasi
Thumri, South Indian Traditional

iMusic Examples
Octave: Prelude in E minor (Chopin)
Chord: If I Had a Hammer (Pete Seeger)
Triad: Pop Goes the Weasel (traditional, UK)
Tonic: Camptown Races (Stephen Foster)
Major scale and tonality: Joy to the World (Christmas
carol)
Minor scale and tonality: Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven)
Consonance: America (patriotic song)
Dissonance: In the lovely month of May (Schumann)
Drone: Skye Crofters (bagpipe, Scottish dance music)

Chapter 4. The Organization of Musical Sounds


Overview
This brief chapter introduces more advanced concepts of harmony, which are needed in order to understand music of later
eras. The concept of tonality is explained, as well as the patterns from which major and minor scales are built. Other
scale types presented include pentatonic, tritonic, and heptatonic formations used outside Western art music. The concept
of microtones is introduced, as is the raga of North India. The
concepts of transposition, modulation, and active and rest
chords are presented in order that tonality can be understood
as an element of form in the ensuing chapters.
I. Western Music Based on the Octave
A. Divided into twelve equal semitones, half steps
II. The Formation of Major and Minor Scales
A. Chromatic scale: twelve half steps of the octave
1. sharp: raises a tone by a half step
2. flat: lowers a tone by a half step
3. whole step: two half steps
B. The Major Scale: specific pattern of whole (W)
and half (H) steps
1. (W-W-H-W-W-W-H)
2. important thrust from seventh to eighth tone:
tension-resolution
3. tonic (do), first note of scale
a. point of ultimate rest
4. dominant (sol), fifth note of scale
a. represents active harmony

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Teaching Guide | 25
5. tonic-dominant-tonic: basic progression of
harmony
C. The Minor Scale
1. (W-H-W-W-H-W-W)
2. lowered third degree
III. Diatonic and Chromatic Scales
A. Diatonic: music clearly in major or minor key
B. Chromatic music: full gamut of the twelve half
steps
IV. Other Scale Types
A. Pentatonic: five-note scale
1. African, Asian, Native American music
B. Tritonic: three-note pattern
1. music of some African cultures
C. Microtones: intervals smaller than half step
1. inflection: brief microtonal dip from original
pitch
V. The Major-Minor System
A. Western music: active chords seek resolution
1. dominant (V), built on fifth scale step
a. chief active chord
2. subdominant (IV), built on fourth scale step
a. active chord
b. (IV to I), Amen
3. tonic (I), built on first scale step
a. point of rest
VI. The Key as a Form-Building Element
A. Key provides musical unity
1. three main chords used
a. tonic (I), dominant (V), subdominant (IV)
B. Contrast adds variety, structure
1. modulation: shift to a different key
2. statement-departure-return
C. Transposition: entire work set in new key
Chapter goals for students
To learn to perceive the division of the octave in
Western music
To observe the patterns for major and minor scales and
to recognize other scale types used in world music
cultures
To view key as an element of form
Discussion Topics
Scales and tonality as a means of creating a narrative
How do composers use scales to set a mood?
How do film score composers use scales to emphasize the
visual drama?
How can scales be used ironically?
Variety of scale patterns used throughout the world
Key as an element of form

Music Example Bank


Half steps
I/54
I/29

Bizet, Carmen, Habanera


Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance

Whole steps
I/8

Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26

Major scale
II/3

Vivaldi, Concerto for Piccolo in C major, I

Minor scale
I/21

Vivaldi, Concerto Grosso in D minor, Op.


11, No. 3, I

Chromatic scale
I/29
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
II/1
Bozza, Scherzo for Woodwind Quintet, Op.
48
Diatonic scale
II/9
Haydn, Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat
major, III
II/65
Bach, The Well-Tempered Clavier I, Prelude
No. 1
Transposition
II/50
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III
(brass)
Modulation
II/51
I/64

Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 in A major, II


Rodrigo, Concierto de Aranjuez, I

Major/minor, alternating
II/51
Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 in A major, II
Pentatonic scale
I/20
Miyazaki, Shimabara No Komoriutta
III/61
Shankar, Bhimpalasi, excerpt
III/63
Spring on a Moonlit River, Chinese
Traditional
IV/32
Taruna Jaya, Balinese Traditional
(gamelan)
Tritonic scale
III/64
Herding Song, African Traditional, Middle
Congo (Kouyou Tribe)
Microtones
IV/55
III/57
Raga/tala
IV/9
III/61

Nakai, Shamans Call


Partch, And on the Seventh Day, Petals Fell
in Petaluma (1964)
Shankar, Bhimpalasi, opening
Shankar, Bhimpalasi, excerpt

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26 | Chapter 9
iMusic Examples

Music Example Bank

Major scale and tonality: Eine kleine Nachtmusik, I


(Mozart)
Minor scale and tonality: Toccata in D minor (Bach)
Pentatonic/heptatonic scale and microtonal intervals:
Bhimpalsi (North India)
Tritonic scale: Sleep Song (Hopi lullaby)
Modulation: Eine kleine Nachtmusik (Mozart), I (during
first minute, modulates from
G major to D major)

Texture, monophonic
Dance (zurna and davul), Turkish
IV/12
Traditional
I/52
Debussy, Syrinx
II/36
Gregorian chant, Venite, exsultemus
Domino
Gregorian chant, Whitsunday Mass,
II/37
Alleluia, emitte spiritum
I/19
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 2, Adagio
I/20
Miyazaki, Shimabara No Komoriutta
IV/13
Taos Pueblo Round Dance Song, Native
American Traditional

Chapter 5. Musical Texture


I. Types of Texture
A. Monophony: single-voiced (sung or
instrumental)
1. one line of music
B. Heterophony: melody combined with
ornamented version of itself
1. heard outside Western art music
2. improvisation: music created on the spot
3. folk, jazz, spirituals
C. Polyphony: two or more melodic lines of equal
importance
1. based on counterpoint
D. Homophony: melody with blocks of harmony
1. homorhythm: all voices move in same
rhythm
II. Contrapuntal Devices: Types of Polyphony
A. Imitation: melodic idea presented then restated in
another voice
1. canon: strict imitation
2. round: simplest type of canon (Row, Row,
Row Your Boat)
III. Musical Texture and the Listener
A. Monophonic: single line of melody
B. Homophonic music: focus on melody
1. traditional and popular music
C. Homorhythmic: hymns
D. Polyphonic: experienced listening
Discussion Topics
How composers use texture to build complexity and
sophistication
Compare musical texture with that of various fabrics
How musical texture has changed in different eras
Texture in popular and non-Western musics
Levels of concentration necessary to hear different textures

Texture, polyphonic/simultaneous melodies


I/22
Bach, J. S., Chorale Prelude for Organ,
Jesu, Joy of Mans Desiring, from Herz und
Mund und Tot und Leben
II/23
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango
II/20
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
II/7
Stravinsky, Pastorale
Texture, homophonic
I/6
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
IV/7
Goodbye, Old Paint, American Traditional
II/58
Bach, J. S., Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf,
Chorale
I/35
Dvork, Symphony No. 9 in E minor (New
World), II
I/67
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
I/4
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
II/22
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev
II/20
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
I/8
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26
IV/17
Simple Gifts, American Traditional
Texture, homophonic and homorhythmic
Texture, combined
I/24
Bizet, Larlsienne Suite No. 2, Farandole
Imitation
I/25

Bach, J. S., The Art of Fugue,


Contrapunctus 1

iMusic Examples
Monophonic texture: Kyrie (Hildegard von Bingen)
Monophonic texture: Toccata in D minor, opening
(Bach)

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Teaching Guide | 27
Homophonic texture: Surprise Symphony No. 94, II
(Haydn)
Homorhythmic texture: Alla hornpipe, from Water Music
(Handel)
Heterophonic texture: Los Jilicatas (Peru, panpipes)
Changing texture: Simple Gifts (Shaker hymn)
Polyphonic texture: Brandenburg Concerto No. 1, I
(Bach)
Imitation: Contrapunctus 1, from The Art of Fugue
(Bach)

Chapter 6. Form
I. Structure and Design in Music
A. Form: works structure or shape
1. organizes music
2. repetition and contrast: unity and variety
3. strophic: vocal form, same melody with each
stanza of text
4. variation: only some aspects of music altered
5. improvisation: pieces created spontaneously
II. Two-Part and Three-Part Form
A. Two-part: binary (A-B)
1. statement and departure
B. Three-part: ternary (A-B-A)
1. statement, departure, and return
III. The Building Blocks of Form
A. Theme: main melodic idea
1. motive: smallest fragment of a theme
B. Thematic development: expansion of a theme
1. varied melody, rhythm, harmony
a. repetition: exact or varied
b. sequence: idea restated at higher or lower
pitch
c. call-and-response, responsorial: soloist
and group response
i. early Western church music, African,
Native American, and AfricanAmerican music
d. ostinato: short repeated musical pattern
C. Movement: complete, independent division of a
large-scale work
Discussion Topics
Building a sense of expectation in the listener
Balance and order in art
Conscious formal choices of the artist
Repetition and contrast in all things
Developing formal ideas
Universality of formal procedures in various world
musics

Music Example Bank


Repetition
I/16
I/1
I/29
II/20
Contrast
I/4
II/30
Strophic
IV/23
Variation
I/30
Binary form
IV/6
I/11
I/30
IV/7
I/35
Sequence
I/31
II/65
Motive
I/32
I/23

Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4


Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
Beethoven, String Quartet in F major,
Op. 59, No. 1(Razumovsky), I
Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby) Op. 49, No. 4
Greensleeves, British Traditional
Improvisation
Yankee Doodle, American Traditional
Brahms, Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op.
68, IV
Greensleeves, British Traditional Ternary
form
Goodbye, Old Paint, American Traditional
Dvork, Symphony No. 9 in E minor (New
World), II
Handel, Concerto Grosso in G major, Op. 6,
No. 1, I
Bach, J. S., The Well-Tempered Clavier I,
Prelude No. 1
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, I
Beethoven, String Quartet in C major,
Op. 59, No. 3 (Razumovsky), IV

Motive, rhythmic
I/18
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Dance of the
Youths and Maidens
I/33
Stravinsky, The Soldiers Tale, Soldiers
March
Call and response
II/37
Gregorian chant, Alleluia, emitte spiritum
IV/36
Na solnechnom vskhode, Russian
Traditional
III/62
Porters song, African Traditional, Gabon
(Bawanji tribe)
Responsorial singing
IV/50
Sara Muru, Gwa Ba Na, African
Traditional, Ghana (Kasena jongo)

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28 | Chapter 9
Ostinato
IV/53
II/60
II/16

Carlos, I. C. (Intergalactic
Communications)
Couperin, Les barricades mistrieuses
Prokofiev, Lieutenant Kije, Romance

iMusic Examples
Variation: Pop Goes the Weasel (traditional, UK)
Improvisation: Amazing Grace (traditional hymn)
Strophic form: Lullaby (Brahms)
Binary form: Minuet in D (Anna Magdelena Notebook)
Motive and sequence: Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)
Responsorial: If I Had a Hammer (Pete Seeger)

Chapter 7. Musical Expression:


Tempo and Dynamics
I. The Pace of Music
A. Tempo: rate of speed of the music
1. tempo markings indicated in Italian
a. grave, solemn
b. largo, broad
c. adagio, quite slow
d. andante, walking pace
e. moderato, moderate
f. allegro, fast
g. vivace, lively
h. presto, very fast
2. modifiers
a. molto, very
b. meno, less
c. poco, a little
d. non troppo, not too much
3. change of tempo
a. accelerando, getting faster
b. ritardando, getting slower
c. a tempo, original pace
II. Loudness and Softness
A. Dynamics: denote volume
1. pianissimo (pp), very soft
2. piano (p), soft
3. mezzo piano (mp), moderately soft
4. mezzo forte (mf), moderately loud
5. forte (f), loud
6. fortissimo (ff), very loud
B. Directions to change dynamics
1. crescendo, growing louder
2. decrescendo or diminuendo, growing softer
3. sforzando, accent

III. Tempo and Dynamic as Elements of Musical


Expression
A. Tempo and dynamic markings
1. shape expressive content
2. performer interprets composers intentions
3. indications increased during late eighteenth
and nineteenthth centuries
4. early twentieth-century music precisely
notated
Discussion Topics
Physical reaction of listeners to tempo and dynamics
Emotional reaction to tempo and dynamics
Increased use of expression markings in music over the
ages
Role of performers and conductors in expression of music
Practical questions: how does a performer produce more or
less sound?
Expression in un-notated music (traditional, world)
Music Example Bank
Tempo, grave
I/34
Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C minor
(Pathtique), I
Tempo, largo
I/35
Tempo, adagio
I/6
II/66
I/36
I/67

Dvork, Symphony No. 9 in E minor (New


World), II
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
Bach, C. P. E., Trio Sonata in G major, I
Barber, Adagio for Strings, Op. 9, I
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death

Tempo, andante
IV/23
Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby) Op. 49, No.
4
I/4
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
Tempo, moderato
I/37
Shostakovich, Trio for Violin, Cello, and
Piano, I
II/13
Hindemith, Sonata for Bass Tuba and
Piano, III
Tempo, allegro
I/38
Bach, J. S., Brandenburg Concerto No. 6,
III
I/61
Boccherini, Cello Concerto in B-flat major,
III
I/6
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III

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Teaching Guide | 29
Tempo, vivace
III/26
Brahms, Concerto for Violin and Cello in
A minor, III
Clarke, Sonata for Viola and Piano, II
I/60
I/39
Smetana, The Bartered Bride, Furiant
Tempo, presto
I/40
Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major
(Italian), IV
Tempo, accelerando
I/15
Glire, The Red Poppy, Russian Sailors
Dance
I/42
Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
II/23
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango
Tempo, ritardando
I/16
Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
I/53
Puccini, Gianni Schicchi, O mio babbino
caro
I/43
Smetana, The Moldau
A tempo
I/16
I/57

Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4


Rossini, The Barber of Seville, Largo al
factotum

Dynamics, pianissimo
I/44
Ravel, Bolro (opening, flute)
Dynamics, piano
I/6
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
I/45
Ravel, Bolro (clarinet solo)
I/16
Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
II/20
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Dynamics, mezzo piano
I/46
Ravel, Bolro (oboe damore)
I/63
Faur, Pellas et Mlisande, Sicilienne
Dynamics, mezzo forte
I/47
Ravel, Bolro (French horn)
Dynamics, forte
I/48
Ravel, Bolro (woodwinds)
Dynamics, fortissimo
IV/22
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, IV
(Ode to Joy)
I/49
Ravel, Bolro (conclusion)
II/22
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev
I/3
Strauss, Don Juan
Dynamics, crescendo
II/19
Beethoven, Wellingtons Victory, Op. 91,
Drums and Trumpets
I/24
Bizet, Larlsienne Suite No. 2, Farandole

I/50
I/42

Holst, The Planets, Jupiter


Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2

Dynamics, decrescendo
I/43
Smetana, The Moldau
Dynamics, sforzando
I/14
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances
(Section D)
Debussy, Golliwogs Cakewalk
I/51
iMusic Examples
Tempos:
Adagio: Clarinet Concerto (Mozart)
Andante: Lullaby (Brahms)
Moderato: Fur Elise (Beethoven)
Allegro: Symphony No. 5 (Beethoven)
Presto: William Tell Overture (Rossini)
Dynamics:
Pianissimo: Moonlight Sonata (Beethoven)
Piano: Clarinet Concerto (Mozart)
Forte: Eine kleine Nachtmusik, III (Mozart)
Fortissimo: Ode to Joy (Beethoven)
Crescendo: William Tell Overture (Rossini)
Changing dynamics: Toreador Song, from Carmen
(Bizet)

Chapter 8. Voices and Musical


Instrument Families.
I. Musical Timbre
A. Tone color, sound quality
B. Determined by size, shape, proportions of an
instrument
1. instrument: mechanism that generates
musical vibrations
a. register: low, middle, high
II. The Voice as Instrument
A. Voices range from highest to lowest
1. soprano
2. mezzo-soprano
3. alto (contralto)
4. tenor
5. baritone
6. bass
B. Human voice: model for instrument builders
1. vibrato: slight and rapid variations in pitch
III. The World of Musical Instruments
A. Instruments classified into categories
1. aerophones: sound produced by air
a. flutes, whistles, accordions, bagpipes,
and horns

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30 | Chapter 9
2. chordophones: sound produced from
vibrating string
a. violin, harp, guitar, Chinese hammered
dulcimer, Indian sitar
3. idiophones: produced from the instrument
itself
a. percussion instruments: bells, rattles,
xylophones, cymbals
4. membranophones: sounded from tightly
stretched membranes
a. drum-type instruments
Discussion Topics
The voice as the model for all instruments
The role of womens voices in music
The diversity of world instruments
Music Example Bank
Properties of sound: pitch, timbre, volume, duration
I/52
Debussy, Syrinx
Vocal range, soprano
IV/23
Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby) Op. 49, No.
4
I/53
Puccini, Gianni Schicchi, O mio babbino
caro
II/54
Handel, Samson, Let the bright seraphim
II/55
Purcell, Come, ye sons of art away
IV/17
Simple Gifts, American Traditional
(DeGaetani)
III/70
Villa-Lobos, Bachianas brasileiras No. 5, I
Vocal range, mezzo-soprano
IV/4
Amazing Grace, Traditional hymn
I/54
Bizet, Carmen, Habanera
Vocal range, contralto
I/55
Handel, Messiah, O thou that tellest
Vocal range, tenor
I/56
Verdi, Rigoletto, La donna mobile
II/59
Bach, Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf, Er
kommt, er kommt
II/52
Caccini, Amarilli mia bella
Vocal range, baritone
I/57
Rossini, The Barber of Seville, Largo al
factotum
Vocal range, bass
I/58
Mozart, The Marriage of Figaro, Act II, O
Isis und Osiris
IV/16
Sometimes I Feel like a Motherless Child,
American Traditional (Paul Robeson)

Aerophone (non-Western)
IV/12
Dance (zurna and davul), Turkish Traditional
IV/55
Nakai, Shamans Call (Native American
flute)
IV/50
Sara Muru, Gwa Ba Na, African
Traditional, Ghana (Kasena jongo) (flute =
wui)
III/63
Spring on a Moonlit River, Chinese
Traditional, transverse bamboo flute (titzu)
III/60
Thumri, South Indian Traditional,
transverse flute (bansuri)
Chordophone (non-Western)
IV/56
Sakura, Japanese Traditional (koto)
III/61
Shankar, Bhimpalasi, long-necked lute
(sitar)
III/63
Spring on a Moonlit River, Chinese
Traditional, short-necked lute (pipa)
III/60
Thumri, South Indian Traditional, longnecked lute (vina)
Idiophone (non-Western)
IV/51
Atine, African Traditional, Ghana (Ashanti
kete)
IV/47
Congo Satiaguera, Cuban Traditional
III/62
Porters Song, African Traditional, Gabon
(Bawanji Tribe), resonating block
III/64
Herding Song, African Traditional, Middle
Congo (Kouyou Tribe), rattles and
metallophone
IV/14
Zuni Pueblo Rainbow Dance, Native
American Traditional
IV/58
Sevillanas, Spanish Traditional (maracas)
IV/13
Taos Pueblo Round Dance Song, Native
American Traditional
IV/32
Taruna Jaya, Balinese Traditional
(gamelan)
Membranophone (non-Western)
III/61
Shankar, Bhimpalasi (tabla)
IV/51
Atine, African Traditional, Ghana (Ashanti
kete)
IV/47
Congo Satiaguera, Cuban Traditional
(conga)
IV/12
Dance (Mehter), Turkish Traditional (davul)
IV/57
Generals Victory, Chinese Traditional
IV/50
Sara Muru, Gwa Ba Na, African
Traditional, Ghana (Kasena jongo) (drum =
gungwe)
III/63
Spring on a Moonlit River, Chinese
Traditional, large barrel drum (taku)
IV/13
Taos Pueblo Round Dance Song, Native
American Traditional
III/60
Thumri, South Indian Traditional, pair of
tuned drums (tabla)

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Teaching Guide | 31
iMusic Examples
Soprano: Lullaby (Brahms)
Mezzo-soprano: Amazing Grace (traditional hymn)
Tenor: Tonight, from West Side Story (Bernstein)
Baritone: Toreador Song, from Carmen (Bizet)
Vocal quartet (soprano, alto, tenor, bass): Row, Row, Row
Your Boat
Aerophones: Los Jilicatas (panpipes, Peru); Skye Crofters
(bagpipe, Scotland)
Idiophones: Dougla Dance (steel drums, Trinidad); Tabuh
Kenilu Sawik (gongs, Indonesia)
Chordophones: Avaz of Bayate Esfahan (santur, Iran); In a
Mountain Path (bowed erhu, China)
Membranophones: Gota (drums, Ghana, West Africa);
Bhimpalsi (tabla, North India)

Chapter 9. Western Musical Instruments


I. String Instruments (Chordophones)
A. Bowed string family; core or heart of the
orchestra
1. violin, viola, violoncello (cello), double bass
(contrabass, bass viol)
2. played legato (smoothly, connected) and
staccato (notes short, detached)
3. vibrato: slight variations in pitch by rapid
wrist and finger movement
4. glissando: left hand slides along the string
5. tremolo: rapid repetition of a tone
6. trill: rapid alternation of two adjacent tones
7. double-stopping: playing two strings at once,
creates harmony
8. mute: attachment over the bridge, mutes the
sound
9. harmonics: high-pitch tones
B. Plucked string instruments
1. harp: one of the oldest instruments
a. pitches changed by pedals
b. chords are broken: arpeggios
2. guitar: dates back to Middle Ages
a. acoustic: wood, fretted fingerboard, nylon
strings
b. electric: electronically amplified
3. banjo, mandolin: related to the guitar
II. Woodwind Instruments (Aerophones)
A. Sound produced by air, finger holes change pitch
B. Not always made of wood
C. Flute family: blow across a mouth hole
1. flute (metal), piccolo
D. Oboe and bassoon families: mouthpiece with a
double reed
1. oboe, English horn, bassoon, contrabassoon

E. Clarinet and saxophone families: single-reed


mouthpiece
1. clarinet, bass clarinet, saxophone (metal)
III. Brass Instruments (Aerophones)
A. Cup-shaped mouthpiece attached to metal
tubing, flares at end into a bell
B. Pitch changed by slide or valves, pressure of lips
and breath
1. embouchure: oral mechanism of lips, lower
facial muscles, and jaw
C. Trumpet, French horn, trombone, tuba, cornet,
bugle, fluegelhorn, euphonium, sousaphone
IV. Percussion Instruments (Idiophones and
Membranophones)
A. Pitched instruments
1. timpani, kettledrums: large copper bowls
with calfskin or plastic heads
a. pitch changed by pedals
2. xylophone, marimba: tuned blocks of wood,
played with mallets
a. vibraphone: metal blocks with resonators
producing exaggerated vibrato
b. glockenspiel: set of bells, tuned steel bars
c. celesta: glockenspiel operated by a
keyboard
3. chimes/tubular bells: tuned metal tubes
suspended from a frame, struck with a
hammer
B. Indefinite pitched instruments
1. snare drum (side drum): drum with two
heads, strings run across bottom head
(snares)
2. tenor drum: larger than snare drum, no
snares
3. bass drum: large drum played with large soft
mallet
4. other instruments: tom-tom, tambourine,
castanets, triangle, cymbals, gong, tam-tam
V. Keyboard Instruments
A. Piano: strings struck with hammers
B. Organ: wind instrument
1. air flow to pipes controlled by keyboards and
pedal board
C. Harpsichord: quills pluck metal strings
Discussion Topics
The development of the string instrument family
Types of sound production among woodwind instruments
Sound production on brass instruments
The variety of percussion instruments
Various issues related to specific instruments (physical size
of instrument, lung capacity, etc.)

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32 | Chapter 9
Music Example Bank
String family
I/36
II/30
I/67
III/39
I/8
Violin
I/59
II/28
I/7
II/61
I/12
III/25
IV/44
IV/39
Viola
I/60
I/38
III/4
Violoncello
I/61
III/52
III/26
Double bass
I/62
I/33
Legato
I/10
I/12
Staccato
I/7
II/20
Glissando
I/65

Barber, Adagio for Strings, Op. 9


Beethoven, String Quartet in F major, Op.
59, No. 1 (Razumovsky), I
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
Schoenberg, Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26

I/29
Pizzicato
I/66
I/4
I/12
II/20

Ravel, Tzigane
Beethoven, Serenade in D major, Op. 8, I
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op.
77, III
Corelli, Violin Sonata in A major, Op. 5,
No. 9, Gigue
Prokofiev, Violin Concerto in G minor, II
Tchaikovsky, Violin Concerto in D major,
Op. 35
El Jarabe Tapato, Mexican Traditional
(mariachi)
Olaska, Romany (Gypsy) Traditional
Clarke, Sonata for Viola and Piano, II
Bach, J. S., Brandenburg Concerto No. 6,
III
Mozart, Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and
Viola in E-flat major, I
Boccherini, Cello Concerto in B-flat major,
III
Baker, Sonata for Cello and Piano (1973), II
Brahms, Concerto for Violin and Cello in A
minor, I
Britten, The Young Persons Guide to the
Orchestra
Stravinsky, The Soldiers Tale, Soldiers
March
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 2, Adagio
Prokofiev, Violin Concerto No. 2 in G
minor, II
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major,
Op. 77, III
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Ravel, Rapsodie espagnole, Feria

III/70
Tremolo
III/39
I/50
I/8
Trill
III/25
I/4
I/59

Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre


Dance
Delibes, Sylvia, Pizzicato
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
Prokofiev, Violin Concerto No. 2 in G
minor, II
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Villa-Lobos, Bachianas brasileiras No. 5, I
Schoenberg, Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26
Tchaikovsky, Violin Concerto in D major, I
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II
Ravel, Tzigane

Mute (strings)
I/67
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
Harmonics
I/68
I/59
III/25
Harp
I/63
II/5
I/5
Guitar
IV/46
I/64
IV/43

Ravel, Lventail de Jeanne, Fanfare


Ravel, Tzigane
Tchaikovsky, Violin Concerto in D major, I
Faur, Pellas et Mlisande, Sicilienne
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances
(main theme, B section)
Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker, Act II, Pas de
deux
Crossroads Blues, American Traditional
(steel string; bottleneck guitar)
Rodrigo, Concierto de Aranjuez, I
Trevino, Doctor Time (electric guitar)

Woodwind family
II/1
Bozza, Scherzo for Woodwind Quintet, Op.
48
Flute
II/2
I/52
I/63

Bach, J. S., Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B


minor, Badinerie
Debussy, Syrinx
Faur, Plleas et Mlisande, Sicilienne

Piccolo
II/3

Vivaldi, Concerto for Piccolo in C major, I

Oboe
II/4

Kodly, Hry Jnos, Song

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Teaching Guide | 33
II/53
I/2
English horn
II/5
I/35
Clarinet
I/2
II/6
I/6
II/23
Bass clarinet
II/7
Saxophone
II/7
III/51
II/16
Bassoon
II/8
II/1
I/2

Bach, J. S., Concerto for Violin and Oboe in


C minor, II
Copland, Appalachian Spring, III
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances
(main theme, B section)
Dvork, Symphony No. 9 in E minor (New
World), II
Copland, Appalachian Spring, III
Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody No. 1
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango

Trumpet
II/9
II/19
II/55
IV/44
IV/65
French horn
II/10
I/47
III/11
Trombone
II/11

Timpani
IV/66
II/14
I/14
III/11
Xylophone
II/15
I/29

Stravinsky, Pastorale
Fitzgerald, Smooth Sailing
Prokofiev, Lieutenant Kije, Romance
Bartk, Concerto for Orchestra, II
Bozza, Scherzo for Woodwind Quintet, Op.
48
Copland, Appalachian Spring, III

Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III


Bach, J. S., The Art of Fugue,
Contrapunctus 1
Haydn, Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat
major, III
Beethoven, Wellingtons Victory, Op. 91,
Drums and Trumpets
Purcell, Come, ye sons of art away
El Jarabe Tapato, Mexican Traditional
(mariachi)
Prelude II, Turkish Traditional (Janissary)
Mendelssohn, A Midsummer Nights
Dream, Nocturne
Ravel, Bolro (French horn)
Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale
Grof, Grand Canyon Suite, On the Trail

Hindemith, Sonata for Bass Tuba and


Piano, III

Baritone horn
II/12
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition,
Bydlo

Stravinsky, Pastorale

Contrabassoon
I/28
Mahler, Symphony No. 1 in D major, III
Brass family
II/50
I/25

Tuba
II/13

Vibraphone
III/58
Celesta
II/16
I/47
II/20
Chimes
II/17
II/22

O Canada, Canadian national anthem


Strauss, Burleske in D minor
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances
(Section D)
Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale
Saint-Sans, Le carnaval des animaux,
Fossiles
Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre
Dance
Boulez, Le marteau sans matre, IX
Prokofiev, Lieutenant Kije, Romance
Ravel, Bolro
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Kodly, Hry Jnos, Viennese Musical
Clock
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev

Snare drum and tenor drum


II/19
Beethoven, Wellingtons Victory, Op. 91,
Trumpets and Drums
II/22
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev
II/18
Prokofiev, Cinderella, Apotheosis
I/44
Ravel, Bolro (flute)
Bass drum
III/28
III/11
Triangle
II/20
I/50
II/23
I/3

Verdi, Requiem, Dies irae


Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale
Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango
Strauss, Don Juan

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34 | Chapter 9
Tambourine
II/21
I/15
III/11
II/48
Maracas
IV/58
Cymbals
II/22
I/9
III/11
IV/65
Gong
II/22
Piano
I/16
I/34
IV/62
II/14
II/24
Organ
I/22

Harpsichord
I/30

Chapter 10. Musical Ensembles


Respighi, La boutique fantasque, Tarantella
Glire, The Red Poppy, Russian Sailors
Dance
Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale
Anonymous Villancico, Ru, ru, chu
Sevillanas, Spanish Traditional
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev
Beethoven, The Ruins of Athens, Turkish
March
Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale
Prelude II, Turkish Traditional (Janissary)
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition, Great
Gate of Kiev
Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 1
Beethoven, Piano Sonata in C minor,
(Pathtique), I
Price, Sonata in E minor, II
Strauss, Burleske in D minor
Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1 in Bflat minor, III
Bach, J. S., Chorale prelude for organ, Jesu,
Joy of Mans Desiring, from Herz und
Mund und Tot und Leben
Greensleeves (harpsichord arr.)

iMusic Examples
Strings: Canon in D (Pachelbel)
Woodwinds: Woodwind Quintet, Op. 88, No. 2 (Reicha)
Brass: Contrapunctus I, from The Art of Fugue (Bach)
Percussion (bass drum, cymbals, glockenspiel): Stars and
Stripes Forever (Sousa)
Cornet: Oh, Susannah! (Stephen Foster)
Guitar: Greensleeves (folk song, UK)
Piano: Spring Song (Mendelssohn)
Organ: Toccata in D minor (Bach)
Harpsichord: Minuet in D minor (Anna Magdelena
Notebook)

I. Choral Groups
A. Sung music
1. chorus: large body of singers
2. choir: smaller group of singers
3. a cappella: unaccompanied singers
4. madrigal choir, chamber choir: smaller,
specialized ensembles
II. Instrumental Chamber Ensembles
A. Chamber music: two to twelve players, one
player per part
1. string quartet: two violins, viola, cello
2. duo sonata: soloist with piano
3. piano trio, quartet, and quintet: piano and
string instruments
4. string quintet, sextet, septet, octet
5. woodwind and brass quintets
III. The Orchestra
A. Performing body of diverse instruments
B. Gamelan: gongs, xylophone-like instruments,
and drums
1. Balinese and Javanese
C. Symphony orchestra: Western ensemble of
strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion
1. size increased throughout history; from 20 to
over 100 instruments
2. strings make up two-thirds
IV. Concert, Jazz, and Rock Bands
A. Band: wind and percussion at core
1. earliest bands: military origin
a. accompanied soldiers to war
2. French Revolution and American Civil War
a. John Philip Sousa (18541932): Civil
War band leader and composer
B. Concert band (wind ensemble): 40 to 80 players
C. Marching band: entertain at sporting events,
parades
1. military origins: drum majors (or majorettes),
flags, and rifles
D. Jazz bands: instrumentation varies
1. reed section: various-sized saxophones,
clarinet
2. brass section: trumpets and trombones
3. rhythm section: percussion, piano, double
bass, and electric guitar
E. Rock bands: amplified guitars, percussion, and
synthesizers

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Teaching Guide | 35
V. The Role of the Conductor
A. Group leader for larger ensembles
1. baton: stick used to beat standard metric
patterns
2. conductor interprets music; decides tempo,
dynamics
a. keeps performers together
b. conducting patterns: show emphasis of
strong beats
B. Concertmaster: first-chair violinist
1. decides uniform bowing strokes
VI. The Orchestra in Action
A. Benjamin Britten: Young Persons Guide to the
Orchestra
1. illustrates instrument timbres
2. subtitled Variations and Fugue on a Theme of
Purcell
3. based on dance tune by Henry Purcell (1659
1695)
a. rondeau, triple meter, minor key
4. work closes with a fugue
a. polyphonic form from Baroque era
(16001750)
B. Listening Guide 1: Benjamin Britten, Young
Persons Guide to the Orchestra (1946)
1. Part I: theme; slow, triple meter, minor
tonality
a. stated six times: 1. full orchestra, 2 to 5.
instrument families, 6. full orchestra
2. Part II: 13 short variations
a. illustrate different instrument timbres
3. Part III: Fugue; theme fragment played in
imitation
a. ends with theme heard over the fugue
Discussion Topics
Non-verbal communication in small ensembles
Function of choir and chorus in secular and sacred
performances
The makeup of various choral and chamber groups
Orchestras around the world
The development of the Western orchestra
The role of bands in American society
The different demands of indoor and outdoor performances
Acoustic versus amplified music and the sound difference
The expectations of the audience in classical versus jazz,
rock, or pop concerts
Audience behaviors at classical versus jazz, rock, or pop
concerts
The role of the conductor in ensembles
The role of the conductor as advocate for the ensemble with
patrons and audiences

Music Example Bank


Chamber choir
Billings, Swift as an Indian Arrow Flies
III/45
II/41
Josquin, El grillo
II/25
Morley, Those dainty daffadillies (a
cappella)
II/48
Anonymous Villancico, Ru, ru, chu
Chorus (with orchestra)
IV/41
Battle Hymn of the Republic, American
Traditional
IV/42
The Yellow Rose of Texas, American
Traditional
IV/22
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, IV
(Ode to Joy)
III/7
Haydn, The Creation, Achieved is the
glorious work
III/8
Mozart, Requiem, Dies irae, Quantus
tremor
II/42
Palestrina, Missa in Festis Apostolorum,
Agnus Dei
II/26
Poulenc, Gloria in G major, Laudamus te
Chorus, mens
IV/37
Mirangula, Russian Traditional (a cappella)
Chorus, womens
IV/36
Na solnechnom vskhode, Russian
Traditional
Part song
II/45
II/25
Sonata, duo
II/27
I/60
II/13
Trio, string
II/28
Trio, piano
II/29

Weelkes, Welcome sweet pleasure


Morley, Those dainty daffadillies
Bach, J. S., Flute Sonata No. 2 in E-flat
major, Siciliano
Clarke, Sonata for Viola and Piano, II
Hindemith, Sonata for Bass Tuba and
Piano, III
Beethoven, Serenade in D major, Op. 8, I
Mendelssohn, Piano Trio No. 1 in D minor,
Op. 49, I

Quartet, string
II/30
Beethoven, String Quartet in F major, Op.
59, No. 1(Razumovsky), I
I/23
Beethoven, String Quartet in C major, Op.
59, No. 3 (Razumovsky), IV
Quartet, piano
II/31
Brahms, Piano Quartet in C minor, Op. 60,
No. 3, III

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36 | Chapter 9
Quintet, string
II/32
Schubert, String Quintet in C major, III
Quintet, piano
II/33
Dvork, Piano Quintet in A major, Op. 81,
IV
Quintet, woodwind
II/1
Bozza, Scherzo for Woodwind Quintet, Op.
48
III/67
Carter, Eight Etudes and a Fantasy, Fantasy
Quintet, brass
II/50
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III
Orchestra, Western
I/11
Brahms, Symphony No. 1 in C minor, Op.
68, IV
I/13
Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major
(Italian), I
I/40
Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major
(Italian), IV
I/50
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
Ensemble, Chinese
III/63
Phases of the Moon, Spring on Moonlit
River, Chinese Traditional (pipa, titzu, taku)

Brass quartet: Contrapunctus I, from The Art of Fugue


(Bach)
Woodwind quintet: Quintet, Op. 88, No. 2 (Reicha)
Orchestra:
Baroque orchestra: Alla hornpipe, from Water Music
(Handel)
Classical orchestra: Surprise Symphony No. 94 (Haydn)
Romantic orchestra: Ride of the Valkyries (Wagner)
Late Romantic orchestra: March, from The Nutcracker
(Tchaikovsky)
Contemporary orchestra: Interlude, from Rappaccinis
Daughter (Catn)
Musical theater orchestra: Tonight, from West Side Story
(Bernstein)
Other Western Ensembles:
Concert band: Stars and Stripes Forever (Sousa)
Brass band: Battle Hymn of the Republic (Civil War song)
Jazz band: When the Saints Go Marching In (traditional,
America)
World and Traditional Music Ensembles:
Mexican mariachi: El Cihualteco
Chinese ensemble: In a Mountain Place
North Indian ensemble: Bhimpalsi
Peruvian ensemble: Los Jilicatas
Indonesian gamelan: Tabuh Kenilu Sawik

Ensemble, North Indian classical


III/61
Shankar, Bhimpalasi (sitars, tabla)
Gamelan
IV/32
Band, brass
IV/40

Chapter 11. Style and Function of Music in Society


Taruna Jaya, Balinese Traditional
Dixie, American Traditional

Band, concert
II/34
Holst, Suite No. 2 in F for Band, I
Band, marching
II/35
Sousa, The Stars and Stripes Forever
Band, jazz
III/51
III/49

Fitzgerald, Smooth Sailing


Preservation Hall Jazz Band, When the
Saints Go Marching In, American
Traditional

iMusic Examples
Choral Groups:
Chamber choir: Simple Gifts (Shaker hymn)
Chorus: America (patriotic song)
Mens chorus: El grillo ( Josquin)
Chamber Groups:
String quartet: Emperor Quartet, Op. 76, No. 3 (Haydn)

I. Music Serves Different Functions in Different


Societies
A. Genres: categories of repertoire
1. sacred music: religious or spiritual functions
2. secular music: outside religious context
B. Form: internal structure of a work
C. Medium: specific group that performs a work
D. Titles: indicate genre and key
1. opus number: cataloguing system
E. Aesthetic judgment varies from culture to culture
F. Oral transmission: preservation of music without
written notation
G. Western art music, classical, notated
II. The Concept of Style
A. Style: creators personal manner of expression
1. individualized treatment of elements of
music
2. Western music: melody-oriented with
underlying harmonies
3. music of other cultures: foreign to Western
ears
a. octave divided differently

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Teaching Guide | 37
b. complex rhythmic procedures and textures
shorter: a. different musical systems
III. Musical Styles in History
A. Historical periods: distinct stylistic
characteristics
1. styles: language of the artists
2. artists react to artistic, political, economic,
religious, and philosophical forces
B. Historical periods: approximate dates accepted
by scholars
1. Middle Ages (4001450)
a. Early Christian (400600)
b. Gregorian chant (600850)
c. Romanesque (8501150)
d. Gothic (11501450)
2. Renaissance (14501600)
3. Baroque (16001750)
4. Classical (17501825)
5. Romantic (18201900)
6. Post-Romantic and Impressionist (1890
1915)
7. twentieth century and beyond (1900present)
Discussion Topics
Roles of music in various cultures
Context of musical performances
Aesthetic judgments of music around the world
Oral versus notated transmission
The phenomenon of crossover in music
Music as part of work, worship, and entertainment
Ancient use of music versus modern
Music for battle
iMusic Examples
Historical Style Periods
Medieval: Kyrie (Hildegard)
Renaissance: El grillo (Josquin); Inviolata, integra et casta
es Maria (Josquin)
Baroque: Rondeau (Mouret); Minuet in D (Anna
Magdelena Notebook); Endlich, endlich wird mein
Joch, from Cantata 51 (Bach); Concerto in C major
for 2 Trumpets, I (Vivaldi)
Classical: Surprise Symphony No. 94 (Haydn); Eine kleine
Nachtmusik, I (Mozart); Tuba mirum, from Requiem
(Mozart); Pathtique Sonata, I (Beethoven)
Romantic: Spring Song (Mendelssohn); Ride of the
Valkyries (Wagner); ses Death, from Peer Gynt Suite
(Grieg); Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4 (Chopin)
Early twentieth century: Jeux de vagues, from La mer
(Debussy); The Rite of Spring (Stravinsky)
Later twentieth century: Interlude, from Rappaccinis
Daughter (Catn); Lux aeterna (Ligeti)

Sacred (religious) music: Hallelujah Chorus, from


Messiah (Handel); Amazing Grace (traditional hymn,
UK)
Secular (nonreligious) music: Moonlight Sonata
(Beethoven); Toreador Song, from Carmen (Bizet)
Popular music:When the Saints Go Marching In (Jazz
band); If I Had a Hammer (Pete Seeger)
Crossover: Tonight, from West Side Story (Bernstein)
Traditional music: Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (AfricanAmerican spiritual); Greensleeves (folk song, UK);
My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean (folk song); Los
Jilicatas (Peru); Sleep Song (Hopi lullaby, Native
American)
Suggested Reading for Part 1
Baines, Anthony, ed. Musical Instruments Through the
Ages. New York: Walker, 1976.
Bernstein, Leonard. The Joy of Music. Pompton Plains, NJ:
Amadeus Press, 2004.
Bekker, Paul. The Orchestra. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1963.
Belt, Philip R., et al. The Piano. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1988.
Boyden, David D., et al. Violin Family. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1989.
Campbell, Murray, et al. Musical Instruments: History,
Technology and Performance of Instruments of Western
Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Clough, John, Joyce Conley and Claire Boge. Scales,
Intervals, Keys, Triads, Rhythm, and Meter. 3rd edition.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.
Copland, Aaron. What to Listen for in Music. Revised
edition with a forward and epilogue by Alan Rich;
Introduction by William Schuman. New York: Signet
Classic, 2011; first printing 1957.
Kivy, Peter. Sound Sentiment: An Essay on the Musical
Emotions Including the Complete Text of The Corded
Shell. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Manoff, Tom. The Music Kit. 4th ed. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 2001.
Marcuse, Sybil. Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive
Dictionary. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1975.
Meyer, Leonard B. Emotion and Meaning in Music.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.
Oliveros, Pauline. Deep Listening: A Composers Sound
Practice. New York: iUniverse, 2005.
Ratner, Leonard G. Music, The Listeners Art. 3rd ed. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1977.
Remnant, Mary. Musical Instruments of the West. New
York: St. Martins Press, 1978.
Sachs, Curt. The History of Musical Instruments. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1968.

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38 | Chapter 9
Sacks, Oliver. Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain,
Revised and Expanded Edition. New York: Vintage
Books, 2008.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Musical
Instruments. London: Macmillan, 1985.
Scholes, Percy A. Music Appreciation: Its History and
Technics. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, [1935]
2007.
Slonimsky, Nicolas. The Listeners Companion: The Great
Composers and Their Works. New York: Schirmer
Trade Books, 2002.
Taylor, Deems. Music to My Ears. New York: Simon and
Schuster, 1949.
Tenzer, Michael and John Roeder. Analytical and CrossCultural Studies in World Music. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2011.
Tovey, Donald. The Forms of Music. New York: Meridian,
1956.

PART 2: MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE MUSIC


Prelude 2. The Culture of the Middle Ages and
Renaissance
Overview
The chronological survey of music begins with the Middle
Ages, an era that extended some one thousand years. The culture of the age was dominated by the Church; monasteries
and convents were, along with the earliest universities, important centers of learning and the preservation of knowledge.
The sacred forms of music, the Mass and motet, are presented, beginning with Gregorian chant in the Mass and then
with the early polyphonic forms of organum and the thirteenth-century motet. Life in the medieval monastery and
convent is highlighted, as is the work of the abbess Hildegard
of Bingen. A survey of secular music includes the minstrel
tradition (troubadour, trobairitz, trouvre) and the French Ars
Nova motet, as well as early instruments and instrumental
dance music.
The next era, the Renaissance, is best viewed as an era of
intellectual awareness of past cultures and learning. Its secular focus is highlighted in a discussion of the philosophical,
intellectual, and artistic developments of the era. The cultural
and musical consequences of New World explorations are
examined, as well as the various roles musicians played in
Western society. Sacred music is presented, with examples
of the Mass and the motet. The organization of the Mass is
outlined, including the structure of the movements of the
Ordinary and the effects of the Council of Trent on music for
the Mass. Secular music making at court, in the city, and at
home is highlighted through the Renaissance chanson, the

Italian and English madrigal, and instrumental dances. The


role of women as professional singers in Italy is emphasized,
as is one of its most famous ensembles. The Venetian polychoral motet is discussed as a transitional style between the
Renaissance and the Baroque eras.
Goals for students in Part 2
Middle Ages:
To examine the spiritual function of early written
music (chant)
To recognize the parallel advancements in music
(polyphony) and architecture
To realize the importance of patronage to the arts
throughout history
To recognize the influences of other religions on the
early Christian church
To view the Middle Ages as a time of ascent of
Christianity rather than as the Dark Ages
To understand the varied roles music played in society
in earlier times
To appreciate the contributions of women to early
sacred and secular music and their elevated status in
society
To comprehend the broad consequences of crosscultural interactions in early times
Renaissance:
To understand that the era is not entirely one of rebirth
but of a new awareness
To recognize the major institutions of society that
fostered music and music making
To understand the era as one with an increasingly
secular focus
To consider the cultural interactions between the Old
and New Worlds during the age of exploration
To recognize the significant role women played as
professional performers during the era
To perceive relationships between texts and music
settings
To examine the relationships between the invention of
printing and literacy
Discussion Topics
Medieval:
Cultural roots of modern artistic traditions
Structure of feudal society
Role of monasteries and convents in the preservation of
knowledge
View of women in chivalric society
Renaissance:
Secularisms of society

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Teaching Guide | 39
The effects of printing on society
The force of humanism
Impressions and interactions of distant cultures
Musicians in society; rise of musical literacy

Chapter 12. Sacred Music in the Middle Ages


I. Liturgy: Set Structure of Christian Church Service
A. Pope Gregory the Great (r. 590604) codified
church music
B. Gregorian chant (plainchant, plainsong)
1. vocal monophony, nonmetric, sung in Latin,
conjunct melody
2. over 3,000 melodies anonymously composed
3. text settings: syllabic, neumatic, melismatic
4. early chant: handed down through oral
tradition
5. notated by neumes: square notes on four-line
staff
6. modes: precede major and minor scales
II. The Mass: Reenactment of the Sacrifice of Christ
A. Most solemn ritual of the Catholic church
1. Proper: variable portions
2. Ordinary: fixed portions
3. offices: not part of the Mass, worship in
monasteries
III. A Gregorian Melody: Kyrie
A. Kyrie: first in the Ordinary
1. Greek prayer in three parts
2. often sung antiphonally
B. Listening Guide 2: Gregorian Chant, Kyrie (10th
century)
1. conjunct, nonmetric, monophonic, a cappella
2. Three phrases, each sung three times:
represents the trinity
IV. Life in the Medieval Cloister
A. Life devoted to the Catholic church
1. religious seclusion devoted to prayer,
scholarship
2. available to men and women
V. The Music of Hildegard of Bingen
A. Hildegard of Bingen (10981179)
1. poet and prophet
2. daughter of a noble couple
3. given to the church as a tithe
4. music resembles Gregorian chant
B. Listening Guide 3: Hildegard of Bingen,
Alleluia, O virga mediatrix (Alleluia, O
mediating branch), (late twelfth century)
1. A cappella choir and soloist

2. Mass Proper: plainchant celebrating the


Virgin Mary
3. expressive leaps of a fifth: holy womb,
flower, and chastity
VI. The Rise of Polyphony
A. Polyphony: combination of two or more
simultaneous musical lines
1. regular meters
2. requires more exact notational system
3. composer derived from Latin componere, to
put together
B. Organum: earliest polyphony, twelfth and
thirteenth centuries
1. second voice added to plainchant
2. Lonin (fl. 1150c. 1201): composer at
Cathedral of Notre Dame
a. compiled Great Book of Organum
(Magnus liber organi)
3. Protin (fl. c. 1200): Lonins successor
a. expanded organum to three, four, or more
voices
C. Listening Guide 4: Notre Dame School, Gaude
Maria virgo (Rejoice Mary, virgin) (early
thirteenth century)
1. probably composed by Protin
2. prayer in praise of the Virgin Mary
3. three-part polyphony, alternates with
monophonic chant
4. upper two voices melismatic, in rhythmic
mode
a. rhythmic mode: fixed pattern of long and
short notes
5. third voice sustained below
VII. The Early Medieval Motet
A. Texts added to upper voices of organum
1. motet: mot is French for word
2. sacred and secular texts combined
Discussion Topics
Modal versus tonal music
Role of music in the Mass
Importance of the rise of polyphony
Development of music notation
Influence of Judaism on the early Christian church
Religious life in the Middle Ages
The role of women in the Christian church
Music Example Bank
II/36

Psalm 64, Venite, exsultemus Domino,


plainsong, Gregorian chant, syllabic text
setting, nonmetric, Psalm

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40 | Chapter 9
II/37

II/38
IV/11
IV/67

Whitsunday Mass, Alleluia, emitte spiritum,


plainsong, Gregorian chant, melismatic text
setting, Mass, nonmetric, responsorial
singing
Organum, Tu patris sempiternus et filius
Jewish cantorial music, Ribono Shel Olom
Byzantine chant, Alleluia

iMusic Example
Monophonic chant: Hildegard: Kyrie

Chapter 13. Secular Music in the Middle Ages


I. Medieval Minstrels
A. Minstrels
1. wandering actor-singers
2. versatile entertainers
B. Troubadours and trouvres
1. French poet-musicians
2. court musicians
3. members of aristocracy and royalty
4. poems: chivalry, unrequited love, political
and war songs, Crusades
5. Minnesingers: German counterpart
*II. A Troubadour Chanson
*A. Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (c. 11551207)
*1. courtly troubadour for marquis of Montferrat
*B. Listening Guide 5: Raimbaut de Vaqueiras,
Kalenda Maya (The First of May) (late twelfth
century)
*1. estampie: troubadour dance song
*2. six-stophe poem in Provenal
*a. love song to Beatrice, Marquise of
Montferrat
*b. return of spring; courtly love
*3. instrumental accompaniment: guitar, rebec,
nakers
*4. strophic: same melody for each stanza
C. Listening Guide 6: Anonymous, Sumer is icumen
in (Summer is come) (c. 1250)
1. six-voice, a cappella round
2. two voices repeat bass pattern
3. upper voices: two-voice, then four-voice
round
a. long-short-long-short rhythmic pattern
*4. Middle English text
III. The French Ars nova
A. New musical style, early fourteenth-century
France, then Italy
1. significant developments in rhythm, meter,
harmony, counterpoint, and notation

2. more refined and complex than Ars antiqua


(old art)
3. secular themes
B. A Chanson by Machaut: Guillaume de Machaut
(c. 13001377)
1. foremost composer-poet; also cleric
2. worked at French courts
3. sacred and secular compositions
a. favored chanson: courtly love poems
b. poetic forms: rondeau, ballade, and
virelai
C. Listening Guide 7: Machaut, Puis quen oubli
(Since I am forgotten) (mid-fourteenth century)
1. three-voice, a cappella polyphonic
chanson
2. low range: male voices
3. slow, syncopated rhythm
4. text: rondeau by Machaut
IV. Early Instrumental Music
A. Instruments supported vocal music
1. accompanied singers
2. instrumental arrangements of vocal works
3. prominent in dance music: rhythm
B. Music improvised: not notated
C. Some instruments originated in Middle East
D. Soft (bas), indoor instruments
1. recorder, pipe, lute, harp, psaltery, hammered
dulcimer, rebec, vielle
E. Loud (haut), outdoor instruments
1. tournaments, processions
2. shawm, sackbut
F. Other instruments
1. crumhorn, cornetto
2. percussion: tabor, nakers
G. Organs
1. church organs
a. performer; second person to pump
bellows
2. small organs: portative and positive
Discussion Topics
Role of secular musicians in court
Wandering minstrels and dissemination of regional news
events
Women in secular music
Roles of secular music in society
Influences of Middle Eastern culture on Western
music
Mixture of secular and sacred texts in motet
Development of formsstrophic, isorhythmic
Early instruments as precursors of modern ones
The issue of using authentic instruments in recording
(performance practice)

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Teaching Guide | 41
Music Example Bank
II/39

IV/12
IV/57

Machaut, Nesque on porroit les estoiles


nombrer, haut instruments (shawm), bas
instruments (vielle)
Dance (Mehter ensemble), Turkish
Traditional
Generals Victory, Chinese Traditional
(military music)

iMusic Examples
Eastern influences on Western music: Avaz of Bayate
Esfahan (Iranian music); In a Mountain Path (Chinese
music)
Canonic form: Row, Row, Row Your Boat
Hildegard: Kyrie
Call to prayer (Adhan): Blessings on the Prophet

Chapter 14. Renaissance Sacred Music


I. Renaissance Style
A. Golden age of a cappella style
1. imitative polyphony
2. harmony: fuller chords, 3rds and 6ths
3. carefully controlled dissonance
4. duple meter
B. Early Renaissance (14501520)
1. Belgium, northern France: *Du Fay, Josquin
C. Later Renaissance (15201600)
1. Italy: Palestrina, *Gabrieli
II. The Early Renaissance Mass
A. Ordinary, fixed portion, set to music
1. Kyrie
2. Gloria
3. Credo
4. Sanctus
5. Agnus Dei
B. Cantus firmus (fixed melody)
1. entire mass based on one melody
2. Gregorian chant or popular song
*III. Du Fay and the Cantus Firmus Mass
*A. Guillaume Du Fay (c. 13971474)
*1. Franco-Flemish composer
*2. career in Italy and France
*3. well-defined melodies; clear-cut rhythms
*B. Listening Guide 8: Du Fay, Lhomme arm Mass
(The Armed Man Mass), Kyrie (1460s)
*1. four-part, a cappella chorus
*2. cantus firmus: Lhomme arm, popular tune
*3. polyphonic, but not imitative

*4. three sections: slow triple meter, duple, triple


meter
*5. harmony: medieval, and fuller 3rds and 6ths
of Renaissance
*IV. The Motet in the Renaissance
*A. Motet: became sacred form
*1. single Latin text
*2. used in the Mass
*3. praise of the Virgin Mary
*4. three, four, or more voices of equal
importance
*5. cantus firmus: chant or popular song
V. Josquin des Prez and the Motet
A. Josquin des Prez (c. 14501521)
1. northern French composer
2. Italian court positions; papal choir in Rome
3. humanism: expressive harmony, serene
melodies
4. sacred and secular compositions
B. Listening Guide 9: Josquin, Ave Maria . . . virgo
serena (Hail Mary . . . gentle virgin) (1480s)
1. Latin motet
2. four-voice, a cappella choir
3. varied combinations of voices and textures
VI. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation
A. Reformation: Protestant Revolt
1. Martin Luther (14831546): Ninety-Five
Theses, 1517
a. Augustinian monk
b. excommunicated by Catholic church
2. mass in vernacular
3. hymns sung communally
B. Counter-Reformation: Catholic church response
1. recapture loyalty of people: accessible music
2. Council of Trent (15451563) concerns
a. embellishments to Gregorian chant
b. objected to certain instruments in church
c. use of popular songs in Masses
d. secular spirit in sacred music
e. irreverent attitude of church musicians
f. complex polyphony obscured the text
3. Council favored pure vocal style
a. simplicity, clarity
b. respected integrity of sacred texts
c. encourage piety
VII. Palestrina and the Pope Marcellus Mass
A. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 15251594)
1. Italian composer, organist, choirmaster
2. worked at St. Peters in Rome and Sistine
Chapel Choir
3. mostly sacred compositions; over 100
Masses

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42 | Chapter 9
4. pure, a cappella, vocal polyphony
B. Listening Guide 10: Palestrina, Pope Marcellus
Mass, Gloria (1567)
1. six-part, a cappella male choir
2. monophonic opening
3. homorhythmic and polyphonic textures
follow
4. clear declamation of the text
5. full, consonant harmony
Discussion Topics

B.
C.

D.

Church rituals and calendar


Mass ordinary versus mass proper
Reasons for dominance of a cappella singing in churches
Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and music
Composition techniques in Renaissance: cantus firmus
E.
Music Example Bank
II/42

Palestrina, Missa in Festis Apostolorum I,


Agnus Dei, a cappella, Mass movement,
Renaissance polyphony

Chapter 15. Renaissance Secular Music


I. Music in Court and City Life
A. Professional musicians: court and civic festivities
B. Merchant class: music-making in the home
C. Women in music
1. music education: well-bred women
2. women achieved fame as professional singers
D. Important genres: chanson and madrigals
II. The Chanson
A. Favored genre at Burgundian courts throughout
sixteenth century
1. three or four voices
2. courtly love
3. freer poetic structures
4. preeminent composers: *Du Fay, Josquin
*B. Listening Guide 11: Josquin, Mille regretz (A
thousand regrets) (1520)
*1. four-voice, a cappella French chanson
*2. through-composed, four-line love poem
*3. homorhythmic and polyphonic textures
*4. modal harmony: expresses sadness
*5. syllabic, with melisma on regretz
III. The Italian Madrigal
A. Secular vocal composition for three to eight
voices
1. flourished at Italian courts

2. short poems: lyric or reflective character


3. music enhanced poetry
4. word painting: music depicts emotional
words
a. weeping, sighing, trembling, etc.
5. instruments double or substitute voices
Early madrigal (c. 152550)
Later madrigal (15801620)
1. extends into Baroque era
2. rich chromatic harmony, vocal virtuosity
3. Claudio Monteverdi: transitional composer
Jacques Arcadelt (c. 15071568)
1. Franco-Flemish composer; early madrigalist
2. worked in Italy and France
3. secular compositions: chansons, madrigals
4. sacred compositions: Masses, motets
5. simpler, lyrical style
Listening Guide 12: Arcadelt, Il bianco e dolce
cigno (The white and sweet swan) (1538)
1. four-voice, a cappella madrigal
2. through-composed 10-line poem
3. lyrical, conjunct melody
4. mostly homophonic, consonant, full harmony
5. emotional words: dissonance, chromaticism,
melisma, repetition

IV. The English Madrigal


A. Flourished during Elizabethan era (15581603)
1. Englished Italian madrigals
2. less serious, lighter texts
*3. composers: Thomas Morley (15571603),
Thomas Weelkes (c. 15751623), John
Farmer
B. John Farmer (c. 15701603)
1. English composer, organist
2. composed only one madrigal collection
3. light-hearted style, clever word painting
C. Listening Guide 13: Farmer, Fair Phyllis (1599)
1. four-voice, a cappella English madrigal
2. dancelike, lively rhythms
3. varied textures
4. word painting: all alone, and up and down
V. Instrumental Dance Music
A. Sixteenth century: purely instrumental music
developed
1. printing: published music readily available
2. books of dances for solo instruments or small
ensembles
3. instrumentation not specified: determined by
occasion
4. percussion parts not notated: improvised
5. dance types: pavane, saltarello, galliard,
allemande, ronde

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Teaching Guide | 43
B. Tielman Susato (c. 15151571)
1. Flemish composer, instrumentalist, printer
2. Danserye: popular instrumental dance
collection (1551)
C. Listening Guide 14: Susato, Three Dances
(1551)
1. three rondes, each in binary form (A-A-B-B)
2. repeated sections: improvised
embellishments
3. dances flow from one to the next
4. duple meter, homophonic texture
5. consonant harmony; Ronde 2, modal
6. performed by loud wind band
a. shawm, sackbut, cornetto, tabor,
tambourine
D. From the Renaissance to the Baroque
1. humanistic spirit
2. sought expressive means
3. shift to single-line music
*VI. Giovanni Gabrieli and Instrumental Music in Venice
*A. Venice: important musical center by end of
sixteenth century
*1. major seaport; at crossroads of trade with the
East
*B. Venetian style
*1. multiple choirs of voices and instruments
*2. antiphonal: groups play in alternation
*3. influenced composers all over Europe
*C. Giovanni Gabrieli (c. 15571612)
*1. composer and organist
*2. worked at St. Marks in Venice
*3. sacred and secular compositions
*4. instrumental ensemble music; polychoral
works
*5. first to indicate dynamics; specify specific
instruments
*D. Listening Guide 15: Gabrieli, Canzona septimi
toni (1597)
*1. instrumental canzona: sectional work
*2. two instrumental groups: antiphonal style
*3. shifting meters: duple and triple
*4. mostly homophonic
Discussion Topics
Rise of amateur music making
Women as professional and amateur performers
Relationship between texts and music
Courtly versus popular texts
Music and Ceremony
Simplification of musical style: polyphonic to
homophonic
The Gabrieli family in Venice
Byzantine influence on Venetian music

Music Example Bank


Secular vocal music
Josquin, El grillo, chamber choir,
II/41
Renaissance instruments (recorders, lute,
viola da gamba), frottola
I/48
Anonymous Spanish villancico, Ru, ru,
chu, chamber choir with instruments
(recorders, tambourine), syncopation
II/44
Lassus, O vin en vigne, Renaissance
chanson, a cappella singing
II/40
Marenzio, La bella ninfa mia, Italian
madrigal, word painting, a cappella singing
II/25
Morley, Those dainty daffadillies, English
madrigal, a cappella singing, refrain
II/45
Weelkes, Welcome sweet pleasure, English
madrigal, word painting, Renaissance
instruments (recorders, viola da gamba,
lute, harpsichord)
Dance and instrumental music
II/46
Praetorius, Terpsichore, Courante, loud
instruments (shawm, cornetto, sackbut,
percussion),courante
II/47
Praetorius, Terpsichore, Volte, soft
instruments (lute, viola da gamba, recorder,
percussion),volte
I/30
Traditional, Greensleeves, harpsichord,
embellishment, variation, binary form
II/49
Gabrieli, Hodie Christus natus est,
antiphonal style, polychoral motet, cori
spezzati
iMusic Examples:
Ceremonial music: Hassler: Laudate Dominum
Josquin: El grillo (The Cricket)
Suggested Reading for Part 2
Suggested Reading for Chapters 12 and 13
Apel, Willi. Gregorian Chant. Bloomington, IN: Indiana
University Press, 1960.
Hiley, David. Western Plainchant: A Handbook. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1995.
Hoppin, Richard H. Medieval Music. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1978.
Knighton, Tess, and David Fallows, eds. Companion to
Medieval and Renaissance Music. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1998.
McKinnon, James, ed. Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Music and Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1991.
Page, Christopher. Voices and Instruments of the Middle
Ages: Instrumental Practice and Songs in France,

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44 | Chapter 9
11001300. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1986.
Reese, Gustave. Music in the Middle Ages: With an
Introduction on Music of Ancient Times. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1968.
Seay, Albert. Music in the Medieval World. 2nd ed.
Englewood Cliffs: NJ: Prentice Hall, 1975.
Strohm, Reinhard, and Bonnie J. Blackburn, eds. Music as
Concept and Practice in the Late Middle Ages. New
York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Treitler, Leo. With Voice and Pen: Coming to Know
Medieval Song and How it Was Made. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2007
Wilson, David F. Music of the Middle Ages: Style and
Structure. New York: Schirmer, 1990.
Yudkin, Jeremy. Music in Medieval Europe. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Suggested Reading for Chapters 14 and 15
Arnold, Denis. Giovanni Gabrieli and the Music of the
Venetian High Renaissance. Reprinted with
corrections. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
. Monteverdi Madrigals. BBC Music Guides.
London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1967.
Atlas, Allan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western
Europe, 14001600. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1998.
Brown, Howard M., and Louise K. Stein. Music in the
Renaissance. 2nd ed. Upper Sadle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1999.
Brown, Howard M., and Stanley Sadie, eds. Performance
Practice: Music Before 1600. Vol. 1. The
Norton/Grove Handbooks in Music. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1990.
Carter, Tim. Music in Late Renaissance and Early Baroque
Italy. London: B. T. Batsford, 1992.
Fallows, David. Dufay. New York: Vintage, 1987.
Fenlon, Iain, ed. The Renaissance, from the 1470s to the
End of the 16th Century. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1989.
Kelly, Thomas Forrest. Early Music: A Very Short
Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press,
2011.
Knighton, Tess, and David Fallows, eds. Companion to
Medieval and Renaissance Music. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1998.
Lockwood, Lewis, ed. Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass.
Norton Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1975.
Lowinsky, Edward, ed. Josquin Desprez. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1976.
Murray, Russell E., Jr., Susan Forscher Weiss and Cyntia J.
Cyrus. Music Education in the Middle Ages and the

Renaissance. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University


Press, 2010.
Ongaro, Giulio Maria. Music of the Renaissance. Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
Perkins, Leeman L. Music in the Age of the Renaissance.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.
Reese, Gustave. Music in the Renaissance. Revised edition.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1959.
Reese, Gustave, et al. The New Grove High Renaissance
Masters: Josquin, Palestrina, Lassus, Byrd, Victoria.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984.
Roche, Jerome. The Madrigal. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1990.
Romanek, Trudee. Great Ideas of the Renaissance. New
York: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2009.
Rothenberg, David J. The Flower of Paradise: Marian
Devotion and Secular Song in Medieval and
Renaissance Music. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2011.
Strohm, Reinhard. The Rise of European Music, 1380
1500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Tomlinson, Gary. Monteverdi and the End of the
Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1987.

PART 3: THE BAROQUE ERA


Prelude 3. The Baroque Spirit
Overview
The Baroque era is introduced as a turbulent time of change,
in politics, science, and the arts. The new musical style of the
Baroque is discussed in detail, focusing on the origins of
monody and its manifestations in the developing genre of
opera and on the harmonic structures (leaning toward major
and minor tonality) and rhythmic/melodic characteristics of
the new style. The importance of virtuosity and improvisation, especially in realizing a figured bass, is noted, along
with the expressive element manifest in the doctrine of the
affections. The role of women as performers and composers
is summarized, as is the increased interest by Westerners in
faraway cultures.
Goals for students in Part 3
To understand the state of culture, politics, science, and
learning during the Baroque era
To comprehend the goals of the Camerata in
developing monody
To appreciate the significance of the origins of opera
and the resulting new style of music

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Teaching Guide | 45
To perceive the beginnings of modern tonality systems,
modern forms, and melodic structures
To understand the doctrine of affections as an
expressive element in music, tied to the text
Discussion Topics
Expression of emotion in Baroque arts
Music at court and at home
Music as a vehicle for religious expression
The changing role of women in music
Importance of text versus music
Foundations of modern tonality and forms
Expressive devices in early Baroque music
Music Example Bank
I/38

I/17

II/52

I/31
II/54

II/56

II/57

Bach, J. S., Brandenburg Concerto No. 6,


III, rhythm/bass line, Baroque; melody,
continuous
Bach, J. S., Chromatic Fantasia and Fugue
in D minor, harmony, Baroque;
tonic/dominant, opposition of
Caccini, Amarilli mia bella, monody, stile
rappresentivo; improvisation, Baroque;
thorough-bass instruments
Handel, Concerto Grosso in G major, Op. 6,
No. 1, terraced dynamics
Handel, Samson, Let the bright seraphim,
affections, doctrine of the; word painting;
melody,Baroque
Monteverdi, Lincoronazione di Poppea,
Innocente, rhythm, Baroque; opera,
Baroque
Monteverdi, Lincoronazione di Poppea,
Speranza, melody, Baroque; opera,
Baroque

iMusic Examples
J. S., Jesu, Joy of Mans Desiring
Monteverdi: Lament of the Nymph
Handel: O thou that tellest good tidings, from
Messiah
Suggested Reading for Prelude 3
Anderson, Nicholas. Baroque Music: From Monteverdi to
Handel. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.
Bianconi, Lorenzo. Music in the Seventeenth Century.
Translated by David Bryant. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1987.
Blume, Friedrich. Renaissance and Baroque Music: A
Comprehensive Survey. Translated by M. D. Herter

Norton. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1967.


Brown, Howard, and Stanley Sadie. Performance Practice.
Volume II: Music after 1600. The Norton/Grove
Handbooks on Music. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1990.
Buelow, George, ed. The Late Baroque Era: From the
1680s to 1740. Music and Society. Englewood Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.
Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music in the Baroque Era: From
Monteverdi to Bach. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1947.
Donington, Robert. Baroque Music: Style and Performance.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1982.
Hill, John Walter. Baroque Music: Music in Western
Europe, 15801750. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 2005.
Palisca, Claude V. Baroque Music. 3rd ed. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
Strunk, Oliver, ed. Source Readings in Music History: The
Baroque Era. Rev.ed. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1998.
Price, Curtis, ed. The Early Baroque Era: From the Late
16th Century to the 1660s. Music and Society.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.
Sadie, Julie Anne, ed. Companion to Baroque Music. New
York: Schirmer, 1990.
Schulenberg, David. Music of the Baroque. 2nd ed. New
York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Stauffer, George B., ed. The World of Baroque Music: New
Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
2006.
Wood, Caroline and Graham Sadler. French Baroque
Opera: A Reader. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 2000.

Chapter 16. Baroque Opera and Its Components


I. The Components of Opera
A. Opera: large-scale sung drama combining vocal
and instrumental music, poetry and drama, acting
and pantomime, scenery and costumes
1. recitative moves plot and action of opera
forward
a. declamatory vocal style that imitates
natural inflections of speech
b. recitative secco: accompanied by basso
continuo
c. recitative accompagnato: accompanied by
the orchestra
2. arias: highly emotional and lyrical songs
a. da capo arias are in ternary form (A-B-A)
3. duets, trios, quartets, and sung commentary
by chorus may also be included

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46 | Chapter 9
4. orchestra performs overture (introductory
number), and sinfonias (interludes)
5. libretto: text or scripts of the opera
a. written by the librettist
6. early opera based on Greek mythology
II. Monteverdi and Early Baroque Opera
A. Claudio Monteverdi (15671643)
*1. born in Cremona, Italy
*2. transitional composer: Renaissance-style
madrigals, Baroque operas
*3. new emotional intensity
B. The Coronation of Poppea
*1. original music lost; this version by Pietro
Francesco Cavalli (16021676)
*2. Roman history: Nero plots to depose his
wife, Ottavia, with his courtesan mistress,
Poppea
*3. public performance in Venice, no longer
limited to palaces
*C. Listening Guide 16: Monteverdi, The Coronation
of Poppea (Lincoronazione di Poppea), Act III,
Scene 7 (1642)
*1. Poppea is led to the throne: fanfare-like,
imitative polyphony
*2. sinfonia interlude
*3. love duet between Nero and Poppea,
(A-B-B-A) structure
*a. duet sung over ground bass
*b. dissonant phrases: pi non peno (no
more grieving), pi non moro (no more
sorrow)
III. The Spread of Opera
A. Opera in England
1. masques: vocal and instrumental music with
poetry and dance
a. presented in homes of the rich and
influential
2. Puritans forbade stage plays
B. Henry Purcell (16591695)
1. English composer, organist, and singer
2. wrote masques and operas for several venues
3. assimilated Italian and French styles
C. Dido and Aeneas
1. considered first great English opera
2. presented as a play set to music for a girls
school in Chelsea
3. based on Virgils Aeneid
a. Aeneas is shipwrecked at Carthage, falls
in love with the queen, Dido
b. Aeneas leaves Dido to continue his
journey to found Rome
D. Listening Guide 17: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas,
Act III, excerpts (1689)
1. Act III, opening: style of a hornpipe

2. recitative: Dido decides her fate is death


3. Didos Lament: sung over ground bass
ostinato
a. descending bass line: symbolic of grief in
Baroque music
IV. Barbara Strozzi and the Baroque Aria
A. Barbara Strozzi (1619c. 1677)
1. professional composer, singer from Venice
2. prolific composer of secular and sacred
music
3. successful in an age of a male-dominated
society
B. Listening Guide 18: Amor dormiglione
(Sleepyhead, Cupid!) (1651)
1. monody, solo soprano with harpsichord
2. light-hearted da capo aria (A-B-A)
3. sensitivity to the text
4. use of word painting
Overview
This chapter presents the three major vocal forms of the
Baroque: opera, cantata, and oratorio. Because of the genre
focus, the entire era is covered in this chapter, from early
Baroque opera, represented by Monteverdi and Purcell,
through Handelian opera and oratorio. Bach is discussed as
representative of the Lutheran tradition and its service music,
the cantata. The biographies and works of Monteverdi, Purcell, Bach, and Handel are included in this chapter.
Chapter goals for students
To perceive the origins and early development of opera
as a manifestation of a desire to unite text and music
To understand the chorale as the basis for the cantata
and its movements
To view the Baroque oratorio as an outgrowth of
religious dramas and opera
To appreciate the opposition of solo song and choral
polyphony
Discussion Topics
Opera plots: mythology and history
Development of operatic style and forms (da capo aria)
Women composers in the Baroque era
Music Example Bank
II/59
II/60

Bach, J. S., Wachet auf, Er kommt, er


kommt, recitative secco, Baroque
Couperin, Les barricades mistrieuses,
ostinato; ground bass; affections, doctrine
of the

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Teaching Guide | 47
I/55
II/56
II/57

Handel, Messiah, O thou that tellest, aria,


Baroque
Monteverdi, Lincoronazione di Poppea,
Innocente, opera, Baroque; stile concitato
Monteverdi, Lincoronazione di Poppea,
Speranza, opera, Baroque; ritornello

iMusic Examples
Monteverdi: Lament of the Nymph
Handel: O thou that tellest good tidings, from
Messiah

Chapter 17. The Baroque Cantata and Oratorio


I. Bach and the Church Cantata
A. Cantata: multimovement work for soloists,
chorus, and orchestra
1. part of the Lutheran church service
2. based on Lutheran chorale (hymn tune)
a. chorales written by Martin Luther
i. adapted from Gregorian chant,
secular art music, popular tunes
b. sung in unison by congregation, later in
four-part harmony
B. J. S. Bach (16851750)
1. German composer, organist
2. devout Lutheran: music must serve the glory
of God
3. court and church positions: Weimar, Leipzig
4. prolific composer: suites, concertos, sonatas,
keyboard music, Passions, cantatas
a. around two hundred cantatas survive
5. 19 children: four sons, leading composers
C. Listening Guide 19: Bach, Cantata No. 140,
Wachet auf (Sleepers, Awake), excerpts (1731)
1. based on Gospel of Matthew: parable of the
Wise and Foolish Virgins
2. chorale prelude in bar form (A-A-B)
3. seven movements: near palindrome form
a. chorale tune featured in three choral
movements
b. 1st mvt.: grand chorale fantasia, majestic,
marchlike: arrival of Christ
i. recurring instrumental sections
(ritornellos)
*c. 2nd mvt.: sparse recitative with basso
continuo
*d. 3rd mvt.: da capo form (A-B-A) love duet
between the Soul (soprano) and Christ
(bass)

e. 4th mvt.: central movement; chorale tune


sung in unison by tenors
*f. 7th mvt.: hymnlike setting with orchestra
II. Handel and the Oratorio
A. Oratorio: large scale work for soloists, chorus,
and orchestra
1. performed in concert setting without scenery
or costumes
2. based on a biblical story
B. George Frideric Handel (16851759)
1. German composer
2. worked in Italy, Germany, England
3. held positions as conductor, director,
producer
4. composed opera seria (serious Italian opera),
English oratorios, orchestral suites, keyboard
and chamber music
C. Messiah
1. composed in 24 days, premiered in Dublin
2. biblical verses set in three parts
a. Christmas section, prophecy of Christ
b. Easter section
c. redemption of the world through faith
D. Listening Guide 20: Handel, Messiah, Nos. 1,
1418, 44 (1742)
*1. Part I, Overture: French style, slow dotted
rhythms followed by fugue
*2. Nos. 1416: contrasting recitative secco
and recitative acompagnato
*3. No. 17: four-part chorus with orchestra
4. No. 18: da capo soprano aria with
instrumental ritornellos, (A-B-A')
5. Part II, No. 44: Hallelujah chorus closes
Easter section
a. four-part chorus and orchestra
b. homorhythmic and imitative polyphonic
textures
Discussion Topics
Music in the Lutheran service
Bachs positions and the music he wrote in each
Varied musical settings of chorale tunes
The cantata as a sacred genre
Oratorio as sacred operas
Opera seria versus ballad opera in London
Continued popularity of Messiah
Music Example Bank
II/58

Bach, J. S., Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf,


Chorale, chorale; cantata, Lutheran

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48 | Chapter 9
II/59

I/55
II/54

Bach, J. S., Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf,


Er kommt, er kommt, cantata, Baroque;
recitative secco
Handel, Messiah, No. 9, O thou that
tellest, aria, Baroque; oratorio, Baroque
Handel, Samson, Let the bright seraphim,
affections, doctrine of the; oratorio,
Baroque; word painting

Chapter 18. Baroque Instruments and the Suite


Overview
The Baroque saw the rise of instrumental music and independent instrumental forms. This chapter covers instrumental ensemble forms, focusing on the suite.
I. The Rise of Instrumental Music
A. Equal importance to vocal music
1. new instruments developed, improvements
made to old ones
2. rise of virtuoso
a. Bach and Handel: organists
*b. Corelli and Vivaldi: violinists
*c. Scarlatti and Couperin: harpsichordists
3. music written specific to the instruments
B. Baroque Instruments
1. close to modern counterparts
2. string instruments: gut strings (made from
animal intestines)
a. Cremona violin makers: Stradivari,
Guarneri, Amati
3. recorder, flute, oboe, bassoon: all made of
wood
4. additions to the orchestra: unvalved trumpet,
French horn, timpani
5. organ and harpsichord: important keyboard
instruments
C. The Baroque Suite
1. instrumental genre
2. group of short dances: all in same key
3. international influence: German, French,
Spanish, English
a. overture, allemande, courante, sarabande,
hornpipe, minuet, gigue
4. dances in binary (A-A-B-B) or ternary
(A-B-A) form
5. suites written for solo instrument, chamber
ensembles, and orchestra
II. Handel and the Orchestral Suite
A. Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks
1. Water Music performed on royal barge on
Thames River
a. outdoor performance: no basso continuo

b. 22 movements
B. Listening Guide 21: Handel, Water Music, Suite
in D major, excerpts (1717)
*1. mvt. 1: ternary form (A-B-A')
*a. fanfare-like trumpets, descending violin
scales
2. mvt. 2: alla hornpipe, ternary form (A-B-A)
a. disjunct theme with decorative trills in
strings and woodwinds
b. B section: reflective, minor key
III. Music at the French Royal Court
A. Louis XIV and Louis XV ruled at palace of
Versailles
1. Jean-Baptiste Lully (16321687): court
composer of Louis XIV
a. French stage works: comedy-ballets,
tragic operas
2. Jean-Joseph Mouret (16821738): court
composer of Duke of Maine (son of Louis
XIV)
B. Listening Guide 22: Mouret, Rondeau, from
Suite de symphonies (1729)
1. rondeau form (A-B-A-C-A)
2. main theme: majestic fanfare
3. predominant high trumpet: frequent trills
Chapter goals for students
To become aware of original versus modern
instruments
To view instrumental music as comparable to vocal in
importance
To understand formal structures as means of
unification
Discussion Topics
Character of dance movements and national origin
Music Example Bank
II/27
II/2
II/61

Bach, J. S., Flute Sonata No. 2 in E-flat


major, Siciliano, chamber sonata, Baroque
Bach, J. S., Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B
minor, Badinerie, dance types, Baroque
Corelli, Violin Sonata in A major, Op. 5,
No. 9, Gigue, dance types, Baroque

iMusic Examples
Bach: Sarabande from Cello Suite No. 2
Bach: Minuet in D minor (Anna Magdalena Notebook)
Handel: Alla hornpipe, from Water Music

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Teaching Guide | 49
Chapter 19. The Baroque Concerto

*2. ritornello form


*3. seamless polyphonic texture
*4. constant rhythmic drive

Overview
The two types of concerto popular in the Baroque era are discussed, with an emphasis on J.S. Bach and Vivaldi.
I. Three Movement (fast-slow-fast) Instrumental Form
A. Solo concerto: solo instrument with
accompanying instrumental group
B. Concerto grosso: two instrumental groups
1. solo group: concertino
2. accompanying group: tutti, or ripieno
II. Antonio Vivaldi and the Solo Concerto
A. Antonio Vivaldi (16781741),
1. Venetian composer, violin virtuoso
2. ordained priest
3. music master at Conservatorio dellOspedale
della Piet
4. traveled widely
5. composed over 500 concertos: 230 for solo
violin, father of the concerto
B. The Four Seasons
1. four solo violin concertos accompanied by
orchestra and basso continuo
2. program music: Italian sonnet
3. sounds musically pictoralized
C. Listening Guide 23: Vivaldi, Spring, from The
Four Seasons (La primavera from Le quattro
stagioni), Op. 8, No. 1 (1725)
1. mvt. 1: Allegro in E major
a. orchestral ritornello alternates with solo
violin episodes
b. birds: trills and high running scales
c. storm: agitated repeated notes in low
strings
*2. mvt. 2: Largo in C-sharp minor
*a. melancholy melody
*b. upper strings only
*3. mvt. 3: Allegro in E major, Rustic Dance
*a. ritornello form
*b. dotted rhythms, dancelike
*c. drone represents bagpipes
*III. Bach and the Late Baroque Concerto
*A. Six Brandenburg Concertos
*1. composed at Cthen (171723)
*2. named after Margrave Christian of
Brandenburg
*B. Listening Guide 24: Bach, Brandenburg
Concerto No. 2 in F major, First Movement
(171718)
*1. concerto grosso: four solo instruments
*a. violin, oboe, recorder, trumpet

Discussion Topics
Concerto form: focus on contrast
Programmatic instrumental music
Ritornello as unification procedure
Music Example Bank
I/38
I/31
I/21

II/10
III/10

Bach, J. S., Brandenburg Concerto No. 6,


III, concerto grosso
Handel, Concerto Grosso in G, Op. 6, No.
1, I, concerto grosso, concertino, ripieno
Handel, Concerto Grosso in D minor, Op.
11, No. 3, I, concerto grosso, concertino,
ripieno
Vivaldi, Concerto for Piccolo in C major, I,
concerto, solo
Vivaldi, The Four Seasons, Autumn, III,
concerto, solo

iMusic Example
Bach, J. S., Brandenburg Concerto No. 1, I

Chapter 20. Other Baroque Instrumental Forms


Overview
Keyboard instruments, especially organ and harpsichord, are
discussed, along with a variety of keyboard forms; the
emphasis is on the prelude and fugue and the sonata.
I. Baroque Keyboard Instruments
A. Organ, harpsichord, and clavichord
1. organ: church and home
2. harpsichord: strings are plucked, tone not
sustained
3. clavichord: favorite home instrument, soft,
gentle tone
B. Chamber and solo instruments
II. Sonata Types
A. Sonata da camera, chamber sonata
1. group of stylized dances
B. Sonata da chiesa, church sonata
1. serious in tone
2. four movements: slow-fast-slow-fast
C. Trio sonata
1. favored ensemble
2. two violins and basso continuo (four players)

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50 | Chapter 9
*D. Arcangelo Corelli (16531713)
*1. Italian composer and violinst
*2. emphasized lyricism over virtuosity
*3. published four volumes of trio sonatas
*E. Listening Guide 25: Corelli, Trio Sonata, Op. 3,
No. 2 in D major, excerpts (1689)
*1. mvt. 3: Adagio in B minor
*a. imitative duet in violins
*2. mvt. 4: Allegro in D major
*a. binary form (A-A-B-B)
*b. dancelike
*c. imitation in three instruments
*III. Domenico Scarlatti and the Solo Sonata
*A. Domenico Scarlatti (16851757)
*1. Italian: court composer in Portugal and
Madrid
*2. harpsichord virtuoso
*3. wrote over 550 solo harpsichord sonatas
*B. Listening Guide 26: Scarlatti, Sonata in C major,
K. 159, (The Hunt) (1750s)
*1. binary form (A-A-B-B)
*2. dancelike, in Spanish style
*3. highly ornamented: grace notes and trills
*4. clarity of texture: looks forward to
Classicism
IV. Other Keyboard Forms
A. Forms based on harmony
1. passacaglia: repeating bass line
2. chaconne: repeating harmonic progression
B. Forms based on improvisation
1. prelude: short study, mostly homophonic
2. toccata: free, highly virtuosic form
3. chorale prelude, chorale variations: organ
virtuosity introduced chorale to congregation
V. The Fugue and Its Devices
A. Fugue: contrapuntal composition with single
theme
1. fugue theme: subject
2. subject imitated in other voices: answer
3. three sections: exposition, episodes,
restatements
4. contrapuntal devices: augmentation,
diminution, retrograde, inversion, stretto
VI. Bachs Keyboard Fugues
A. Well-Tempered Clavier
1. two volumes: 24 preludes and fugues in each
2. prelude and fugue in all 12 major and minor
keys
B. The Art of Fugue
1. 14 fugues, four canons
2. keyboard music
3. highly technical

4. contrapuntal mastery
C. Listening Guide 27: Bach, Contrapunctus 1,
from The Art of Fugue (1749)
1. four-voice fugue
2. fugue subject outlines D minor triad
3. last fugue statement over pedal point
4. ends with major chord
VII. Looking Ahead to the Age of Enlightenment
A. The Rococo and the Age of Sensibility
1. rococo, from French rocaille shell
2. simpler artistic expression
a. shift from polyphony to homophony
3. French keyboard composers: Franois
Couperin (16881733), Jean Philippe
Rameau (16831764)
Discussion Topics
Contrast in the prelude and fugue
Role of the chorale prelude in church service
Pairing of free and strict forms (prelude and fugue)
Music Example Bank
II/62
II/66
I/25

I/22

I/17

II/65

II/55
II/64

Handel, Keyboard Suite in E major


(Harmonious Blacksmith), harpsichord
Bach, C. P. E., Trio Sonata in G major, I,
trio sonata
Bach, J. S., The Art of Fugue,
Contrapunctus 1, subject, answer,
countersubject, fugue
Bach, J. S., Chorale Prelude, Jesu, Joy of
Mans Desiring, from Herz und Mund und
Tot und Leben, organ, chorale prelude
Bach, J. S., Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue
in D minor, fugue, subject, answer,
countersubject, fugue
Bach, J. S., The Well-Tempered Clavier I,
Prelude No. 1, prelude, Baroque;
harpsichord
Purcell, Come, ye sons of art away,
Chaconne
Scarlatti, Sonata in E major, K. 20, sonata,
solo

iMusic Example
J. S. Bach: Toccata in d minor
Suggested Reading for Part 3
Arnold, Denis, and Nigel Fortune, eds. The New Monteverdi
Companion. London: Faber and Faber, 1985.

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Teaching Guide | 51
Boyd, Malcolm. Bach. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2000.
David, Hans T., and Arthur Mendel, eds. The New Bach
Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters
and Documents. Revised and enlarged by Christoph
Wolff. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.
Dean, Winton. Handels Dramatic Oratorios and Masques.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Dean, Winton, and Anthony Hicks. The New Grove Handel.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Felix, Werner. Johann Sebastian Bach. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1985.
Fenlon, Iain, and Peter N. Miller. The Song of the Soul:
Understanding Poppea. London: Royal Musical
Association, 1992.
Fabri, Paolo. Monteverdi. Translated by T. Carter.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Geiringer, Karl. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Culmination
of an Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 1966.
Hurley, David Ross. Handels Muse: Patterns of Creation
in His Oratorios and Musical Dramas, 17431751.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Hogwood, Christopher. Handel. Rev. ed. London: Thames
and Hudson, 2007.
Hutchings, Arthur. Purcell. BBC Music Guides. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 1982.
Landon, H. C. Robbins, Handel and His World. Boston:
Little, Brown, 1984.
Lang, Paul Henry. George Frideric Handel. Mineola, NY:
Dover, 1996.
Moroney, Davitt. Bach: An Extraordinary Life. London:
Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music,
2000.
Price, Curtis, ed. The Early Baroque Era: From the Late
16th Century to the 1660s. Music and Society.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993.
. Purcell: Dido and Aeneas: An Opera. Norton
Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1986.
Rosand, Ellen. Opera in Seventeenth-Century Venice: The
Creation of a Genre. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1991.
Smither, Howard E. A History of the Oratorio. Vol. 2, The
Oratorio in the Baroque Era: Protestant Germany and
England. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
Press, 1977.
Tomlinson, Gary. Monteverdi and the End of the
Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1987.
Westrup, J. A. Bach Cantatas. BBC Music Guides. Seattle:
University of Washington Press, 1966.
Williams, Peter F. J. S. Bach: A Life in Music. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned


Musician. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
2000.
Wolff, Christoph, et al. The New Grove Bach Family. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.

PART 4: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY CLASSICISM


Prelude 4. Classicism in the Arts
Overview
The ideals of Romanticism and Classicism are compared,
both as general styles and as specific periods. The eighteenth
century is presented as a time of enlightened despotism,
refinement, and order, against which the middle classes arose.
The Viennese School of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven is
presented, and the Classical style is characterized by lyrical
melodies, diatonic harmonies, and regular rhythms, often
with hints of folk music. Music and musicians thrived at
court, sponsored by the system of aristocratic patronage.
Women found increasing acceptance in the music world,
notably as performers and teachers.
Goals for students in Part 4
To contrast the ideals of Classicism and Romanticism
To understand the dualism of the time: the refined
aristocracy versus the rising middle classes
To perceive the importance of the patronage system to
the arts
To recognize the role of women in music in the
eighteenth century
Discussion Topics
Pre-Classical styles: Rococo, gallant, and Empfindsamkeit
The sons of J. S. Bach
The changes in opera: opera seria versus opera buffa
Aristocracy versus the rising middle classes
Industrial Revolution and cultural change
Elements of Classical style
The musician under the patronage system
Music Example Bank
II/66
II/60
I/58

Bach, C. P. E., Trio Sonata in G major, I,


Empfindsamkeit
Couperin, Les barricades mystrieuses,
Rococo
Mozart, The Magic Flute, O Isis und
Osiris, crossover (traditional/opera)

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52 | Chapter 9
III/1
I/4
I/6
III/2
IV/20

Quantz, Trio Sonata in C major, I, gallant


style
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
II, melody, Classical; harmony, Classical
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III,
rhythm, Classical
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major
(Surprise), III, folk elements, Classical
Mozart, Adagio and Rondo in C minor for
Glass Armonica, Rondo

iMusic Example
Mozart, Ah! vou dirai-je, maman (Twinkle, Twinkle, Little
Star)
Suggested Reading for Prelude 4
Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A
Comprehensive Survey. Translated by M. D. Herter
Norton New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1970.
Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1992.
Einstein, Alfred. Gluck. Translated by Eric Blom. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 1972.
Grout, Donald J., and Hermine Weigel. A Short History of
Opera. 4th ed. New York: Columbia Unversity Press,
2003.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School:
17401780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1995.
Hutchings, Arthur. The Baroque Concerto. 3rd Revised
edition. London: Faber and Faber, 1973.
Newman, William S. A History of the Sonata Idea. 3 vols.,
rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1983.
Pauly, Reinhard G. Music in the Classic Period. 4th ed.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000.
Ratner, Leonard G. Classic Music: Expression, Form, and
Style. New York: Schirmer Books, 1980.
Roeder, Michael T. A History of the Concerto. Portland,
OR: Amadeus Press, 1994.
Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, and
Beethoven. Expanded ed. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1997.
Schulenberg, David. The Keyboard Music of J. S. Bach. 2nd
ed. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Talbot, Michael. Venetian Music in the Age of Vivaldi.
Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999.
Treitler, Leo, ed. Source Readings in Music History. Vol. 5:
The Late Eighteenth Century. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1998.

Veinus, Abraham. The Concerto. New York: Dover, 1964.


Williams, Peter F. Bach Organ Music. BBC Music Guide
20. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972.
Zaslaw, Neal, ed. The Classical Era: from the 1740s to the
End of the 18th Century. Music and Society.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.

Chapter 21. The Development of Classical Forms


Building forms through thematic development.
I. Expanding Musical Ideas
A. Theme: musical idea, building block
B. Thematic development: expansion of a theme
1. motive: melodic fragment derived from
themes
2. sequence: repetition at a higher or lower
pitch level
3. ostinato: short repeated pattern
II. Classical Forms
A. Absolute music: no text or story
B. Multimovement cycle
1. 1750 through Romantic era
2. three or four separate movements in one
piece
3. prescribed forms and tempos
III. The First Movement
A. Allegro (fast tempo)
B. Long, dramatic, tonic key
C. Sonata-allegro (sonata) form
1. drama between two contrasting key areas
2. each key associated with a theme
3. exposition: presents two opposing keys and
themes
a. theme 1: establishes home key, tonic
b. bridge: transitional passage
c. theme 2: contrasting key
d. closing section, often a closing theme
e. exposition repeats: establishes themes
4. development: conflict and action
a. foreign keys, frequent modulations
b. activity and restlessness
c. building of tension
d. themes varied, expanded, contracted
5. recapitulation: restatement of themes
a. theme 1: return, provides unity
b. theme 2: returns in tonic key
6. coda: final cadence in home key
IV. The Second Movement
A. Andante or adagio (slow tempo)

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Teaching Guide | 53
B. Lyrical, songful melodies, related key
C. Form: A-B-A, sonata-allegro, or theme and
variations
1. theme and variations: theme clearly stated;
structured variations
a. melodic variation: decorative flourishes
to melody
b. harmonic variation: chords replaced; shift
from major to minor
c. rhythmic variation: note lengths, meter,
or tempo varied
V. The Third Movement
A. Stately triple meter, tonic key
B. Minuet and trio form
1. Baroque era origins: court dance
2. two dances presented as a group, (A-B-A)
a. B section: originally three instruments
trio
b. Da capo, from the beginning first dance
repeated
c. internal structure: binary (a-a-b-b), or
rounded binary (a-a-ba-ba)
C. Scherzo and trio form
1. early nineteenth century
2. scherzo, Italian jest
3. quick-paced triple meter
4. (A-B-A) structure
VI. The Fourth Movement
A. Allegro, vivace (fast tempo)
B. Lively, spirited, tonic key
C. Rondo, or sonata-allegro form
D. Rondo form: recurrence of musical idea (A)
1. A-B-A-C-A; extension of three-part form
2. longer arched form, A-B-A-C-A-B-A
VII. The Multimovement Cycle as a Whole
A. Extended instrumental works, abstract nature
B. Symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, concertos
Discussion Topics
Repetition and contrast in form
Use of sonata cycle
Music Example Bank
IV/64
II/28

Fuki, Japanese koto piece, opening


Beethoven, Serenade in D major, Op. 8, I

absolute music, Classical


III/2
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major
(Surprise), III
minuet and trio, Classical

iMusic Examples
Beethoven: Symphony No. 5
Avaz of Bayate Esfahan
Haydn: Symphony No. 94 (Surprise), II
Pachelbel: Canon in d
Suggested Reading for Chapter 21
Cone, Edward T. Musical Form and Musical Performance.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1968.
Dahlhaus, Carl. Ludwig van Beethoven: Approaches to His
Music. Trans. by Mary Whittall. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1991.
Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1992.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School,
17401780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1995.
LaRue, Jan. Guidelines for Style Analysis.Warren, MI:
Harmonie Park Press, 1992.
Newman, William S. A History of the Sonata Idea. 3 vols.,
rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1983.
Ratner, Leonard. Classic Music: Expression, Form, and
Style. New York: Schrimer Books, 1980.
Rosen, Charles. Sonata Forms. 2nd ed. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1988.
Will, Richard. The Characteristic Symphony in the Age of
Haydn and Beethoven. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2002.
Chapter 22. Classical Chamber Music
Overview
An introductory chapter discusses the chamber music style
so popular in the eighteenth century, and then characterizes
the individual movements of the most prominent chamber
formthe string quartet. Examples by Haydn and Mozart are
presented, and Mozarts biography appears in this chapter.
I. Chamber Music
A. Music for a small ensemble
B. Two to twelve players: one per part
C. Players function as a team
D. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert
1. established chamber music style
E. Favored instrument combinations:
1. string quartet: first and second violins, viola,
and cello
2. duo sonata: violin and piano, or cello and
piano

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54 | Chapter 9
3. piano trio: violin, cello, and piano
4. quintet: combination of string or wind
instruments
5. string quartet with solo piano or clarinet
II. The String Quartet
A. Multimovement cyle; four movements
B. Salon music; private, profound expressions
C. Joseph Haydn (17321809)
1. prolific Austrian composer
2. choirboy at St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna
3. Esterhzys: patron for nearly thirty years
a. directed orchestra, opera company,
marionette theater
4. two visits to England (179192, 179495)
a. London symphonies, Nos. 93104
5. expanded size of orchestra
a. emphasis on brass, clarinets, and
percussion
6. composed over 100 symphonies, 68 string
quartets, concertos, 14 operas, keyboard
music
D. Haydns Emperor Quartet
1. based on his own hymn tune
a. Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser (God Keep
Franz the Emperor)
b. became Austrian national anthem
c. today, same melody is Germanys
national song
2. lyrical tune, favorite of Hadyns
3. Op. 76, set of six quartets
E. Listening Guide 28: Haydn, String Quartet,
Op.76, No. 3, (Emperor), II (1797)
1. poco adagio
2. theme and variations
3. theme: first violin, homophonic texture
4. variation 3: some chromaticism
5. variation 4: polyphonic
6. coda: ends softly
III. Mozart and Chamber Music
A. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791)
1. Austrian composer, pianist
2. son of Leopold Mozart, court composerviolinst
3. child prodigy: toured Europe with sister,
Nannerl
4. worked briefly in patronage system
5. age twenty-five, struggled as freelance
musician in Vienna
6. prolific composer of all genres: chamber
music, keyboard works, symphony,
concertos, opera
7. music: elegant, songful, contrasts of mood,
colorful orchestration
8. Ludwig Kchel: catalogued Mozarts music
chronologically

B. Eiene kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music)


1. serenade for strings: string quartet and
double bass, or string orchestra
2. outdoor performance, public entertainment
3. four movements: follows multimovement
cycle
4. beautifully proportioned, elegant
C. Listening Guide 29: Mozart, Eine kleine
Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music), K. 525
(1787)
1. mvt. 1: allegro; sonata-allegro form
a. theme 1: disjunct, ascending rocket
theme
b. theme 2: elegant, descending contour
c. short development
d. vigorous coda
*2. mvt. 2: romanza, andante; sectional rondo
form (A-B-A-C-A)
*a. contrasting key area
*b. serene lyricism
*c. short coda
3. mvt. 3: allegretto; minuet and trio form
a. strong, triple meter
b. regular four-bar phrases, rounded binary
c. minuet: bright, decisive
d. trio: lyrical contrast
*4. mvt. 4: allegro; sonata-rondo form
*a. bright, jovial, refined
*b. combines rondo and sonata-allegro forms
*c. theme 1: graceful rocket theme
*d. theme 2: descending, new character
Chapter goals for students
To understand the Classical era as the Golden Age of
chamber music
To appreciate the central position of the string quartet
To grasp the special challenge that chamber music
presents to the listener
Discussion Topics
String quartet as a challenge to the listener
Haydns role in the development of the string quartet
Mozart as child prodigy
Mozarts rebellion against the patronage system
Music Example Bank
II/28
II/30
I/23

Beethoven, Serenade in D major, Op. 8, I,


chamber music, Classical
Beethoven, String Quartet in F major, Op.
59, No. 1 (Razumovsky), I, quartet, string
Beethoven, String Quartet in C major, Op.
59, No. 3 (Razumovsky), IV, quartet, string

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Teaching Guide | 55
iMusic Examples
Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik, I, III
Mozart: Variations on Ah! vous dirai-je, maman
Suggested Reading for Chapter 22
Anderson, Emily, ed. The Letters of Mozart and His Family.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1985.
Blom, Eric. Mozart. New York: Macmillan, 1966.
Deutsch, Otto E. Mozart: A Documentary Biography. 2nd
ed. Trans. by Eric Blom, et al. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press, 1965.
Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1992.
Eisen, Cliff, and Stanley Sadie, eds. The New Grove
Mozart. London: Macmillan, 1982.
Griffith, Paul. The String Quartet: A History. New York:
Thames and Hudson, 1985.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School,
17401780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1995.
Hughes, Rosemary. Haydn String Quartets. BBC Music
Guides. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.
Kerman, Joseph. The Beethoven Quartets. Reprint ed. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979.
King, A. Hyatt. Mozart Chamber Music. BBC Music
Guides. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.
Lam, Basil. Beethoven String Quartets. BBC Music
Guides. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1975.
Landon, H. C. Robbins. 1791: Mozarts Last Year. New
York: Thames and Hudson, 1999.
Lang, Paul Henry, ed. The Creative World of Mozart. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1963.
Sadie, Stanley. The New Grove Mozart. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1982.
Smith, Erik. Mozart Serenades, Divertimenti, and Dances.
BBC Music Guides. Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1982.
Ulrich, Homer. Chamber Music. 2nd ed. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1966.

Chapter 23. The Classical Symphony


Overview
This chapter covers the symphonies of the three great Classical masters: Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. The origins of
the form in the Italian opera overture are mentioned, as are
the contributions of the Mannheim School of composers. The
Classical orchestra is described, and the individual character
of each symphony movement is outlined. Mozarts Symphony No. 40, Haydns Symphony No. 94, and Beethovens
Symphony No. 5 are discussed as examples of the genre. The

life and works of Haydn and Beethoven are included in this


chapter as well.
I. Historical Background
A. Outgrowth of Italian opera overture
1. fast-slow-fast sections became separate
movements
B. German symphonists: added effects, expanded
genre
1. rocket theme
a. quick, aggressive, rhythmic
b. rises from low to high register
2. steam-roller effect: drawn-out crescendos
3. addition of the minuet and trio
II. The Classical Orchestra
A. Four instrument families
1. strings: heart of the orchestra
2. woodwinds: often double the strings
3. brass: sustained harmonies
4. percussion: timpani, rhythmic life and
vitality
B. Eighteenth-century orchestra: 30 to 40 players
*C. Musical effects borrowed from opera
*1. abrupt alternation of p and f
*2. sudden accents
*3. dramatic pauses
*4. use of tremolo and pizzicato
III. The Movements of the Symphony
A. First movement: allegro; sonata-allegro form
1. sometimes slow introduction (Haydn)
2. two contrasting themes
3. monothematic: second theme is theme 1 in
contrasting key
B. Second movement: largo, adagio, or andante
1. contrasting key area
2. lyrical; less development of themes
3. forms:
a. ternary (A-B-A)
b. theme and variations
c. modified sonata-allegro: no development
section
C. Third movement: moderate tempo; minuet and
trio form
1. gentler mood
2. Beethoven replaced minuet and trio with
scherzo and trio
a. fast-paced triple meter
D. Fourth movement (finale): allegro molto, presto
1. rondo or sonata-allegro form
2. lighter, spirited
*IV. Mozarts Symphony No. 40
*A. Known in Vienna as the Romantic symphony
*B. Listening Guide 30: Mozart, Symphony No. 40
in G minor, First Movement (1788)
*1. sonata-allegro form

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56 | Chapter 9
*2.
*3.
*4.
*5.
*6.

minor key: dramatic and dark


pervading rhythmic motive (short-short-long)
theme 1: three-note motive with upward leap
theme 2: lyrical, descending
short development
*a. focus on three-note motive
*b. polyphonic texture

V. Haydn and the Symphony


A. Composed over 100 symphonies
1. Father of the Symphony
2. London symphonies: Nos. 93104
a. syncopation, sudden crescendos and
accents, dramatic contrasts, daring
modulations
B. Haydn Symphony No. 100
1. Military symphony
a. use of percussion instruments
b. trumpet fanfare
c. Turkish Janissary bands performed in
Vienna
2. multimovement cycle
a. second movement combines variations
with ternary form
C. Listening Guide 31: Haydn, Symphony No. 100
in G major (Military), Second Movement (1794)
1. allegretto, marchlike duple meter, C major
2. three-part form (A-B-A')
3. A section: elegant arched theme
4. B section: shift to minor mode, military
sound
a. added percussion
b. sudden dynamic contrasts
5. coda: solo trumpet fanfare
a. drum roll leads to ff chord
b. full orchestra closing
VI. Beethoven and the Symphony in Transition
A. Ludwig van Beethoven (17701827)
1. German composer
2. father and grandfather: court musicians
3. unhappy home life, supported family at age
eleven
4. age twenty-two, moved to Vienna
5. worked under modified patronage system
a. taught aristocrats, worked for
commissions, concertized, published
works
6. hearing loss, 180214; Heiligenstadt
Testament, 1802
7. middle period of composition: more
Romantic
a. strong dynamic contrasts, explosive
accents

b. longer movements, structural large-scale


forms
8. final years: more chromatic harmonies, link
to the Romantic era
9. nine symphonies: large-scale; demanded
concert hall
a. Third Symphony: Eroica (Heroic),
originally dedicated to Napoleon
b. Ninth Symphony: the choral symphony;
vocal soloists and chorus
i. text: Schillers Ode to Joy,
expression of universal brotherhood
B. The Fifth Symphony
1. cyclical form: musical ideas recur in later
movements
2. opening four notes: fate motive
C. Listening Guide 32: Beethoven, Symphony No. 5
in C minor, Op. 67, (18078)
1. mvt. 1: allegro con brio; sonata-allegro form,
C minor
a. theme 1: based on rhythmic motive
(short-short-short-long)
b. horn call introduces theme 2
c. theme 2 heard against four-note motive
d. development: begins with horn call
e. recapitulation: oboe cadenza introduces
theme 2
i. theme 2 in C major
f. extended coda; movement ends in C minor
2. mvt. 2: Andante con moto; theme and
variations, A-flat major
a. two contrasting themes
b. flowing triple meter
c. theme 1: heard first in low strings
d. theme 2: built on four-note motive
3. mvt. 3: Allegro; scherzo and trio form,
C minor
a. scherzo: rocket theme in low strings
b. four-note rhythmic motive in horns
c. trio theme: C major
d. fugal passage in double basses
e. return of scherzo: varied orchestration
f. transition to fourth movement: timpani
rhythm, four-note motive
4. mvt. 4: allegro; sonata-allegro form, C major
a. added instruments; piccolo,
contrabassoon, trombones
b. forceful dynamics: fp effects
c. theme 1: triumphant, C-major triad
d. theme 2: energetic, G major
e. development: brief recurrence of
scherzo
f. extended coda; long final cadence

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Teaching Guide | 57
Chapter goals for students
To understand the structure of the symphony within the
sonata cycle
To appreciate the contributions of Haydn and Mozart
to the genre of the symphony
To note the cross-cultural influences between Turkey
and Austria in the eighteenth century
To view Beethovens symphonies as masterworks of
the genre
To understand the political climate in which Beethoven
worked
Discussion Topics
Origins and development of the symphony
Narrative structure of symphony
Haydns success under the patronage system
Haydns importance in the development of the
symphony
Recognizing Beethovens musical genius
Classical and Romantic elements in Beethoven
Art created in response to political climate
Beethovens democratic ideals expressed in music
The continued success of Beethovens music
Music Example Bank
III/4

III/3
I/9
III/5
III/2
IV/2
IV/65
II/51
IV/21
IV/22

Mozart, Sinfonia Concertante for Violin and


Viola in E-flat major, I, Mannheim
crescendo
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, IV,
rocket theme
Beethoven, The Ruins of Athens, Turkish
March
Haydn, Symphony No. 45 in F-sharp minor
(Farewell), I
Haydn, Symphony No. 94 in G major
(Surprise), III
Dance (zurna and davul), Turkish
Traditional
Prelude II, Turkish Traditional (Janissary)
Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 in A major,
II
Beethoven Medley (disco arr.)
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, IV
(Ode to Joy)

iMusic Examples
America (God Save the King)
Beethoven, Fr Elise
Beethoven, Moonlight Sonata, Adagio

Suggested Reading for Chapter 23


Anderson, Emily, ed. The Letters of Beethoven. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1985.
Brandenburg, Sieghard, ed. Haydn, Mozart & Beethoven:
Studies in the Music of the Classical Period: Essays in
Honor of Alan Tyson. New York: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Broder, Nathan. Mozart: Symphony in G minor, K. 550.
Norton Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1967.
Brown, A. Peter. The Symphonic Repertoire. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 2002.
Clive, H. P. Beethoven and His World: A Biographical
Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Cooper, Barry. Beethoven. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2000.
Cuyler, Louise. The Symphony. New York: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, 1973.
Dahlhaus, Carl. Ludwig van Beethoven: Approaches to His
Music. Trans. by Mary Whittall. New York: Oxford
Universty Press, 1991.
Davies, Peter J. Beethoven in Person: His Deafness,
Illnesses, and Death. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
2001.
. The Character of a Genius: Beethoven in
Perspective.Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1992.
Forbes, Elliot. Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor.
Norton Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1971.
Forbes, Elliot, ed. Thayers Life of Beethoven. Rev. ed.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Geiringer, Karl. Haydn: A Creative Life in Music. 2nd ed.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School:
17401780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1995.
Hopkins, Anthony. The Nine Symphonies of Beethoven.
BBC Music Guides. Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1981.
Landon, H. C. Robbins, Haydn Symphonies. BBC Music
Guides Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966.
Landon, H. C. Robbins, and David Wyn Jones. Haydn: His
Life and Music. Bloomington: Indiana University
Press, 1988.
Larsen, Jens Peter. The New Grove Haydn. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Martin, Russell. Beethovens Hair. New York: Broadway
Books, 2000.
Melograni, Piero. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: A Biography.
Trans. by Lyda G. Cochrane. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 2007.

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58 | Chapter 9
Simpson, Robert, ed. The Symphony. 2 vols. New York:
Drake Publishers, 1972.
Solomon, Maynard. Beethoven. 2nd ed. New York:
Schirmer Books, 1998.
Stanley, Glenn, ed. The Cambridge Companion to
Beethoven. New York: Cambridge University Press,
2000.
Tyson, Alan, and Joseph Kerman. The New Grove
Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1983.
Wyn Jones, David. The Symphony in Beethovens Vienna.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Chapter 24. The Eighteenth-Century Concerto


Overview
The three movements of the Classical concerto and their traditional features are presented. The form is illustrated through
works by Mozart and Beethoven. Famous women virtuosos
(violinists and pianists) are discussed in conjunction with the
concerto.
I. The Movements of the Concerto
A. Solo concerto: three movements, fast-slow-fast
1. piano: favored solo instrument
2. cadenza: improvisatory solo passage,
virtuosic
B. First movement: allegro; first-movement
concerto form
1. sonata-allegro form with double exposition
2. orchestral exposition, tonic key
3. second exposition, key change
a. solo instrument and orchestra
b. elaborated versions of themes
4. development: solo virtuosic display
5. cadenza: near end of the movement
6. coda: affirmation of home key
C. Second movement: andante, adagio, or largo
1. slow and lyrical
2. closely related key
D. Third movement: allegro molto or presto
1. rondo or sonata-allegro form
2. shorter than first movement
3. may have cadenza
E. A piano concerto by Mozart
1. twenty-seven piano concertos by Mozart
2. public performances: Mozart at the piano
3. 1784, wrote five piano concertos
4. K. 453 composed for student, Barbara von
Ployer

F. Listening Guide 33: Mozart, Piano Concerto in


G major, K. 453 (1784)
1. mvt. 1: Allegro; first-movement concerto
form
a. theme 1 in violins: lilting, quiet
b. theme 2: quiet and lyrical, violins
answered by woodwinds
c. solo exposition: new piano theme
between themes 1 and 2
d. development: virtuosic piano part,
various modulations
e. cadenza by Mozart: after theme 2 in
recapitulation
*2. mvt. 2: Andante; first-movement concerto
form
*a. contrasting key, C major
*b. highly expressive, variety of woodwind
color
*c. theme 1: lyrical dialogue between strings
and woodwinds
*d. theme 2: alternates forte (strings) and
piano (woodwinds)
*e. cadenza in recapitulation, before coda
*f. coda: begins with theme 1, ends softly
*3. mvt. 3: Allegretto, Presto; theme and five
variations
*a. theme: clear-cut binary form
*b. theme played by orchestra
*c. variation 1: solo piano with melodic
ornamentation
*d. other variations: dialogue of piano and
woodwinds with full orchestra
*e. no cadenza
*f. coda: Presto, new theme, highly virtuosic
*G. Haydns Trumpet Concerto
*1. thirty-five concertos by Haydn
*2. trumpet concerto: composed for experimental
instrument, keyed trumpet
*a. highly lyrical melodies and virtuosic
passages
*b. 1800 first performance; manuscript lost
until 1929
*c. Haydns last orchestral work
*H. Listening Guide 34: Haydn, Trumpet Concerto in
E-flat major, Third Movement (1796)
*1. sonata-rondo form, A-B-A-B-A-C-A-BA-Coda
*2. unexpected harmonies, sudden dynamic
contrasts
*3. A section: energetic, opens with rising 4th
*4. B section: light-hearted theme turns
downward

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Teaching Guide | 59
*5. C section: developmental, short motivic
calls in trumpet
*6. contrapuntal coda; ends ff
II. Famous Women Virtuosos of the Eighteenth Century
A. Proper eighteenth-century women studied music
1. highly skilled amateurs
2. music teachers
3. professional performers: fame atypical
*B. Students at Venices Ospedale della Piet
*1. Anna Maria della Piet
*2. Maddalena Lombardini
C. Keyboard players associated with Mozart
1. Maria Anna Mozart (Nannerl) (17511829)
a. Mozarts sister
b. toured extensively with Mozart
2. Maria Theresia von Paradis (17591824)
a. friend of Mozart
b. blind pianist and organist
c. toured Europe
d. composer, works have been lost
3. Barbara von Ployer (17651811)
a. student of Mozart
b. two Mozart concertos composed for her
Chapter goals for students
To understand Classical concerto form
To realize Mozarts and Beethovens contributions to
the Classical concerto
To recognize the important role women virtuoso
performers played in the era
Discussion Topics
Virtuosity and the concerto
Women as virtuoso performers
Music Example Bank
I/61
II/9
I/6
III/6

Boccherini, Cello Concerto in B-flat major,


III
Haydn, Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat
major, III
Mozart, Clarinet Concerto in A major, III
Mozart, Piano Concerto No. 21 in C major,
I, cadenza, virtuosity

iMusic Examples
Mozart: Horn Concerto, K. 447, III
Mozart: Piano Concerto, K. 467, II
Mozart: Clarinet Concerto, K. 662, II

Chapter 25. The Sonata in the Classical Era


Overview
The Classical sonata became an important genre for amateurs; the solo sonata for piano was favored, as was the duo
sonata for violin and piano. Sonatas by Mozart and
Beethoven illustrate this genre.
I. The Movements of the Sonata
A. Sonata: instrumental work for one or two
instruments
1. three or four contrasting movements
a. follows multimovement cycle
*2. duo sonatas: piano leading role, string
instrument acts as accompaniment
*3. Mozart and Beethoven piano sonatas, most
significant
B. Classical era sonata
1. important genre for amateurs
2. concert works for composers
*C. A Mozart piano sonata: Sonata in A major,
K. 331
*1. three movements; seems to lack first
movement
*2. mvt. 1: theme and variations form
*a. theme: Czech folk song
*3. mvt. 2: minuet and trio
*a. highly lyrical, broken chord
accompaniment
*b. chromatic harmonies: looks forward to
Romantic era
*4. mvt. 3: rondo alla turca (in the Turkish
style)
*a. percussive sound of Turkish military
band
*b. full range of dynamics
*c. exaggerated beats and dynamics: suggest
jangling of bell trees, cymbals, triangles
*D. Listening Guide 35: Mozart, Piano Sonata in A
major, K. 331, Third Movement (1783)
*1. Allegretto, Alla turca; rondo form (A-B-C-BA-B), A minor
*2. forte/piano dynamic contrasts
*3. A section: swirling figuration in A minor
*4. B section: marchlike theme, A major
*a. arpeggiated (rolled) chords
*5. C section: F-sharp minor, variation of A
theme
*6. Coda: long extension of A major
*a. arpeggiated chords: jingling quality
E. Beethovens Moonlight Sonata
1. thirty-two piano sonatas by Beethoven

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60 | Chapter 9
2. Moonlight composed in 1801, first style
period
3. title by poet, Ludwig Rellstab, 1832
4. sonata quasi una fantasia, fantasy sonata
*5. three movements
*a. mvt. 1: modified strophic form, looks
ahead to Romantic era
*b. mvt. 2: scherzo and trio, frequent
syncopations
*c. mvt. 3: sonata-allegro form, Presto
agitato, restless motion
F. Listening Guide 36: Beethoven, Piano Sonata in
C-sharp minor, Op. 27, No. 2 (Moonlight) (1801)
1. mvt. 1: Adagio sostenuto; modified song
form
a. delicate theme, expressive minor key
b. continuous triplet pattern in
accompaniment
c. ethereal mood
d. two strophes separated by development
section
*2. mvt. 2: Allegretto; scherzo and trio form
*a. lilting triple meter, major key
*b. scherzo theme in short phrases
*c. trio: emphasis on third beat, accented
downbeat bass chord
*i. asymmetrical feel
*ii. gentle and dancelike
*3. mvt. 3: Presto agitato; sonata-allegro form
*a. fast duple meter, unrelenting motion
*b. dramatic dynamics, sudden accents
*c. theme 1: rocket theme, active
accompaniment
*d. theme 2: more lyrical
*e. coda: free cadenza-like passagework
Chapter goals for students
To acknowledge the solo and duo sonata as important
amateur genres
To appreciate the drama and intensity of Beethovens
piano sonatas
Discussion Topics
Romantic qualities in Beethoven
Virtuosity in the Classical era
Promoting women as performers
The influence of Eastern culture on Western
composition

IV/65
I/9
IV/68

Prelude II, Turkish Traditional (Janissary


Band)
Beethoven, The Ruins of Athens, Turkish
March
Mozart, The Abduction from the Seraglio,
Overture

Suggested Reading for Chapters 2425


Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn,
Mozart, and Beethoven. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1992.
Fiske, Roger. Beethoven Concertos and Overtures. BBC
Music Guides. Seattle: University of Washington Press,
1971.
Girdlestone, Cuthbert M. Mozart and His Piano Concertos.
New York: Dover Publications, 1964.
Head, Matthew William. Orientalism, Masquerade and
Mozarts Turkish Music. London: Royal Music
Association, 2000.
Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School,
17401780. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1995.
Matthews, Denis. Beethoven Piano Sonatas. BBC Music
Guides. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
Newman, William S. A History of the Sonata Idea. 3 vols.,
rev. ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1983.
Plantinga, Leon. Beethovens Concertos: History, Style,
Performance. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1999.
Roeder, Michael T. A History of the Concerto. Portland,
OR: Amadeus Press, 1994.
Rosen, Charles. Sonata Forms. 2nd ed. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1988.
. Beethovens Piano Sonatas: A Short Companion.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
Tovey, Donald Francis. A Companion to Beethovens
Pianoforte Sonatas. London: Royal School of Music,
1935.
. Beethoven: Pianoforte Concerto No. 5 in E-flat
major, Op. 73. Concertos and Choral Works. Essays
in Musical Analysis. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press, 1989 (originally published 193539),
6769.
Veinus, Abraham. The Concerto. New York: Dover, 1964.

Chapter 26. Classical Choral Music and Opera


Overview

Music Example Bank


IV/12

Dance (Mehter ensemble), Turkish


Traditional

This chapter presents the three major choral forms of the era:
the Mass, the Requiem, and the oratorio; a discussion follows
of a Haydn oratorio. Classical opera, both seria and buffa

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Teaching Guide | 61
forms, are examined. The transition from classicism to
romanticism is explored.
*I. Sacred Vocal Genres of the Classical Era
A. Mass, Requiem, oratorio
*1. Catholic and Protestant churches: patrons of
choral music
*2. nineteenth century, performed in concert
setting
*B. Mozarts Requiem: Mass for the Dead
*1. Mozarts last composition, left incomplete
*2. four soloists, four-part chorus, and orchestra
*3. Dies irae (Day of Wrath):
*a. thirteenth-century Latin text by Thomas
of Celano
*b. last portion completed by Mozart
*C. Listening Guide 37: Mozart, Dies irae, from
Requiem, K. 626 (1791)
*1. dramatic opening: full chorus and orchestra
*a. homophonic setting
*2. Tuba mirum (wondrous sound): trombone
solo and bass singer
*3. other soloists enter one by one
*4. solo quartet follows
*5. dramatic full chorus ending: dotted rhythms,
syncopated chords
*6. last line: sung softly
*D. Haydns oratorio The Creation
*1. composed in London
*2. Haydn: inspired by Handels Messiah
*3. libretto: Genesis, and Miltons Paradise Lost
*4. scored for chorus, orchestra, and soloists
*a. soloists: Adam, Eve, and three
archangels: Raphael, Uriel, Gabriel
*5. Overture: Representation of Chaos
*a. ambiguous tonality, dissonance,
chromatic harmonies
*6. Part I: first four days of Creation
*a. begins in C minor, Let there be light
shift to C major
*E. Listening Guide 38: Haydn, The Creation (Die
Schpfung), Part I, closing (1798)
*1. creation of the sun, moon, and stars
*a. free rhythmic style
*2. No. 12: recitative secco, Uriel
*3. No. 13: recitative accompagnato, Uriel
*a. dramatic changes of dynamics, tempo
*4. No. 14: The Heavens Are Telling
*a. choral passages and solo trio of angels
*b. triumphant mood, forte dynamics
*c. C major; reference to night in C minor
*5. crescendo and accelerando to end
*a. final phrase: massive chords, majestic
cadence
II. Classical Opera
A. Opera reached the widest public

B. Opera seria: serious Italian opera


1. recitatives and arias: display virtuosity
2. librettos by Pietro Metastasio (16981782)
a. stories from classical antiquity
C. Christoph Gluck (17141787), opera reform
1. simplicity, naturalness
2. highly expressive music drama
D. Comic opera: lighter genre, popular
1. ballad or dialogues (England), Singspiel
(Germany), opra comique (France ), opera
buffa (Italy)
2. sung in the vernacular
3. satirized aristocracy
4. farcical situations, humorous dialogue,
popular tunes
5. ensemble singing
6. buffo: comic character, bass voice, asides to
the audience
7. opera buffa: culminated in works of Mozart
E. Mozarts Opera Don Giovanni (Don Juan)
1. combines style of opera buffa and opera
seria
2. libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte
3. main characters:
a. Don Giovanni: aristocrat, amoral
womanizer
b. Leporello: the buffo, Giovannis servant
c. Donna Anna: noblewoman
d. Commendatore: Donna Annas father
4. plot summary:
a. Don Giovanni tries to seduce Donna
Anna
b. Don Giovanni kills the Commendatore in
a duel
c. famous love duet L ci darem la mano
between Zerlina, a bride, and Don
Giovanni
d. graveyard statue of Commendatore kills
Don Giovanni
F. Listening Guide 39: Mozart, Don Giovanni,
Act I, Scene 2 (1787)
1. Aria: Donna Elvira with Don Giovanni and
Leporello
a. Donna Elvira: spurned by Giovanni
b. sings of revenge: disjunct melody, sudden
dynamic changes, quick tempo
2. Recitative: Donna Elvira, Don Giovanni,
Leporello
a. accompanied by continuo instrument
only
3. Catalog Aria: Leporello
a. opening: Allegro, patter (syllabic text
setting), duple meter
b. second section: triple-meter Andante,
more lyrical
c. sings of Giovannis conquests

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62 | Chapter 9
III. From Classicism to Romanticism
A. Classical era: culminated in Vienna, Viennese
School
1. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
B. nineteenth-century Vienna
1. Franz Schubert, Johannes Brahms, Gustav
Mahler
Chapter goals for students
To appreciate the great choral forms of the Classical
era and the tradition from which they grew
To view eighteenth-century opera as an important
social force of the time
To understand the new desire for simplicity and
naturalness that led to reforms in opera
To appreciate the new forms of popular comic opera
that arose in the Classical era
Discussion Topics
Opera as a social force
Mozarts gift for character representation in music
The Mass in church and in the concert hall
Classical versus Romantic characteristics
Emphasizing structural order versus emotional expression
Music Example Bank
III/9
III/10
I/58
III/7

III/8

Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Chi la?


opera; recitative secco
Mozart, Don Giovanni, Act I, Ah! del padre
in periglio, opera; recitative, accompagnato
Mozart, The Magic Flute, Act II, O Isis und
Osiris, aria, Classical; Singspiel
Haydn, The Creation, Achieved is the Glorious Work, oratorio, Classical; choral music,
Classical; canon
Mozart, Requiem, Dies irae, Quantus
tremor, Requiem Mass, Classical; choral
music, Classical
Schubert, Gretchen am Spinnrade
Schubert, String Quintet in C major, III

Brown-Montesano, Kristi. Understanding the Women of


Mozarts Operas. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 2007.
Gibbs, Christopher Howard. The Life of Schubert. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Gossett, Philip, et al. The New Grove Masters of Italian
Opera: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Verdi, Puccini. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Grout, Donald J.with Hermine Weigel Williams. A Short
History of Opera. 4th ed. New York: Columbia
Univeristy Press, 2003.
Heartz, Daniel. Mozarts Operas. Thomas Bauman, ed.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. 3rd ed. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 2005.
Lang, Paul Henry. The Experience of Opera. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1973.
MacIntyre, Bruce. The Viennese Concerted Mass of the
Early Classic Period. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press, 1985.
Mann, William S. The Operas of Mozart. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1977.
Rushton, Julain. The New Grove Guide to Mozart and
His Operas. New York: Oxford University Press,
2007.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. History of Opera. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1990.
, ed. Mozart and His Operas. New York: St.
Martins Press, 2000.

PART 5: THE NINETEENTH CENTURY


Prelude 5. The Spirit of Romanticism
Overview

iMusic Example

In Part 5 the material is focused on the social and political


forces that shaped nineteenth-century history and the arts.
The effects of the Industrial Revolution and the democratization of society on music are explored, as is the impact of
nationalism and of exoticism. The principal musical traits of
Romantic style are outlined and the role of the musician,
including women, in nineteenth-century society is examined.

Schubert: The Trout

Goals for students in Part 5

III/13
II/32

Suggested Reading for Chapter 26


Boyden, Matthew. The Rough Guide to Opera. 3rd ed.
London: Rough Guides, 2002.
Brown, Maurice J. E., with Eric Sams. The New Grove
Schubert. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1983.

To understand the social and political forces that


shaped nineteenth-century views on the arts
To perceive the artistic qualities of Romanticism
To appreciate the rising force of nationalism in the
arts
To grasp the effect of new democratic societies on the
lives of composers and performers, including women

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Teaching Guide | 63
Discussion Topics
Social and political forces of nineteenth century
Values of nineteenth-century artists
The role of the fantastic in nineteenth-century art and
literature
Eccentric behavior of artistic genius
Effects of Industrial Revolution in music and
instruments
Rise of middle class and its effect on music
Interest in nationalism and exoticism
Romantic style and expressionism in music
Role of musicianmale and femalein nineteenthcentury society
Music Example Bank
III/23
I/14
I/42
II/23
III/11
III/13
I/39

Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, V,


orchestra, Romantic
Borodin, Prince Igor, Polovetsian Dances,
exoticism; melody, Romantic
Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2, folk
music, influence of
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango, exoticism; rhythm, Romantic
Saint-Sans, Samson and Delilah,
Bacchanale, exoticism
Schubert, Gretchen am Spinnrade, rhythm,
Romantic; harmony, Romantic
Smetana, The Bartered Bride, Furiant,
folk music, influence of

iMusic Example
Mendelssohn, Spring Song, Op. 62, No. 6
Suggested Reading for Part 5
Blume, Friedrich. Classic and Romantic Music: A
Comprehensive Survey. Trans. by M. D. Herter Norton.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1970.
Brown, David, et al. The New Grove Russian Masters 1:
Glinka, Borodin, Blakirev, Musorgsky, Tchaikovsky.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986.
Cooke, Deryck, et al. The New Grove Late Romantic
Masters: Bruckner, Brahms, Dvork, Wolf. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1985.
Dahlhaus, Carl. Nineteenth-Century Music. Trans. J. B.
Robinson. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1989.
Einstein, Alfred. Music in the Romantic Era. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1947.
Longyear, Rey M. Nineteenth-Century Romanticism in
Music. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,
1988.

Plantinga, Leon. Romantic Music: A History of Style in


Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1984.
Praz, Mario. The Romantic Agony. Trans. by Angus
Davidson. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Ringer, Alexander, ed. The Early Romantic Era: Between
Revolutions, 1789 and 1848. Music and Society.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
Samson, Jim, ed. The Late Romantic Era: From the MidNineteenth Century to World War I. Music and Society.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.
Strunk, Oliver, ed. Source Readings in Music History: The
Romantic Era. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1965.
Temperley, Nicholas, Gerald Abraham, and Humphrey
Searle. The New Grove Early Romantic Masters 1:
Chopin, Schumann, Liszt. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1985.
Warrack, John, Hugh MacDonald, and Karl-Heinz Khler.
The New Grove Early Romantic Masters 2: Weber,
Berlioz, Mendelssohn. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1985.

Chapter 27. Song in the Romantic Era


Overview
This chapter presents the art song, specifically the German
Lied, as a manifestation of Romantic lyricism. Standard and
hybrid song structures are discussed, as well as the poetry
and poets of the Lied. Texts by Goethe and Heine are featured
in Lieder by Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann.
I. Types of Song Structure
A. Strophic form: same melody with every stanza
1. hymns, carols, folk and popular songs
B. Through-composed: whole sections without
repetitions
1. music follows story line
C. Modified strophic form: combines strophic and
through-composed forms
II. The Lied
A. Romantic art song: German text, solo vocal,
piano accompaniment
B. Composers: Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann,
Johannes Brahms
C. Women composers: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel,
Clara Schumann
D. Song cycle: Lieder (plural) grouped together
E. Poets: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749
1832), Heinrich Heine (17971856)
1. favored short lyric poems
2. texts: tender sentiment

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64 | Chapter 9
F. Emergence of the piano
1. amateurs and professionals, home and
concert hall
III. Schubert and the Lied
A. Franz Schubert (17971828)
1. Vienna-born composer
2. member of Vienna Choir Boys
3. rejected career as a schoolteacher
4. Schubertiads: salon gatherings of writers,
artists, musicians
5. composed over 600 Lieder, three song cycles
6. music: confluence of Classical and Romantic
styles
a. Lieder and piano music: more Romantic,
lyric
b. symphonies, chamber music: more
Classical
B. Elfking
1. written at age eighteen: instant public
recognition
2. Elfking: king of the elves
a. whoever is touched by him must die
3. Romantic trends:
a. use of folklore
b. intense emotional expression
c. passionate and fanciful subjects
4. text: poem by Goethe
5. four characters (one singer): Narrator, Father,
Son, Elfking
C. Listening Guide 40: Schubert, Elfking (Erlknig)
(1815)
1. through-composed
2. constant triplets in piano: horses hooves
3. fast, dramatic
4. Elfking lures child from father: shift from
minor to major
5. childs terror: dissonance, high vocal range
6. Father reassures, calms fears: rounded vocal
line, low register
IV. Robert Schumann and the Song Cycle
A. Robert Schumann (18101856)
1. German composer, critic
2. studied law, then piano with Friedrich Wieck
3. turned to composition and music criticism
a. established Neue Zeitschrift fr Musik
(The New Journal of Music)
4. 1840: married Wiecks daughter, Clara
5. gradual mental collapse, entered asylum
1854
6. music: true Romantic style
a. impassioned melodies
b. novel harmonic changes

c. driving rhythms
7. composed over 100 Lieder, several song
cycles, four symphonies, piano music
B. Schumanns Song Cycle: A Poets Love
1. A Poets Love (Dichterliebe): composed
1840, year of song
2. 16 poems from Lyriches Intermezzo, by
Heinrich Heine
a. Heine: ironic, cynical, disillusioned
hopes
b. In the lovely month of May depicts
fragility of new love
3. cycle follows psychological progression
a. freshness of love to complete despair
C. Listening Guide 41: Robert Schumann, In the
lovely month of May, from A Poets Love
(Dichterliebe), No. 1 (1840)
1. melancholic mood: unrequited love
2. strophic with piano prelude, interlude,
postlude
3. harmonic meandering between two keys
4. piano postlude: lack of resolution
Chapter goals for students
To become acquainted with standard song forms
To understand the union of poetry and music in the
Lied
To realize the significant role of the piano in the Lied
To appreciate the relationship between folk song and
art song
Discussion Topics
Union of poetry and music in the Lied
Folksong influences on the Lied
Schubert as Romantic
The supernatural in Elfking
Schumann and the song cycle
Schumann and the piano cycle
Music Example Bank
IV/23
IV/24
III/12
III/12

Brahms, Wiegenlied (Lullaby) Op. 49, No.


4
O Tannenbaum, German Traditional
Schubert, Gretchen am Spinnrade, Lied,
through-composed, role of piano
Robert Schumann, Die Soldatenbraut

iMusic Example
Schumann, In the lovely month of May

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Teaching Guide | 65
Suggested Reading for Chapter 27
Abraham, Gerald. Robert Schumann. In The New Grove
Early Romantic Masters I. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1985.
Brody, Elaine, and R. A. Fowkes. The German Lied and its
Poetry. New York: New York University Press, 1971.
Brown, Maurice J. E. Schubert Songs. BBC Music Guides.
Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
Brown, Maurice J. E., with Eric Sams. The New Grove
Schubert. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Deutsch, Otto Erich. Schubert: Memoirs by His Friends.
Trans. by Rosamond Ley and John Nowell. New York:
Humanities, 1958.
Dickinson, A. E. F. Fine Points in The Erl King,
Monthly Musical Record 88 (1958): 141ff.
Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich. Schuberts Songs: A
Biographical Study. Translated by K. S. Whitton. New
York: Limelight Editions, 1984.
Gl, Hans. Franz Schubert and the Essence of Melody. New
York: Crescendo, 1977.
Gibbs, Christopher Howard. The Life of Schubert. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Hensel, Sebastian, ed. The Mendelssohn Family (1729
1847). 2nd revised ed. Trans. by Carl Klingemann.
New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.
Hilmar, Ernst. Franz Schubert in His Time. Portland, OR:
Amadeus Press, 1988.
Ivey, Donald. Song: Anatomy, Imagery, and Style. New
York: Free Press, 1970.
Jensen, Eric Frederick. Schumann. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2001.
Komar, Arthur, ed. Schumann Dichterliebe: An
Authoritative Score. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1971.
Meister, Barbara. An Introduction to the Art Song. New
York: Taplinger Pub. Co., 1980.
Perrey, Beate, ed. The Cambridge Companion to
Schumann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
2007.
Sirota, Victoria Ressmeyer. The Life and Works of Fanny
Mendelssohn Hensel. DMA dissertation, Boston
University, 1981.
Stevens, Denis. A History of Song. London: Hutchinson,
1960.
Tillard, Franoise. Fanny Mendelssohn. Trans. by Camille
Naish. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1996.
Walker, Alan, ed. Robert Schumann: The Man and His
Music. 2nd ed. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1976.
Youens, Susan. Schuberts Late Lieder: Beyond the SongCycles. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Chapter 28. Romantic Piano Music


Overview
The rise in popularity of the piano is emphasized, along with
technical improvements in the instrument. The short lyric
piano piece is presented as the instrumental form that parallels the art song. Representative of this genre are works by
Chopin, Liszt, and Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel. Fanny
Mendelssoh Hensel is featured as one of the most distinguished women musicians of the Romantic era.
I. Popularity of the Piano
A. Amateurs: four-hand piano music
1. two performers at one piano
2. works composed or arranged
B. Virtuoso pianist: new class of virtuoso performer
1. developing concert industry
2. performers no longer composers
C. Technical improvements to the instrument
1. metal frame, increased string tension
2. extended range of notes
3. factory production: reduced cost
II. The Short Lyric Piano Piece
A. Compact form: melodious and dramatic works
1. instrumental equivalent to song
B. Fanciful titles: Prelude, Intermezzo, Impromptu,
Nocturne
C. Dance inspired: Polish mazurka, polonaise;
Viennese waltz, scherzo
D. Descriptive titles: Wild Hunt, Little Bell, Forest
Murmurs
E. Composers: Schubert, Chopin, Liszt, Felix
Mendelssohn, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel,
Robert and Clara Schumann, and Brahms
III. Chopin and Piano Music
A. Frdric Franois Chopin (18101849)
1. born in Warsaw, Poland; composer, pianist
2. French father, Polish mother
3. age twenty-one: moved to Paris, artistic
center in 1830s
4. affair with Aurore Dudevant (George Sand)
5. composed for Parisian salon, gathering of
musicians, artists, and intellectuals
6. output revolved around the piano
a. works central to piano repertoire
b. originated modern piano style
c. ornamented melodies: trills, grace notes,
runs
d. widely spaced chords in bass line

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66 | Chapter 9
e. ballads, sonatas, concertos, preludes,
tudes, mazurkas, polonaises, scherzos,
waltzes, impromptus, nocturnes, chamber
music, and songs
B. A mazurka by Chopin
1. mazurka: Polish peasant dance
2. lively, triple meter
3. accents on 2nd or 3rd beat of measure
4. Chopin: transformed mazurka to art form
5. rubato (robbed time): liberties taken with
rhythm
C. Listening Guide 42: Chopin, Mazurka in B-flat
minor, Op. 24, No. 4 (1833)
1. moderate triple meter
2. A-B-A-C-D-A, long coda
3. dotted and double-dotted rhythms
4. subtle harmonic shifts: major, minor, modal
5. rich in chromaticism
6. accents on 3rd beat, later on 2nd beat
7. melody: chromatic lines, wide-ranging and
disjunct
*IV. Liszt and the Rise of the Performer/Composer
*A. Franz Liszt (18111886)
*1. born in Hungary, studied in Paris
*2. composer, conductor, noted teacher
*3. legendary pianist
*a. greatest pianist, showman of his day
*b. turned piano sideways
*c. creator of modern piano technique
*d. composed highly virtuosic, difficult
works
*4. affair with novelist, Countess Marie
dAgoult, three children
*5. Weimar period (184861), court conductor
*a. composed orchestral works
*b. advocated music of the future
*c. conducted premiere performances of
Wagner, Berlioz, and others
*6. later years, entered church: Abb Liszt
*a. composed religious works
*7. created new genre: symphonic poem
*a. one movement programmatic orchestral
work
*b. thematic transformation: transformed
character of themes
*B. The Little Bell
*1. Liszt: fascinated with technical possibilities
of the piano
*2. drawn to the tude (study pieces)
*3. influenced by violin virtuoso, Niccol
Paganini
*4. Transcendental Etudes after Paganini
*a. set of six technical pieces

*b. based on Paganinis Caprices for solo


violin
*c. The Little Bell (La campanella), third
etude
*C. Listening Guide 43: Franz Liszt, The Little Bell
(La campanella) (1851)
*1. fast and light Allegretto; grows faster
*2. sectional variations, A-B-A'-B'-A"-B"-A"
*3. highly virtuosic, many embellishments
*4. bell sound: high register, high-pitch pedal
point
*5. dramatic closing, forte octaves
V. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel and the Piano Miniature
A. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (18051847)
1. raised in Berlin, sister of composer Felix
Mendelssohn
2. composer, pianist
3. female in nineteenth century: discouraged
from career in music
4. married court artist, Wilhelm Hensel
5. active as composer and pianist: salon
concerts
6. composed chamber music, Lieder, piano
music
7. compositions intended for family salon
gatherings
B. A piano cycle: The Year
1. The Year (Das Jahr), set of twelve
pieces/miniatures
a. suggest passage of time, seasons of ones
life
2. lost manuscript found in 1989
3. each piece on different colored paper, poetic
epigram, and painting by Wilhelm Hensel
4. cycle unified:
a. recurring motives
b. tonal schemes
c. references to other composers
5. September
a. drawing of barefooted woman
b. lines from Goethe, Flow, flow, dear
river, Never will I be happy.
C. Listening Guide 44: Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel,
September: At the River, from The Year (Das
Jahr) (1841)
1. A-B-A' with introduction and coda
2. melancholic, haunting, meandering melody
3. slow-paced melody against fast-moving lines
and chords
4. daring, distant key areas, very chromatic
5. swelling and decrescendo dynamics: evokes
flow of water

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Teaching Guide | 67
Chapter goals for students
To understand the importance of the piano in the
musical life of the Romantic era
To appreciate the short, lyric piano piece as the
instrumental form equivalent to the Lied
To recognize the originality and virtuosity of Chopins
and Liszts artistry
To perceive the nationalistic Polish traits in Chopins
music
To comprehend the difficulties that women faced as
composers in the nineteenth century
Discussion Topics
Influence of piano on developing musical tastes
Piano as the instrument of amateurs and of virtuosos
Nationalism in Chopin
Chopin and the development of modern piano style
Popularity of the polka in nineteenth and twentieth
centuries
The role of the salon in the nineteenth century
Chopins position in the Parisian salon
Popularity of piano in the home
Consumption of printed piano music in the United States
and Europe
The popularity of Chopins music in the Americas
Liszt:
Reputation as an exotic performer
Establishment of the symphonic poem
Promotion of the music of the future
Contributions to piano literature
Women composers and nineteenth-century society

Gottschalk, Louis Moreua. Notes of a Pianist. Ed. by


Jeanne Behrend and Frederick S. Starr. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2006.
Lederer, Victor. Chopin: A Listeners Guide to the Master
of the Piano. Pompton Plains, NJ: Amadeus Press,
2006.
Lindeman, Stephan D. Structural Novelty and Tradition in
the Early Romantic Piano Concerto. Stuyvesant, NY:
Pendragon Press, 1999.
Litzmann, Berthold, ed. Letters of Clara Schumann and
Johannes Brahms, 18531896. New York: Longmans,
Green, 1927. Reprint. 1974.
Newman, William S. The Sonata Since Beethoven. 3rd ed.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Pernyi, Eleanor. Liszt: The Artist as Romantic Hero. New
York: Little, Brown, 1974.
Reich, Nancy B. Clara Schumann: The Artist and the
Woman. Rev. ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press,
2001.
Reich, Susanna. Clara Schumann: Piano Virtuoso. New
York: Clarion Books, 1999.
. The Music of Liszt. 2nd ed. London: Williams and
Norgate, 1966.
Starr, S. Frederick. Louis Moreau Gottschalk. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 2000.
Steegmann, Monica. Clara Schumann. London: Haus
Publishing, 2004.
Walker, Alan. The Chopin Companion: Profiles of the Man
and the Musician. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1973.
. Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years, 181147. Ithaca,
NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.
. Franz Liszt: The Weimar Years, 184861. New
York: Knopf, 1989.

Music Example Bank


III/3

Chopin, Fantasie-Impromptu in C-sharp


minor, Op. 66, rubato
IV/25
Chopin, Mazurka, Op. 53
IV/26
Beer Barrel Polka, Polish Traditional polka
band
III/1618 Liszt, Les Prludes, thematic
transformation

Suggested Reading for Chapter 28


Atwood, William G., The Parisian Worlds of Frdric
Chopin. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999.
Chissell, Joan. Clara Schumann: A Dedicated Spirit. New
York: Taplinger, 1983.
Gibbs, Christopher, and Dana Gooley, eds. Franz Liszt and
His World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
2006.

Chapter 29. Music in Nineteenth-Century America


Overview
The musical community in the nineteenth-century United
States culture is explored.
I. Concert Music Imported from Europe
A. Protestant settlers, devotional psalms
1. early American publications: devotional
a. first American psalm book, printed in
1640
b. shape-note notation
II. Stephen Foster and American Popular Music
A. Stephen Foster (18261864)
1. composer, born outside Pittsburgh

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68 | Chapter 9
2. worked as bookkeeper
3. composed for Christy Minstrels, black-faced
minstrel show
4. Hit songs: Oh, Susanna!, Camptown Races,
Old Folks at Home, My Old Kentucky Home
5. died a penniless alcoholic
B. A song by Stephen Foster
1. Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair (185354)
2. love song, written for his wife, Jane Denny
McDowell
3. two-verse poem by Foster
4. not popular during his lifetime
5. alternate title, I Dream of Jeannie
C. Listening Guide 45: Foster, Jeanie with the Light
Brown Hair (1854)
1. strophic with brief cadenzas in each strophe
2. syllabic setting of text, descending melody
3. moderate tempo in quadruple meter
4. major key, simple block- and broken-chord
accompaniment
*III. Louis Gottschalk and Piano Music in America
*A. Louis Moreau Gottschalk (18291869)
*1. New Orleans native; composer, pianist
*2. English-born Jewish father, French-Creole
mother
*3. first American to achieve international fame
as classical composer
*4. heard ethnically diverse music
*a. Afro-Caribbean folk music, West Indian
and African-American dances and songs
*5. child prodigy, piano debut at age eleven
*6. studied in Paris: charmed Chopin and Berlioz
*7. toured Europe, United States, Cuba, Puerto
Rico
*8. promoted education, classical and popular
music
*9. remembered for solo piano music
*a. highly syncopated: anticipated Ragtime
*b. assimilated traditional music with
virtuosos piano compositions
*c. exploited dance forms
*d. accessible music: quoted Stephen Foster
tunes
*B. The Banjo
*1. banjo: popular African-American instrument
*2. subtitled Grotesque Fantasy: An American
Sketch
*C. Listening Guide 46: Gottschalk, The Banjo (Le
banjo: Fantasie grotesque) (185455)
*1. solo piano, imitates banjo strumming and
picking
*2. two varied sections
*a. first: rhythmic, low range
*b. second: banjo-style tune, high range

*3. highly syncopated


*4. coda: quotes Camptown Races
*5. accelerando to end, ff chord
Discussion Topics
Shape-note notation in popular culture
Parlor music of Stephen Foster
Creole versus Cajun musical culture
The variety of influences on Gottschalk
African musical characteristics in Gottschalks music
Nationalism in Gottschalk
iMusic Example
Amazing Grace

Chapter 30. Romantic Program Music


Overview
Program music is emphasized as a nineteenth-century phenomenon; four types are discussed: concert overture, incidental music, program symphony, and symphonic poem. Musical
nationalism is tied to program music, presented with an
overview of ways it is expressed in music and with a brief
discussion of various national schools and their output.
I. Program Music
A. Instrumental music with literary or pictorial
associations
1. program supplied by composer
2. suggests story, or mood
3. composers relate music to moral and political
issues
B. Absolute music: no literary or pictorial
associations
II. Varieties of Program Music
A. Concert overture: originated in opera house
1. single-movement concert piece for orchestra
2. based on literary ideas
B. Incidental music: overture and pieces between
acts of a play
1. arranged into suites
2. important today: film, television
C. Program symphony: multimovement orchestral
work
1. Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique; Liszt: Faust
and Dante Symphonies
D. Symphonic poem (tone poem): one-movement
orchestral work
1. freer structure than concert overture
2. most widely used

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Teaching Guide | 69
III. Berlioz and the Program Symphony
A. Hector Berlioz (18031869)
1. French composer, conductor
2. first proponent of musical Romanticism in
France
3. left medical school to study music
4. influenced by Beethoven and Shakespeare
5. infatuated with Shakespearean actress,
Harriet Smithson
6. 1830, won Prix de Rome
7. orchestral works: overtures, program
symphonies
a. daring originality, bold innovator
b. huge orchestral forces, master of
orchestration
B. Symphonie fantastique
1. five-movement program symphony
2. program by Berlioz: autobiographical
a. infatuation with Harriet Smithson
b. meeting the beloved; ultimate demise of
the artist
c. Romantic era: fascinated with grotesque
and supernatural
3. recurring theme: ide fixe (fixed idea)
a. symbolizes the beloved
b. unifying musical thread
c. thematic transformation
4. March to the Scaffold, mvt. 4
a. opium-induced dream
b. artist dreams he has killed the beloved
c. witnesses his own execution
*5. Dream of a Witches Sabbath, mvt. 5
*a. witches sabbath, spirits gathered for his
funeral
*b. beloved comes to infernal orgy
C. Listening Guide 47: Berlioz, Symphonie
fantastique, Fourth and Fifth Movements (1830)
1. mvt. 4: March to the Scaffold; Allegretto non
troppo
a. sonata-like form, minor mode
b. theme 1: downward minor scale
c. theme 2: diabolical march tune, brass and
woodwinds
d. ide fixe at end, clarinet: last thought of
love
e. ff chord: guillotine blade falls
*2. mvt. 5: Dream of a Witches Sabbath;
Larghetto, Allegro assai
*a. slow and eerie opening: muted strings,
chromatic scales
*b. Allegro: ide fixe in high clarinet
*i. a vulgar tune; trills, grace notes
*c. dissonant, chromatic harmonies
*d. Dies irae quoted, first slow, then twice as
fast

*e. Dance of Witches: builds to fugal


setting
*f. dance and Dies irae combined, builds to
final cadence
IV. Musical Nationalism
A. Political unrest in Europe: stimulated nationalism
B. Music based on folk songs and dances
*1. Chopin: mazurkas, polonaises
*2. Liszt: Hungarian Rhapsodies
*3. Dvork: Slavonic Dances
C. Programs: folklore or peasant life, national hero,
historic event, scenic beauty
D. Love of homeland: powerful symbolism
V. A Czech Nationalist: Bed ich Smetana
A. Bed ich Smetana (18241884)
1. first prominent Bohemian composer
2. joined 1848 revolutionary uprising
3. revolution failed: accepted conducting
position in Sweden
4. returned to Prague: composed operas in
native tongue
5. best known for My Country (M vlast)
a. cycle of six symphonic poems
B. The Moldau
1. second from My Country
2. Moldau: Bohemian river
3. poetic symbol of homeland
4. program: scenes along shore of the river
a. varied instrumentation for each scene
C. Listening Guide 48: Smetana, The Moldau
(187479)
1. begins with flute: source of the river
2. river theme: stepwise melody in violins,
minor mode
3. hunting scene: fanfare in French horns and
trumpets
4. peasant dance: folk tune, staccato strings,
shift to duple meter
5. nymphs in moonlight: double reeds, muted
strings
6. ancient castle: brass
7. ending, flows out to sea: two forceful closing
chords
VI. A Scandinavian Nationalist: Edvard Grieg
A. Edvard Grieg (18431907)
1. Norwegian composer, pianist
2. studied in Leipzig: influenced by
Mendelssohn and Schumann
3. promoted Scandinavian music
4. composed smaller-scale works, many piano
works
a. A minor Piano Concerto, arrangements of
Norwegian folk tunes

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70 | Chapter 9
5. style: lyricism, nationalistic use of folk music
and dances
B. Peer Gynt suite
1. Peer Gynt: play by Henrik Ibsen
2. based on Norwegian folk tale
3. Griegs Peer Gynt: originally incidental
music for the play
4. final version: eight movements in two
orchestral suites
C. Listening Guide 49: Grieg, Peer Gynt, Suite No.
1, Op. 46, excerpts (187475)
1. Morning Mood
a. dreamy, flowing melody: flute and oboe
b. A-B-A' form
c. grows to loud climax, then dies away
d. pastoral instruments (flute, oboe, horn)
2. In the Hall of the Mountain King
a. march for the wild daughters of the
Mountain King
b. minor mode theme repeated six times,
coda
c. duple-meter march, staccato notes,
offbeat accents
d. huge crescendo and accelerando,
dramatic ending
e. conceived as grotesque ballet music
VII. Other Nationalists
A. England
1. Edward Elgar
2. Ralph Vaughan Williams
B. Scandinavia
1. Edvard Grieg
2. Jean Sibelius
C. Spain
1. Isaac Albniz
2. Manuel de Falla
D. Czech Republic
1. Bed ich Smetana
2. Antonn Dvork
E. Russia
1. Alexander Borodin
2. Modest Musorgsky
3. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
4. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Chapter goals for students
To understand the special importance of program
music in the Romantic era
To grasp the difference between programmatic and
absolute forms
To relate political conditions of the nineteenth century
to the rise of musical nationalism

To comprehend how cultural values are at the heart of


folklore
Discussion Topics
Form in program music
Expression of nationalism in music
Symphonie fantastique as epitome of Romanticism
Unification of multimovement works
Use of Requiem chant in the work
Contemporaneous reception of the work
Popularity in the twentieth-century symphonic
repertoire
Nationalism and music: subjects and manner of
expression
Political use of nationalist music
Artists who suffered politically for promoting nationalist
themes
Music Example Bank
I/67

Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death,


incidental music
II/12
Musorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition,
Bydlo, program music
II/15
Saint-Sans, Le carnaval des animaux,
Fossiles, program music
III/1923 Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique, ide fixe
II/12
Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition,
Bydlo program music
IV/28
Copland, John Henry
I/67
Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite No. 1, ses Death
II/4
Kodly, Hry Jnos, Song
II/18
Prokofiev, Cinderella, Apotheosis,
nationalism, Romantic
III/24
Gottschalk, Cakewalk, Grand Walkaround
I/42
Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
Suggested Reading for Chapter 30
Bloom, Peter, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Berlioz.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Casler, Lawrence. Symphonic Program Music and its
Literary Sources. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press,
2001.
Clapham, John. Antonin Dvork. In The New Grove Late
Romantic Masters. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1985.
Cone, Edward T., ed. Berlioz: Fantastic Symphony. Norton
Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1971.
Gasparov, Boris. Five Operas and a Symphony: Word and
Music in Russian Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press, 2005.

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Teaching Guide | 71
Holoman, D. Kern. Berlioz. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 1989.
Macdonald, Hugh. Berlioz. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2000.
Orrey, Leslie. Programme Music: A Brief Survey from the
Sixteenth Century to the Present Day. London: DavisPoynter, 1975.
Primmer, Brian. The Berlioz Style. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1973.
Rushton, Julian. The Music of Berlioz. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2001.
Temperley, Nicholas. The Symphonie Fantastique and Its
Program. Musical Quarterly 57/4 (1971): 593608.
Tovey, Donald Francis. Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique,
Op. 14. In Symphonies and Other Orchestral Works.
Essays in Musical Analysis. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1989 (originally printed in 193539),
16470.
Whiting, Jim. The Life and Times of Hector Berlioz.
Hockessin, DE: Lane Publishers, 2005.

Chapter 31. Absolute Music in the


Nineteenth Century
Overview
This chapter surveys the symphony and the concerto in the
Romantic era. Beginning with the model established by Classical masters, the nineteenth-century symphony is explored
as is the nature of the nineteenth-century concerto and sonata.
I. Absolute Music: no literary or pictorial associations
A. Multimovement genres: concerto, symphony,
chamber music
1. form: organizing element
2. Romantic era composers took freedoms with
the structures
*II. Clara Schumann: Pianist and Composer
*A. Clara Schumann (18191896)
*1. German pianist, composer
*2. daughter of Friedrich Wieck
*3. appeared publicly at age nine, toured
extensively
*4. married to composer Robert Schumann
*5. lifelong friendship with Johannes Brahms
*6. limited by restrictions to women
*7. music: miniatures, piano concerto, piano trio
*8. style: technically difficult, serious and
introspective
*B. Piano Trio in G minor
*1. written after birth of fourth child
*2. four movements: inverted pattern of middle
movements

*C. Listening Guide 50: Clara Schumann, Piano Trio


in G minor, III (1847)
*1. A-B-A' with coda
*2. lilting Z meter, major key
*3. melody introduced by piano: lyrical,
decorative turns
*4. texture: melody predominates, some
counterpoint
*5. middle section: minor mode, moves quicker
*6. wide dynamic range, delicate closing
III. The Romantic Concerto
A. Favored genre of the nineteenth century
*B. Eighteenth-century forms maintained
C. Increased size of orchestra, virtuosic performers
D. Composers wrote for particular artist
*1. Mendelssohn Violin Concerto: Ferdinand
David
*2. Brahms Violin Concerto: Joseph Joachim
*IV. Mendelssohn and the Romantic Concerto
*A. Felix Mendelssohn (18091847)
*1. German pianist, conductor, educator,
composer
*2. spurred revival of J. S. Bachs music
*3. founded Conservatory of Leipzig
*4. traveled extensively throughout his career
*5. composed with speed and facility
*6. preferred Classical era forms
*7. 1847, sister Fanny died suddenly, he died six
months later
*8. large- and small-scale works
B. Violin Concerto in E minor
*1. Mendelssohns last orchestral work
*2. clarity of form, subtlety of orchestration,
sentimental expression
3. three movements played without pause
4. cyclical: reference of first movement in
second movement
*C. Listening Guide 51: Mendelssohn, Violin
Concerto in E minor, First Movement (1844)
*1. Allegro molto appassionato: first-movement
concerto form
*2. brilliant violin writing: double and triple
stops
*3. theme 1: introduced by solo violin
*a. wide range, lyrical, balanced phrases
*4. theme 2: introduced by woodwinds over
violin pedal point
*5. cadenza: not improvised, end of development
*6. shorter recapitulation; faster tempo to end of
movement
V. The Romantic Symphony
A. Music moved from palace to concert halls
1. much larger orchestra

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72 | Chapter 9
B. Longer, more expansive structure
1. composers: less prolific
C. The nineteenth-century symphony form
1. multimovement scheme not always followed
2. mvt. 1: sonata-allegro form
a. optional slow introduction
b. long, expressive development
3. mvt. 2: typically ternary form
a. greater range of mood
4. mvt. 3: scherzo form
a. lively pace
b. sometimes as second movement
c. variety of moods
5. mvt. 4: sonata-allegro form, rondo
a. fast tempo
VI. Brahms and the Late Romantic Symphony
A. Johannes Brahms (18331897)
1. German composer, conductor
2. son of musician and seamstress
3. recognized by Schumann as a great composer
4. moved to Vienna
5. traditionalist: absolute music, Classical forms
6. affection for folk music
7. age forty, began composing symphonic
works
8. output: four symphonies, major contributions
to chamber music, piano, and song repertoire
B. Symphony No. 3 in F Major
1. 1883, Brahms age fifty
2. shortest of his four symphonies
3. most Romantic in tone
4. Classical era forms
5. three-note motive
a. (FA-flatF) Frei aber froh (Free but
happy)
b. permeates entire symphony
6. mvt. 3: melancholy waltz replaces scherzo
C. Listening Guide 52: Brahms, Symphony No. 3 in
F major, Third Movement (1883)
1. A-B-A' form, C minor
2. moderate triple meter
3. opens with yearning cello melody
4. rhythmically complex; syncopations
5. alternates major and minor keys
6. chromatic middle section
7. last chord: pizzicato strings
*VII. Dvork as a Symphonist
*A. Antonn Dvork (18411904)
*1. Bohemian composer, born near Prague
*2. violist in Czech National Theater: Smetana
conducting
*3. composition professor: Conservatory of
Prague

*4. three years in United States


*a. interested in spirituals, Creole songs and
dances
*b. encouraged American originality
*5. gift for melody, love of native folk tunes
*6. large output: all genres of music; operas
based on Czech tunes
*B. The New World Symphony
*1. Symphony No. 9: composed in United States,
premiered in New York
*2. middle movements influenced by
Longfellows Song of Hiawatha
*3. modal flavorings, richly colored
orchestrations
*C.Listening Guide 53: Dvork, Symphony No. 9 in
E minor, From the New World, First Movement
(1893)
*1. sonata-allegro form, three themes
*2. somber introduction
*3. folklike, lyrical melodies
*4. sudden dynamic contrasts, sweeping
crescendos
*5. theme 3: suggestive of Swing Low, Sweet
Chariot
*6. recapitulation: themes in unexpected keys
*7. fff full orchestra turbulent closing
Chapter goals for students
To appreciate the new proportions and freedom that
appear in the Romantic symphony
To recognize the important impact the Bohemian
composer Dvork had on the rise of African-American
art music
To understand the nineteenth-century treatment of
concerto form, with its increased virtuosity and
freedom
To recognize the rise of classical composition in
America
To recognize the achievements of women composers
Discussion Topics
Comparison of Classical and Romantic symphony
The nineteenth-century symphony orchestra (size,
members)
Form in nineteenth-century absolute music
Lyrical expression in Brahms
New World Symphony as absolute versus program
music
Looking toward indigenous and African-American
music for inspiration
Other types of distinctly American music in the United
States

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Teaching Guide | 73
Comparison of Classical and Romantic concerto
Freedom in Romantic concerto form
Nationalism in the United States
Cultural diversity in the United States
Music Example Bank
I/40

I/35
IV/62
IV/29
IV/30
III/26
I/7
II/24
III/24
II/35

Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 in A major


(Italian), IV, form in nineteenth-century
absolute music
Dvork, Symphony No. 9 (New World), II
Price, Sonata in E minor, II
Still, Afro-American Symphony, I
Deep River, American Traditional
Brahms, Concerto for Violin and Cello in A
minor, Op. 102,
Brahms, Violin Concerto in D major, Op.
77, III
Tchaikovsky, Piano Concerto No. 1 in Bflat minor, III
Gottschalk, Cakewalk, Grand Walkaround
Sousa, The Stars and Stripes Forever

Suggested Reading for Chapter 31


Becker, Heinz. Johannes Brahms. In The New Grove Late
Romantic Masters. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1985.
Beckerman, Michael, ed. Dvok and His World. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.
. Dvorks New World Largo and The Song of
Hiawatha. 19th Century Music 16 (1992): 3548.
Block, Adrienne. Amy Beach, Passionate Victorian: The
Life and Works of the American Composer, 18671944.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Botstein, Leon, ed. The Compleat Brahms: A Guide to the
Musical Works of Johannes Brahms. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1999.
Brown, Jeanell Wise. Amy Beach and Her Chamber Music:
Biography, Documents, Style. Metuchen, NJ:
Scarecrow Press, 1994.
Crawford, Richard. Americas Musical Life: A History.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005.
Frisch, Walter, and Kevin C. Karnes, eds. Brahms and His
World. Rev. ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press, 2009.
Gl, Hans. Johannes Brahms: His Work and Personality.
Trans. by Joseph Stein. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 1977.
Geiringer, Karl. Brahms: His Life and Works. 3rd ed. New
York: Da Capo, 1981. Reprint of 1948 edition.
Horton, John. Brahms Orchestral Music. Seattle: University
of Washington Press, 1969.

Jacopsen, Bernard. The Music of Johannes Brahms.


London: Tantivy, 1977.
Khler, Karl-Heinz. Felix Mendelssohn In The New
Grove Early Romantic Masters 2. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1985.
Roeder, Michael T. A History of the Concerto. Portland,
OR: Amadeus Press, 1994.
Tovey, Donald Francis. Brahms: Symphony No. 3 in F
major, Op. 90. In Essays in Musical Analysis:
Symphonies and Other Orchestral Works, 21119. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1989 (originally printed
in 193539).

Chapter 32. National Schools of Romantic Opera


Overview
The various national styles of Romantic opera are reviewed,
with emphasis on the Italian style of Verdi, the German music
dramas of Wagner, and the new realism of French lyric opera,
notably in Bizet, and of late Romantic Italian opera by Puccini.
I. Women in Opera
A. Allowed women visibility
B. Prominent perfomers
1. Jenny Lind, Swedish nightingale (1820
1887)
2. Maria Malibran (18081836)
3. Pauline Viardot (18211920)
II. Verdi and Italian Opera
A. Opera seria and opera buffa: continued into
nineteenth century
1. bel canto style (beautiful singing)
a. florid melodic lines, great agility, purity
of tone
*b. composers: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini
(only Rossini mentioned in short ed.)
B. Giuseppi Verdi (18131901)
1. Italian opera composer
2. 1839, tragic loss of wife and children in short
time span
3. 1842, Nabucco: chorus became Italian
patriotic song
a. Verdi became national hero
4. wrote 28 operas
5. literary sources: Shakespeare, contemporary
plays and novels
6. music: profound emotion, prized melody
above all else
C. Verdis Rigoletto
1. based on Victor Hugos The King Is Amused
2. Renaissance-era ducal court at Mantua

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74 | Chapter 9
3. main characters:
a. Duke, womanizer
b. Rigoletto, hunchbacked jester
c. Gilda, Rigolettos daughter
d. Sparafucile, assassin
e. Maddalena, Sparafuciles sister
4. plot summary:
a. curse put on Rigoletto for making light of
the Dukes seductions
b. Gilda becomes the Dukes next conquest
c. Rigoletto plots to murder the Duke
d. Gilda sacrifices herself for the Duke
e. Gilda dies in her fathers arms:
fulfillment of the curse
D. Listening Guide 54: Verdi, Rigoletto, Act III,
excerpts (1851)
1. La donna mobile (Woman Is Fickle)
a. sung by the Duke
b. triple meter
c. strophic aria with refrain
d. guitarlike orchestral strumming
2. Un d, quartet
a. quartet sung by Duke, Maddalena, Gilda,
Rigoletto
b. dialogue between characters
c. Duke: bel canto style
d. Maddalena: laughing, short notes
e. Gilda: heartbroken, laments
f. Rigoletto: swears vengeance for his
daughter
g. second part: characters sing together
h. Bella figlia opening melody sung by
Duke
i. Allegro, agitated movement
III. Wagner and the Music Drama in Germany
A. Richard Wagner (18131883)
1. German composer
2. began serious composition at age twentythree
3. wrote his own librettos: exercised total
control
4. age thirty, Rienzi, huge success
5. active in 1849 failed Dresden uprising: fled
to Switzerland
6. Zurich: theories of music drama
a. integrated theater and music completely
7. Ring of the Nibelung: cycle of four music
dramas
a. Das Rheingold
b. Die Walkre
c. Siegfried
d. Gtterdmerung
8. Festival Theater at Bayreuth: built for
performance of Wagners works
9. married Franz Liszts daughter, Cosima

10. Wagners music:


a. idealized folk legend
b. subjects: medieval German epics
c. profound feeling for nature
d. supernatural as element of drama
e. glorified German land and people
B. Die Walkre
1. second in Ring of the Nibelung
2. cycle follows the possession of the ring
a. Norse mythology and medieval German
epic sagas
b. cursed powerful ring: death and
misfortune to those who possess it
c. ring returned to Rhine Maidens in
Gtterdmerung
3. Die Walkre
a. Siegmund and Sieglinde: twin brother
and sister, incestuous and adulterous
relationship
b. Valkyries: nine daughters of Wotan, carry
fallen heroes from battlefield to Valhalla
c. Siegmund is wounded in battle
d. Brnhilde, a Valkyrie, carries Siegmund
to Valhalla
e. end of music drama, Brnhilde, punished
by Wotan, becomes a mortal
4. opera as total artwork: Gesamtkunstwerk
a. endless melody by singers; no arias
b. orchestra as focal point, unifying
element
c. leitmotifs leading motives: concise
themes, recur throughout a work
d. chromatic harmonies, dissonance
C. Listening Guide 55: Wagner, Die Walkre (The
Valkyrie), Act III, opening and Finale (1856)
1. Opening: Ride of the Valkyries, Brnhilde
carries Siegmund to Valhalla
a. swirling strings and woodwinds
b. Ride leitmotif ascends, repeats
c. battle cries from soloists: Hojoho!
Heiaha!
d. polyphonic/lively dotted rhythm ( meter
e. huge dynamic contrasts
f. huge orchestra, huge and varied brass
section
g. dense orchestral texture
*2. Closing of Scene 3: Wotan and Brnhilde
*a. three recurring themes
*b. endless melody
*c. rich, chromatic harmony
*d. forceful trombone passage; Wotan
invokes Loge (god of fire)
*e. magic fire, full orchestra
*f. magic sleep, descending chromatic
woodwinds

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Teaching Guide | 75
*g. slumber motive: woodwinds
*h. Wotan sings to Siegfried motive (next
in the cycle)
*i. brass, ff announcement of Siegfried
motive
*j. long orchestral closing
*IV. Georges Bizet and Exoticism in French Opera
*A. Nineteenth-century French opera
*1. Paris, opera center
*2. grand opera, new genre
*a. serious historical themes
*b. suited bourgeoisies taste
*c. huge choruses, crowd scenes, ornate
costumes and scenery, elaborate dance
episodes
*3. opra comique
*a. smaller performing forces
*b. simpler compositional style
*c. spoken dialogue instead of recitative
*d. not always comic
B. Exoticism
1. Romantics: yearn for far-off lands
2. Verdi: Aida, Egypt under the pharaohs
3. Puccini: Turandot, ancient China; Madame
Butterfly, late nineteenth-century Japan
4. Bizet: Carmen, Spain
*C. Georges Bizet (18381875)
*1. composer, born and raised in Paris
*2. student at Paris Conservatory
*3. won Prix de Rome
*4. composed operas with exotic atmosphere
*5. died shortly after poor reception of Carmen
*D. Bizets Carmen
*1. opra comique based on Gypsy life in Spain
*2. portrayed realities of lower classes and their
suffering
*3. naturalism: new literary theme
*4. characters: smugglers, bandits
*5. lyric drama: strong emotions, love hate,
desire, disintegration of a personality
*6. plot summary:
*a. Carmen, Gypsy girl, works in cigarette
factory in Seville
*b. Don Jos, simple soldier, becomes
obsessed with Carmen
*c. Carmen seduces Don Jos
*d. in fit of jealousy, Don Jos attacks his
superior officer
*e. Don Jos joins a band of smugglers
*f. final act, Carmen refuses to go with Don
Jos
*g. Don Jos stabs Carmen: Toreador Song

*E. Listening Guide 56: Bizet, Carmen, Act I,


Scenes 4 and 5 (1875)
*1. Scene 4: young men wait for cigarette girls to
exit the factory
*a. orchestra crescendo: excitement builds
*b. large orchestra (with harp and bells)
*c. mens and womens choruses
*d. gentle mood until Carmen arrives
*2. Scene 5: Habanera
*a. Carmen and chorus
*b. seductive verse/chorus structure
*c. dotted Spanish dance rhythm, ostinato in
bass
*d. descending chromatic melody
Chapter goals for students
To appreciate Italian opera and the contributions of
Verdi to that genre
To understand the music drama as conceived by
Wagner
To appreciate the nineteenth-century exoticism in
opera
To comprehend the realism of late Romantic opera
Discussion Topics
Development of national styles
Rise of popular and lighter opera styles
Role of women in opera
Spectacle in nineteenth-century opera
Realism in nineteenth-century opera
Verdi the nationalist
Verdis early retirement from composition
Integration of music and drama in Wagner
Expressive harmony and endless melody in Wagner
Music Example Bank
I/57
III/20
III/30
III/31
III/32
III/33
I/54
IV/57
IV/58

Rossini, The Barber of Seville, Largo al


factotum
Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, Prelude
Wagner, Die Walkre, Act I (Leitmotif:
object)
Wagner, Die Walkre, Act I (Leitmotif:
person)
Wagner, Die Walkre, Act I (Leitmotif:
landscape)
Wagner, Die Walkre, Act I (Leitmotif:
idea)
Bizet, Carmen, Act I, Habanera
La Cumparsita, Argentinian Traditional
(tango)
Sevillanas, Spanish Traditional (flamenco)

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76 | Chapter 9
IV/31
I/53

Tres Lindas Cubanas, II, Cuban Traditional


(habanera)
Puccini, Gianni Schicchi, O mio babbino
caro

iMusic Examples
Rossini, William Tell Overture
Wagner, Ride of the Valkyries
Bizet, Toreador Song from Carmen

Chapter 33. Late Romantic and


Post-Romantic Music
Overview
This chapter is a survey of the nineteenth-century expansion
of the musical public that included the rise of amateur choral
societies, especially in France and England. The nineteenthcentury Requiem Mass is viewed through the Catholic tradition of Verdi. An historical overview of ballet is presented,
with attention to its role in opera. Tchaikovsky is introduced
as representative of the Russian school of ballet, with particular focus on The Nutcracker.
I. Romantic Choral Music
A. Expansion of audience: amateur musicians
1. choral music: artistic outlet for amateurs
2. composers: Schubert, Berlioz, Felix and
Fanny Mendelssohn, Robert and Clara
Schumann, Liszt, Verdi, Brahms, and Dvork
B. Secular choral pieces: part songs
*1. lyric poems, variety of mood and styles
*2. three or four voice parts
*3. short, melodious works
C. Sacred choral forms: Mass, the Requiem Mass,
and oratorios
1. concert setting
2. monumental works
D. Verdis Requiem
1. began as tribute to Gioachino Rossini
2. completed after death of Alessandro Manzoni
(revered poet and humanist)
3. Libera me (Deliver me, O Lord): prayer
recited over coffin
a. uses Dies irae (Day of Wrath)
b. uses Requiem aeternam (Grant them
eternal rest)
E. Listening Guide 57: Verdi, Requiem, Libera me,
excerpt (1874)
1. Libera me: Dies irae
a. soprano solo, chorus, large orchestra,
strong percussion and brass

b. choral declamation of themes, pounding


chords in minor key
c. agitated allegro: accented chords, timpani
offbeats
d. loud, forceful mood; shifts to soft and
mysterious
e. dramatic mood
2. Libera me: Requiem aeternam
a. soprano solo with a cappella chorus
b. slow-paced duple meter, peaceful mood
c. soprano; angelic, expressive, soaring line
d. ends with sopranos octave leap toward
the heavens, pppp
e. minor, shifts to major, very chromatic
f. marked dolcissimo (very sweetly)
II. Tchaikovsky and the Ballet
A. Ballet: important to European culture for
centuries
*1. historical antecedents
*a. Italy, intermedio
*b. England, masque
*c. France, ballet de cour and
divertissements
2. eighteenth century, ballet as independent art
form
3. early nineteenth century, France and Russia
preeminent
a. Marius Petipa: structure for pas de deux
(dance for two)
b. Serge Diaghilev (18721929), Russian
impresario
i. Ballets Russes: Russian ballet
company, performed in Paris
c. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky: Russian
composer of ballet music
B. Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (18401893)
1. Russian composer
2. son of government official
3. at age twenty-three, entered Conservatory of
St. Petersburg
4. taught twelve years at Moscow
Conservatory
5. extremely sensitive nature, prone to
depression
6. social pressures, homosexual, married a
student
7. Nadezhda von Meck: wealthy widow,
became his patron
8. fame in Europe and United States
a. 1891: conducted opening of Carnegie
Hall
9. output includes: seven symphonies, four
concertos, three ballets: Swan Lake, The
Sleeping Beauty, and The Nutcracker

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Teaching Guide | 77
C. The Nutcracker
1. based on E. T. A. Hoffman story
a. Christmas party
b. Clara receives Nutcracker from her
godfather
c. Clara dreams Nutcracker becomes her
Prince
d. they travel through magical realm:
exoticism
2. choreographed by Petipa
D. Listening Guide 58: Tchaikovsky, The
Nutcracker, Three Dances (1892)
*1. March: guests arrive to party
*a. A-B-A, sprightly march
*b. A section: trumpet announces march
theme
*c. B section: staccato runs by woodwinds
and strings
2. Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy
a. A-B-A, bouncy duple meter (andante
tempo)
b. introduction: pizzicato strings
c. A section: celesta, bell-like timbre
d. closes with loud pizzicato chord
3. Trepak (Russian Dance)
a. A-B-A, molto vivace
b. A section: full orchestra, lively dance
tune
c. lively peasant dance, heavy accents
d. descending melody with sfz staccato note
e. accelerando to end, trumpet fanfare,
syncopations
III. The Post-Romantic Era
A. Post-Romanticism: influenced by Wagners
chromatic language
B. Composers: Giacomo Puccini, Gustav Mahler
IV. Puccini and Verismo Opera
A. Verismo movement: realism, subjects from
everyday life
B. Giacomo Puccini (18581924)
1. Italian composer
2. father was a church organist
3. attracted to theater and opera
4. early success followed by misfortune
5. major works: La bohme, Tosca, Madame
Butterfly, Turandot
6. music: soaring melodies, rich orchestral
timbres, recurring melodies
C. Madame Butterfly
1. based on Pierre Lotis tale, Madame
Chrysanthme
2. exoticism: takes place in Japan

3. plot summary:
a. American naval officer, Pinkerton,
marries geisha, Cio-Cio-San (Madame
Butterfly)
b. Pinkerton returns to United States,
Butterfly awaits his return
c. Pinkerton returns with his American wife
d. Butterfly takes her life
4. exoticism in the music:
a. traditional Japanese melodies
b. whole-tone and pentatonic scales
c. sounds evoking Japanese gagaku
orchestra: harp, flute, piccolo, bells
d. quotes American National Anthem
5. disastrous premiere
D. Listening Guide 59: Puccini, Un bel d, from
Madame Butterfly, Act II (1904)
1. One lovely day well see: Butterfly sings
of Pinkertons return
2. opening: ethereal voice accompanied by solo
violin
3. rich accompaniment, orchestra in unison with
voice
4. rising dynamics, emotional level builds,
laspetto (I will wait for him), orchestra
plays fff
*V. The Post-Romantic Voice of Gustav Mahler
*A. Gustav Mahler (18601911)
*1. Bohemian composer, conductor
*2. worked in Budapest, Hamburg, Vienna
*3. three years in New York
*a. Metropolitan Opera
*b. New York Philharmonic Society Orchestra
*4. grief-stricken by death of his daughter
*5. suffered serious heart condition
*6. compositions: nine symphonies, song cycles
with orchestra
*7. music: long flowing melodies, rich
expressive harmonies, innovative
orchestration
*B. The Song of the Earth
*1. song cycle, six songs, with orchestra
*2. written during Mahlers spiritual rebirth
*3. work reflects beauty of earthly things and
resignation of death
*4. text: German translation of Chinese Tang
dynasty poetry by Li Tai-Po
*a. eloquent images of joy and despair
*C. Listening Guide 60: Mahler, The Song of the
Earth (Das Lied von der Erde), Third Movement
(19089)
*1. Of Youth (Von der Jugend)
*2. tenor and orchestra, no brass

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78 | Chapter 9
*3. A-B-A', mirrors text
*4. text strophes separated by orchestral
interlude
*5. pentatonic theme
VI. Looking Ahead to Modernist Trends
A. Nineteenth-century composers fully exploited
tonal system
B. Twentieth-century composers
1. suppressed Romanticism
2. influenced by popular music trends
3. developed new pitch organization
Chapter goals for students
To appreciate the role of choral music in nineteenthcentury society
To recognize the great choral heritage of the Romantic
era
To become familiar with the different national styles of
opera that developed during the nineteenth century
To recognize the great ballet heritage of the Romantic
era
To appreciate post-Romantic musical characteristics
Discussion Topics
Social conditions and amateur singing groups
Compositional requirements of writing for large singing
groups
The new realism in Romantic opera
Verismo and naturalism in the arts
The different types of Japanese music
Japanese simplicity in art
Russian influence on the development of ballet
Mahler as a post-Romantic composer
Mahler and the traditions of the Viennese symphonists
The paths of post-Romanticism
Music Example Bank
III/28
I/66
I/5
I/28
III/63
II/14
I/3

Verdi, Requiem, Dies irae


Delibes, Sylvia, Pizzicato
Tchaikovsky, The Nutcracker, Act II,
Pas de deux
Mahler, Symphony No. 1 in D major, III
Phases of the Moon, Spring on Moonlit
River, Chinese Traditional
Strauss, Burleske in D minor
Strauss, Don Juan

iMusic Example
Tchaikovsky Waltz of the Flowers

Suggested Reading for Chapter 33


Abraham, Gerald, ed. The Music of Tchaikovsky. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1974.
Armstrong, Thomas. Strausss Tone Poems. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1931.
Ashbrook, William. The Operas of Puccini. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 1985.
Banks, Paul, and Donald Mitchell. Gustav Mahler. In The
New Grove Turn-of-the-Century Masters. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1985.
Barzun, Jacques. Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of a
Heritage. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1958.
Blaukopf, Kurt, ed. Mahler: A Documentary Study. Trans.
by Paul Baker. New York: Oxford University Press,
1976.
Brown, A. Peter. The Second Golden Age of the Viennese
Symphony: Brahms, Bruckner, Dvok, Mahler, and
Selected Contemporaries. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2003.
Budden, Julian. The Operas of Verdi. Rev. ed. 3 vols. New
York: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Cooke, Deryck. Gustav Mahler: An Introduction to His
Music. New York: Cambrdige University Press, 1980.
Curtiss, Mina. Bizet and His World.Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 1977.
Deathridge, John, and Carl Dahlhaus. The New Grove
Wagner. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1983.
Dent, Edward J. The Rise of Romantic Opera. Edited by
W. Dean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1976.
Garden, Edward. Tchaikovsky. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2000.
Gossett, Philip, et al. The New Grove Masters of Italian
Opera: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Verdi, Puccini. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Grout, Donald J., and Hermine Weigel Williams. A Short
History of Opera. 4th ed. New York: Columbia
University Press, 2003.
Gutman, Robert W. Richard Wagner: The Man, His Mind,
and His Music. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,
1974.
Hutchison, Ernest. A Musical Guide to the Richard Wagner
Ring of the Nibelung. New York: Simon and Schuster,
1940. Reprint 1972.
Kerman, Joseph. Opera as Drama. 3rd ed. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 2005.
Kimball, David R. B. Verdi in the Age of Italian
Romanticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1981.
Lebrecht, Norman, ed. Mahler Remembered. New York:
London: Faber and Faber, 1987.

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Teaching Guide | 79
Mahler, Alma Schindler. Gustav Mahler: Memories and
Letters. Ed. Donald Mitchell, Trans. by Basil
Creighton. Rev. ed. Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1971.
Mawer, Deborah, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ravel.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Millington, Barry. Wagner. Rev. ed. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton Universty Press, 1992.
Mitchell, Donald, and Andrew Nicholson, eds. The Mahler
Companion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Newman, Ernest. The Life of Richard Wagner. 4 vols. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1976.
Poznansky, Alexander. The Tchaikovsky Handbook: A
Guide to the Man and His Music. Compiled by
Alexander Poznansky and Brett Langston.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.
Robertson, Alec. Requiem: Music of Mourning and
Consolation. London: Praeger, 1967.
Sadie, Stanley. Wagner and His Operas. New York: St.
Martins Press, 2000.
Sadie, Stanley, and Roger Parker, eds. Verdi and His
Operas. New York: St. Martins Press, 2000.
Tovey, Donald Francis. Brahms: Requiem, Op. 45. In
Essays in Musical Analysis: Concertos and Choral
Works, 294307. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1989 (originally printed in 193539).
Walker, Frank. The Man Verdi. Pheonix ed. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Wagner, Richard. Wagner on Music and Drama: A
Compendium of Richard Wagners Prose Works. Ed.
A. Goldman and E. Sprinchorn. Trans. by H. Ashton
Ellis. New York: Dutton, 1964.
Weaver, William, and Martin Chusid. The Verdi
Companion. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1988.
Wiley, R. J. Tchaikovskys Ballets: Swan Lake, Sleeping
Beauty, Nutcracker. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1985.
Youmans, Charles. Richard Strausss Orchestral Music and
the German Intellectual Tradition: The Philosophical
Roots of Musical Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2005.

PART 6: IMPRESSSIONISM AND THE EARLY


TWENTIETH CENTURY
Prelude 6. Modernism in the Arts
Overview
This chapter surveys some of the late-nineteenth-century
trends in the arts. The Impressionist style is presented first in

painting, followed by a discussion of the Symbolist literary


movement. The traits of musical Impressionism are presented
(parallel chords, ninth chords, unresolved dissonances),
including those resulting from non-Western influences (new
scales, rhythms, instrumental colors). Debussy is introduced
as the most important French Impressionist composer, and
Ravel is presented as a post-Impressionist whose art embraced
the ideals of Neoclassicism as well as Impressionism.
Goals for students in Part 6
To appreciate the goals of Impressionist painters and
the influence they had on music
To perceive the new sonorities of Impressionism
To understand the relationship between Symbolist
poetry and musical Impressionism
To view Debussy as the epitome of musical
Impressionism and Ravel as both an Impressionist and
Neoclassicist
To recognize world exhibitions as a major venue for
cultural and musical exchanges
To appreciate the far-reaching musical and cultural
interests of Ravel as viewed through his music

Chapter 34. Impressionism and


Post-Impressionism
I. Impressionism
A. French movement in painting: Claude Monets
Impression: Sun Rising
1. painters captured first impressions on canvas
2. fascinated with changing appearance of light
and color
3. artists: Camille Pissarro, Edouard Manet,
Edgar Degas, August Renoir
B. Composers emulate use of color and iridescence
1. emphasized primary intervals: octaves, 4ths,
5ths
2. parallel movement of chords
3. non-Western influences: Moorish Spain,
Javanese and Chinese orchestras
4. new use of dissonance: freed from need to
resolve
5. use of chromatic and whole-tone scales
6. unusual instrument registers; use of harp,
celesta
7. rhythm: non-Western influences, obscured
pulse
C. Continuation of Romantic tendencies
*1. love of beautiful sound
2. emphasis on program music, tone painting,
nature worship

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80 | Chapter 9

D.

E.

F.

G.

3. highly lyrical
4. attempt to unite music, painting, and poetry
5. emphasis on mood and atmosphere
Composers turned away from larger forms
1. short lyric forms: preludes, nocturnes,
arabesques
2. intimate themes of nature
a. Debussy: Clair de lune (Moonlight), Nuages
(Clouds)
Claude Debussy (18621918)
1. most important early twentieth-century
French composer
2. at age eleven, attended Paris Conservatory
a. shocked professors: bizarre harmonies,
defied rules
3. at age twenty-two, won Prix de Rome
4. Pellas and Mlisande (1902), opera:
international success
5. conducted his works throughout Europe
6. turned against late Romantic style
7. subtlety of expression, light airy textures,
short flexible forms
8. small output: orchestral compositions,
dramatic works, chamber music, piano
music, songs
Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun
1. symphonic poem, Symbolist poem by
Stphane Mallarm
a. landscape of antiquity
b. faun (mythical creature: half man, half
goat) dreams of three nymphs
2. relaxed rhythm, weakened accents, dreamlike
fluidity
3. later choreographed for Ballets Russes
Listening Guide 61: Prelude to The Afternoon
of a Faun (Prlude Laprs-midi dun faune)
(1894)
1. loose A-B-A' structure
2. A section: opens with lyrical, chromatic flute
melody
a. free-flowing rhythms, lacks pulse
b. harp glissandos follow
3. B section: clarinet introduces animated idea
a. new theme carries emotional climax
4. A section: antique cymbals, blue chords
5. piece dissolves into silence

*II. Ravel as Post-Impressionist


*A. Maurice Ravel (18751937)
*1. composer, conductor; from French Basque
region
*2. attended Paris Conservatory for 16 years
*3. music initially rejected by audiences and
critics, gradual recognition

*4. after World War I, sought-after conductor


*5. toured United States in 1928
*6. need for order and clarity of organization
*a. music falls between Impressionism and
Neoclassicism
*7. influences: Spanish dance rhythms, old
French harpsichordists, medieval and foreign
scales, American jazz
*8. works: three song cycles with orchestra,
orchestral works, French art song, piano
music, chamber music
*B. Ravels Don Quixote to Dulcinea
*1. song cycle for baritone and orchestra
*2. Ravels last work
*3. originally composed as film score
*4. Paul Morand text: drawn from Don Quixote
(160515), by Miguel Cervantes
*5. Ravel set three texts from the script
*6. each song based on Spanish dance rhythm
*7. incisive rhythms, dissonant harmonies, broad
melodies
*8. Romanesque Song:
*a. chivalrous knight, Don Quixote, would
do anything for his lady, Dulcinea
*b. if she doubted his dedication, he would
die in shame
*9. Drinking Song: Spanish jota, typically
castanets and guitars
*C. Listening Guide 62: Ravel, Two Songs from Don
Quixote to Dulcinea (193233)
*1. Romanesque Song
*a. four stanzas, through-composed
*b. guijira rhythm: alternates between Z
and T
*c. sweetly dissonant orchestral interludes
*2. Drinking Song
*a. strophic, two verses with refrain,
A-B-A-B
*b. Spanish jota, vigorous triple-meter dance
*c. highly syncopated
*d. melismatic melodic line: suggests
flamenco singing
Discussion Topics
Impressionism in painting and music
Debussy and the Symbolist poets
Forums for sharing musical ideas, then and now
What Debussy and Ravel heard at the Worlds Fair in 1889
Adapting music from another culture into Western
traditions
Post-Impressionism versus Neoclassicism in Ravel
Influence of Spanish culture on Ravel
Ravel and exoticism

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Teaching Guide | 81
Music Example Bank
III/34
I/51
IV/33
III/36
I/52
III/35
IV/32

Debussy, La cathdrale engloutie, melody,


Impressionist; parallel chords
Debussy, Golliwogs Cakewalk, ragtime
Debussy, Pagodes, pentatonic
scale,gamelan (influence)
Debussy, Pellas et Mlisande, Act I, Scene
3, harmony, Impressionist, ninth chords
Debussy, Syrinx. exoticism, Impressionist;
rhythm, Impressionist
Debussy, Voiles, whole-tone scale
Taruna Jaya, Balinese Traditional
(gamelan)

iMusic Example
Tabuh Kenilu Sawik (gamelan from Sumatra)
Suggested Reading for Chapter 34
Austin, William, ed. Debussy, Prelude to The Afternoon of
a Faun: An Authoritative Score. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1970
Brody, Elaine. Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope, 1870
1925. New York: G. Braziller, 1987.
Fulcher, Jane F., ed. Debussy and His World. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 2001.
Lesure, Franois, ed. Debussy on Music. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 1988.
Lockspeiser, Edward. Debussy. Revised 5th ed. London:
Dent, 1980.
Nichols, Roger. Claude Debussy. In The New Grove
Twentieth-Century Masters. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1986.
, ed. Ravel Remembered. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1988.
, ed. Debussy Remembered. Portland, OR: Amadeus
Press, 1992.
Orenstein, Arbie. Ravel: Man and Musician. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1975.
Vallas, Leon. Debussy: His Life and Works. New York:
Dover, 1973.
Watkins, Glenn. Soundings: Music in the Twentieth
Century. New York: Schirmer, 1988.

Chapter 35. Early Modern Musical Style


I. The New Rhythmic Complexity
A. Reactions against Romanticism
B. Twentieth-century music: explored
nonsymmetrical patterns
C. Changing meter: metrical flow shifted

D. Polyrhythm: simultaneous use of several


rhythmic patterns
E. Popular styles as sources: ragtime, jazz
II. The New Melody
A. Symmetrical structure abandoned
B. Melody not conceived in relation to the voice
1. instrumental melody: not meant to sing
2. wide leaps, dissonant intervals
III. The New Harmony
A. Chord combinations grow from three or four
notes, to six and seven
1. highly dissonant
2. increased tension in music
B. Polyharmony: two or more harmonies combined
C. New conceptions of tonality
1. expanded tonality
a. free use of all twelve tones around a center
b. retained principle of traditional tonality
2. polytonality: two keys present
simultaneously
3. atonality: abandoned tonality completely, no
tonic
D. The twelve-tone method
1. method of composing by Arnold Schoenberg
2. also known as serialism, or dodecaphonic
3. tone row: particular assignment of 12 equal
chromatic tones
4. alternative forms of the row: transposition,
inversion, retrograde, retrograde inversion
E. The emancipation of dissonance
1. dissonance can serve as a final cadence
2. dissonance is relative
3. not required to resolve to consonance
4. tension became the norm
IV. Orchestration
A. Early twentieth century: smaller orchestra
1. attention on woodwinds
2. darker instruments favored: viola, bassoon,
trombone
3. emphasis on rhythm, percussion
4. piano joined the orchestra
V. New Conceptions of Form
A. Neoclassicism: Classical virtues
1. absolute music, formalism: valued form
above expression
2. older forms revived: toccata, fugue, concerto
grosso, suite
3. traditional forms retained: symphony, sonata,
concerto
4. purity of line and proportion: sparse linear
counterpoint
5. succinctness, balance, objectivity

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82 | Chapter 9
Overview
The early twentieth century is characterized by a reaction
against Romanticism and an interest in non-Western music,
especially in new rhythms. Other artistic trends that influenced music were Expressionism (the German answer to
Impressionism) and the New Classicism. New elements of
early-twentieth-century musical style are outlined; these
include more complex rhythms, a non-vocal melody, a highly
expanded harmonic language that eventually abandoned
tonality, the emancipation of dissonance, a new textural conception of linear dissonance, a new orchestral sound, and an
increased interest in form. The development of the serial system and its devices is reviewed as well. The first generation
of early-twentieth-century composers is represented by
Stravinsky and Schoenberg. Schoenbergs pupils, Alban Berg
and Anton Webern, both of the Second Viennese School, are
presented with representative works.
Chapter goals for students
To view the currents of the early twentieth century as a
reaction against Romanticism
To appreciate the non-Western influences exerted on
early-twentieth-century arts
To recognize the influence of the trends of
Expressionism and New Classicism on musical style
To grasp the new elements of twentieth-century
musical style, especially the innovative harmonic
systems
To see Expressionist features in the works of
Schoenberg and Webern and an interest in primitivism
in the early works of Stravinsky
To understand the nationalistic and folk elements
present in Stravinskys ballets
Discussion Topics
Non-Western influences on early-twentieth-century
music
Expressionism and music
New freedoms and new constraints in twentieth-century
music
Abandonment of tonality
Increased interest in form
Music Example Bank
Rhythm, twentieth century
I/65
Ravel, Rapsodie espagnole, Feria, meter,
shifting
III/65
Poulenc, Gloria in G, Laudamus te, rhythm,
complex
III/66
Messiaen, Turangalla Symphony, Joie du
sang des toiles

III/38

Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Sacrificial


Dance of the Chosen One, polyrhythm

Melody, twentieth century


III/38
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Sacrificial
Dance of the Chosen One
Schoenberg, Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4,
III/39
instrumental melody
I/52
Debussy, Syrinx, instrumental melody
Harmony, twentieth century
III/40
Schoenberg, Suite for Piano, Op. 25, I
Atonality, twelve tone
III/53
Stockhausen, Zeitmasse for Five
Woodwinds, No. 5, atonality
III/46
Ives, 67th Psalm, polychords, polytonality
Dissonant counterpoint
II/8 Bartk, Concerto for Orchestra, II
I/37
Shostakovich, Trio for Violin, Cello, and
Piano, I
Orchestra, twentieth century
III/43
Webern, Symphony Op. 21
New Classicism
III/41
Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, III
I/12
Prokofiev, Violin Concerto in G minor, II
Popular music influence
I/51
Debussy, Golliwogs Cakewalk, ragtime
I/1
Gershwin, Concerto in F, III, jazz
IV/25
Ravel, Sonata for Violin and Piano, II, blues

Chapter 36. Music of the Early Modernists


I. Stravinsky and the Revitalization of Rhythm
A. Igor Stravinsky (18821971)
1. Russian composer, pianist, conductor
2. studied at University of St. Petersburg with
Rimsky-Korsakov
3. early success composing for Ballets Russes:
The Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring
4. World War I: took refuge in Switzerland, then
settled in France
5. concertized throughout Europe; pianist and
conductor performing his own music
6. during World War II settled in California,
became United States citizen
7. musical style evolved: post-Impressionism,
primitivism, controlled Classicism, serialism
8. great orchestrator: polished brightness, clear
texture
9. output: orchestral music, ballets, operas,
choral music, chamber music, piano music,
songs

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Teaching Guide | 83
B. The Rite of Spring
1. independent concert piece, originally
composed for Ballets Russes
2. subtitled: Scenes of Pagan Russia
a. solemn pagan rite
b. young girl sacrificed to propitiate the God
of Spring
c. young girl dances herself to death
3. musical style:
a. polyrhythms, ostinatos, pedal points,
melodic repetition
b. full force of brass and barbaric
percussion
c. whole-tone and octatonic scales
d. dense harmony, polytonality, harsh
dissonance, tonality retained
e. authentic Russian folk tunes quoted
f. huge orchestra: expanded brass,
woodwinds, percussion
4. opening night in Paris: frenzied riot
C. Listening Guide 63: Stravinsky, The Rite of
Spring (Le sacre du printemps), Part I, excerpts
(1913)
1. Introduction
a. slow tempo, (lento)
b. opens with bassoon melody in uppermost
range: awakening of Earth in Spring
c. opening based on Lithuanian folk tune
d. pizzicato ostinato in violins
e. free, shifting meter
f. four-note pizzicato rhythmic motive in
violins
2. Dance of the Youths and Maidens
a. opens with polytonal, percussive chords
by strings
b. constant eighth-note motion,
unpredictable accents
c. three folklike melodies
d. dense texture, complex polyphony
e. loud dynamics build to climax
3. Game of Abduction
a. fast tempo, no established pulse
b. folk theme played by woodwinds, piccolo
trumpet
c. modal harmonies, primitive atmosphere
d. dense texture, constantly changing
timbres
II. Schoenberg and the Second Viennese School
A. Arnold Schoenberg (18741951)
1. Viennese composer, conductor, educator
2. Second Viennese School: Schoenberg, Alban
Berg, Anton Webern
3. little formal training

4. World War I, military service


5. World War II emigrated to United States,
became citizen
6. faculty of USC, and UCLA
7. works banned in Germany during World
War II
8. works: atonal-Expressionism, twelve-tone
9. output: orchestral music, choral, chamber,
piano music
B. Expressionism
1. German movement initiated in poetry and
painting
2. reaction against French Impressionism
3. painters: Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee,
Oskar Kokoschka, Edvard Munch
4. literature: Franz Kafka
5. hyperexpressive distortion and exaggeration
for emotional effect
C. Pierrot lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot)
1. song cycle for female reader and chamber
ensemble
2. drew on commedia dellarte (improvised
comedy)
a. Pierrot: poet-rascal-clown, parodied
character
3. Albert Girauds poetry: elements of macabre,
bizarre
*a. 21 texts, three groups of seven, each text
is a rondeau
4. Sprechstimme: spoken, not sung, on exact
pitches and strict rhythm
5. Klangfarbenmelodie: tone-color melody
a. each note of melody played by different
instrument
D. Listening Guide 64: Schoenberg, Pierrot lunaire,
Nos. 18 and 21 (1912)
1. No. 18: The Moonfleck (Der Mondfleck)
a. voice with five instruments (piccolo,
clarinet, violin, cello, piano)
b. Pierrot is disturbed by white fleck on his
black jacket
c. three-voice fugue in piano
d. pointillistic, flickering instrumental
effects
e. disjunct line, harshly dissonant
*2. No. 21: O Scent of Fabled Yesteryear (O alter
Duft aus Mrchenzeit))
*a. voice with all eight instruments
(flute/piccolo, clarinet/bass clarinet,
violin/viola, cello, piano)
*b. Pierrot remembers earlier, innocent times
*c. more consonant harmony
*d. melancholic mood
*e. Sprechstimme dies away, pianissimo

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84 | Chapter 9
III. Berg and Early-Twentieth-Century Opera
A. Alban Berg (18851935)
1. Vienna-born composer
2. student of Arnold Schoenberg
3. World War I, military service
4. Wozzeck, opera, brought international fame
5. active as teacher and author
6. works banned in Germany during World
War II
7. style rooted in German Romanticism
8. master of twelve-tone music with lyric
imagination
9. small output includes: two operas, orchestral
music, violin concerto, piano music, songs
B. Bergs Wozzeck
1. opera based on Expressionist play by Georg
Bchner (18131837)
2. atonal-Expressionist, looks back to
Wagnerian tonal tradition
a. some tonality, use of leitmotifs
b. moments of passionate lyricism
c. anticipates twelve-tone procedure
3. plot summary:
a. Wozzeck, main characater, a common
soldier
b. Wozzeck and Marie have illegitimate son
c. sadistic Captain and scientific Doctor use
Wozzeck for experiments
d. Wozzeck given to hallucinations
e. Marie is unfaithful to Wozzeck
f. Wozzeck kills Marie, drowns himself
g. final scene, playing children find Maries
body
h. Maries son, not understanding, rides off
stage
C. Listening Guide 65: Berg, Wozzeck, Act III,
Scene 4, Interlude, and Scene 5 (1922)
1. Act III, Scene 4: By the Pond
a. Sprechstimme, disjunct melody
b. tonal and atonal harmony: dissonant and
chromatic
c. surging dynamics
d. unusual instrument combinations
*2. Orchestral interlude
*a. very slow tempo
*b. lush, Romantic chromatic chords
*c. forceful climax: brass, woodwinds,
timpani
*3. Act III, Scene 5: Children playing in front of
Maries house
*a. childrens voices and orchestra
*b. begins with distorted childrens song
*c. disjunt melody followed by speechlike
lines

*d. lilting V meter, pulse grows obscure


*e. ends with pianissimo accompaniment
*IV. Webern and Serial Technique
*A. Anton Webern (18831945)
*1. Viennese composer, conductor
*2. student of Arnold Schoenberg
*3. studied Renaissance music
*4. Nazis forbade his music, burned his writings
*5. sought refuge near Salzburg
*6. accidentally shot to death by American sentry
*7. works are brief, subtle, fleeting:
concentration of thought, spareness of
writing, unusual instrument combinations,
modern dissonant counterpoint
*8. orchestral works, chamber music, piano
music, choral works, songs
*B. Symphony, Opus 21
*1. total serialism: included pitch, rhythms,
timbres, dynamics
*2. written for chamber orchestra
*3. first modern Viennese symphony
*4. two movements, brief: ten minutes long
*5. Klangfarbenmelodie: two to four notes per
instrument
*6. complex contrapuntal procedures
*C. Listening Guide 66: Webern, Symphony, Opus
21, Second Movement (1928)
*1. theme and seven variations, coda
*2. symmetrical organization
*3. theme statement: clarinets, muted horns and
harp
*4. disjunct, pointillistic melody
*5. varied moods: quiet and peaceful to loud and
frenzied
Discussion Topics
Stravinsky and nationalism
Development of Stravinskys style
Schoenberg and the abandonment of tonality
Symbolist and Expressionist poetry set by Schoenberg
Berg and the world of German Romanticism
Bergs use of twelve-tone writing
Serialism as a form of expression
Dehumanizing of music through serialism?
Music Example Bank
III/40
III/39
IV/36

Schoenberg, Suite for Piano, Op. 25, I,


atonality, twelve tone
Schoenberg, Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4,
instrumental melody
Na solnechnom vskhode, Russian
Traditional (wedding song)

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Teaching Guide | 85
IV/37
II/7
I/18
III/38
I/33
III/42
III/40
III/39
III/43
III/42
III/43

Mirangula, Russian Traditional (mens


chorus)
Stravinsky, Pastorale
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Dance of the
Youths and Maidens
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring, Sacrificial
Dance of the Chosen One
Stravinsky, The Soldiers Tale, Soldiers
March
Berg, Wozzeck, Act III, Scene 1,
Sprechstimme
Schoenberg, Suite for Piano, Op. 25, I
Schoenberg, Verklrte Nacht, Op. 4
Webern, Symphony Op. 21,
Klangfarbenmelodie
Berg, Wozzeck, Act III, scene 1,
Sprechstimme
Webern, Symphony Op. 21,
Klangfarbenmelodie

iMusic Example
Berg, Wozzeck, Act I, Scene 1
Webern, Variations for Orchestra, Op. 30
Suggested Reading for Chapter 36
Brody, Elaine. Paris: The Musical Kaleidoscope, 1870
1925. New York: G. Braziller, 1987.
Craft, Robert. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship, 1948
1971. New York: Vintage, 1972.
. Anton Webern. In The New Grove Second
Viennese School: Schoenberg, Webern, Berg. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.
Cross, Jonathan, ed. The Cambridge Companion to
Stravinsky. New York: Cambridge University Press,
2003.
Duckworth, William. 20/20: 20 New Sounds of the 20th
Century. New York: Schirmer Books, 1999.
Frisch, Walter, ed. Schoenberg and His World. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Jarman, Douglas. The Music of Alban Berg. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1979.
Haimo, Ethan. Schoenbergs Transformation of Musical
Language. New York: Cambridge University Press,
2006.
Hill, Peter. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Johnson, Julian. Webern and the Transformation of Nature.
New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Kolneder, Walter. Anton Webern: An Introduction to His
Works. Trans. by Humphrey Searle. Berkeley:
University of California, 1968.

Machlis, Joseph. Introduction to Contemporary Music. 2nd


ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1979.
Morgan, Robert. Twentieth-Century Music. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.
Neighbour, Oliver. Arnold Schoenberg. In The New
Grove Second Viennese School. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1997.
Perle, George. Alban Berg. In The New Grove Second
Viennese School. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1997.
. The Operas of Alban Berg. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1985.
Reich, Willi. The Life and Works of Alban Berg. Trans. by
Cornelius Cardew. New York: Da Capo, 1982.
Rosen, Charles. Arnold Schoenberg. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1996.
Ross, Alex. The Rest is Noise. New York: Picador, 2008.
Sadie, Stanley, and John Tyrrell, eds. The New Grove
Stravinsky. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Salzman, Eric. Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction.
3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Schoenberg, Arnold. Style and Idea: Selected Writings of
Arnold Schoenberg. Edited by Leonard Stein. Trans. by
Leo Black. Berkeley: University of California Press,
1984.
Simms, Bryan R. Music of the Twentieth Century: Style and
Structure. 2nd ed. New York: Schirmer, 1996.
, ed. Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern: A Companion
to the Second Viennese School. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 1999.
Slonimsky, Nicholas. Music Since 1900. 4th ed. New York:
Scribner, 1971. Supplement 1986.
Watkins, Glenn. Soundings: Music in the Twentieth
Century. New York: Schirmer, 1988.
. Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture, and
Collage from Stravinsky to the Post-Modernists.
Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University
Press, 1994.
White, Eric Walter. Stravinsky, the Composer and His
Works. 2nd ed. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1979.
. Igor Stravinsky. In The New Grove Modern
Masters. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.,
1984.

Chapter 37. European National Schools


Overview
This chapter surveys twentieth-century nationalism in Europe
and in the United States, contrasting its resulting product with
that of the nineteenth century. The various European national

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86 | Chapter 9
schools are reviewed, and representative composers for each
suggested. The Russian school is represented by Prokofiev,
the Eastern European school by Bartk, and the German
school by Orff. All of these works feature the use of folk
idioms.
I. National Schoools
A. France: Les Six (The Six)
*1. inspired by Erik Satie (18661925)
2. Darius Milhaud (18921974)
*3. Arthur Honegger (18921955)
*4. Germaine Tailleferre (18921983)
5. Francis Poulenc (18991963)
B. Russian School
*1. Sergei Rachmaninoff (18731943)
*2. Alexander Scriabin (18721915)
3. Sergei Prokofiev (18911953)
4. Dmitri Shostakovich (19061975)
C. England
*1. Ralph Vaughan-Williams (18721958)
2. Benjamin Britten (19131976)
D. Germany
1. Paul Hindemith (18951963)
*2. Carl Orff (18951982)
*E. Other national schools
*1. Bla Bartk (18811945 ), Hungary
*2. Zoltn Kodly (18821967), Hungary
*3. Jean Sibelius (18651957), Finland
*4. Ernest Bloch (18801959), Jewish influence
II. Bla Bartk and the Eastern European Tradition
A. Bla Bartk (18811945)
1. Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist,
virtuoso pianist
2. toured remote villages with Kodly, collected
over 2,000 folk songs and dances
3. during World War II, emigrated to United
States
4. influences: ancient modes, unfamiliar scales,
nonsymmetrical rhythms
5. rhythmic innovator: syncopation, changing
meters, ostinatos, pounding rhythms
6. complex, modern dissonant counterpoint,
polytonality
7. adherence to Classical forms
8. works: orchestral, five concertos, string
quartets, piano music, vocal music
B. Concerto for Orchestra
1. commissioned by Boston Symphony
Orchestra conductor, Serge Koussevitsky
2. composed when he was terminally ill
3. entire orchestra is the virtuoso
4. five movements; mvt. 4 Interrupted
Intermezzo

C. Listening Guide 67: Bartk, Interrupted


Intermezzo, from Concerto for Orchestra (1943)
1. Allegretto; rondolike form (A-B-A'-C-B'-A")
2. polytonal and atonal harmonies
3. asymmetrical rhythms, shifting meters
4. A section: flute and oboe, folklike pentatonic
melody
5. B section: broad and lyrical string melody,
shifting meter
6. C section, interruption: harsh descending
clarinet line
a. quotes Shostakovich Symphony No. 7
b. musical portrayal of 1942 Nazi invasion
of Russia
*III. Sergei Prokofiev and the Russian School
*A. Sergei Prokofiev (18911953)
*1. Russian composer, pianist
*2. following 1917 Russian Revolution,
emigrated to Paris
*3. voluntarily rejoined the Soviets
*4. works briefly banned by Communist Party
*5. style: Neoclassical, primitive rhythms, use of
dissonance rooted in a key, lyric expression,
brilliant orchestration
*6. works: ballets, symphonies, eight concertos,
choral music, piano music, film scores
*B. Lieutenant Kij Suite
*1. orchestral suite, extracted from film score
*2. large orchestra: expanded brass, tenor
saxophone, piano or celesta, harp,
percussion
*3. tenor saxophone featured; bassoon and
trombone solos
*4. pungent dissonance, main melody set in
regular phrases
*C. Listening Guide 68: Prokofiev, Troika, from
Lieutenant Kij Suite (1934)
*1. rondolike form, slower opening and closing
*2. majestic introduction
*3. A theme: tavern song, tenor saxophone with
sleigh bells
*4. transition: pizzicato strings with sleigh bells
*5. B theme: disjunct and accented trombone
*6. C theme: rhythmic, dancelike
IV. The German Composer Carl Orff
A. Carl Orff (18951982)
1. German composer, educator
2. continued music activity in Nazi Germany
*3. composition professor in Munich
*4. received several honorary doctorates
5. interest in early music, medieval Latin lyrics,
German folk song

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Teaching Guide | 87
6. pedagogical Schulwerk program for children:
linked music and gesture
7. vigorous rhythmic style, complex harmonies
and textures, folklike nature, dissonant but
tonal
8. output: stage works, trilogy of cantatas,
Lieder, orchestral music
B. Orffs Carmina burana
1. secular cantata, 25 movements in five scenes
2. chorus, soloists, and large orchestra
3. racy medieval lyrics
4. moralizing and satirical themes
5. based on turning wheels of fortune
6. opening chorus: clich for action scenes in
movie trailers
C. Listening Guide 69: Orff, O fortuna, from
Carmina burana (1936)
1. three large strophes, highly repetitive
2. evokes Fortuna, goddess of luck
3. dramatic choral opening: slow, fortissimo
4. tonal, evoking archaic music
5. persistent, asymmetrical offset accents;
unceasing pedal point
6. strong, primeval rhythmic drive throughout
Chapter goals for students
To appreciate the goals of twentieth-century
nationalism and how they differ from earlier eras
To recognize political events as important impetuses
for writing nationalistic works
To observe the differences in the music of the various
European national schools, recognizing the influence
of traditional musics
Discussion Topics
Approaching traditional music with a scientific spirit
Recording in the field for authenticity
Nineteenth- versus twentieth-century nationalism
Use of folk song and dance in the twentieth century
Kodly and Bartks recording project
Cultural studies of music (ethnomusicology)
Incorporating folk styles into Western compositions
Urban adaptation of rural stylesRoma bands
Music Example Bank
French school, twentieth century
II/26
Poulenc, Gloria in G, Laudamus te
Russian school, twentieth century
III/41
Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, III
II/16
Prokofiev, Lieutenant Kije, Romance

I/12
II/20
III/44

Prokofiev, Violin Concerto in G minor, II


Shostakovich, Ballet Suite No. 1, Music
Box Waltz
Shostakovich, Symphony No. 5 in D minor,
IV

English school, twentieth century


I/62
Britten, The Young Persons Guide to the
Orchestra
I/50
Holst, The Planets, Jupiter
German school, twentieth century
II/13
Hindemith, Sonata for Bass Tuba and
Piano, III
East European school, twentieth century
II/8
Bartk, Concerto for Orchestra, II
II/6
Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody No. 1
II/4
Kodly, Hry Jnos, Song
Spanish school, twentieth century
I/64
Rodrigo, Concierto de Aranjuez
Scandinavian school, twentieth century
I/8
Sibelius, Finlandia, Op. 26
Traditional music
IV/38
Aki dudas akar lenni, Hungarian Traditional
(Bartk collection)
IV/39
Olaska, Romany Traditional

Chapter 38. American Modernism in Music


The beginnings of American nationalism are explored.
I. Bands in America
A. Outgrowth of British military band
B. Wind bands: first as Revolutionary War
regimental bands
C. U.S. Marine Band, founded in 1798
D. Civil War regiments marched to brass bands
E. John Philip Sousa (18541932)
1. conducted U.S. Marine Band (188092)
2. known as The March King
3. toured United States and Europe with his
own band
4. wrote over 130 marches
5. created national music for America
F. Post-war bands reorganized as concert and dance
ensembles
II. The Modernist Charles Ives and New England
Culture
A. Charles Ives (18741954)
1. Connecticut-born composer, businessman
2. son of a Civil War band leader

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88 | Chapter 9
3. studied composition at Yale
4. entered insurance business, composed in
spare time
5. music not well-received; rarely heard his
works performed
*6. privately printed and distributed select works
7. delayed recognition, Pulitzer Prize in 1947
8. innovative use of familiar tunes, polytonality,
polyharmony, polyrhythm; ideas derived
from clashing marching bands
9. orchestral music, over 100 songs, chamber
and piano music
B. Ivess Country Band March
1. work for large wind ensemble
2. forceful march, well-known tunes occur
3. realism of amateur band: out-of-tune, bad
entrances, wrong notes
4. nostalgic American tunes quoted
a. London Bridge, Yankee Doodle, Arkansas
Traveler
b. Foster: Massas in de Cold Cold Ground,
My Old Kentucky Home
c. Sousa: Semper Fidelis, Washington Post
C. Listening Guide 70: Ives, Country Band March,
(c. 1903)
1. Sectional form (A-B-A-B'-A'), short
introduction
2. main march theme: forceful duple meter
3. main theme occurs throughout
4. complex mesh of tunes: tunes collide and
overlap
5. harshly dissonant polytonality and
polyrhythms
*III. Ruth Crawford and Modernist Piano Music
*A. Ruth Crawford (19011953)
*1. Ohio-born composer
*2. studied at MacDowell Colony artists retreat;
American Conservatory in Chicago
*3. first woman to receive Guggenheim
Fellowship
*4. married musicologist-folklorist Charles
Seeger
*5. musical style in two periods
*a. abandoned tonality, strong dissonances,
irregular metric treatment
*b. experimental, serial techniques, dissonant
contrapuntal procedures
*6. important works: string quartet, piano music,
chamber works, vocal music, choral music,
folk song arrangements
*B. Crawfords piano preludes
*1. represent her early period

*2. influenced by Scriabin: dissonant style,


personal mysticism
*3. published in New Music Quarterly
*C. Listening Guide 71: Crawford, Piano Prelude
No. 6 (published 192829)
*1. A-A', with closing
*2. Andante mystico: spiritual, mystical mood
*3. subtle dynamics
*4. A section: high range, dissonant chords
*a. ppp, Impressionist-style parallel motion
*b. shifting meters
*5. arpeggiated bass chords, grows louder
*6. closing section: arpeggios and parallelisms
trade registers
*7. fades to dissonant whisper
Chapter goals for students
To view American music as highly eclectic, drawing
from many European and African sources
To realize the genius and originality of Charles Ives
To appreciate the influence of American and European
traditional music on art music
Discussion Topics
American wind bands and John Philip Sousa
Charles Ivess New England style
Music Example Bank
III/45
I/1
III/24
I/41
II/11
IV/61
II/35
IV/4
IV/8
IV/41
IV/54
IV/40
IV/7
IV/27
IV/66
IV/17
IV/3
IV/6

Billings, Swift as an Indian Arrow Flies,


fuging tune, part song
Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III
Gottschalk, Cakewalk, Grand Walkaround
Gould, arr. American Salute, When Johnny
Comes Marching Home
Grof, Grand Canyon Suite, On the Trail
Hopkinson, Presidents March
Sousa, The Stars and Stripes Forever
Amazing Grace, nineteenth-century hymn
America
Battle Hymn of the Republic, Civil War
song
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
Dixie, Civil War song
Goodbye, Old Paint, cowboy song
John Henry, work song
O Canada, Canadian national anthem
Simple Gifts, nineteenth-century hymn
The Star-Spangled Banner
Yankee Doodle, Revolutionary War song

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Teaching Guide | 89
iMusic Examples
Sousa, Stars and Stripes Forever
Foster, Camptown Races
Foster, Oh! Susannah!
Suggested Reading for Chapter 38
Austin, William W. Aaron Copland. In The New Grove
Twentieth-Century American Masters. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1988.
Chase, Gilbert. Americas Music, from the Pilgrims to the
Present. 3rd rev. ed. Urbana: University of Illinois
Press, 1987.
Cowell, Henry, ed. American Composers on American
Music: A Symposium. New York: F. Ungar, 1962.
Crawford, Richard. Americas Musical Life: A History.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2005.
Crist, Elizabeth. Music for the Common Man: Aaron
Copland During the Depression and War. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2005.
Feder, Stuart. The Life of Charles Ives. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Felsenfeld, Daniel. Ives and Copland: A Listeners Guide.
Pompton Plains, NJ: Amadeus Press, 2004.
Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1979.
Ives, Charles E. Memos. Ed. by John Kirkpatrick. New
York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1971.
Kingman, Daniel. American Music: A Panorama. 2nd ed.
New York: Schirmer, 1990.
Kirkpatrick, John. Charles Ives. In The New Grove
Twentieth-Century American Masters. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1988.
Lampert, Vera, and Lszlo Somfai. Bla Bartk. In The
New Grove Modern Masters. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company,1984.
McAllister, Rita. Sergey Prokofiev. In The New Grove
Russian Masters 2. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 1986.
Perlis, Vivian. Charles Ives Remembered: An Oral History.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1976.
Robinson, Harlow. Sergei Prokofiev: A Biography. Boston:
Northeastern University Press, 2002.
Rockwell, John. All American Music: Composition in the
Late Twentieth Century. New York: Knopf, 1983.
Rossiter, Frank R. Charles Ives and His America. New
York: Liveright, 1975.
Schneider, David E. Bartk, Hungary, and the Renewal of
Tradition: Case Studies in the Intersection of
Modernity and Nationality. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 2006.
Thomson, Virgil. American Music Since 1910. New York:
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

Tischler, Barbara. An American Music: The Search for an


American Musical Identity. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1986.

Chapter 39. Nationalism in the Americas


Overview
The multicultural heritage of the United States is Explored
through the music of William Grant Still, Aaron Copland, and
Silvestre Revueltas.
I. William Grant Still: African-American Composer
A. William Grant Still (18951978)
1. Mississippi-born composer, violinist
2. studied composition with Edgard Varse
3. most important musical voice of Harlem
Renaissance
a. 1920s and 30s movement celebrating
African-American culture and arts
4. broke racial barriers: goal to elevate Negro
musical idioms . . . to dignity
a. Afro-American Symphony (1931): first
symphony by African-American composer
performed by major American orchestra
b. Troubled Island (1949): first AfricanAmerican composer performed in major
opera house
5. Guggenheim Fellowship; honorary degrees
6. music infused with elements of spirituals,
blues, and jazz
7. 150 compositions span most genres
B. Stillss Suite for Violin and Piano
1. three movements, each inspired by AfricanAmerican sculptures
a. African Dancer by Richmond Barthe
b. Mother and Child by Sargent Johnson
c. Gamin by Augusta Savage
2. bluesy, modal harmonies
3. flashy syncopated violin line
4. Harlem stride piano: evolved from ragtime,
resembles jazz
a. bass pattern: regular four-beat pattern,
offbeat chords on 2nd and 4th beats
C. Listening Guide 72: Still, Suite for Violin and
Piano, Third movement (1943)
1. sectional form, opening returns frequently
2. rhythmically and humorously
3. quick duple meter, highly syncopated offbeat
chords
4. bluesy, short, syncopated ideas
5. ideas exchanged between violin and piano
6. violin effects: glissandos, trills, double stops

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90 | Chapter 9
II. Aaron Copland: American Nationalist
A. Aaron Copland (19001990)
1. Brooklyn-born composer
2. studied in Paris with Nadia Boulanger
3. victim of McCarthyism in 1950s
4. simplified music: appeal to large public
5. style: jazz idiom, Neoclassicist, twelve-tone
technique in 1960s
6. works: ballets, film scores (Academy Award
winner), three symphonies, piano concerto,
opera, piano music, chamber music, choral
music, songs
B. Coplands Appalachian Spring
1. composed for ballet, performed as a suite
2. Martha Graham: choreographer, lead dancer
3. takes place in early nineteenth century, rural
Pennsylvania
a. pioneer celebration in spring
b. bride- and husband-to be enact emotions
of their partnership
4. quotes Shaker melody, Simple Gifts
C. Listening Guide 73: Copland, Appalachian
Spring, excerpts (1945)
1. Section 1:
a. introduces characters
b. very slow, tranquil
c. solo clarinet, then flute plays ascending
motive: daybreak over vast horizon
d. solos in various woodwinds and trumpet
e. clarinet with closing triad over sustained
harmony
2. Section 7
a. theme (Simple Gifts) and five variations
b. theme presented by solo clarinet
c. calm and flowing duple meter
d. variations: individual instruments
featured
e. variation 5: full orchestra, builds to
dissonant fortissimo, dies out
III. Art Music Traditions in Mexico
A. Mexican culture:
1. Mexico colonized by Spain, 1519
*2. Catholic church influenced musical life
3. 1910 Mexican Revolution stirred patriotism
4. post-revolutionary, Aztec Renaissance
a. composers suggest native music
*b. Manuel Ponce (18871948), native folk
and dance music
*c. Carlos Chvez (18991978), Amerindian
flavor; founded Orquesta Sinfnica de
Mexico; director of National
Conservatory
5. mestizos: people of Spanish and Amerindian
ancestry

IV. Silvestre Revueltas: Mexican Nationalist


A. Silvestre Revueltas (18991940)
1. Mexican composer, conductor, violin prodigy
2. studied composition in Mexico City and
Austin, Texas
3. Assistant Conductor of the Orquesta
Sinfnica de Mexico
4. representative of mestizo realism
5. late 1930s, Spanish Civil War, went to Spain,
worked for Loyalist government
6. composed anti-Fascist works
7. music: Mexican folk elements, dancelike
rhythms, polyrhythms, ostinatos, lyrical
8. works: orchestral music, film scores, string
quartets, ballets, songs
B. Homage to Federico Garca Lorca
1. three-movement suite for chamber orchestra,
includes piano
2. Federico Garca Lorca: poet executed during
1936 Spanish Civil War
3. 1937 premiere during Fascist bombing in
Madrid
4. erases boundaries between popular and
classical
5. Son: traditional Mexican dance, shifting
meters T to Z
C. Listening Guide 74: Revueltas, Homage to
Federico Garca Lorca, Third movement, Son
(1937)
1. sectional, rondolike form
2. evokes mariachi ensemble timbre
4. A section: seven-note melodic turns, highly
syncopated, incorporates sesquialtera
5. B section: piano and string ostinato,
chromatic trumpet solo
6. C section: Mexican dance theme (son),
muted trumpets in parallel thirds
7. Coda: cluster chord in piano; fast, loud,
frenetic
V. Music from the Mariachi Tradition
A. Originated mid-nineteenth century, western
Mexico
1. string orchestra with bowed and plucked
instruments
a. guitarrn: large, acoustic bass guitar
b. vihuela: rounded-back folk guitar
2. 1930s, addition of trumpets and violins
*3. gained popularity through radio and film
4. performers wear costume of charros,
Mexican cowboys
5. repertoire: traditional dances, triple meter,
shifting accents, syncopation (sesquialtera)
a. melody: trumpets and violins
b. rhythm section: vihuelas, guitar,
guitarrn, sometimes harp

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Teaching Guide | 91
6. son: mixture of indigenous, Spanish, and
African traditions
a. son jalisciense: from the Jalisco region
B. Listening Guide 75: Son jalisciense: El
Cihualteco (The Man from Cihuatln)
*1. strophic form, verse/chorus structure
*2. witty and sexual lyrics
*3. instrumental introduction
*4. trumpets, violins, voice over guitarrn
*5. shifting accents in T meter
*6. melodic lines: consonant sound, parallel
thirds
Chapter Goals for Students

Copland, Aaron. Copland on Music. New York: W. W.


Norton & Company, 1963.
Copland, Aaron, and Vivian Perlis. Copland: 1900 through
1942. New York: St. Martins, 1999.
Garland, Peter. In Search of Silvestre Revueltas: Essays
19781990. Sante Fe, NM: Soundings Press, 1991.
Roberts, John Storm. The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin
American Music on the United States. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1999.
Slonimsky, Nicolas. Music of Latin America. New York: Da
Capo Press, 1972.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. 3rd ed.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.
, ed. Readings in Black American Music. 2nd ed.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.

To view American music as highly eclectic, drawing


from many European and African sources
Discussion Topics
William Grant Still and breaking racial barriers in art music
The influence of Nadia Boulanger on composition in the
United States
Exploration of the music of Latin America
The music of the Wild West
The influence of the Catholic Church in Latin America
The mixture of traditional European and indigenous
Amerindian cultures in Latin America
The variety of sones in Mexico
The popularity of mariachi and the son jalisciense
Music Example Bank
IV/42

The Yellow Rose of Texas, MexicanAmerican War song

Mexican music
IV/18
Copland, Appalachian Spring, last section
IV/28
Copland, John Henry
IV/45
Chvez, Los Cuatro Soles
IV/44
El Jarabe Tapato, Mexican dance music
(mariachi)
iMusic Examples
Catn, Rappaccinis Daughter (contemporary opera)
El Cihualteco (Mexican son)
Suggested Reading for Chapter 39
Austin, William W. Aaron Copland. In The New Grove
Twentieth-Century American Masters. New York:
Norton, 1988.
Bhague, Gerard. Music in Latin America: An Introduction.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979.

PART 7: MUSIC BEYOND THE CONCERT HALL


Prelude 7. The Rise of American Popular Styles
Overview
Jazz and blues are introduced as truly American forms of
music, created principally by African Americans. Ragtime is
discussed in relation to Scott Joplin, while the textual and
musical forms of blues are presented, along with an example
by Louis Armstrong. A great female blues singersBillie
Holidayis highlighted.
Duke Ellington represents the big band era, and bebop jazz
style is illustrated by the Charlie Parker septet. The American
musical theater is surveyed, choosing Richard Rodgers and
Lorenz Hart and Leonard Bernstein as exemplary of the best
of theater music. Bernsteins West Side Story provides the basis
for a discussion of Latin American musical styles and their
influence. A survey of film music and rock music follows.
Chapter goals for students
To understand ragtime, jazz, and blues as American
styles created mainly by African Americans
To acknowledge the contributions of female AfricanAmerican singers to the blues
To appreciate the various jazz styles as represented by
Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and Charlie Parker
To recognize American musical theater as a unique
contribution to world theater
To grasp the sociological and musical impact of rock
and its performers
To broaden musical perspectives through an increased
appreciation of the internationalization of popular
music

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Chapter 40. Ragtime, Blues and Jazz
I. Scott Joplin and Ragtime
A. Scott Joplin (18681917), King of Ragtime
1. Texas-born composer, pianist
2. son of a former slave
3. at age fourteen, traveled Mississippi Valley:
honky-tonks and piano bars
4. 1893 World Exposition in Chicago: gained
recognition
5. studied composition at George R. Smith
College
6. Maple Leaf Rag, 1899: sold one million
copies
7. teacher, composer, performer in New York
8. merged styles, elevated ragtime to serious art
9. awarded Pulitzer Prize posthumously
10. stage works, ballet, two operas, piano rags,
piano music, songs
B. Ragtime
1. precursor of jazz
2. African-American piano style
3. syncopated rhythm in right hand, steady
accompaniment in left hand
4. Scott Joplin recordings: punched paper rolls,
1910 Steinway player piano
C. Listening Guide 76: Joplin, Maple Leaf Rag,
(published 1899)
1. sectional form, four strains
2. moderate duple meter
3. syncopated, disjunct melody; chordal
accompaniment
4. A section: ascending melody, upbeat in bass
5. B section: higher register, descends
6. C section: new key area, new rhythmic
pattern
II. Blues and New Orleans Jazz
A. Blues: derived from work songs of Southern
blacks
1. harmonic progression: 12 measures long
2. blue note: drop in pitch on 3rd, 5th, or 7th
scale tone
3. three-line stanza, first two identical
B. New Orleans jazz
1. fusion of African-American elements: blues,
ragtime, spirituals, work songs, shouts
2. improvisatory
3. multiple players, polyphonic texture
a. melody: trumpet and cornet
b. countermelody above: clarinet
c. countermelody below: trombone
d. rhythm section: string bass or tuba, guitar
and banjo, or piano and drums

4. 1920s New Orleans musicians traveled


throughout the country
5. Louis Armstrong developed early jazz styles
a. scat singing: improvised syllables
without meanings (vocables)
III. The Jazz Singer Billie Holiday
A. Billie Holiday (19151959)
1. leading female singer in jazz history
2. little education, abandoned and mistreated as
a child
3. 1933 recorded with Benny Goodman
4. featured in Count Basies band
5. 1938 sang in public with a white orchestra
6. alcohol and drug abuse
*7. untrained voice, small range
8. memorable recordings: best known for
romantic ballads
B. Listening Guide 77: Holiday, Billies Blues
(recorded 1936)
1. 12-bar blues, short introduction, six choruses
2. laid-back slow tempo, steady accompaniment
3. vocal choruses 2, 3, 6
a. masterful rhythmic flexibility
b. jazz embellishments: scoops, dips
4. chorus 4: clarinet improvisation
5. chorus 5: gut bucket trumpet (raspy tone
quality)
IV. The Swing Era and Beyond
A. Big Band or Swing era: 1930s and 40s
1. Great Depression: opportunities for black
musicians
2. Duke Ellingtons big band style
a. black and white audience
b. dance clubs, hotel ballrooms
B. Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington (18991974)
1. born in Washington, DC
2. jazz pianist, composer, arranger, band leader
3. major artistic figure of the Harlem
Renaissance
4. 1920s, The Washingtonians played in New
York jazz clubs
*5. 192731, Cotton Club in Harlem
6. 1930s began touring, 14-piece band
**a. need for arranged, composed music
7. collaborated with Billy Strayhorn, composer,
arranger
*8. concerts at Carnegie Hall, 13 Grammy
awards, Pulitzer prize nomination
C. Listening Guide 78: Strayhorn, Take the A Train,
by the Duke Ellington Orchestra (recorded 1941)
1. 32-bar song form (A-A-B-A), three choruses
2. piano introduction, syncopated chromatic
motive

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3. Chorus 1: saxophones present melody
a. call-and-response: saxophones; muted
trumpet and trombones
4. Chorus 2: muted trumpet, masterful
improvisation, bent notes (shakes),
glissandos
5. Chorus 3: unmuted trumpet solo
6. Coda: two repetitions of A, softer closing
with saxophone ostinato
V. Bebop and Later Jazz Styles
A. Rebellion against big band jazz
1. late 1940s bebop (or bop): word mimics
typical two-note phrase
a. Dizzy Gillespie, trumpet
b. Charlie Parker, saxophone
*c. Bud Powell, Thelonius Monk; piano (Bud
Powell not mentioned in short ed.)
2. substyles of bebop: cool jazz, West Coast
jazz, hard bop, soul jazz
3. cool jazz
a. laid-back lush harmonies
b. lower volume levels,
c. new lyricism
d. Miles Davis
4. 1950s West Coast jazz
a. small group, cool-jazz style
b. mixed timbres, without piano
c. contrapuntal improvisations
d. Dave Brubeck Quartet, Gerry Mulligan
Quartet
B. Latin Influence
1. 1930s and 40s Latin dance music,
mainstream
2. dance rhythms, percussion instruments
(conga drum, bongos, cowbells)
*3. Spanish-tinge: Latin-influenced rhythm
4. integral to bebop style
*C. Listening Guide 79: Gillespie/Parker, A Night in
Tunisia (recorded 1946)
*1. 32-bar song form (A-A-B-A), three choruses
*2. Latin-tinged bebop style
*3. quick duple meter, fast rhythmic activity
*4. introduction: syncopated ostinato
*5. Chorus 1: presents tune
*6. highly virtuosic improvisational choruses
follow
D. Other jazz styles
1. third stream music: combination of classical
and jazz traditions
a. Modern Jazz Quartet, Wynton Marsalis
2. 1960s avant-garde jazz: free style
a. John Coltrane

3. fusion-hybrid: jazz improvisation with


amplified instruments, rhythmic pulse of rock
a. Miles Davis, Jerry Garcia, Gary Burton
4. 1980s Neoclassical style: modern bebop
a. Wynton Marsalis
5. free jazz of 1960s developed into new-age
jazz
a. Ornette Coleman, Paul Winter
Discussion Topics
Influence of African-American music on American popular
styles
Jazz as art music
Influence of jazz on contemporary composers
How social context influenced the creation of ragtime,
blues and early jazz
The evolution of jazz, bebop, and swing
The popularity of Latin jazz
Modern spiritual singing
Jazz, a truly American art form
African musical traditions and their appearance in the
music of the United States
New Orleans and Congo Square
Music of the Mississippi Delta
Blue notes in music
The role of women in jazz music
Music Example Bank
IV/46
III/51
III/50
IV/27
IV/30
IV/16
III/49

III/48
III/52
I/1
IV/56
IV/29

Crossroads Blues, rural blues (Robert


Johnson)
Fitzgerald, Smooth Sailing, scat singing
Holiday, Fine and Mellow, blue note
John Henry, traditional work song
Deep River, spiritual (Mahalia Jackson)
Sometimes I Feel like a Motherless Child,
spiritual (Paul Robeson)
Preservation Hall Jazz Band, When the
Saints Go Marching In (New Orleans
style)
Yelvington, Piffle Rag, ragtime
Baker, Sonata for Cello and Piano, II
Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F, III
Price, Piano Sonata in e, II
Still, Afro-American Symphony, I

iMusic Example
Joplin, Pine Apple Rag
When the Saints Go Marching In
Swing Low Sweet Chariot

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Chapter 41. Musical Theater
I. The Development of American Musical Theater
A. Early musicals: outgrowth of operetta (comic
opera)
1. romantic plots, comedy, appealing melodies,
choruses, dances
B. Emphasis turned to sophisticated literary sources
1. Show Boat, Kiss Me Kate
2. George Gershwin, Porgy and Bess (1935),
African-American folk idioms
3. composer/lyricist teams
a. Rodgers and Hart, Rodgers and
Hammerstein: Oklahoma!, The Sound of
Music
b. Lerner and Loewe: My Fair Lady
C. 1970s and 80s: Stephen Sondheim
1. new level of sophistication
2. more serious, dramatic expression
3. complex musical language, affinity for
classical masters: Ravel and Copland
D. Andrew Lloyd Webber: song and dance
combined, dazzling scenic effects
*1. The Phantom of the Opera, Les Misrables
2. revivals on Broadway: Chicago, South
Pacific
*E. film-based musicals, animated films: Beauty and
the Beast
*F. shows based on film: The Producers, The Full
Monty, Spamalot
G. Recent musicals
1. Rent, based on Puccinis La bohme
2. Aida, Disney Production, based on Verdis
Aida
3. dance-inspired musical: choreography takes
precedence over story
a. Billy Elliot, Stomp
4. jukebox musicals: feature popular songs of
artist or group
*a. Mamma Mia
II. George Gershwin and the Merger of Classical and
Jazz Styles
A. George Gershwin (18981937)
1. composer, pianist, grew up in Manhattan
2. worked as song plugger on Tin Pan Alley
3. 1920s wrote first big hit, Swanee
4. 1920s: launched career as composer of
concert music
5. 1924: international acclaim, Rhapsody in
Blue
6. hit musicals, collaborated with brother, Ira

7. works: film scores, folk opera, songs, concert


music
8. union of styles: popular and classical,
vernacular and art
9. style: appealing rhythmic vitality,
syncopation, blue notes, jazz-style
accompaniment, sudden shifts in tonality,
declamatory to highly lyrical melodies
B. Gershwins Porgy and Bess
1. falls between opera and musical theater
2. continuous music, recurring themes, united
jazz and classical music
3. takes place in Catfish Row, black tenement in
Charleston, South Carolina
4. Summertime, Clara sings lullaby to her baby,
opening scene
a. Gershwins inspiration: Ukranian
lullaby
b. reprised throughout the opera
C. Listening Guide 80: Gershwin, Summertime,
from Porgy and Bess (1935)
1. melancholy strophic aria, two verses
2. minor key, anticipates tragedy
3. languid melody, swaying intervals
4. vocal inflections: dips, slides, blue notes
5. rhythmic subtleties, gentle syncopations
III. Leonard Bernstein and the Broadway Musical
A. Leonard Bernstein (19181990)
1. Massachusetts-born composer, conductor,
educator, pianist, television personality
2. studied composition at Harvard and Curtis
Institute
3. at age twenty-five, assistant conductor of
New York Philharmonic
a. last-minute nationally broadcast
performance: overnight fame
4. at age forty, youngest, and first Americanborn conductor of New York Philharmonic
5. compositions rooted in tonality, soaring
melodies, jazzy rhythms
6. symphonies, choral works, operas, musicals,
film score, chamber and instrumental music,
solo vocal music
B. Bernsteins West Side Story
1. updated Romeo and Juliet story
2. Arthur Laurents, playwright; Stephen
Sondheim, lyricist
3. dramatic content, stirring melodies, colorful
orchestration, vivacious dance scenes
4. New York City warring street gangs, Sharks
and Jets
5. Mambo: Tony meets Maria

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6. Tonight: later same day, love duet
a. Shakespeares balcony scene, takes place
on fire escape
C. Listening Guide 81: Bernstein, West Side Story,
excerpts (1957)
1. Act I: the Dance at the Gym, Mambo
a. fast-paced Afro-Cuban dance
b. highly syncopated Latin beat; bongos,
cowbells
c. jazzy riffs: woodwinds and brass
d. gang music sung alternately in English
and Spanish
e. excited voices and hand clapping
2. Act I: Tonight Ensemble
a. 32-bar song form (A-A'-B-A")
b. ominous three-note ostinato, brass and
percussion
c. fast, accented, rhythmic dialogue
d. duple-meter love song
e. ensemble finale
i. Maria in high range
ii. simultaneous dialogue
iii. syncopated Latin rhythm in
accompaniment
iv. dramatic climax
Discussion Topics
Roots of musical theater in European operetta
George Gershwins successful fusion of classical and jazz
styles
Dance in musical theater
Film adaptations of musical theater
Recent trends in musicals: Disney, dance oriented,
jukebox
Long history of popularity of Latin American dance
music
Afro-Cuban styles of dance (mambo, cha-cha-ch, salsa,
etc.)
Other Caribbean musics are popular as well (soca, calypso,
reggae)
Music Example Bank
IV/57
IV/47
IV/49
IV/48

La Cumparsita, Argentinian Traditional,


tango
Congo Santiaguera, Cuban Traditional,
conga
Marley, One Love, ska, reggae
Santa Rosa, Que manera de quererte. salsa

Chapter 42. Music for Films


I. The Role of Music in Film
A. Set a mood: reflect emotions of a scene
1. single mood can dominate for an entire film:
Schindlers List
2. running counter to the action: music
contradicts the scene
a. Godfather baptism scene: Bachs organ
music
b. Pulp Fiction: light-hearted rock music
B. Establishing character
1. Titanic: delineated social levels
a. elegant chamber music: upper-deck
aristocrats
b. Irish dance music: lower levels
C. Place and time: instruments suggest a time
period
*1. Gregorian chant, Middle Ages; trumpet
fanfares, ancient Romans; harpsichord,
eighteenth century
2. Gandhi: sitar, Braveheart: bagpipes
D. Underscoring and source music
1. underscoring: unseen source
2. source music: functions as part of the drama
a. Rear Window, only source music
E. Musical unity
1. leitmotifs, Jaws two-note motive
2. characters have own themes, Star Wars
*II. Music in the Silent Film Era
*A. 1895, birth of cinema
*B. Music established mood
*1. piano, organs accompanied silent films
*2. organ sound effects: gunshots, animal noises,
traffic sounds
*C. Major movie palaces: full symphony, 50
musicians
*1. classical music
*2. arrangements of popular, patriotic, religious
tunes
*3. newly composed music
*D. 1908, first film score by Camille Saint-Sans
*E. 1915, first great American film score, The Birth
of a Nation, Joseph Carl Breil
*III. The Sound Era
*A. 1926, Warner Bros. Vitaphone system,
synchronized music with reel film
*1. Jazz Singer (1927)
*a. several songs by Al Jolson, brief passages of
spoken words

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96 | Chapter 9
*B. Golden Age of film music: lush symphonic
scores
*1. Max Steiner, 1930s, over 300 film scores
*a. King Kong (1933), Gone with the Wind
(1939), Casablanca (1942)
*2. Erich Korngold, handful of scores
*a. The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)
*C. Europe after World War I
*1. Germany: brief artistic flourish
*a. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920):
distorted visions, modern music
*2. France: art music composers also composed
for film
*a. Satie, Ibert, Taillefere, Milhaud,
Honegger
*3. Soviet Union under Lenin (191724):
contributions by art composers
*a. Shostakovich (16 film scores), Prokofiev
(eight film scores)
* IV. The Postwar Years
*A. PostWorld War II financial constraints: Golden
Age symphonic sound declined
*1. Bernard Herrmann: Citizen Kane (1941),
Vertigo (1958) Psycho (1960), Taxi Driver
(1976)
*2. Mikls Rzsa: Ben Hur (1959), Spellbound
(1945)
*a. first to use electronic music in film
*b. theremin: first fully electronic instrument
*B. American art music composers
*1. Aaron Copland: five Hollywood feature
films, four Oscar nominations, one Oscar
*2. Leonard Bernstein: one film score, West Side
Story, Oscar
*C. 1940s through 1960s moved from source music
to underscoring
*1. popular movie themes in demand
*2. Henry Mancini: greatest composer of movie
themes, Pink Panther (1964)
*D. Rock music in 1950s
*1. The Blackboard Jungle (1955), Rock
Around the Clock
*2. Elvis Presley, three movies a year
*3. Rock albums: The Graduate (1967), Easy
Rider (1969), Shaft (1971), Saturday Night
Fever (1977)
*E. Versatile composers write in all styles, modern
and popular
*1. Elmer Bernstein: divergent scores
*a. introduced jazz as underscoring: The Man
with the Golden Arm (1955)
*b. To Kill a Mockingbird (1962), Ghostbusters (1984), Wild Wild West (1999)

*2. Jerry Goldsmith: lengthy and versatile career


*a. Planet of the Apes (1968), Chinatown
(1974), Hoosiers (1986)
*b. Rambo action movies, many of the Star
Trek series
V. Star Wars and Beyond
A. Revival of grand symphonic film score
1. John Williams: Star Wars (1977)
a. unforgettable themes, accessible,
neo-Romantic idiom
*2. James Horner: use of synthesizer
*a. Star Trek II (1982), Star Trek III (1984),
Titantic (1997), Field of Dreams (1989),
Apollo 13 (1995), Braveheart (1995),
Avatar (2009)
*B. Chariots of Fire (1981): full synthesizer score
C. John Williams (b. 1932)
1. native of Long Island
2. studied at UCLA, the Julliard School
3. television compositions in 1950s, Gilligans
Island
4. 1970s and 80s, nine blockbuster hits
*5. classical works, fanfares for the Olympics,
conducted Boston Pops 198093, holds
record for most Oscar nominations
6. film scores: Wagnerian ideas, extended
chromatic harmony, use of leitmotifs, highly
lyrical, memorable tunes
7. films include: Jaws, Star Wars, Close
Encounters of the Third Kind, Superman,
E.T., Jurassic Park, Schindlers List, Harry
Potter films
D. John Williamss Raiders March
1. leitmotifs define characters
2. Raiders March: entirety during closing
credits
E. Listening Guide 82: John Williams, Raiders
March, from Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)
1. A-B-A' form (March-Trio-March)
2. regular duple meter
3. brass and percussion featured
4. March: disjunct tune, trumpet
a. melody heard four times, growing in
intensity
5. Trio: lyrical melody in low strings (Marions
love theme)
*F. New breed of film composers
*1. popular music background
*a. Danny Elfman, Tim Burton films, Alice
in Wonderland
*b. Hans Zimmer, Academy Awards: Rain
Man (1988), Driving Miss Daisy
(1989)

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Teaching Guide | 97
*2. women composers
*a. Rachel Portman: first woman to win
Academy Award for Best Music, Original
Score, Emma (1996)
*b. Diane Warren: Oscar nominations for
song contributions, Legally Blonde II
(2003), Princess Diaries II (2004)
*G. 1990s art music composers
*1. John Corigliano: new Romanticism
*a. Oscar for Red Violin (1999)
*2. Tan Dun, Chinese-American
*a. Oscar for Crouching Tiger, Hidden
Dragon (2000)
*3. Philip Glass, minimalist composer
*a. The Matrix (1999), The Truman Show
(1998)
*4. Alfred Newman, minimalist composer
*a. Shawshank Redemption (1994), Finding
Nemo (2003)
*H. International composers
*1. Gustavo Santaolalla: Argentinean, Oscarwinning scores
*a. Brokeback Mountain (2005), Babel
(2006)
*2. A. R. Rahman, Indian and American pop
music combined
*a. Slumdog Millionaire (2008)
Discussion Topics
The future of film music
The use of leitmotifs in film scores
Popular music in film scores
Leading and misleading the audience with music
Underscoring and source music
Music Example Bank
III/7

Bernstein, On the Waterfront

Chapter 43. Rock and the Global Scene


I. Rise of Rock and Roll
A. Multibillion-dollar industry
1. impacts fashion, language, politics, religion
2. influenced classical, jazz, country, western
contemporary global pop musics
B. Emerged in 1950s
1. African-American rhythm and blues with
country western
2. rhythm and blues: dance music genre
from1940s, roots in swing jazz

a. performed by African Americans


b. vocal genre: featured solo singer
accompanied by small group
c. 12-bar blues, 32-bar pop song form
d. Y meter, emphasis on beat 2 and 4
(backbeats)
3. rock and roll: rhythm and blues that crossed
racial lines
a. white singers: Bill Haley, Elvis Presley,
Jerry Lee Lewis
b. rockabilly: combined hillbilly country
with rhythm and blues
4. African Americans gain white audience
a. Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, Little
Richard
b. new sounds, outrageous look and
behavior
*5. late 1950s, new teen idols
*a. gentler, more lyrical style
*b. Bobby Darin, Paul Anka
6. soul: blend of gospel, pop, rhythm and blues
a. Ray Charles, father of soul
b. Sam Cooke, James Brown, Aretha
Franklin
7. Motown: first and most successful blackowned record label
a. represented soul music
b. Diana Ross and the Supremes, Martha
Reeves and the Vandellas, Smokey
Robinson and the Miracles
C. Mid-1960s new groups revitalized rock and roll
1. The Beatles
a. strong backbeat, distinctive vocal sound,
high range
b. 1964 appeared on Ed Sullivan Show
c. creative experiments, combined pop
songwriting with string quartet, Indian
sitar
d. poetic lyrics, complex harmonies,
sophisticated recording techniques
e. 1967, concept album: unified
thematically
2. The Rolling Stones
a. inspired by American rhythm and blues
b. bad boys of rock: lyrics about sex,
drugs, violence
*c. Ed Sullivan Show, 1967
3. California bands: Beach Boys, the Byrds
4. acid rock (or psychedelic rock)
a. focus on drugs, instrumental
improvisations, new sound technologies
b. political and socially radical lyrics
c. Jefferson Airplane, Grateful Dead,
Woodstock 1969

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98 | Chapter 9
*D. Listening Guide 83: Dylan, Mr. Tambourine Man
(1965)
*1. four verse/chorus folk song
*2. raspy voice, acoustic guitar, harmonica
*3. duple meter, no accented backbeat
*4. text refers to loneliness or escape from life
*5. accompanied by simple chords
II. The Eclecticism of the 1970s
A. Art rock (or progressive rock): largely British
style
1. large forms, complex harmonies, occasional
classical music quotes
2. The Who: first rock opera Tommy
*3. Emerson, Lake, and Palmer; Frank Zappa
B. Jazz influenced rock
1. Santana
a. fused Latin jazz with electric blues rock
b. Latin rock, new style
c. use of Latin and African percussion
instruments
C. 1970s and 1980s: fragmentation into musical
subgenres
1. West coast rock: relaxed California sound
a. Eagles, Doobie Brothers
2. British heavy metal (influenced by Mahler
and Wagner)
a. Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath
3. glam (glitter rock): showy, theatrical style
a. David Bowie, Lou Reed, KISS, Elton
John
4. punk rock: rebellious, simple, repetitive,
loud, offensive lyrics, shocking behavior
a. The Ramones, Sex Pistols, *Clash
D. Reactions to punk and heavy metals
*1. 1970s disco dance music
a. repetitive lyrics, sung in high range,
thumping mechanical beat
b. Bee Gees
2. Reggae; Jamaican style, offbeat rhythms,
chanted vocals
a. Bob Marley and the Wailers, *Black
Uhuru
3. New wave: offshoot of punk rock with
synthesizers, alienation, and social
consciousness
a. Elvis Costello, Police, *Blondie, the
Talking Heads
III. The 1980s and Beyond
A. Development of music videos in 1980s
1. MTV premiered 1981
2. principal way to present music to the public
3. image and fashion conscious aesthetic soon
dominated

B. Superstars of the 1980s


1. Michael Jackson, Bruce Springsteen, Prince,
Madonna
C. 1980s groups contributed to social causes
1. U2 (Irish group): Live Aide and Amnesty
International, debt relief, AIDs, global causes
D. Rap emerged from hip hop, 1970s
1. pre-recorded sounds and beats, MC
rhythmically rhymed patter over DJs musical
backdrop
a. Run DMC, Public Enemy, Queen Latifah
2. gangsta rap of 1990s: graphic descriptions of
inner-city realisms
a. N.W.A., Ice Cube, Snoop Doggy Dogg,
Ice-T
E. Soul and R&B artists: heavily melismatic singing
style
1. Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey
F. Grunge rock: hybrid of punk and metal
1. Soundgarden, Nirvana, Pearl Jam
G. Alternative rock, late 1990s: breadth of styles
1. Beck: combines hip hop, soul, country
2. Bjrk: Icelandic style
3. English: Radiohead
*IV. Country-Western Music
*A. Origins in mountains of Appalachia
*B. Country music songs tell a story, not often happy
*C. Labeled hillbilly music in 1920s
*1. Early groups popularized blue yodel and
steel guitar
*a. Carter Family, Jimmie Rodgers
*2. Hollywood and singing cowboys
*a. Gene Autry (Tumblin Tumbleweeds,
1936)
*3. Nashville radio: The Grand Ol Opry
*4. bluegrass debuted on The Grand Ol Opry
*a. traditional folk melodies, quick tempos,
high vocal harmonies
*b. acoustic string band: violin, mandolin,
guitar, five-string banjo, double bass
*c. Monroe brothers, Lester Flatt, Earl
Scruggs
*5. Nashville Sound: highly polished singers
*a. Patsy Cline (Walkin after Midnight,
1957)
*D. 1950s: electrified sound, honkytonk
*1. Hank Williams, Johnny Cash
*E. 1960s and 70s
*1. classic country music: Loretta Lynn, Merle
Haggard
*2. mainstream country: John Denver, Glen
Campbell
*3. country rock: Allman Brothers

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Teaching Guide | 99
*F. 1980s audience increased
*1. country sound combined with pop
songwriting
*a. Dolly Parton, Willie Nelson
*G. 1990s country music boom
*1. Garth Brooks, Shania Twain
Discussion Topics
Sociological impact of rock
The far-reaching influence of the Beatles
The diversity of world beat or ethno-pop
Music Example Bank
IV/46
IV/49
IV/43
IV/59

Crossroads Blues, rural blues (Robert


Johnson)
Marley, One Love, ska, reggae
Trevino, Doctor Time, country/western
Youssou NDour, Live Television, world
beat

iMusic Example

Leinberger, Charles. Ennio Morricones The Good, the Bad


and the Ugly: a Film Score Guide. Lanham, MD:
Scarecrow Press, 2004.
Megill, Donald D., and Richard S. Demory. Introduction to
Jazz History. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 2001.
Oliver, Paul, et al. The New Grove Gospel, Blues, and Jazz:
With Spirituals and Ragtime. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 1986.
Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1968.
. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930
1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Stempel, Larry. Showtime: A History of the Broadway
Musical Theater. New York: W. W. Norton &
Company, 2010.
Stuessy, Joe, and Scott Lipscomb. Rock and Roll: Its
History and Stylistic Development. 6th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008.
Szatmary, David P. Rockin in Time: A Social History of
Rock-and-Roll. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 2007.
Tirro, Frank. Jazz: A History. 2nd ed. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1993.

Dougla Dance (steel drum band)


Suggested Reading for Part 7
Candelaria, Lorenzo, and Daniel Kingman. American
Music: A Panorama. 4th ed. New York: Schirmer,
2011.
Campbell, Michael, and James Brody. Rock and Roll: An
Introduction. New York: Schirmer, 1999.
Cateforis, Theo, ed. The Rock History Reader. New York:
Routledge, 2007.
Charlton, Katherine. Rock Music Styles: A History. 3rd ed.
Boston, Mass.: McGraw Hill, 1998.
Covatch, John. Whats that Sound?: An Introduction to
Rock and Its History. 2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton
& Company, 2009.
DeCurtis, Anthony, and James Henke, eds. The Rolling
Stone Illustrated History of Rock and Roll: The
Definitive History of the Most Important Artists and
Their Music. 3rd ed. New York: Random House, 1992.
DeVeaux, Scott, and Gary Giddins. Jazz: Essential
Listening. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010.
Fernandez, Raul A. From Afro-Cuban Rhythms to Latin
Jazz. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
Gridley, Mark C. Concise Guide to Jazz. 6th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010.
Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America.
New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Hickman, Roger. Reel Music: Exploring 100 Years of Film
Music. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006.

PART 8: WORLD WAR II AND BEYOND


Prelude 8. New Directions in the Arts
Overview
This chapter introduces modern trends in the arts, including
Abstract Expressionism, post-Modernism, Pop Art, feminist
and ethnic art, and performance art, and discusses the impact
of each on music. A move toward greater organization in
music through the extension of serial principles is covered,
as are movements away from organization, including aleatory
or indeterminate music. Various significant international composers are mentioned. The use of unusual techniques and
highly virtuosic demands on traditional instruments is presented, with particular attention to the music of Ligeti and
Boulez. The effect of non-Western music on contemporary
composers is surveyed, with particular emphasis on the music
of John Cage, George Crumb, Arvo Prt, and Bright Sheng.
An introduction to African drumming (from Uganda) is presented, and Chinese traditional music is also included along
with a well known selection from this repertoire. The development of electronic music is surveyed, from the musique
concrte of the 1940s to the computer-generated music of
today. Tod Machover is presented as a representative of the
electronic/computer medium; his work combines the cello
and computer-generated sounds in a unique manner. Two

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100 | Chapter 9
additional recent trends are covered, each with representative
examples: the New Romanticism, represented by Jennifer
Higdon; and post-minimalism, illustrated by John Adams.
Goals for students in Part 8
To recognize recent trends in the arts and their impact
on musical composition
To appreciate the recent movements toward both
greater and lesser organization in music
To view the contemporary musical scene as an
international one
To realize the prominent role played in contemporary
music by women, both as performers and composers
To understand the universal roles that music plays in
all societies
To appreciate the cross-cultural exchanges that have
occurred in music and in other arts
To recognize the virtuosity and extreme technical
demands required of modern performers
To grasp how traditional instruments and the voice
have been used in nontraditional ways
To understand the importance of the development of
electronic music, synthesizers, and computer-generated
music
To view the New Romanticism as an attempt to close
the gap between composer and audience
To view minimalism and new age music as a return to
simplicity
Discussion Topics
Contemporary trends in the arts
Freedom of form in new music
Role of women in contemporary music
Music Example Bank
Trends in the organization of music
III/46
Cage, Variations II, aleatoric music
III/53
Stockhausen, Zeitmasse for Five
Woodwinds, No. 5, total serialism
III/55
Foss, Time Cycle, Improvised Interlude
No. 2, indeterminacy/improvisation
III/57
Partch, And on the Seventh Day, Petals Fell
in Petaluma (1964), microtones
Rhythm, new concepts, twentieth century
III/55
Boulez, Le marteau sans matre, IX
III/13
Hindemith, Sonata for Bass Tuba and
Piano, III
Voice as instrument, twentieth century
III/75
Glass, The Photographer, A Gentlemans
Honor

Women composers, twentieth century


III/59
Crawford, String Quartet (1931), IV
I/60
Clarke, Sonata for Viola and Piano, II
Zaimont, Serenade: To Music
III/56
III/58
Boulez, Le marteau sans matre, IX

Chapter 44. The New Virtuosity of the


Modern Age
*I. Olivier Messiaen and World War II
*A. Olivier Messiaen (19081992)
*1. French composer, organist, educator
*2. at age thirty-one, World War II drafted into
French army, German POW
*3. teaching: Paris Conservatory, Tanglewood,
Darmstadt, contemporary music centers in
North and South America
*4. Catholic faith at center of his art
*5. music: love of nature, bird songs, Gregorian
chant, medieval church modes,
nonsymmetrical rhythms of India, bell
sounds of Javanese gamelan
*6. works: orchestral music, chamber, choral,
vocal, opera, keyboard, theatrical works
*B. Quartet for the End of Time
*1. composed in Stalag VIIA
*2. 8 movements; scored for violin, clarinet,
cello, piano
*3. inspired by passage in Book of Revelations
*4. symbolic of seven days of creation, followed
by eternity
*5. use of bird song, first and third movements
*C. Listening Guide 84: Messiaen, Quartet for the
End of Time (Quatuor pour la fin du temps)
(1941)
*1. Vocalise, for the Angel who announces the
End of Time
*2. sectional, three parts
*3. opening and closing sections: two fast-paced
tempos alternate
*a. strongly rhythmic
*b. ff chords on the piano: Angels might
*4. middle section: angelic song (wordless
vocalise)
*a. very lyrical, muted violin and cello
*b. slow and distant, cascading chords in
piano
*c. grows ever softer, pppp
*5. closing: fast tempo returns, loud dissonant
chords

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*II. Pierre Boulez and the French Avant-Garde
*A. Pierre Boulez (b. 1925)
*1. French composer, conductor
*2. most important composer of the French
avant-garde
*3. studied composition with Olivier Messiaen
*4. five years as music director of New York
Philharmonic
*5. cofounded IRCAM, French Center of
Computer Music Research
*6. influences: Debussy, Stravinsky, Webern
*7. style: total serialism, gentle lyricism to
furious Expressionism
*8. works: orchestral, chamber music, piano
music, works for combined media
*B. Boulezs Notations
*1. composed for piano, 12 miniatures (1945)
*2. revised for orchestra (1978), massive
ensemble
*3. Notations IV
*a. three hexachords (melodic sequences)
unified by rhythmic ostinato
*b. final note of ostinato statement changes
in duration
*c. musical ideas enlarged frequency
multiplication
*d. chords formed by multiplying intervals,
stacked, highly dissonant
*C. Listening Guide 85: Boulez, Notations IV (1945,
revised 1978)
*1. repeated five-note ostinato, alternates with
dissonant chords
*2. huge orchestra, many winds and percussion
*3. changing meters, highly dissonant, dense
contrapuntal texture
*4. dissonance level and range grows
*5. closes ff in full orchestra
III. George Crumb and Avant-Garde Virtuosity
A. George Crumb (b. 1929)
1. American composer
2. studied at Mason College, University of
Illinois, University of Michigan
3. teaching: University of Colorado, State
University of New York at Buffalo,
University of Pennsylvania
4. Pulitzer Prize 1968, Echoes of Time and the
River
5. music: focus on sonorities and timbres,
charged with emotion, dramatic, extramusical content, theatrical concepts
6. works: orchestral music, vocal music, four
books of madrigals, chamber music, music
for amplified piano

B. Crumbs Caballito negro


1. song, from Madrigals, Book II
2. scored for soprano, piccolo, and metallic
percussion instruments
3. text: Frederico Garca Lorca poem
4. Crumb alternated two refrains; image of
death
5. ominous words, downward melodic line:
meurto (dead), negro (black), frio (cold),
cuchillo (white)
C. Listening Guide 86: Crumb, Caballito negro
(Little Black Horse) (1965)
1. A-B-A form
2. regular pulsations, no sense of meter
3. opening: pounding rhythm, piccolo and
percussion
4. disjunt vocal line
5. extended technique: flutter tonguing,
glissandos, whispering
6. return of A section: vocalist neighs like a
horse
Discussion Topics
Unusual instruments in contemporary music
New virtuosic demands
Music Example Bank
III/66
III/69

Messiaen, Turangalla Symphony, Joie du


sang des toiles
Lutosawski, Symphony No. 3, aleatoric
counterpoint

Chapter 45. Contemporary Composers


Look to World Music
I. Important Experimenters
A. Henry Cowell (18971967)
1. foreign scales with Western chords
2. innovations: tone clusters, plucking of piano
strings
B. Experiments with tuning
1. Charles Ives (18741954)
a. pianos tuned quarter tone apart
2. Harry Partch (19011974)
a. microtonal tuning: scale of 43
microtones
b. original idiophones: adapted Indian and
African instruments

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102 | Chapter 9
II. The Music of John Cage
A. John Cage (19121992)
1. Los Angeles-born composer
2. student of Henry Cowell, Arnold Schoenberg
*3. interest in East Asian philosophy
4. interests: rhythm, opposition between music
and noise, the role of silence
5. explored new sounds, invented the prepared
piano
6. indeterminate works (chance music); **use
of I Ching (Book of Changes)
7. works: orchestral music, works for
percussion, prepared piano, electronic music
B. Cages Sonatas and Interludes
1. four groups of four Sonatas, separated by
Interludes
2. prepared piano: various materials inserted
between the strings
a. nails, bolts, nuts, screws
b. varied effect: nonpitched thump, pitch
and timbre altered
c. piano produces percussive effects
3. rhythmic groupings of sound
4. approximates sounds of Javanese gamelan
5. meditative character of East Asian thought
C. Listening Guide 87: Cage, Sonata V, from
Sonatas and Interludes (1946)
1. (A-A-B-B) binary structure
2. two-voice texture
3. irregular phrases
4. A section: regular rhythmic movement
5. B section: quicker tempo, more disjunct and
accented
6. ending: sustained dissonance
III. The Javanese Gamelan
A. Tradition of Indonesian islands of Java, Bali, and
Sunda
1. gamelan orchestra: metallic percussion
instruments
2. music passed down through oral tradition
3. cyclic rhythmic structure, colotomic
4. melodic movement interacts with cyclical
rhythmic structure (colotomic structure)
5. ritual ceremonies, and Wayang (shadowpuppet theater)
6. Wayang instruments:
a. metallaphones (tuned metal bars, struck
with mallet)
b. gongs, xylophones, drums, voice
7. Wayang: five-note melodic patterns, slndro
tuning (pentatonic)
8. Wayang performances continue for many
hours

B. Listening Guide 88: Javanese Gamelan Music:


Patalon, excerpt
*1. Patalon: five-section overture to shadowpuppet drama
*2. Ayak-Ayakan: highest sounding
metallaphones
*a. voice enters, elaborates main melody
*3. Strepegan: increase in tempo
*a. gong plays melodic framework
*4. Palaran Pucung: soft, quiet instruments
*a. vocal melody accentuated
*b. dynamics grow leading to next section
IV. Multicultural Influences in Contemporary Society
A. Impulse toward a world music sound
1. composers draw on Asian heritage
a. Toru Takemitsu (19301996), Tan Dun
(b. 1957), Bright Sheng (b. 1955)
*2. advances of twentieth century: musicians
exposed to more cultural influences
*V. The Music of Gyrgy Ligeti
*A. Gyrgy Ligeti (19232006)
*1. Hungarian composer
*2. settled in Vienna, then Hamburg
*3. worked closely with Stockhausen and Boulez
*4. use of tone clusters, amalgams of sound
*5. micro-polyphony: subtle changes in
timbre, dynamics, density, and texture
*6. works: orchestral, chamber music, opera,
piano music, electronic works
*7. works featured in 2001: A Space Odyssey
*B. Ligetis Etudes for Piano
*1. highly virtuosic solo piano music
*2. manipulation of rhythm: illusionary rhythm
*3. African concepts of additive meter and
polyrhythms
*4. inspired by player-piano works of Conlon
Nancarrow (19121997)
*5. Disorder, from Book I; two musical
processes
*a. additive metric pattern
*b. triplet pattern in right hand, duple in left
hand
*C. Listening Guide 89: Ligeti Disorder (Dsordre),
from Etudes for Piano, Book I (1985)
*1. very fast, frenetic, wide-ranging
*2. no sense of melodic line
*3. alternating sense of order and disorder
*a. hands synchronized (patterns of 3 + 5 or
5 + 3)
*b. right hand gradually drops notes, gets
ahead
*c. dissonance increases
*d. returns to synchronized pattern

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Teaching Guide | 103


*4. builds to fff climax in upper register then
vanishes
*VI. Music from East Africa
*A. Uganda
*1. outside influences: Arab world, Indonesia,
colonized by British
*2. court musicians of former king of Buganda:
entenga
*3. entenga ensemble: six musicians, 15 drums
*a. pitched: tuned conical drums (drum
chimes), tuned to pentatonic scale
*b. unpitched bass drums
*B. Ensiriba ya munange Katego
*1. ceremonial court music: well-known folk
legend
*2. transmitted through oral tradition
*3. 12 tuned drums, three bass drums
*4. melody drums strike sides, staggered
entrances
*a. three interlocking patterns, polyrhythms
*b. complex process, sounds chaotic
*C. Listening Guide 90: Ensiriba ya munange
Katego
*1. frenetic pace
*2. clicking sound patterns established
*3. complexity and intensity increases
*4. gradual timbral shift to drum heads, volume
increases
*5. drummers drop out one by one
VII. Bright Sheng and the Meeting of Musical Cultures
A. Bright Sheng (b. 1955)
1. born and raised in Shanghai
2. grew up during 1966 Cultural Revolution
3. studied composition: Shanghai Conservatory;
Queens College and Columbia University in
United States
4. many awards and commissions, Pulitzer
Prize nomination
5. collaborations with cellist Yo-Yo Ma,
preserves traditional musical cultures
6. style: integrates Western and Eastern
elements
a. Western: emphasis on harmony and
counterpoint
b. Eastern: linear sounds
7. music evokes Chinese folk tunes; Chinese
instruments
8. works: orchestral music, concertos for
Western and Asian instruments, chamber
music, operas, other stage works
B. Shengs China Dreams
1. four-movement symphonic suite
a. Prelude

b. Fanfare
c. The Stream Flows
d. Last Three Gorges of the Long River
2. orchestra with piano, celesta, diverse
percussion
3. nostalgia for China: evokes Chinese folk
music
4. Western orchestra
C. Listening Guide 91: Sheng, China Dreams:
Prelude (1995)
1. three-part structure
2. opening: haunting pentatonic melody, oboe
and English horn
a. dissonant figure in brass and low strings
3. texture becomes polyphonic, builds to ff
climax
4. decreases to pp, returns to English horn
melody
5. soft dissonance fades out
VIII. An Introduction to Chinese Traditional Music
*A. Abing (18831950)
*1. Chinese composer
*2. apprentice to Daoist monk
*3. expelled from Daoist group, became
wandering street musician
*4. blind, made living singing and playing
a. erhu (two-stringed fiddle), and pipa (lute)
*5. traditional music: orally disseminated,
created through improvisation
*6. music highly revered
B. Listening Guide 92: Abing, The Moon Reflected
on the Second Springs (Er quan ying yue),
excerpt (recorded 1950)
1. Chinese traditional music
2. performed on erhu and yangqin (hammered
dulcimer)
*3. four phrases, repeated and elaborated
*a. trills, slides, grace notes, tremolos, bent
pitch
*4. haunting melody, begins slow in low range:
lyrical, pentatonic
*5. rhythmically free opening, regular pulse
follows
Discussion Topics
Influence of Eastern philosophy on music
Non-Western techniques and instruments
Composers born outside of the Western world composing in
a Western style
Functional music in Indonesia
Rhythmic cycles in Indonesia and Africa

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104 | Chapter 9
Music Example Bank
Bhimpalasi (India: sitar, tambura, tabla)
Avaz of Bayate Esfahan (Iran: santur)

Chapter 46. Technology and Music


I. The Technological Revolution
A. Emergence of electronic music
1. musique concrte, France
a. sounds by natural source recorded and
manipulated
*b. composers: Milhaud, Varse, Messiaen,
Boulez
2. tape music: artificially generated sounds
3. Electronische Musik, Germany
a. oscillator: generated waveforms, different
timbres; precursor of the synthesizer
b. important composer: Karlheinz
Stockhausen, integrated human voice
4. RCA music synthesizer, 1955
a. 1959 version: Columbia-Princetons
Electronic Music Center
b. tedious, time consuming, large,
prohibitive cost
B. Commercially available synthesizers
1. 1960s, Robert MoogMoog synthesizer,
analog synthesis
a. Switched-On Bach, 1968 by Walter
Carlos: brought fame to electronic music
2. John Chownings digital frequency
modulation synthesis
a. sold rights to Yamaha
3. 1983 Musical Instrument Digital Interface
(MIDI)
a. standardized communications protocol
4. mid-1980s: digital sampling synthesizers
more affordable
a. create realistic sounding instruments
II. Important Figures in Electronic Music
A. Edgard Varse (18831965)
1. Pome electronique
a. composed for 1958 Brussels World Fair
b. music accompanied projected images
B. Mario Davidovsky (b. 1934)
1. Synchronisms (196388)
a. solo instrument and prerecorded tape
C. Milton Babbit (b. 1916)
1. composer at Columbia-Princeton Electronic
Music Center
*2. music for solo soprano and tape: Philomel
(1964) and Phonemena (1974)
*3. highly influential teacher at Princeton
University

D. Pauline Oliveros (b. 1932)


1. helped found San Francisco Tape Center,
1966 became director
2. mixed media, multichannel tape with live
performance
3. experiments: sound generated and
manipulated during performance
*III. Tod Machover and Musical Interactivity
A. Tod Machover (b. 1953)
*1. New York composer, cellist
2. leader in contemporary music scene
3. five years as Director of Musical Research in
Paris, IRCAM
4. professor of music and media at MIT
5. hyperinstruments: computer-enhanced and
interactive acoustic instrument
*6. influences: John Cage, Charles Ives, rock
music
*7. works: operas, orchestral music, chamber
music, interactive works
B. Begin Again, Again . . .
1. multimovement chamber work with
computer interaction
2. written for virtuoso cellist, Yo-Yo Ma
*3. movement from trilogy based on Dantes
Divine Comedy
*4. hypercello part inspired by Bachs solo Cello
Suite No. 2
*5. two large parts: theme and four variations in
each
C. Listening Guide 93: Machover, Hyperstring
Trilogy: Begin Again Again . . . ,excerpts (1991,
revised 2004)
*1. Introduction (theme, part 1)
*a. slow, expressive theme, outlines Bachs
Sarabande
*b. faster, highly rhythmic, accompanied by
computer sounds
*2. Variation 3: EmphaticWarm and Singing
*a. loud dissonant chord
*b. low-range variation of theme: dark, low
register
*c. tremolos, double stops, stringlike
electronic sounds
*d. builds to next variation
*3. Variation 4: Very Rapid and Precise
*a. high-pitched and accented rhythmic
repeated notes
*b. glissandos and quick staccatos follow
*c. repeated ff pitch, rhythmic character
continues
*d. feverish pace, virtuosic
*e. long glissando to highest possible note
*f. songful soliloquy beginning again
again with electronic accompaniment

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Teaching Guide | 105


Discussion Topics
The future of electronic music
Combining live and electronic music
The popular music scene and electronic music
Expansion of the composers role to performer
Technology allows the performer to be more involved
Technology allows the non-expert to create music
Remote performers can create live ensemble music with
technology
Music Example Bank
III/72
III/73
III/71

Babbitt, Composition for Synthesizer


Davidovsky, Synchronism No. 5
Luening, Gargoyles, musique concrte

Chapter 47. Some Current Trends


I. Neoromanticism: Postmodern Approach
A. Eclecticism: styles from past mixed with
contemporary ones
*B. Quotation music: recognizable work is cited
C. Accessible musical vocabulary of post-Romantic
masters
II. Jennifer Higdon and the Return to Romantic Ideals
A. Jennifer Higdon (b. 1962)
1. Brooklyn-born composer, flutist
2. student of George Crumb
3. prestigious awards: *Guggenheim
Foundation, *National Endowment of the
Arts, *Grammy-winning recordings, Pulitzer
Prize winner
4. teaches at Curtis Institute of Music
5. American sound, rooted in tonality
*6. influences: Aaron Copland, Samuel Barber
7. extensive output spans most genres
B. Higdons blue cathedral
1. orchestral tone poem
2. commemorates Curtis Institute anniversary
3. title refers to her brother, Andrew Blue
Higdon
a. reflects journey of life
b. subtext of personal grief
*4. large orchestra, many percussion
instruments
C. Listening Guide 94: Higdon, blue cathedral,
excerpt (2000)
1. sectional, rondolike structure
2. languorous, ascending lyrical lines
3. sense of continual expansion, several
climaxes

4. A section: bell-like timbres over muted


strings
a. solo flute, rising line, muted string
chords, no sense of pulse
b. solo clarinet answers, harp and string
accompaniment
5. pitched glasses and chiming near end
III. John Corigliano and the Contemporary Song Cycle
A. John Corigliano (b. 1938)
1. New York-born composer
2. studied at Columbia University, Manhattan
School of Music
3. produced Leonard Bernsteins Young
Peoples Concert Series, CBS
4. positions at the Juilliard School, Lehman
College
5. distinguished awards: *Grawemeyer Award,
*Pulitzer Prize, Academy Award, Grammy
Award
*6. influences: Aaron Copland, Samuel Barber
7. diverse style: atonality, serialism,
microtonality, aleatoric music
*8. known for his orchestral music, viewed as
father of Neoromanticism
9. works: orchestral works, eclectic rock opera,
stage works, choral, vocal, chamber music,
film music
B. Coriglianos Mr. Tambourine Man
1. song cycle for voice and orchestra
2. text: Bob Dylan poetry
3. follows emotional journey: innocence,
awareness, political fury, apocalypse, victory
of ideas
4. unified by recurring motives
5. orchestra includes piano, harp, saxophones,
tambourine
C. Listening Guide 95: Corigliano, Prelude from
Mr. Tambourine Man: Seven Poems of Bob Dylan
excerpts (2003)
1. modified verse-chorus structure, introduction
and coda
2. instrumental introduction
3. verse 1: dreamy, slow, sung freely
4. chorus: fast, syncopated, disjunct,
tambourine prominent
5. verse 2: louder, wide vocal leaps, prominent
brass and percussion
6. verse 3: dramatic, shrieking vocal,
tambourine rolls
7. verse 4 (partial): loud and dramatic, wide
vocal leaps
8. instrumental interlude: vocal line, mysterious
mood returns

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106 | Chapter 9
IV. Minimalism and Post-Minimalism
A. Minimalism: repetition of melodic, rhythmic,
and harmonic patterns
1. little variation, hypnotic effect
2. reaction against highly intellectual, complex
music
3. influences: music of India, African cultures,
jazz, pop, rock
B. Steve Reich (b. 1936) and Philip Glass (b. 1937)
1. repeated rhythmic cells, non-Western music
influences
C. Spiritual, or holy, minimalism
1. nonpulsed music: religious inspiration
2. slow-moving tonal music
3. composers: Henryk Grecki (b. 1933), John
Tavener (b. 1944)
V. Arvo Prt and Spiritual Minimalism
A. Arvo Prt (b. 1935)
1. Estonian composer
2. early compositions: Neoclassical and serial
techniques
3. studied works of J. S. Bach; medieval and
Renaissance music
4. notable periods of compositional silence
5. created new style: tintinnabulation, ringing
of bells
6. musical focus: Latin and Orthodox choral
music
*7. religious convictions made life in Soviet
Union difficult, settled in West Berlin
8. works: orchestral, sacred choral music,
concertos
B. Prts Cantate Domino
1. scored for SATB chorus and organ
2. Latin text, Psalm 96: Cantate Domino
canticum novum (O sing to the Lord a new
song)
*3. inspired by medieval chant
4. abandons traditional notation, similar to
Gregorian chant
*5. use of word painting
C. Listening Guide 96: Prt, Cantate Domino
canticum novum (O sing to the Lord a new song)
(1977, revised 1996)
1. three sections, each beginning
monophonically
a. fluid, nonmetric: evokes Gregorian chant
2. expands to four-part choir, homorhythmic
movement
3. tintinnabular style: evokes ringing of bells
with voices

VI. John Adams and Post-Minimalism


A. John Adams (b. 1947)
1. American composer
2. studied at Harvard University
3. professor at San Francisco Conservatory;
established New and Unusual Music Series
4. influences: Steve Reich, rock
5. style: elements of Neoromanticism,
minimalism
6. important works: Nixon in China (1987)
opera, The Death of Klinghoffer (1991),
Pulitzer Prize, On the Transmigration of
Souls (2002), stage works, chamber music,
vocal works, tape and electronic works
B. The Opera Doctor Atomic
1. subject: creation of atomic bomb and head
physicist, J. Robert Oppenheimer
2. libretto by Peter Sellars
a. sources: memoirs of scientists,
declassified government documents,
poetry of John Donne and Baudelaire,
sacred Hindu scripture Bhagavad Gita
3. opera takes place last days and hours before
the first test
*a. hopes and fears about the invention
*b. morality concerns
*c. psychological stresses
*d. apprehension and terror
*4. Batter my heart
*a. Oppenheimer struggles with his
conscience
*b. sonnet by John Donne (15721631)
*c. Oppenheimer seeks Godly intervention
5. At the sight of this
a. test will go on despite bad weather
b. text: Bhagavad Gita
c. countdown begins
d. Krishna reveals himself as the Supreme
God
C. Listening Guide 97: Adams, Doctor Atomic,
excerpts (2005)
*1. Act I, Scene 3, aria: Batter my heart
*a. A-A-B structure, orchestral ritornellos,
(Baroque aria structure)
*b. Baroque sighing motive: two-note
descending motive break, blow,
burn
*c. solo sections: lyrical, solemn; dark
strings accompany, shifting meters
*d. orchestral ritornellos: animated and
jittery
*e. final dramatic orchestral statement

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Teaching Guide | 107


2. Act II, Scene 3, chorus: At the sight of this
a. verse/refrain structure
b. text declaimed on repeated notes in short
phrases
c. offbeat brass and percussion accents
d. O Master recurs with dissonant tones
e. When I see you, Vishnu sustained
chords
f. closing: buildup of tension, distorted
electronic sounds
Discussion Topics
New Romanticism versus minimalism: the wave of the
future
How to educate future concert patrons
How to encourage the support of future patrons
Music Example Bank
I/36
III/75

Barber, Adagio for Strings, Op. 9, New


Romanticism
Glass, The Photographer, A Gentlemans
Honor. minimalism

Suggested Reading for Part 8


Cage, John. Silence: Lectures and Writings. Middletown,
CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1961.
Carter, Elliott Cook. The Writings of Elliott Carter: An
American Composer Looks at Modern Music. Edited
by Else Stone and Kurt Stone. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 1977.
Cope, David. New Directions in Music. 7th ed. Prospect
Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2001.

Gann, Kyle. American Music in the Twentieth Century.


New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2005.
Griffiths, Paul. A Guide to Electronic Music. London:
Thames and Hudson, 1979.
. Modern Music and After. 3rd ed. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2010.
Hamm, Charles. John Cage. In The New Grove
Twentieth-Century American Masters. New York:
Norton, 1988.
Hamm, Charles, Bruno Nettl, and Ronald Byrnside.
Contemporary Music and Music Cultures. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1975.
Jameux, Dominique. Pierre Boulez. Translated by Susan
Bradshaw. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
1991.
Manning, Peter. Electronic and Computer Music. Rev. ed.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Morgan, Robert. Twentieth-Century Music. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.
Nyman, Michael. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond.
2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Schrader, Barry. Introduction to Electro-Acoustic Music.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982.
Schwartz, Elliott, and Daniel Godfrey. Music Since 1945:
Issues, Materials, and Literature. New York: Schirmer,
1993.
Vinton, John, ed. Dictionary of Contemporary Music. New
York: E. P. Dutton, 1974.
Watkins, Glenn. Soundings: Music in the Twentieth
Century. New York: Schirmer, 1988.
Whittall, Arnold. Exploring Twentieth-Century Music:
Tradition and Innovation. New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2003.

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CHAPTER 10

General Resource Guide

This chapter provides resource materials for further study on


many of the topics covered in the text.

Women Composers Included in the


Music Example Bank
I/60

WOMEN AND MUSIC


This portion of the resource guide is designed to enhance a
discussion of women in music. The sources include women
not only as composers but also as performers and patrons as
well. Works by women composers included on The Norton
Recordings and the Music Example Bank are noted, as are
selected performances by women musicians. A general bibliography of sources and anthologies is listed at the end of
this section.

III/59

IV/56

Women Composers Included in


The Norton Recordings

III/48

The following women composers are among primary composers discussed in The Enjoyment of Music. Listening
Guides are provided for the works listed below:

III/56

Hildegard of Bingen, Alleluia: O virga mediatrix (LG 2)


Strozzi, Barbara, Amor dormiglione (LG 18 Complete, 12
Shorter)
Mendelssohn Hensel, Fanny, September: At the River (LG
44 Complete,29 Shorter)
Holiday, Billie, Billies Blues (LG 77 Complete, 51
Shorter)
Jennifer Higdon, blue cathedral (LG 94 Complete,59
Shorter)

Women performers included in the


Music Example Bank
IV/12
IV/17
III/51
III/50
IV/4

108

Clarke, Sonata for Viola and Piano, I,


English composer and professional viola
player, wrote Piano Trio and Cello
Rhapsody
Crawford, String Quartet (1931), IV,
American composer and folk music
specialist, first woman composer awarded
Guggenheim Fellowship
Price Sonata in E minor, II, AfricanAmerican composer; wrote symphonic,
piano, and vocal works; Symphony in E
minor won Wanamaker competition;
incorporated African-American dance
rhythms
Yelvington, Piffle Rag, Indiana-born, white
composer, pianist, and organist; one
published work (Piffle Rag)
Zaimont, Serenade: To Music, American
composer and author, vocal and choral
works, university teacher (University of
Minnesota)

Brahms, Wiegenlied, Op. 49, No. 4,


Ameling, Elly, voice (soprano)
Simple Gifts, DeGaetani, Jan, voice
(soprano)
Smooth Sailing, Fitzgerald, Ella, voice
Fine and Mellow, Holiday, Billie, voice
Amazing Grace, IV/30 Deep River,
Jackson, Mahalia, voice

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General Resource Guide | 109


Suggested Bibliography
General (Nonmusic)
Anderson, Bonnie S., and Judith P. Zinsser. A History of
Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the
Present. 2 vols. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2000. A new approach to social history as seen
from the perspective of women and organized by
societal roles. Volume 1 spans the centuries from
prehistory to the seventeenth century and is divided
into five parts: Traditions Inherited, Women of the
Fields, Women of the Churches, Women of the Castles
and Manors, and Women of the Walled Towns. Volume
2 extends from the Renaissance era through the present
and is divided into four parts: Women of the Courts,
Women of the Salons, Women of the Cities, and
Traditions Rejected. Some discussion of women
musicians is included.
Labarge, Margaret Wade. A Small Sound of the Trumpet:
Women in Medieval Life. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.
A well-researched and readable study of women in
medieval society. Includes chapters on noble ladies,
nuns and beguines, recluses, and mystics and closes
with a summary chapter on womens contributions to
medieval culture. Discusses women as court
performers; also covers musical composition,
manuscript preparation, and singing in convents.
Mention of Eleanor of Aquitaine and Hildegard von
Bingen, among many others.
OFaolain, Julia, and Lauro Martines, eds. Not in Gods
Image: Women in History from the Greeks to the
Victorians. New York: Harper and Row, 1973. Contains
extracts from writings about women and by women,
from Ancient Greece to the mid-nineteenth century,
with editorial comment intended to put the readings
into historical context. Passing references to women
and music.
Women and Music
(Note: In addition to these sources, all of which have broad
coverage, there are many books focused on individual women
performers, composers, teachers, and patrons of music.)
Auster, Linda Phyllis, and Inna Naroditskaya. Music of the
Sirens. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
Barkin, Elaine, and Lydia Hamessley, eds. Audible Traces:
Gender, Identity, and Music. Los Angeles: Carciofoli,
1999.
Bowers, Jane, and Judith Tick, eds. Women Making Music:
The Western Art Tradition, 11501950. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Citron, Marcia J. Gender and the Musical Canon..Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, [1993] 2000.

Cohen, Aaron I. International Encyclopedia of Women


Composers. 2nd ed., 2 vols. New York: Books and
Music, 1990.
Cook, Susan C., and Judy S. Tsou, eds. Cecilia Reclaimed:
Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music. Urbana:
University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Dees, Pamela Youngdahl. A Guide to Piano Music by
Women Composers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
2002.
Drinker, Sophie. Music and Women. New York: Feminist
Press at City University of New York, 1995.
Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers:
Britain and the United States, 1629Present. San
Francisco: Pandora, 1994.
Hayes, Eileen M., and Linda F. Williams. Black Women and
Music: More than the Blues. African American Music
in Culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.
Hixon, Donald L., and Donald L. Hennessee, eds. Women
in Music: An Encyclopedic Bibliography. 2nd ed.
Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
Hyde, Derek. New-Found Voices: Women in NineteenthCentury English Music. 3rd ed. Brookfield, VT:
Ashgate, 1998.
Jackson, Barbara Garvey. Say You Can Deny Me: A Guide
to Surviving Music by Women through the 16th to the
18th Centuries. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas
Press, 1994.
Jezic, Diana Peacock. Women Composers: The Lost
Tradition Found. 2nd ed. New York: Feminist Press at
City University of New York, 1994.
Klinck, Anne L., and Ann Marie Rasmussen, eds. Medieval
Womans Song: Cross-Cultural Approaches.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.
Koskoff, Ellen, ed. Women and Music in Cross-Cultural
Perspective. Contributions in Womens Studies 79.
New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
LaMay, Thomasin, ed. Music Voices of Early Modern
Women: Many-Headed Melodies. Burlington, VT:
Ashgate, 2005.
Macleod, Beth Abelson. Women Performing Music: The
Emergence of American Women as Classical
Instrumentalists and Conductors. Jefferson, NC:
McFarland, 2001.
Marcic, Dorothy. Respect: Women and Popular Music. New
York: Texere, 2002.
Marshall, Kimberly, ed. Rediscovering the Muses: Womens
Musical Traditions. Boston: Northeastern University
Press, 1993.
McVicker, Mary Frech. Women Composers of Classical
Music: 369 Biographies from 1550 into the 20th
Century. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc.,
2011.
Moisala, Pirkko, and Beverley Diamond, eds. Music and
Gender. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

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110 | Chapter 10
Neuls-Bates, Carol, ed. Women in Music: An Anthology of
Source Readings from the Middle Ages to the Present.
Rev. ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1996.
Pendle, Karen, ed. Women & Music: A History. 2nd ed.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
__________. Women in Music: A Research and Information
Guide. Routledge Music Bibliographies. New York:
Routledge, 2005.
Sadie, Stanley, and John Tyrell. The New Grove Dictionary
of Music and Musicians. 29 vols. New York: Grove
Music, 2001. (Online resource at
www.grovemusic.com; updated quarterly)
Zaimont, Judith, and Karen Famera, eds. Contemporary
Concert Music by Women: A Directory of the
Composers and Their Works. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 1981.

American Women Composers and Musicians


Ammer, Christine. Unsung: A History of Women in
American Music. 2nd ed. Portland, OR: Amadeus
Press, 2001.
Block, Adrienne Fried, and Carol Neuls-Bates. Women in
American Music: A Bibliography of Music and
Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.
Bourgeois, Anna Stong. Blueswomen: Profiles of 37 Early
Performers, With an Anthology of Lyrics, 19201945.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1996.
Burns, Kristine H., ed. Women and Music in America since
1900: An Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 2002.
Enstice, Wayne, and Janis Stockhouse, eds. Jazzwomen:
Conversations with Twenty-one Musicians.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Green, Mildred Denby. Black Women Composers: A
Genesis. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1983.
Hinkle-Turner, Elizabeth. Women Composers and Music
Technology in the United States: Crossing the Line.
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2006.
Hitchcock, H. Wiley, and Stanley Sadie, eds. The New
Grove Dictionary of American Music. 4 vols. London:
Macmillan, 1986.
Skowronski, JoAnn. Women in American Music: A
Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1978.
Slayton, Michael K., ed. Women of Influence in
Contemporary Music: Nine American Composers.
Lanham, MD.: Scarecrow Press, 2011.
Tick, Judith. American Women Composers before 1879.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Research Press,
1983.

Music Anthologies
Briscoe, James R., ed. Contemporary Anthology of Music
by Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press,
1997.
, ed. New Historical Anthology of Music by Women.
Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Cuellar, Carol, project manager. Women of Modern Music.
Miami, FL: Warner Bros. Publications, 1999.
Drucker, Ruth, and Helen Strine, eds. A Collection of Art
Songs by Women Composers. Fulton, MD: HERS
Publishing, 1988.
Raney, Carolyn, ed. Nine Centuries of Music by Women.
New York: Broude Brothers, 1977.
Rieder, Eva, and Kaete Walter, eds. Female Composers: 22
Piano Pieces from the 18th20th Century. New York:
Schott, 1985.
Schleiger, Marth Furman, and Sylvia Glickman, eds.
Women Composers: Music Through the Ages. New
York: G. K. Hall, 1996.

MULTICULTURAL MUSIC GUIDE


This section of the Instructors Resource Manual is designed
as a resource for those teachers interested in emphasizing
world and traditional musics along with Western art music.
Since the information on other music cultures is integrated
throughout the text rather than isolated in a single chapter,
this section provides a comprehensive view of the text references, illustrations, music examples, Study Guide assignments, and recordings provided in the teaching package for
a number of music cultures.
(The recordings include the 8-CD and 4-CD sets as well
as the iMusic collection and four discs of the Music Example
Bank.) The guide includes the non-Western cultures of Japan,
China, Indonesia, India, Iran, and Sub-Saharan Africa and the
traditional music of various European cultures (Russia, Hungary/Bulgaria, and Spain), as well as Jewish and Romany
music. Four music cultures of the Americas are also included
(African American, British American, Latin American, and
Native American).
Additional resources (recordings, videos, readings) are
also listed for many cultures. The suggested readings are
intended primarily for instructors who wish to increase their
familiarity with a particular music culture in order to make
an enhanced presentation beyond the scope of the book or
simply to feel more knowledgeable in discussing the points
covered in the text. The readings are, for the most part,
intended for non-specialists and are readily accessible in most
libraries. In addition to these sources, ethnomusicological

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General Resource Guide | 111


articles (by country/culture) in Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell,
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (29 vols;
New York: Grove Music, 2001; online resource at www.
grovemusic.com, updated quarterly); and Bruno Nettl and
Ruth M. Stone, The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
(10 vols; New York: Garland, 1997) as well as two reference
volumes, Ethnomusicology, An Introduction, ed. Helen Meyers (New York: Norton, 1992) and Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, ed. Helen Myers (New York:
Norton, 1993), are recommended.
East Asia/Japan
Eastern Asian/Japanese Music Included in the Music
Example Bank
IV/50

I/20

III/58

Sakura, Japanese koto music, well-known


childrens song (Cherry Blossom, English),
pentatonic scale
Miyazaki, Shimabara No Komoriutta, koto
and flute (Western), Japanese-inspired
Western music
Boulez, The Hammer Without a Master, I
and VII

Supplemental Recordings
Azuma Kabuki Musicians. Columbia ML 4925.
Japanese Music (UNESCO). Musicaphon BM 30 L 2011
16.
Noh. Caedmon TC 2019.
Music of the Bunraku Theatre. VICG-5356-2 JVC.
Rough Guide to the Music of Japan. World Music Network
RGNET 1031CD.
Traditional Japanese Music and Musical Instruments.
Kodansha International 4770023952.
Traditional Music of Japan. Japan Victor JL-5254.
Suggested Videos
Consulate General of Japan videos
Bunraku, Japanese Doll Drama (20 minutes)
GagakuCourt Music (21 minutes)
KabukiClassic Theater of Japan (21 minutes)
Noh Drama (29 minutes)
Japanese Music Series (32 minutes; $24.95 each)
Gagaku: The Court Music of Japan (1989)
Music of Bunraku (Japanese puppet theater; 1991)
Shinto Festival Music (1994)
Music of Noh Drama (1997)
Nagauta: The Heart of Kabuki Music (1994)

Produced and directed by Eugene Enrico and David Smeal;


hosted by William Malm. Series available from the Center
for Music Television, Eugene Enrico, director; School of
Music, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019
(405/325-325-3978).
Additional Readings
Adraansz, Willem. The Kumiuta and Danmono Tradition of
Japanese Koto Music. Los Angeles: University of
California Press, 1973.
Brandon, James, William Malm, and Donald Shively.
Studies in Kabuki: Its Acting, Music, and Historical
Context. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978.
Condry, Ian. Hip-hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural
Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press,
2006.
Fujie, Linda. East Asia/Japan, In, Worlds of Music: An
Introduction to the Music of the Worlds Peoples, 331
384. 4th ed. Edited by Jeff Todd Titon. Belmont, CA:
Schirmer/Thomson Learning, 2002.
Harich-Schneider, Eta. A History of Japanese Music. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Malm, William P. General Principles of Japanese Music.
In Six Hidden Views of Japanese Music, 3651.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.
. Practical Approaches to Japanese Music. In
Readings in Ethnomusicology, 35370. Edited by
David McAllester. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp.,
1971.
. Some of Japans Musics and Musical Principles.
In Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, 4862.
Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1980.
. Traditional Japanese Music and Musical
Instruments. New ed. New York: Kodansha
International, 2000.
Nakamura, Yasuo. Noh: The Classical Theater. Trans. by
Don Kenny. Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1971.
Provine, Robert C., Yosihiko Tokumaru, and J. Lawrence
Witzleben, eds. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
Vol. 7, East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. New York
and London: Garland Press, 2002.
Tokita, Alison McQueen, and David W. Hughes The
Ashgate Research Companion to Japanese Music.
Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2008.
Varian, Heidi. The Way of Taiko. Berkeley, CA: Stone
Bridge Press, 2005.
Wong, Isabel K. F. The Music of Japan. In Excursions in
World Music. Bruno Nettle, et al., eds. 6th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2012.

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112 | Chapter 10
East Asia/China

Additional Readings

Eastern Asian/Chinese Music Included in The Norton


Recordings

Ellingham, Mark, James McConnachie, and Simon


Broughton, eds. The Rough Guide to World Music, Vol.
2, Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and
Pacific. New York: Rough Guides, 2000.
Halson, Elizabeth. Peking Opera: A Short Guide. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1966.
Jin, Jie. Chinese Music. Trans. by Wang Li and Li Rong
New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Kuo-huang, Han. The Modern Chinese Orchestra, Asian
Music 9 (1979): 140.
Kuo-huang, Han, and Lindy Li Mark, Evolution and
Revolution in Chinese Music. In, Musics of Many
Cultures: An Introduction, 1031. Edited by Elizabeth
May. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
Picken, Lawrence. Chinese Music. In Readings in
Ethnomusicology, 33652. Edited by David P.
McAllister. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1971.
Provine, Robert C., Yosihiko Tokumaru, and J. Lawrence
Witzleben, eds. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
Vol. 7, East Asia: China, Japan and Korea. New York
and London: Garland Press, 2002.
Rees, Helen. Lives in Chinese Music. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 2009.
Sullivan, Michael. The Arts of China. 5th ed. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 2008.
Wong, Isabel K. F. The Music of China. In Excursions in
World Music, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 2012.

Abing, The Moon Reflected on the Second Spring (LG 92


Complete)
Sheng, Bright, China Dreams: Prelude (LG 91 Complete,
58 Shorter)
Crumb, Ancient Voices of Children, I (LG 88 Complete, 51
Shorter)
Mahler, Song of the Earth, III (LG 64 Complete)
Eastern Asian/Chinese Music Included in the Music
Example Bank and iMusic
IV/57
III/63
iMusic
IV/33

Generals Victory, Chinese military music,


trumpets and drums
Spring on a Moonlit River, from Phases of
the Moon, Pipa (string orchestra)
In a Mountain Path (erhu), Chineseinspired music
Debussy, Pagodes

Study Guide Assignments


101. Listen. World Music: Chinese Traditional Music
Supplemental Recordings
Beating the Dragon Robe. Folkways FW 8883.
The Cheng: Two Masters Play the Chinese Zither.
Lyrichord LLST 7262.
China: Shantung Folk Music and Traditional Instrumental
Pieces. Nonesuch H 72051.
Chinese Classical Masterpieces for Pipa and Chin.
Lyrichord LLST 7182.
The Chinese Opera. Lyrichord LLST 7212.
The Rough Guide to the Music of China. World Music
Network RGNET 1122CD.
The Year of China. M2-36080 Milan Music.
Exotic Music of Ancient China. Lyrichord 7122.

South Asia/India
South Asian/Indian Music Included in the Music
Example Bank
IV/9

III/61
III/60

Bhimpalasi (Shankar), opening,


introduction of raga and tala, announced by
Shankar, sitar and tabla
Bhimpalasi (Shankar), excerpt, sitar, tabla
Thumri (North Indian), fluteaerophone,
drummembranophone, veena (vina)
plucked string, drone instrument

Suggested Videos

Supplemental Recordings

The Education of a Singer at the Beijing Opera (54


minutes), from Films for the Humanities (P.O. Box
2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053; $149; rental $75).
JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance, produced
in collaboration with the National Museum of
Ethnology (Osaka) and Smithsonian/Folkways
Records; translation by Mantle Hood; vols. 35: China.

Anthology of Indian Music, narrated by Ravi Shankar.


World Pacific WDS-26200.
Classical Indian Music, narrated by Y. Menuhin. London
CM 9282.
East Greets East (Ravi Shankar). Deutsche Grammophon
2531-381.
Folk Music of India (Orissa). Lyrichord LLST 7183.

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General Resource Guide | 113


Folk Music of India (Uttar Pradesh). Lyrichord LLST
7271.
Folk Songs and Dances of Northern India. Olympic 6108.
Raga. Folkways FE 3530.
Sarangi: The Voice of a Hundred Colors. Nonesuch
H72030.
Suggested Videos
Indian Classical Music (85 minutes)
JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance, produced
in collaboration with the National Museum of
Ethnology (Osaka) and Smithsonian/Folkways
Records; translation by Mantle Hood; vols. 1113:
India.
Raga, with Ravi Shankar, Yehudi Menuhin, and George
Harrison. Video (95 min., $29.95)
Ravi Shankar in Concert (60 minutes)
Ravi Shankar: The Man and His Music (60 minutes).
Available from Films for the Humanities and Sciences
(P.O. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053) ($149
each; rental $75)
A Study of Tabla: A Comprehensive Study with History,
Theory, and Compositions. Accompanied by an
Instructional DVD by Samir Chatterjee. Nutley, NJ:
Chhandayan, 2006.

Southeast Asia/Indonesia
Southeast Asian/Indonesian Music Included in The
Norton Recordings
Javanese gamelan music
Patalon (LG 88 Complete)
Indonesian-inspired music
Cage: Sonatas and Interludes, Sonata V (LG 87 Complete,
57 Shorter)
Southeast Asian/Indonesian music Included in the
Music Example Bank and iMusic
IV/32
iMusic

Debussy, Pagodes, gamelan-inspired piano


work
Tabuh Kenilu Sawik (Sumatra gamelan)

Study Guide Assignment


75. Explore. The Paris World Exhibition of 1889: A
Cultural Awakening Music Listeningbased on
recording of Javanese or Balinese gamelan
100. Listen.World Music: The Sounds of Java and Eastern
Africa
Supplemental Recordings

Additional Readings
Arnold, Alison, ed. The Garland Encyclopedia of World
Music. Vol. 5, South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent.
New York and London: Garland Press, 1999.
Brown, Robert E. Indias Music. In Readings in
Ethnomusicology, 293329. Edited by David
McAllester. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1971.
Capwell, Charles. The Music of India. In Excursions in
World Music, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 2012.
Reck, David B. India/South India. In Worlds of Music: An
Introduction to the Music of the Worlds Peoples. 5th
ed. Edited by Jeff Todd Titon. Belmont, CA:
Schirmer/Thomson Learning, 2009.
Shankar, Ravi. My Music, My Life. New ed. San Rafael,
CA: Mandala, 2007.
Wade, Bonnie C. Music in India: The Classical Traditions.
Rev. ed. New Dehli: Manohar, 2001.
. Some Principles of Indian Classical Music. In
Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, 83110.
Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1980.
Annotated Website
www.medieval.org/music/world/carnatic/cblsup.html

Gamelan Music in Bali. World Music Library KICC 5126.


Gamelan Music of Bali. Lyrichord LLCT 7179.
The Javanese Gamelan. World Music Library CD-5129.
Javanese Court Gamelan. Elektra/Nonesuch 72044-2.
Music from the Morning of the World. Elektra/Nonesuch
79196-2 (CD).
The Music of Southeast Asia. Smithsonian/Folkways 04423
(CD).
The Sultans Pleasure: Javanese Gamelan and Vocal
Music. Music of the World T 116.
Suggested Videos
BAJRA: Balinese Music Collection (9 videodiscs). Bajra &
TVRI, 2004.
JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance, produced
in collaboration with the National Museum of
Ethnology (Osaka) and Smithsonian/Folkways
Records; translation by Mantle Hood; vols. 910:
Indonesia.
Additional Readings
Becker, Judith O. Traditional Music in Modern Java:
Gamelan in a Changing Society. Honolulu: University
Press of Hawaii, 1980.

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114 | Chapter 10
Capwell, Charles. The Music of Indonesia. In Excursions
in World Music. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 2012.
Herbst, Edward. Voices in Bali: Energies and Perceptions
in Vocal Music and Dance Theater. Hanover, NH:
University Press of New England, 1997.
Kartomi, Margaret J. Musical Strata in Sumatra, Java, and
Bali. In Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction,
11133. Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1980.
McPhee, Colin. Music in Bali: A Study in Form and
Instrumental Organization in Balinese Orchestral
Music. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
Miller, Terry E., and Sean Williams, eds. Garland
Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 1, Southeast Asia.
New York and London: Garland Press, 1998.
Pickvance, Richard. A Gamelan Manual: A Players Guide
to the Central Javanese Gamelan. London: Jaman Mas
Books, 2005.
Spiller, Henry. Gamelan: The Traditional Sounds of
Indonesia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004.
Sukerna, Nyoman. Gamelan Jegog Bali. Semarang: Intra
Pustaka Utama, 2003.
Sutton, R. Anderson. Asia/Indonesia. In Worlds of Music:
An Introduction to the Music of the Worlds Peoples.
5th ed. Edited by Jeff T. Titon. Belmont, CA:
Schirmer/Cengage Learning, 2009.
Weintraub, Andrew N. Dandut Stories: A Social and
Musical History of Indonesias Most Popular Music.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Middle East/Turkey
Middle Eastern/Turkish/Iranian Music Included in
the Music Example Bank and iMusic
Turkish music
IV/12
Dance, Zurna and Davul, Turkish
Traditional
Turkish-influenced music
I/9
Beethoven, The Ruins of Athens, Turkish
March
IV/59
Mozart, The Abduction from the Seraglio,
Overture
Iranian music
iMusic
Avaz of Bayate Esfahan (santur)

Supplemental Recordings
Ceremony of the Kadiri Dervishes. Gallo CD-587.
Military Band of the Old Turkish Army. World Music
Library CD 5101.
Music of the Whirling Dervishes. Atlantic 82493-2.
Tezner, Michael, ed. CD to accompany Analytical Studies
in World Music. New York: Oxford University Press,
2006.
The Rough Guide to the Music of Iran. World Music
Network RGNET 1165CD.
Turkish Folk Music. Lyrichord LLCT 7289.
Suggested Video
JVC Video Anthology of World Music and Dance, produced
in collaboration with the National Museum of
Ethnology (Osaka) and Smithsonian/Folkways
Records; translation by Mantle Hood; vol. 17: Turkey,
Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Qatar.
Additional Readings
Bartk, Bla. Turkish Folk Music from Asia Minor. Rev. ed.
Homosassa: Bartok Records, 2002.
Cooper, David, and Kevin Dawe, eds. The Mediterranean
in Music: Critical Perspectives Common Concerts,
Cultural Differences. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press,
2005.
Daniel, Elton L., and Ali Akbar Mahdi. Culture and
Customs of Iran. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
2006.
Danielson, Virginia, Scott Marcus, and Dwight Reynolds,
eds., Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 6,
The Middle East. New York and London: Garland
Press, 2002.
Lichtenwanger, William. The Military Music of the
Ottoman Turks. Bulletin of the American
Musicological Society 1113 (1948): 5556.
Nettl, Bruno. Music of the Middle East. In Excursions in
World Music. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 2012.
Picken, Laurence. Folk Music Instruments of Turkey.
London: Oxford University Press, 1975.
Signell, Karl L. Makam: Modal Practice in Turkish Art
Music. Seattle: Asian Music Publications, 1977.
Tezner, Michael, ed. Analytical Studies in World Music.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Study Guide Assignment


45. Explore. East Meets West: Turkish Influences on the
Viennese Classics Music Listeningbased on
recording of Turkish music

Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa
African/Sub-Saharan African Music Included in The
Norton Recordings
Ensiriba y a munange Katego (LG 90 Complete)

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General Resource Guide | 115


African/Sub-Saharan African Music Included in The
Norton Recordings
Ensiriba ya munange Katego, Ugandan entenga ensemble
(LG 92 Complete)
Homeless, Ladysmith Black Mambazo (LG 85 Complete)
African/Sub-Saharan African Music Included in the
Music Example Bank and iMusic
African music
III/62
Porters Song, Gabon (Bawanji Tribe), call
and response
III/64
Herding Song, Middle Congo (Kouyou
Tribe)
iMusic
Gota (Ghana, West Africa)
African-Inspired Music in The Norton Recordings and
the Music Example Bank
Ligeti, Disorder, from Etudes for Piano (LG 91
Complete)
IV/47
Reich, Music for Pieces of Wood
IV/53
Live Television, Youssou NDour
Study Guide Assignment
100. Listen.World Music: The Sounds of Java and Eastern
Africa
Supplemental Recordings
Africa South of the Sahara. Folkways FE 4503.
Ancient Ceremonies, Dance Music and Songs.
Elektra/Nonesuch 72082-2.
Drums of the Yoruba of Nigeria. Folkways P-441.
Drums of West Africa: Ritual Music of Ghana. Lyrichord
LLST 7303.
Folk Music of the Western Congo. Folkways P-427.
Music of Equatorial Africa. Folkways P-402.
Music of the Northern Tribes. Lyrichord LYRCD 7321.
The Rough Guide to the Music of South Africa. World
Music Network RGNET 1178CD.
Songs of the Watusi. Folkways P-428.
Talking Drums. Shanachie C 64012.
Suggested Videos
Born Musicians/On the Battlefield (West African traditional
music)
The Drums of Dagbon/Caribbean Crucible (northern
Ghana, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, origins of
reggae)
Legends of Rhythm and Blues/The Max Roach Story (gospel
quartets, rhythm and blues, bebop)

Portrait of Africa, with music by Vangelis, Ladysmith


Black Mambazo, and Miriam Makeba (56 min.,
$29.95)
Repercussions: A Celebration of African-American Music.
4 videos (1984, $39.95 each)
The Seven Ages of Music: The Magic of African Music.
(2003) Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and
Science. FFH 4007 Films for the Humanities and
Sciences.
West African Popular Music (modern pop music)
Additional Readings
Agawu, V. Kofi. The Rhythmic Structure of West African
Music. Journal of Musicology 5/3 (1987): 40018.
Chernoff, John M. African Rhythm and African Sensibility:
Aesthetics and Social Action in African Musical
Idioms. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.
Ladzekpo, Alfred Kwashie, and Kobla Ladzekpo. Anlo
Ewe Music in Anyako, Volta Region, Ghana. In
Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, 21631.
Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1980.
Locke, David. Africa/Ewe, Mande, Dagbamba, Shona,
BaAka. In Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the
Music of the Worlds Peoples. 5th ed. Edited by Jeff
Todd Titon. Belmont, CA: Schirmer/Cengage
Learning, 2009.
Mensah, Atta Annan. Music South of the Sahara. In
Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction, 17294.
Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1980.
Nketia, J. H. Modern Trends in Ghana Music. In
Readings in Ethnomusicology, 33035. Edited by
David McAllester. New York: Johnson. Reprint Corp.,
1971.
Stone, Ruth M., ed. Garland Encyclopedia of World Music.
Vol. 4, Africa. New York and London: Garland Press,
1998.
, ed. The Garland Handbook of African Music. 2nd
ed. New York: Routledge, 2008.
Eastern Europe/Russia
Eastern European Music Included in The Norton
Recordings and the Music Example Bank
Russian folk-inspired music
Stravinsky: Lhistoire du soldat, Marche royale (LG 68
Complete)
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, Part I, excerpts (LG 67
Complete, 40 Shorter)
Prokofiev, Alexander Nevsky, VII (LG 95 Complete)
I/15
Glire, The Red Poppy, Russian Sailors
Dance

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116 | Chapter 10
I/29
II/16

Khatchaturian, Gayne Suite No. 1, Sabre


Dance
Prokofiev, Lieutenant Kije, Romance

Study Guide Assignment


77. Listen. The Music of Stravinsky
Supplemental Recordings
Folk Music of the U.S.S.R.: Europe. Folkways 4535.
Music of the Soviet Union. Folkways SFCD-40002.
Old Russian Wedding. Apon 2657.
The Rough Guide to the Music of Russia. World Music
Network RGNET 1107CD.
Russian Folk Music. Apon 2642.
Rustavi Choir: Georgian Voices. Elektra/Nonesuch
79224-2.
Additional Readings
Abraham, Gerald. Essays on Russian and East European
Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Beliaev, Viktor M. Central Asian Music: Essays in the
History of the Music of the Peoples of the U.S.S.R.
Edited and translated by Mark Slobin and Greta
Slobin. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press,
1975.
Campbell, James Stuart. Russians on Russian Music, 18801917: An Anthology. New York: Cambridge University
Press, 2003.
Rice, Timothy, James Porter, and Chris Goertzen, eds.
Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 8, Europe.
New York and London: Garland Press, 2000.
Taruskin, Richard. Russian Folk Melodies in The Rite of
Spring. Journal of the American Musicological
Society 33 (Fall 1980): 50143.
Wachtel, Andrew Baruch, ed. Intersections and
Transpositions: Russian Music, Literature, and Society.
Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1998.

Supplemental Recordings
Blues for Transylvania. Hannibal HNCD 1350.
Csendl a nta: Hungarian Folk Music. Hungaraton HCD
10239.
Echoes from an Endangered World. Smithsonian Folkways
CD SF 40407.
Marta Sebestyen: Star of World Music. Hungaraton 37979.
Additional Readings
Abraham, Gerald. Essays on Russian and East European
Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Bartk, Bla. Hungarian Folk Music. Trans. by M. D.
Calvovoressi. Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, 1979.
. Hungarian Peasant Music. Musical Quarterly 19
(1933): 26789. Reprinted in Bla Bartk Essays, 80
102. Edited by Benjamin Suchoff. New York: St.
Martins Press, 1976.
Bohlman, Philip V. The Musical Culture of Europe. In
Excursions in World Music, 191222. 6th ed. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2012.
Rice, Timothy, James Porter, and Chris Goertzen, eds.
Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 8, Europe.
New York and London: Garland Press, 2000.
Slobin, Mark, ed. Retuning Culture: Musical Changes in
Central and Eastern Europe. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 1996.
Eastern Europe/Jewish Culture
Eastern European/Jewish Music Included in the
Music Example Bank
IV/5
IV/11

Havah nagilah
Ribono Shel Olom (Jewish cantor music),
cantor, responsorial singing

Study Guide Assignments


13. Explore. Chant as Music for Worship
Music ListeningJewish chant

Eastern Europe/Hungary/Romania/Bulgaria
Eastern European Music Included in the Music
Example Bank and iMusic
Hungarian Traditional
IV/35
Aki Dudas Akar Lenni, folk song collected
by Bartk, art music inspired by traditional
styles
II/6
Enescu, Romanian Rhapsody No. 1
II/4
Kodly, Hry Jnos, Song
I/42
Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
I/59
Ravel, Tzigane (Gypsy)

Supplemental Recordings
The Art of the Cantor, with Jan Peerce. Vanguard VCD
72017.
Traditional Jewish Music from Eastern Europe. Buda
92567.
Additional Readings
Jaffe, Kenneth. Solo Vocal Works on Jewish Themes: A
Bibliography of Jewish Composers. Lanham, MD:
Scarecrow Press, 2011.

EnjMus11-IRM_Norton 8 1/2 x 11 specs 6/10/11 5:21 PM Page 117

General Resource Guide | 117


Loeffler, James Benjamin. The Most Musical Nation: Jews
and Culture in the Late Russian Empire. New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

The Rough Guide to Flamenco Nuevo. World Music


Network RGNET 1070CD.
The Rough Guide to the Music of Spain. World Music
Network RGNET 1082CD.

Eastern Europe/Roma Culture


Eastern European/Roma Music Included in the
Music Example Bank
Roma (Eastern European) Traditional
IV/36
Olaska (violin, zither)
Art music inspired by Roma style
I/42
Liszt, Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2
I/59
Ravel, Tzigane

Americas/African American
African-American Music Included in The Norton
Recordings
Still: Suite for Violin and Piano, III (LG 72 Complete, 47
Shorter)
Joplin: Maple Leaf Rag (LG 76 Complete, 50 Shorter)
Holiday: Billies Blues (LG 77 Complete, 51 Shorter)
Ellington/Strayhorn: Take the A Train (LG 78 Complete, 52
Shorter)

Study Guide Assignment


80. Explore: BartkA Folk-Song Collector
Music ListeningRoma music (Eastern European)
Supplemental Recordings
Gypsy Folk Songs. Supraphon CIPCD 111817.
Gypsy Folksongs from Hungary. Hungaroton HCD
180289.
Gypsy Folksongs from Hungary and Transylvania.
Quintana QUI903028.
The Rough Guide to the Music of the Gypsies. World Music
Network RGNET 1034CD.
Western Europe/Spain
Western European/Spanish Music Included in The
Norton Recordings and the Music Example Bank
Spanish Traditional
IV/52
Sevillanas, flamenco, guitar
Art music inspired by traditional elements
I/54
Bizet, Carmen, excerpts (Spanish influence)
Ravel, Two Songs from Don Quixote to Dulcinea (LG
66 Complete)
IV/33
Ravel, Don Quichotte, III, Spanish jota
II/23
Rimsky-Korsakov, Capriccio espagnol,
Fandango
Supplemental Recordings
Andalusian Flamenco Song and Dance. Lyrichord LYRCD
7388.
Cante Flamenco. Nimbus NI-5251.
Gypsy Flamenco. Nimbus NI-5168.
The Rough Guide to Flamenco. World Music Network
RGNET 1015CD.

African-American Music Included in the Music


Example Bank and iMusic
African-American traditional/popular music
IV/43
Crossroads Blues (Robert Johnson), rural
blues
IV/30
Deep River (Mahalia Jackson), spiritual
III/50
Fine and Mellow (Billie Holiday)
IV/27
John Henry (Paul Robeson), work song
III/51
Smooth Sailing (Ella Fitzgerald)
IV/16
Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child
(Paul Robeson), spiritual
III/49
When the Saints Go Marchin In
(Preservation Hall Jazz Band)
iMusic
Joplin, Pine Apple Rag
iMusic
When the Saints Go Marching In
African-American art music
III/52
Baker, Sonata for Cello and Piano, II
IV/56
Price, Sonata in E minor (piano)
IV/29
Still, Afro-American Symphony, I
African-Americaninspired music
III/52
Baker, Sonata for Cello and Piano, II, jazz
influence
I/1
Gershwin, Piano Concerto in F
IV/34
Ravel, Sonata for Violin and Piano, II, blues
influence
Study Guide Assignments
63. Explore: Dvork s Influence on African-American Art
Music
Music Listeningmusic of William Grant Still
87. Explore: The Roots of Jazz
Music Listeningspiritual, blues, or ragtime

EnjMus11-IRM_Norton 8 1/2 x 11 specs 6/10/11 5:21 PM Page 118

118 | Chapter 10
Suggested Videos
American Patchwork (PBS, 60 minutes each, $24.95 each)
Cajun Country: Dont Drop the Potato (includes French
and black Creole, Native American, and Cajun song
and dance)
Dreams and Songs of the Noble Old World (Alan Lomax
introduces historical singers and Preservation Hall
Band)
Jazz Parade: Feet Dont Fail Me Now (Alan Lomax
interviews jazz legends)
The Land Where Blues Began (Origins of blues from
Mississippi Delta through Leadbelly)
Repercussions: A Celebration of African-American Music.
4 videos (1984, $39.95 each)
Born Musicians/On the Battlefield (West African traditional
music)
The Drums of Dagbon/Caribbean Crucible (northern
Ghana, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, origins of
reggae
Legends of Rhythm and Blues/The Max Roach Story (gospel
quartets, rhythm and blues, bebop)
West African Popular Music (modern pop music)
Additional Readings
Baraka, Imamu Amiri. Black Music: Essays. New ed. New
York: Akashic, 2010.
Bohlman, Philip V. Ethnic North America. In Excursions
in World Music. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 2007.
Evans, David. Big Road Blues: Tradition and Creativity in
the Folk Blues. Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1982.
Evans, Freddi Williams. Congo Square: African Roots in
New Orleans. Lafayetter, LA: University of Louisiana
at Lafayetter Press, 2011.
Floyd, Samuel A., Jr., and Marsha J. Reisser. Black Music
in the United States: An Annotated Bibliography of
Selected Reference and Research Materials. Millwood,
NY: Kraus International Publications, 1983.
Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1983.
. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York:
W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Hayes, Eileen M. and Linda F. Williams, eds. Black Women
and Music: More than the Blues. Urbana: University of
Illinois Press, 2007.
Koskoff, Ellen, ed. The Garland Encyclopedia of World
Music. Vol. 3, The United States and Canada. New
York and London: Garland Press, 2001.
Jones, LeRoi (Amiri Baraka). Blues People: Negro Music in
White America. New ed. New York: Perennial, 2002.

Oliver, Paul. The Story of the Blues. Updated ed. Boston,


MA: Northeastern University Press, 1998.
Russell, Tony. Blacks, Whites and Blues. New York: Stein
and Day, 1970.
Skowronski, JoAnn. Black Music in America: A
Bibliography. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1981.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A
History. 3rd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company,
1997.
Southern, Eileen, ed. Readings in Black American Music.
2nd ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1983.
Tibbetts, John C., ed. Dvok in America, 18921895.
Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1993.
Tirro, Frank. Jazz: A History. 2nd ed. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1993.
Titon, Jeff Todd. North America/Black America. In
Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the
Worlds Peoples. 151209. 5th ed. Edited by Jeff Todd
Titon. Belmont, CA: Schirmer/Cengage Learning,
2009.
Americas/British-American Traditional Music
American/British-American Traditional Music
Included in The Norton Recordings, the Music
Example Bank, and iMusic
British-American Traditional
IV/4
Amazing Grace, American hymn,
nineteenth century
IV/8
America, American Traditional
IV/38
Battle Hymn of the Republic, American
Civil War song
IV/48
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
IV/37
Dixie, American Civil War song
IV/7
Goodbye, Old Paint (Tex Ritter), American
cowboy song
I/41
Gould, arr. When Johnny Comes Marching
Home
I/30
Greensleeves (harpsichord), English folk
song
IV/27
John Henry, work song
III/51
Smooth Sailing (Ella Fitzgerald)
IV/2
Joy to the World, Christmas carol
IV/1
Shall We Gather at the River (Willie
Nelson), American hymn, nineteenth
century
IV/17
Simple Gifts, American hymn, nineteenth
century
IV/3
The Star-Spangled Banner, American
national anthem
IV/6
Yankee Doodle, American Revolutionary
War song

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General Resource Guide | 119


IV/39
iMusic
iMusic
iMusic
iMusic
iMusic
iMusic

The Yellow Rose of Texas, MexicanAmerican War


Amazing Grace
America
Battle Hymn of the Republic
Foster: Camptown Races
If I had a Hammer (Pete Seeger)
Pop Goes the Weasel

Art music inspired by British-American Traditional


IV/15
Billings, Chester
IV/18
Copland, Appalachian Spring, uses
American tune Simple Gifts
IV/28
Copland, John Henry, uses traditional
American song John Henry
II/11
Grof, Grand Canyon Suite, On the Trail

IV/44
IV/44
IV/45
IV/51
iMusic
iMusic

El Jarabe Tapato, Mexican mariachi,


traditional dance form
Conga Santiagueral, Afro-Cuban dance
Santa Rosa, Que manera de quererte, Latin
American salsa
La Cumparsita, Argentinian tango
Los Jilicatas (Peruvian panpipes)
Osain (Cuban Santera)

Art music inspired by traditional Latin American styles


Bernstein, West Side Story, Mambo (LG 81 Complete,
54 Shorter)
I/54
Bizet, Carmen, Habanera
Revueltas, Homenaje a Federico Garca Lorca, III: Son
(LG 74 Complete, 49 Shorter)
IV/44
Chvez, Los Cuatro Soles
III/70
Villa-Lobos, Bachianas brasileiras No. 5, I

Additional Readings
Axelrod, Alan, and Dan Fox. Songs of the Wild West. New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
Bronson, B. H., ed. The Traditional Tunes of the Child
Ballads; with Their Texts, According to the Extant
Records of Great Britian and America. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 195972.
Chase, Gilbert. Americas Music, from the Pilgrims to the
Present. Rev. 3rd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois
Press, 1987.
Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1983.
Herbert, Trevor, ed. The British Brass Band: A Musical and
Social History. New York: Oxford University Press,
2000.
Lomax, Alan. The Folk Songs of North America, In the
English Language. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1960.
Nettl, Bruno. Folk Music in the United States: An
Introduction. 3rd ed. Detroit, MI: Wayne State
University Press, 1976.
Americas/Latin America
Latin American Music Included in The Norton
Recordings
Revueltas, Silvestre. Homenaje a Federico Garca Lorca,
III: Son (LG 74 Complete, 49 Shorter)
El Cihualteco (Mexican son) (LG 75 Complete)
Latin American Music Included in The Norton
Recordings and the Music Example Bank
Traditional and popular music
IV/31
Tres Lindas Cubanas, II, Cuban habanera

Study Guide Assignments


85. Explore. Preserving the Musical Traditions of Mexico
Music ListeningMexican music (mariachi, jarabe)
93. Explore. Latin American Dance Music

Supplemental Recordings
Afro-Hispanic Music from Western Colombia and Ecuador.
Folkways FE 4376.
An Island Carnival: Music of the West Indies. Nonesuch
72091.
Cult Music of Cuba. Folkways FE 4410.
The Inca Harp: Laments and Dances of Tawantinsuyu, the
Inca Empire [Peru]. Lyrichord LLST 7359.
Huayno Music of Peru, vol. 1. Arhoolie CD 320.
Llegaron Los Camperos!: Concert Favorites of Nati Canos
Mariachi Los Camperos. Smithsonian Folkways
Recordings SFW CD 40517.
Marimba Music of Tehuantepec. University of Washington
Press UWP 1002.
Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitln: Their First Recordings
19371947, vol. 3.Arhoolie Folklyric CD 7015.
Mountain Music of Peru, vol. 2. Smithsonian Folkways CD
40406.
Msica andina de Bolivia. Lauro Records LPLI/S-062.
Msica folklrica de Venezuela. Ocora OCR 78.
Music of Mexico: Sones Jarochos. Arhoolie 3008.
Music of Mexico, vol. 2, Sones Huastecos. Arhoolie 3009.
The Rough Guide to Afro-Cuba. World Music Network
RGNET 1070CD.
Texas-Mexican Border Music, vol. 24, The Texas-Mexican
Conjunto. Folklyric 9049.

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120 | Chapter 10
Additional Readings
Baker, Geoffrey and Tess Knighton, eds. Music and Urban
Society in Colonial Latin America. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Bhague, Gerard. Music in Latin America: An Introduction.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979.
Chase, Gilbert. A Guide to Latin American Music. 2nd ed.
Washington, DC: Pan American Union, 1962.
Hinds, Harold E., Jr., and Charles M. Tatum, eds.
Handbook of Latin American Popular Culture.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985.
Koskoff, Ellen, ed. The Garland Encyclopedia of World
Music. Vol. 3, The United States and Canada. New
York and London: Garland Press, 2001.
Olsen, Dale A. Folk Music of South America: A Musical
Mosaic. In Musics of Many Cultures: An Introduction,
386425. Edited by Elizabeth May. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1980.
Olsen, Dale A., and Daniel E. Sheehy, eds. The Garland
Encyclopedia of World Music. Vol. 2, South America,
Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. New
York: Garland Pub., 1998.
, eds. The Garland Handbook of Latin American
Music. New York: Garland Pub., 2000.
Roberts, John Storm. The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin
American Music on the United States. 2nd ed. New
York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Schechter, John M. Latin America/Ecuador. In Worlds of
Music: An Introduction to the Music of the Worlds
Peoples. 5th ed. Edited by Jeff Todd Titon. Belmont,
CA: Schirmer/Thomson Learning, 2009.
Schechter, John M., ed. Music in Latin American Culture:
Regional Traditions. New York: Schirmer, 1999.
Sheehy, Daniel. Mariachi Music in America: Experiencing
Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2006.
Turino, Thomas. Music in Latin America. In Excursions
in World Music, 223250. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004.
Americas/Native American
Native American Music Included in the Music
Example Bank
IV/13
IV/14
IV/49

Taos Pueblo Round Dance Song


Zuni Pueblo Rainbow Dance
Nakai, Shamans Call

Supplemental Recordings
Music of the American Indians of the Southwest. Folkways
4420.

Music of the Sioux and the Navajo. Folkways 4401.


Pow Wow Songs: Music of the Plains Indians. New World
80343-2.
Pueblo Indian Songs. Canyon 6065.
Songs and Dances of Great Lakes Indians. Folkways 4003.
Songs and Dances of the Eastern Indians from Medicine
Spring and Allegheny. New World 8-337-2.
Songs of Earth, Water, Fire and Sky: Music of the American
Indian. New World 80246-2.
Additional Readings
Chase, Gilbert. Americas Music, from the Pilgrims to the
Present. Rev. 3rd ed. Urbana: University of Illinois
Press, 1987.
Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: W. W.
Norton & Company, 1983.
Koskoff, Ellen, ed. The Garland Encyclopedia of World
Music. Vol. 3, The United States and Canada. New
York and London: Garland Press, 2001.
McAllester, David P. North America/Native America. In
Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the
Worlds Peoples. 5th ed. Edited by Jeff Todd Titon.
Belmont, CA: Schirmer/Cengage Learning, 2009.
Nettl, Bruno. Native American Music. In Excursions in
World Music, 25168. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall, 2004.

WIND BAND MUSIC IN AMERICA


This resource guide provides suggestions for incorporating
wind music into the content of your music appreciation
course. A brief overview of bands in America is provided,
followed by some specific sources for teaching early band
music and the music of selected composers. There is also a
selected list of other contemporary band works by wellknown composers and a general bibliography.
Overview
The concert band of today descended from the historical
haut, or loud instrumental ensemble of the Middle Ages and
Renaissance. The seventeenth-century American colonists
adopted some earlier European customs, such as the use of
fife-and-drum ensembles for military purposes. The French
military band, which had its roots in the army of Louis XIV,
was also influential to the growth of the American band. The
Revolutionary period and early nineteenth century saw the rise
of American military ensembles with increasingly diversified
instrumentation.
Interest in Turkish Janissary music brought about a much
enlarged and varied percussion section. The American Federal period saw further development of the bands instrumen-

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General Resource Guide | 121


tation through the addition of more instruments, notably the
piccolo, bass clarinets, trombones, and the serpent. A tradition of civilian bands sprang up across the country alongside
military ensembles; both were essentially brass groups.
Recent research has unearthed from manuscript sources much
of the repertory of nineteenth-century bands, including those
of the Moravian settlements. Patrick S. Gilmore has been
viewed as the father of the modern symphonic band, while
John Philip Sousa, director of the U.S. Marine Band, is the
single most significant figure in the history of American band
music. Professional as well as civic bands continued to thrive
across America through World War I. At that time the movement was taken over by the academic world, where it has
been nurtured in public schools, colleges, and universities
ever since. Among the well-known composers who have contributed to the repertory of the concert band are Gustav Holst,
Percy Grainger, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Igor Stravinsky,
Arnold Schoenberg, Paul Hindemith, Darius Milhaud, Vincent Persichetti, Karel Husa, Joseph Schwantner, and Michael
Daugherty.
Revolutionary and Civil War Bands
Bands were active during the Revolutionary War and after for
military, civic, or festive display. Woodwind instruments were
replaced by brass instruments in the nineteenth century. U.S.
Army bands were small, numbering from 10 to 16 players.
During the Civil War, the Union Army had some 500 bands
totaling 9,000 players. Confederate bands thrived as well.
Selected Readings
Camus, Raoul F. Military Music of the American
Revolution. Chapel Hill: The University of North
Carolina Press, 1976.
Newsom, Jon. The American Brass Band Movement.
Quarterly Journal of the Library of Congress 15
(1979): 114ff.
Olson, Kenneth E. Music and Musket: Bands and
Bandsmen of the American Civil War. Westport, CT:
Greenwood Press, 1981.
Suggested Listening
Battle Cry of Freedom: Military Music of Union Army
Bands. Heritage Americana, 1982.
The Civil War: Its Music and Sounds. Eastman Wind
Ensemble, F. Fennell, conductor. Mercury CD 432
591-2.
The Music of the Civil War. Americus Brass Band. Summit
CDC 126.
The Yankee Brass Band: Music from Mid-NineteenthCentury America. New World NW-312.

French Military Bands


French military bands were revolutionary groups popular at
public ceremonies of the new republic. They were influential
in the rise of brass and military bands in the United States.
The most important composer was Franois-Joseph Gossec
(17341829), a noted symphonist who, during the Revolution,
directed the band of the Garde Nationale and wrote many
pieces for large wind and vocal forces. His works include
Marche lugubre (1773) and Classic Overture (179495).
Selected Readings
Whitwell, David. Band Music of the French Revolution.
Tutzing, GER.: Hans Schneider, 1979.
Suggested Listening
Goldman Band, Richard Franko Goldman, conductor.
Decca DL 78633.
University of Southern Mississippi Band; A. Drake,
conductor. Crest CBD-69-4A.
The American Band of Providence; F. Marciniak,
conductor. Redwood ES-30.
Gossec, Marche lugubre. Musique des gardiens de la paix;
Dondeyne, conductor. Les ditions constellates.
John Philip Sousa
American bandmaster, known as the March King, formed the
Sousa band, popular from 1892 until 1931. He composed
marches, including The Washington Post (1889) and The
Stars and Stripes Forever (1897). A fine showman and musician, he helped shape American tastes in music.
Selected Readings
Berger, Kenneth Walter. The March King and His Band:
The Story of John Philip Sousa. New York: Exposition
Press, 1957.
Bierley, Paul E. John Philip Sousa: American Phenomenon.
New York: Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1973.
Mitziga, Walter. The Sound of Sousa: John Philip Sousa
Compositions Recorded. Chicago: South Shore
Printers, 1986.
Smart, James R. The Sousa Band: A Discography.
Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1970.
Suggested Listening
The Pride of America: The Golden Age of the American
March. Goldman Band. New World NW-266.
Sousa Marches. Eastman Wind Ensemble; F. Fennell,
director. 2-Mercury SRI-77010.

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122 | Chapter 10
Sousa on Review. Eastman Wind Ensemble; F. Fennell,
director. Mercury 420970-4 EH.
The Sousa and Pryor Bands. Original recordings, 190126.
New World NW-282.
The United States Marine Band Presents the Heritage of
John Philip Sousa. U.S. Marine Band; Jack Kine,
director. 18 LPs. 197578.
Paul Hindemith
A German composer, Hindemith wrote much chamber music
in his early years as a performer. He wrote in nearly every
genre, including sonatas for most standard instruments. He
composed music for new instruments and for student players
as well as wrote a theoretical treatise ranking intervals and
harmonies from most consonant to most dissonant (Craft of
Musical Composition, 193739). Hindemiths works for band
include Konzertmusik, Op. 41 (1926), written originally for
a small German band with saxhorns, and the Symphony in
B-flat (1951, composed for the U.S. Army Band), which
quickly established itself in the central repertory for winds as
a masterwork of counterpoint and orchestration.
Suggested Listening
Symphony in B-flat
Eastman Wind Ensemble; F. Fennell, conductor. Mercury
MG 50143/SR90143; reissued as Mercury SRI 75057.
University of Michigan Symphony Band; W. Revelli,
conductor. Golden Crest CRS 4214.
University of Northern Colorado Wind Ensemble; E.
Corporon, conductor. Soundmark R 990 BSCR.
Cornell Wind Ensemble; M. Stith, conductor. Cornell U.
12.

Chester Overture (University of Michigan Symphony


Band; W. Revelli) Vanguard VSD 2124.
When Jesus Wept (University of Michigan Symphony Band;
W. Revelli) Golden Crest CRS-42028.
Karel Husa
American composer Karel Husa is of Czech origin and studied in Prague and Paris. He teaches at Cornell University. He
was the first to employ aleatoric procedures in works for
band, including Music for Prague 1968symbolic of the
struggles of the Czech people through the use of an ancient
Hussite song, Ye Warriors of God and His Lawand
Apotheosis of This Earth (1970), which musically depicts the
destruction of the earth through war, famine, and environmental abuse.
Suggested Listening
Music for Prague 1968 (University of Michigan Band;
K. Husa). Golden Crest CRS 4134.
Apotheosis of the Earth (University of Northern Colorado
Wind Ensemble; E. Corporon). Soundmark R972
BSCR.
Michael Daugherty
Daugherty, an American composer, was born in Iowa, studied
at North Texas State University, the Manhattan School of
Music, and Yale University. He is known for incorporating
polyrhythmic counterpoint and popular music elements. He
makes references to popular culture, such as the I Love Lucy
television show and the Superman comic book.
Suggested Listening

William Schuman
Schuman was an American composer who was president of
the Juilliard School of Music and later at Lincoln Center, in
New York. He wrote a nationalistic work entitled New England Triptych: Three Pieces for Orchestra after William
Billings. Each piece was based on a hymn by the early American composer Billings; two movements were later arranged
by the composer for the band: Chester (1957), based on the
most popular song of the American Revolution, and When
Jesus Wept (1958), based on a Billings round of the same
name. He also wrote George Washington Bridge (1951) as a
tribute to the famous New York bridge.
Recordings
George Washington Bridge (Eastman Symphonic Wind
Ensemble; F. Fennell) Mercury MG50079; reissued as
Mercury SRI 75086.

UFOMusic of Michael Daugherty (North Texas Wind


Symphony). Klavier K 11121.
Sojourns (North Texas Wind Symphony). Klavier K 11099.
Rendevous (North Texas Wind Symphony). Klavier K
11109.
Selected Wind Works by Other Composers
Barber: Commando March (1943)
Bremer, Carolyn. Early Light. (1996), Concerto for
Trumpet and Wind Band (2010)
Copland: Fanfare for the Common Man (1942); Emblems
(1964); Inaugural Fanfare (1969)
Dahl: Sinfonietta (1969)
Druckman: In Memoriam Vincent Persichetti (1987)
Dvork: Serenade, Op. 55 (1879)
Grainger: Hill Song No. 2 (1922; rev. 1949); Lincolnshire
Posy; Irish Tune from County Derry

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General Resource Guide | 123


Hanson: Chorale and Alleluia (1955); Laude (1976)
Holst: Suite No. 1 and No. 2 (1909, 1911)
Ives: At the Beach (1949); A Solemn Music (1949)
Kraft: Dialogues and Entertainment (1980)
Krenek: Dream Sequence, Op. 224 (1977)
Maslanka: A Childs Garden of Dreams (1983)
Mennin: Canzona (1951)
Messiaen: Couleurs de la cit cleste (1963); Et exspecto
resurrectionem mortuorum (1964)
Milhaud: Suite franaise (1947)
Nelson: Passacaglia (1993)
Persichetti: Divertimento for Band (1950); Pageant (1954);
Symphony for Band (1956); Parable (1972)
Piston: Tunbridge Fair (1950); Ceremonial Fanfare (1969)
Respighi: Huntingtower Ballad (1932)
Schoenberg: Theme and Variations, Op. 43a (1943)
Schuller: Symphony (1949)
Schwantner: And the Mountains Rising Nowhere (1977);
From a Dark Millennium (1981)
Strauss, R.: Serenade, Op. 7, in E-flat (1881)
Stravinsky: Symphonies for Wind Instruments (1920), Wind
Octet (192223), Circus Polka (1942)
Ticheli: Postcard (1993)
Tower: Fanfare for the Uncommon Woman (3 versions,
198791)
Ung: Grand Spiral: Desert Flowers Bloom (1990)
Varse: Octandre (1923); Dserts (1954)
Vaughan Williams: English Folk Song Suite (1923)
Wagner: Trauermusik (1844)
Whitacre, Eric. Equus (2000), Ghost Train (1995), Godzilla
Eats Las Vegas (1996), October (2000)
Wilson: Peace of Mind (1988)
Suggested Listening
Bremer, Corigliano, Kraft, Mailman, Stamp, Toch,
Dialogues And Entertainments. North Texas University
Wind Ensemble; Eugene Corporon. Klavier K 11083.
Dvork: Serenade, Op. 44; Czech Suite. National Chamber
Players; Lowell Graham. Klavier K 11126.
Grainger: Lincolnshire Posy and Hill Song No. 2. Eastman
Wind Ensemble; F. Fennell. Mercury CD 432 754-2.
Holst: Suites Nos. 1 and 2 for Band. Cleveland Winds; F.
Fennell, director. Telarc DG-10038; CD-80038.
Holst: Suites. RAF Central Band; Banks. Angel 4AE34477.
Mozart: Serenade Grand Partita, and Divertimentos.
National Chamber Players; Lowell Graham. Klavier
KCD 11104.
The Regimental Band of the Coldstream Guards. Walter
ODonnell. Bandleader BNA 5002.
Strauss/Brahms/Reger. National Chamber Players, Lowell
Graham. Klavier K11114.

Stravinsky: Symphonies of Wind Instruments. Eastman


Wind Ensemble; F. Fennell. Mercury MG
50143/SR90143; reissued as Mercury SRI 75057.
Stravinsky: Concerto for Piano and Winds. Royal
Philharmonic; Papadopoulos. Hyperion A66167.
Stravinsky: Circus Polka. University of Illinois Concert
Band; M. Hindsley. ERRL BP-127.
Selected Bibliography, Wind Music
Berger, Kenneth, ed. The Band Encyclopedia. Evansville,
IN: Band Associates, 1960.
. The Band in the United States. Evansville, IN:
Band Associates, 1961.
, ed. Band Music Guide: Alphabetical Listing of
Titles and Composers of All Band Music. 10th ed.
Evanston, IL: Instrumentalist, 1986.
Bryant, Carolyn. And the Band Played On, 17761976.
Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975.
Camus, Raoul F., ed. American Wind and Percussion
Music. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1992.
. Bands. In The New Grove Dictionary of
American Music. Edited by H. Wiley Hitchcock and
Stanley Sadie. Vol 1, 12737. London: Macmillan,
1986.
Cipolla, Frank, and Donald Hunsberger, eds. The Wind
Ensemble and Its Repertoire: Essays on the Fortieth
Anniversary of the Eastman Wind Ensemble. New
York: University of Rochester Press, 1994.
Goldman, Richard Franko. The Concert Band. New York:
Rinehart, 1946.
. The Wind Band: Its Literature and Technique.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1961.
Hansen, Richard K. The American Wind Band: A Cultural
History. Chicago, IL: GIA Publications, 2005.
Helm, Sanford M. Catalog of Chamber Music for Wind
Instruments. Rev. ed. NewYork: Da Capo, 1969.
The Instrumentalist, 1946
The Journal of Band Research, 1964
Rehig, William H. The Heritage Encyclopedia of Band
Music: Composers and Their Music. 2 vols.
Westerville, OH: Integrity Press, 1991.
Salzman, Timothy, ed. A Composers Insight: Thoughts,
Analysis, and Commentary on Contemporary
Masterpieces for Wind Band. Galesville, MD:
Meredith Music, 2003.
Schwartz, Harry W. Bands of America. Garden City, NY:
Doubleday, 1957.
Whitwell, David. A New History of Wind Music. Evanston,
IL: Instrumentalist, 1972.
. The History and Literature of the Wind Band and
Wind Ensemble. 9 vols. Northridge, CA: Winds, 1982
84.

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124 | Chapter 10
Vol. 1, The Wind Band and Wind Ensemble before 1500.
Vol. 2, The Renaissance Wind Band and Wind Ensemble.
Vol. 3, The Baroque Wind Band and Wind Ensemble.
Vol. 4, The Wind Band and Wind Ensemble of the Classic
Period, 17501800.
Vol. 5, The Nineteenth-Century Wind Band and Wind
Ensemble in WesternEurope.
Vol. 6, A Catalog of Multi-part Instrumental Music for
Winds or for Undesignated Instrumentation before
1600.
Vol. 7, A Catalog of Baroque Multi-part Instrumental
Music for Wind Instruments or for Undesignated
Instrumentation.
Vol. 8, Wind Band and Ensemble Literature of the Classic
Period.
Vol. 9, Wind Band and Ensemble Literature of the
Nineteenth Century.
. A Concise History of the Wind Band. Northridge,
CA: Winds, 1985.
Whitwell, David, and Acton Ostling, eds. The College and
University Band: An Anthology of Papers from
the Conference of the College Band Directors National

Association, 19411975. Reston, VA: MENC, 1977.


Wallace, David, and Eugene Corporon. Wind
Ensemble/Band Repertoire. Greeley, CO: University of
Northern Colorado School of Music, 1984.
Wright, A. G., and Stanley Newcomb. Bands of the World.
Evanston, IL: Instrumentalist, 1970.
Selected Discographies, Wind Band
Band Record Guide: Alphabetical Listing of Band Records:
Alphabetical Listing of Band Records by Title of
Composition, Composer, Performing Group, and
Record Title. Evanston, IL: Instrumentalist, 1969.
Berger, Kenneth W., ed. Band Discography. 4th ed.
Evansville, IN: Band Associates,1956.
Rasmussen, Richard M. Recorded Concert Band Music,
19501987: A Selected, Annotated Listing. Jefferson,
NC: McFarland, 1988.
Stoffel, Lawrence F. A Discography of Concert Band
Recordings on Compact Disc: Promoting the Artistry
of Band Composition. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellon
Press, 2006.

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CHAPTER 11

Answers to Study Guide Questions

All questions are answered here except those that ask for the
students opinion, an entirely subjective response, or for special projects to be determined by the student and instructor.
Alternate acceptable answers are indicated in parentheses. A
semicolon separates answers to parts of the same question.
Square brackets are used for text already given in the Study
Guide, as in the case of an example.

1. REVIEW (CHAPS. 12)


Elements of Music: Melody and Rhythm
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

interval
melody
contour; range
conjunct; disjunct
cadence
frequency
countermelody
beat
accented (strong); unaccented (weak)
meter
simple (duple)
compound (sextuple)
sextuple (Z); upbeat
duple
syncopation
polyrhythm; jazz, rock, and African musics
additive
nonmetric
narrow
wavelike
simple
second (unaccented beat)

2. REVIEW (CHAPS. 3, 5)
Elements of Music: Harmony and Texture
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

chord
harmony
[do] re mi fa sol la ti do
do
sol
[do] mi sol; [1] 3 5
tonic
dissonant; harsh (unpleasant, discordant)
consonant; agreeable (pleasant, concordant)
drone
major; minor
diatonic; chromatic
minor
texture
monophonic; homophonic
heterophony; jazz and non-Western music
polyphonic
homorhythmic
imitation; polyphonic
canon; round
consonant
major
homophonic
monophonic
dissonant
homorhythmic

125

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126 | Chapter 11
3. REVIEW (CHAP. 4)
The Organization of Musical Sounds
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

octave; twelve
two
whole step
twelve
sharp (#)
tonality
major scale: [W]WHWWWH
minor scale: WHWWHWW
diatonic
chromatic
pentatonic; Far East, Africa, Native Americans
tritonic; Africa
interval smaller than a half step
They sound out of tune (off-key).
a microtonal dip in pitch
triad; tonic (I chord); subdominant (IV chord);
dominant (V chord)
transposition
modulation
major scale; diatonic
minor
four phrases; only the last has a sense of finality or
rest; the second sounds especially incomplete or
active.

5. REVIEW (CHAP. 7)
Elements of Music: Tempo and Dynamics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

allegro
non troppo
molto allegro (vivace, presto)
andante
ritardando; accelerando
a tempo
little by little slower
very fast (very lively)
piano; forte
crescendo; decrescendo
sforzando (sf)
true
false
false
false
true
adagio
allegro
accelerando
moderato
piano
fortissimo
allegro
crescendo
fortissimo
ritardando

4. REVIEW (CHAP. 6)
Elements of Music: Form
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

form
repetition; contrast; variation
strophic
A-B; contrast
A-B-A; contrast and repetition
theme; motives; sequence
call and response (responsorial); non-Western
(African)
improvisation; jazz, traditional music, non-Western
musics
ostinato
movements
strophic
improvisation
repetition
contrast
sequence
motive
ostinato
A-A-B-B; binary

6. REVIEW (CHAPS. 811)


Voices, Instrument Families, Ensembles, and
Their Context
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

c
a
a
b
d
c
aerophone
idiophone
membranophone
chordophone; bowing, plucking (striking)
guitar, timpani (tambourine, cymbals)
true
true
true
true
true
true

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18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

false
true
false
true
true
true
false
true
false
true
false
SATB
chordophone, membranophone
idiophone, membranophone
aerophone, chordophone

7. REVIEW (CHAP. 9)
Western Musical Instruments
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

[Example: l, o, s, x]
e, m, v, w
d, p, u, w
h, n, t, z
j, m, v, w
f, p, q, w
c, o, s, x
b, p, r, w
k, m, v, w
i, m, v, w
a, p, q, w
g, p, r, w
guitar (strings)
organ (keyboard; aerophone)
brass, percussion
piano (keyboard)
cello (strings)
piccolo (woodwinds)
harpsichord (keyboard)
trumpet (brass)

8. REVIEW (CHAPS. 810)


Musical Instruments and Ensembles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

pitch, duration, volume, timbre


timbre (tone color)
soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto
tenor, baritone, bass
bowed; plucked
bowed: violin (viola, cello, double bass);
plucked: harp (guitar)

6. pitched; unpitched
pitched: timpani (kettledrum), glockenspiel, celesta,
xylophone, marimba, vibraphone, chimes, tubular
bells; unpitched: snare drum (side drum), tenor drum,
bass drum, tom-tom, tambourine, castanets, triangle,
gong, tam-tam
7. embouchure
8. a cappella
9. piano
10. organ
11. chamber music
12. string quartet
13. woodwind quintet
14. piano trio (piano quartet, piano quintet)
15. c
16. a
17. g
18. b
19. f
20. d
21. e
22. choir (a capella)
23. jazz ensemble
24, mens chorus
25. concert band
26. orchestra
27. womens chorus
28. bassoon, clarinet, oboe, flute, French horn

9. EXPLORE (CHAPS. 811)


Meet the Performers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

d
g
b
i
c
k
l
m
j
young Venezuelan conductor appointed director of
the Los Angeles Philharmonic at the age of 28; tours
with famous Latin American youth orchestra

10. LISTEN (LG 1)


Britten: The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra
1. dance tune from Henry Purcells incidental music to
the play Abdelazar (The Moors Revenge)

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2.
3.
4.
6.
12.

13.

14.
15.

strings (Baroque strings)


stately (moderate-tempo dance)
repetition
small changes to the melody, rhythm, harmony,
texture, dynamics, tempo, or instrumentation
definite pitch: timpani
unpitched: bass drum, cymbals. tambourine,
triangle, snare drum, wood block, castanets, gong,
whip
woodwinds: 4, 1, 3, 2;
strings: 2, 3, 1, 4
brass: 2, 4, 1, 3
quick overlapping statement, in a fugue
closing, with return of Purcells theme in
augmentation

12. EXPLORE (HTTN 1)


The Role of Music in Society
1. working in the field or other manual labor, worship,
military, childcare (lullaby)
2. field hollers
3. Ive been working on the railroad, John Henry
4. African-American song, sung at revival meetings
5. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot
6. Simple Gifts (Tis the gift to be simple)
7. bagpipes (Scottish, Irish troops); fife and drums
(Revolutionary War troops)
8. brass, percussion, woodwinds
9. John Philip Sousa; Stars and Stripes Forever

13. REVIEW (PRELUDE 2)

11. REVIEW (CHAP. 11)


Style and Function of Music in Society
1. category (type)
literary genre: [short story] novel (biography, epic
poem)
musical genre: symphony (concerto, sonata,
madrigal, chanson, string quartet)
2. sacred music: for religious or spiritual functions
secular music: nonreligious; for and about everyday
people
3. difference in the treatment of the elements; creators
personal manner of expression
4. treatment of melody, rhythm, harmony, texture, form,
expression, and instruments/voices
5. differing musical systems for scales, rhythm/meters,
and textures; relative unimportance of harmony;
different division of the octave; different aesthetic of
expression
7. 3 Baroque, 16001750
1 Middle Ages, 3501450
5 Romantic, 18201900
6 Twentieth century, 19002000
4 Classical, 17501825
2 Renaissance, 14501600
9. Ludwig van Beethoven
10. piano
11. sonata
12. C minor
13. 13 (Op. 13)
14. Pathtique

The Culture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

true
false
true
false
true
true
true
false
true
false
c
b
b
a
a
b
a, b, e
a
Michelangelo: c
Machiavelli: b
Galileo: a
Luther: e
Shakespeare: d
20. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
Michelangelo, David

14. REVIEW (CHAPS. 1213)


The Music of the Middle Ages
1. true
2. false
3. true

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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

true
false
true
true
true
false
false
Mass; daily
Offices
Gregorian chant (plainsong, plainchant)
modes
antiphonal
Latin
b
d
a
c
b
d
c
e
a
d
b
d
idealization of the fearless warrior who commits
deeds of daring and self-sacrifice; idealization of
romantic, unrequited love of women; elevation of
women to status parallel to worship of the Virgin
Mary

15. LISTEN (LG 2, 3; SH LG 2)

16.
17.
18.
19.

b
b
rising interval of fifth (soaring line)
viscera (flesh), flore (flower), venter (womb) = high
range
orto (purity), Alleluia = melismatic
20. three
21. arched, flowing melody with opening leap
22. wide ranging, with expressive leaps

16. LISTEN (LG 4; SH LG 3)


Early Polyphony
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

Hildegard of Bingen and Chant


1. Texture: monophonic
Rhythm/meter: nonmetric
Type of movement: conjunct
Range: narrow
2. Mass (Ordinary of Mass)
3. neumes
4. b
5. c
6. a
*7. Ordinary
*8. Greek
*9. three; three
*10. antiphonal
*11. conjunct; large; wider
12. feasts of the Virgin Mary
13. Virgin Mary
14. responsorial
15. a

organum
harmony
chant (Gregorian chant)
Lonin; Protin; Notre Dame, Paris; twelfth and
thirteenth centuries
Lonin
Protin
Virgin Mary; feasts of the Virgin Mary
melismatic, neumatic; two
tenor (chant)
polyphonic; monophonic
rhythmic mode; long-short
false
true
false
true
true
true

17. LISTEN (LG 57; SH LG 45)


Medieval Secular Music
*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.
*5.
*6.
*7.
*8.
*9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

troubadour
courtly love
estampie
three
strophic
nakers
a courtly lady
triple
an early violin
middle English
ostinato
six
syllabic
full triads
the coming of summer
secular

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17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Ars nova
polyphonic
a fixed form
unrequited love
refrain
rondeau
three low voices
two (a, b)
triple
a courtier and cleric
elaborate repetition scheme alternating irregularly
between the two musical sections, sometimes with
new text, other times with refrain text
28. refrain (recurring text and music)
29. pain of unrequited love; bitterness; overwhelming
love

18. EXPLORE (HTTN 2)


Opening Doors to the East
1. military expeditions by European Christians to
conquer the Holy Land of Palestine; eleventh
thirteenth centuries
2. modern-day Israel
3. expert military skills; new weapons; protective armor
that could not be pierced by arrows; use of trumpets
and drums in military campaigns
4. medical and scientific knowledge; Arabic numbering
system; theoretical knowledge of music and modes
5. new instruments, including bowed and plucked
strings and percussion (rebec from rabab; shawm
from zurna); use of trumpets and drums in military
campaigns; theoretical systems of modes
6. The Liberation of Ruggiero (La liberazione di
Ruggiero); Francesca Caccini
7. Handel; Gluck
8. Holy Grail
9. rabab; shawm

19. REVIEW (CHAPS. 1415)


Music in the Renaissance Era
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

a
b
a
c
b
b
true

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

false
true
false
true
false
false
false
false
true
true
false
true
true
true
true
c
d
b
a
first collection of Italian madrigals published in
England (1588); translated into English; English
composers followed these models to compose their
own English-language works
28. preference for lighter, humorous, pastoral texts, often
with refrain syllables

20. LISTEN (LG 810; SH LG 67)


Renaissance Sacred Music
*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.
*5.
*6.
*7.
*8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

four
Ordinary
secular song Lhomme arm (The Armed Man)
A-B-A (ternary; three part)
polyphony without imitation (nonimitative
polyphony)
triple; duple; triple
both hollow (with open fifths and octaves) and full
sounding (with thirds and sixths)
it had a secular tune as its basis
four
Virgin Mary
rhymed poem: couplet, five quatrains, couplet
Latin
imitative polyphony (imitation, paired imitation) and
homorhythm (homophony)
based on a chant at opening, then freely composed
mixed voices; all male
a cappella
music (words set polyphonically; hard to hear) (text;
some parts set in homorhythm, where text is clear)

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18. Ordinary
19. six
20. varies how many voices and which ranges sing at
different times
21. male voices
22. a cappella
23. consonant
24. homophonic (homorhythmic)
25. duple
26. text set syllabically; nearly homorhythmic; aligns in
all voices
27. imitative
28. women; men; men; men and instruments
29. Josquin, Ave maria; both are motets dedicated to the
Virgin; both are built on imitation with overlapping
lines and text

21. LISTEN (LG 1113; SH LG 89)


Sixteenth-Century Chanson and Madrigal
*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.
16.

French
pain and suffering of love (unrequited love)
Phrygian mode (harmony)
Four
Italy
melisma on happy (beata); many repetitions of a
thousand deaths (di mille morte); chromaticism,
suspensions and dissonance: E-flat on weeping
(piangendo); tritone representing death (morire)
draws on the belief that swans sing only when they
die; death here a metaphor for sexual climax
largely homorhythmic; mostly syllabic; simple
rhythms; not highly chromatic
four (SATB)
one voice begins on text all alone; musical laughter
on joke and laugh; chromaticism on new ardors;
voices sing together homophonically on be joyous
everyone
text about shepherd and shepherdess in the fields
at triple meter, text is clear and all voices sing
together
both are SATB; Fair Phyllis is lighter in text and has
varied textures, changing meter, and repeated
sections; the Arcadelt work is more contemplative
and features subtle chromaticism and dissonances.
The English strongly preferred the rustic, lighter style
of madrigal
homorhythmic
all men
syllabic

17. Farmer, because of the light subject matter, repeated


sections, and lack of dissonance (Arcadelt for the
simpler four-voice texture)

22. LISTEN (LG 1415; SH LG 10)


Renaissance Instrumental Music
1. haut; haut refers to the loud instrument group; bas to
the soft instruments
2. a lively circle or line dance
3. binary (A-A-B-B)
4. shawm; a raucous early oboe
5. cornetto; a cross between a woodwind and brass
instrument (brass mouthpiece and woodwind finger
holes)
6. tabor (drum) and tambourine
*7. Venice; St. Marks (San Marco)
*8. cori spezzati
*9. strings, trombones, cornetto
*10. antiphonal
*11. false
*12. true
*13. false
*14. false
15. a
16. c
17. a
18. b
19. d

23. EXPLORE (*HTTN 3)


*Music and Ceremony
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.

The armed man


Order of the Golden Fleece
Du Fay, Josquin, Palestrina
St. Marks
Doge
Gentile Bellini
political marriages, funerals of nobility, civic
processions, royal balls and tournaments, military
victories
homorhythmic
short ideas
two groups; one all male a cappella, one all male
with instruments (strings, brass, organ)
antiphonally, exchanging short ideas back and forth,
then sounding together

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132 | Chapter 11
12. textures and use of cori spezzati similar; combination
of voices and instruments in Hassler
13. church service, religious procession, funeral

24. REVIEW (CHAPS. 1415)


From Renaissance to Baroque
1. madrigal; new techniques of combining music and
poetry gave way to opera; focus on words
2. Dance music placed a focus on purely instrumental
music rather than having them accompany voices;
small forms eventually gave way to larger forms
3. Humanism focused on the text and sought new ways
to convey it.
4. b
5. b
6. a
7. b
8. a
9. b
10. b
11. a
12. a
13. Josquin des Prez, Palestrina, Arcadelt, Farmer, Susato
(Du Fay, Gabrieli)
14. Monteverdi, Purcell, Strozzi, Bach, Mouret, Handel,
Vivaldi (Scarlatti)
15. d
16. b
17. both are in Latin and polyphonic sacred music; the
Mass has a specific text of prayers in a specific order;
is sung every day in the church; motets can be on
many different texts (biblical or prayers); can be sung
during Mass or Offices or for devotional services
18. at court, at home, for civic festivities; could be
performed by professionals or amateurs; young girls
studied music

25. REVIEW (PRELUDE 3)


The Baroque Spirit
1. astronomy/physics: findings of Kepler, Galileo,
Copernicus; Sir Isaac Newton (theory of gravity);
mathematics: findings of Descartes; medicine:
William Harvey (circulation of the blood)
2. era of absolute monarchy (I am the State); Louis
XIV of France
3. wars of religion: Protestants vs. Catholics;
Protestant: England, Scandinavia, northern Germany;

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

15.

16.

17.

Catholic: France (Bourbon dynasty), Spain, and


Austria (Hapsburg empire)
dramatic, turbulent style; much color and movement;
energy; voluptuous nudes; Titian (Tintoretto,
Veronese, Rembrandt, Rubens)
Paradise Lost
abnormal (exaggerated, bizarre, deformed)
Camerata (Florentine Camerata)
monody
basso continuo; figured bass
doctrine of the affections
castrato
equal temperament
dissonance, dynamics, word painting
key became important to the development of large
forms; able to play in all keys; increased harmonic
possibilities for composers; established system to be
used until twentieth century
significant role: singers added ornaments to arias;
keyboardists improvised an accompaniment from
figured bass
rise in standards of instrumental playing,
improvements in instruments, rise of castrato singer,
improvisation practices
operas set in faraway lands, such as Persia, India,
Turkey, the Near East, Peru, and the Americas
music (dances) that evokes these locales

26. EXPLORE (HTTN 4; SH 3)


The Rise of the Professional Female Singer
1. Ensemble of the Ladies; vocal ensemble at a small
court in Italy in late sixteenth century
2. highly praised for brilliant, florid singing, moderating
their voices (loud and soft, heavy and light); sang in
close, high-range harmony; did exquisite
passagework
3. Monteverdi (Luzzaschi, Marenzio)
4. Francesca Caccini; she sang roles in several of the
earliest operas; was daughter of Giulio Caccini;
deeply immersed in musical culture of her time
5. Barbara Strozzi; both sacred and secular monody
6. Faustina Bordoni; Francesca Cuzzoni
7. penetrating, brilliant and very agile voice (Bordoni);
clarity, sweetness, and emotion-packed
ornamentation (Cuzzoni)
8. mens choir and basso continuo (harpsichord)
9. sounds like she is crying; there are dissonances and
chromaticism; half-step movement; not lyrical
10. ostinato

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27. REVIEW (CHAPS. 1617)
Baroque Vocal Forms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

libretto; librettist
overture
aria; recitative
sparse accompaniment (dry); accompanied by
various instruments; recitative
da capo aria
Monteverdi; Orfeo
Barbara Strozzi; she was trained in singing, playing
the lute, and poetry as well as in entertaining men
(rather like a Japanese geisha)
Handel; Messiah; Julius Caesar, Rinaldo
true
false
true
true
false
false
true
true
true
false
false
false
use of sets, costumes, staged acting, and subject
matter (nonreligious)
a chorale tune, arranged in various ways in choruses
and arias

28. LISTEN (LG 1618; SH LG 1112)


Baroque Opera and Its Components
*1. Roman history; story of Emperor Nero
*2. emotions through recitatives, arias, and choruses;
love duet established in opera; vivid characterizations
of personages; close relationship between words and
music
*3. recitative-like, in imitation (two-part writing);
fanfare-like (stile concitato); later dancelike and
joyous
*4. A-B-B-A
*5. ground bass (repeated four-note phrase)
*6. love (tenderness)
*7. dissonances on key words peno (grieving) and
moro (dying)
*8. last period (Venetian period); his last opera
9. Orfeo
10. Greek mythology (legend of Orpheus and Eurydice)
11. girls boarding school in England (Mr. Josias Priests
boarding school, in Chelsea)
12. Virgils Aeneid

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

21.
22.
23.

strophic form
hornpipe
secco, or sparsely accompanied; very short
ground bass; a five-measure repeated bass line in
triple meter
chromatic bass line symbolic of grief and death
Remember me
A-B-A (da capo)
rising line at opening to get Cupid up and out of bed;
quick descending lines to signify firing of arrows;
static melodic line to show Cupids laziness
aria; moving in time and more lyrical than recitative
built on ground bass; slow tempo to signify lament;
accompanied by continuo
expressive chromaticism; more disjunct melodic line;
accompanied by continuo

29. REVIEW (CHAP. 17)


Bach and Handel
1. [1st] Weimar: 170817 (court organist and musician
to duke of Weimar); wrote much organ music
[2nd] Cthen: 171723 (for prince of AnhaltCthen); wrote chamber music (suites, sonatas,
concertos, keyboard music)
[3rd] Leipzig: 172350 (cantor of St. Thomas
Church); wrote many cantatas and organ music for
church; wrote music for university collegium
musicum (student group)
2. The Well-Tempered Clavier (two volumes, including
forty-eight preludes and fugues in all keys)
3. church cantatas, Mass, Passions; oratorio;
Magnificat; motets
4. orchestral suites, concertos, sonatas, solo keyboard
music (preludes and fugues, suites, toccatas), organ
music (chorale preludes, fantasias)
5. collegium musicum (at University of Leipzig)
6. Lutheran
7. Mass in B minor
9. Halle, Germany
10. Italian opera seria (serious opera)
11. England (London)
12. The Beggars Opera (1728) by John Gay
13. He began writing oratorios.
14. Esther, Judas Maccabaeus, Jephtha, Solomon
15. blindness (cataracts)
16. Bach: held many church positions and one court
position; known in his lifetime more as an organist
than as a composer, was inspired spiritually, was
married with many children
Handel: more international profile, traveled widely;
was an astute businessman as well as a composer;
more worldly and secular than Bach

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134 | Chapter 11
30. LISTEN (LG 19; LG SH 13)
Bach and the Lutheran Cantata
1. hymn tune associated with the German Protestant
church (Lutheran church)
2. Wachet auf; Sleepers, Awake
3. Parable of the wise and foolish virgins; watchmen
sound a call on the city wall above Jerusalem to have
the virgins meet the bridegroom Christ; is about
preparing onself for the coming of Christ; Matthew
25:13
4. bar form (A-A-B)
5. soprano (top) voice
6. insistent dotted rhythms; majestic feeling
7. to unify the sections of the movement; recurs several
times between vocal statements
8. seven; nos. 1, 4, 7
*9. violin piccolo (small violin)
*10. A-B-A (da capo)
*11. Soprano = soul; bass = Jesus Christ
12. tenors
13. first movement: chorale sung by soprano section; set
against complex choral polyphony; hard to hear at
times; phrases broken up by instrumental ritornelli
with large orchestra; major key; movement in bar
form (A-A-B) based on chorale; majestic mood
fourth movement; tune sung in unison by tenors
against gentle violin countermelody and basso
continuo; simpler texture, so easier to hear; phrases
also broken up and separated by ritornelli; major key;
movement in bar form (based on chorale); gentle,
lilting character
*14. homophonic
*15. sopranos (top voice)
16. end of the church year
18. aria
19. polyphonic (contrapuntal)
20. bass (baritone)
21. oboe; bassoon (and organ)
22. melismatic

31. LISTEN (LG 20; SH LG 14)


Handel and the Oratorio
1. Dublin (Ireland)
2. compilation of Bible verses (Old and New
Testaments)
3. [Part I]: prophecy of coming of Christ (Christmas
section)
[Part II]: Christs suffering and death (Easter section)
[Part III]: redemption of the world through faith

4. [instrumental]: strings, oboes, bassoons, trumpets,


drums, basso continuo
[vocal]: four-part chorus and soloists
5. overture (French overture); *A-A-B; (slow
introduction with dotted rhythms in pompous style,
followed by Allegro in imitative style on short
subject
*6. alternation between secco and accompagnato styles;
begins secco with There were shepherds, then
accompagnato (with strings) for And lo; then secco
with And the angel said and accompagnato for
And suddenly
7. A-B-A or A-B-A'; Rejoice greatly has two
sections, then brings back an abridged version of the
first (A-B-A')
8. [recitative]: rippling string figure for with the angels
a multitude of heavenly host
[aria]: long melisma on rejoice
[chorus]: emphasis on Hallelujah through text
declamation (homophony); extended repetition of
for ever and ever
10. chorus begins with four voices in homophony, then
reduced number of voices in imitation with
overlapping texts; changes back to homophony (on
Hallelujah), then imitative polyphony
11. alto
12. aria
13. they exchange ideas; voice begins answered by
orchestra; the instruments elaborate on the ideas from
the vocal part

32. REVIEW (CHAPS. 1820)


Baroque Instrumental Forms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

c
d
e
b
f
a
true
false
true
true
true
false
b
a
b
a

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17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

binary
harpsichord
concerto grosso
French horns, oboes, violin
strings and basso continuo
allegro
free, improvisatory style
organ
strict imitation
ground bass

33. LISTEN (LG 2122; SH LG 1516)


The Baroque Suite
1. [a] allemande; Germany; quadruple meter at
moderate tempo
[b] courante; France; triple meter at moderate tempo
[c] sarabande; Spain; stately, in triple meter
[d] jig (gigue); England; lively Z or P
2. minuet, gavotte, bourre, passepied, hornpipe
3. Handel, Bach, Telemann, Mouret
*4. A-B-A' (ternary) form
*5. brass (trumpets)
6. aboard a barge on the Thames River in London
7. keyboard (continuo) instruments
8. Music for the Royal Fireworks
9. strings and double reeds
10. trumpets and French horns
11. A-B-A' (ternary) form
13. strings and woodwinds
14. Baroque strings: soft, sweet, silvery
Baroque oboe: reedy
Baroque French horns: soft, heroic
Baroque trumpets: resonant
Baroque timpani: articulate
15. 5-part sectional
16. majestic; fanfare-like
17. Masterpiece Theater

8. yes; birds, murmuring brooks, thunder, and lightning


are vividly depicted musically
9. running scales, trills, double-stops, fast tempos
10. his female students at the Conservatorio
delOspedale della Piet in Venice
11. different solo instruments (trumpets vs. violin); both
movements allegro and both alternate tutti with
soloists; fanfare-like themes for trumpet; La
Primavera more lyrical in mood
*12. concerto grosso
*13. three movements: Allegro (fast), Andante (slow),
Allegro assai (fast)
*14. ripieno (tutti)
*15. concertino
*16. violin, oboe, recorder (flute), trumpet
*17. rhythmic drive, fast tempo, infrequent cadences
*18. seven
*19. alternates different instruments from concertino;
alternates large and small groups
*20. Margrave Christian of Brandenburg commissioned
them from Bach for his orchestra; Bach wrote
dedication to him
*21. two violins
*22. four
*23. slow, fast, slow, fast
*24. sarabande; slow, triple-meter dance; emphasis on
second beat
*25. gigue; quick-paced, in lilting compound (Z) meter

35. LISTEN (LG 2627; SH LG 18)


Baroque Keyboard Music
*1.
*2.
*3.
*4.
*5.
*6.
*7.

34. LISTEN (LG 2325; SH LG 17)


The Baroque Sonata and Concerto
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

solo concerto and concerto grosso


solo concerto
Allegro (fast), Largo (slow), Allegro (fast)
sonnet (poem) about spring
refrain, or musical section that returns again and
again
6. five (six if closing tutti counted separately)
7. four (five if brief solo passages near end counted)

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Spain (Spanish court at Madrid)


over 550; harpsichord
one
first theme sounds like a hunting horn call
grace notes
binary form (A-A-B-B) (rounded binary, bringing
back part of A in B)
grace notes and other ornaments sound Spanish;
strummed accompaniment is guitarlike
fourteen fugues; four canons
subject; answer
four
The Well-Tempered Clavier; forty-eight (two books
with twenty-four in each)
trumpets
contrapuntal; polyphonic
episode
played twice as slowly (twice as long)
played twice as fast (two times shorter)
moving in same intervals in opposite direction

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136 | Chapter 11
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

played backward, from end to beginning


false
true
true
false
false
true
false

36. REVIEW (CHAP. 20)


Looking Ahead to the Age of Enlightenment
1. rocaille, French for shell, decorative
2. ornate, preference for miniatures, highly decorative;
Jean Antoine Watteau
3. Franois Couperin (Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la
Guerre; Jean-Philippe Rameau)
4. reaction against grandiose gestures and pretentions;
change from polyphony to homophony (simplicity)
5. simplicity; expression of natural feelings
6. opera seria
7. marked change of taste in opera; toward simplicity;
use of popular and folk tunes; brought end to
popularity of opera seria
8. opera buffa (comic opera); Mozart
9. a
10. a
11. a
12. a
13. b
14. a
15. b
16. b
17. a
18. a
19. b
20. b
21. b
22. Monteverdi, Strozzi, Purcell, Corelli, Vivaldi,
Handel, Bach, Telemann (Scarlatti, Jacquet de la
Guerre)
23. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

b
b
e
c
a
b
d
Haydn; Mozart; Beethoven; Schubert
b; c; f; h; i; l
aristocracy hired musicians and artists as part of their
lives; steady demand for new works provided steady
jobs, economic security, and a social setting for
musicians; musicians were little more than servants;
had to write what was needed or desired by patron
13. a few were professional musicians, especially
singers, violinists, and keyboard players; could teach
music at court; more opportunities in music
businesses; amateur home music making on the rise

38. REVIEW (CHAP. 21)


The Development of Classical Forms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.

15.
37. REVIEW (PRELUDE 4)
The Classical Spirit
1. [a] order, poise, serenity; [b] objectivity; [c] reserved
expression of emotions
2. b

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

motive
theme
themetic development
fragmentation, expansion of musical idea,
contraction, repetition
four
string quartet (other chamber works), symphony,
sonata (concerto)
b
b
c
d
c
[Theme 1]: in home key; may contain several ideas;
strong, aggressive theme
[Theme 2]: contrasting key; more lyrical
remains in tonic key throughout
to reveal potential of themes by fragmentation,
expansion, or other means; provides drama and
conflict; frequent modulations provide restlessness
melody, rhythm, meter, harmony, texture,
instrumentation, dynamics, tempo
false
false
true
true
aggressive, ascending (rocket) theme; strong and
energetic
rhythmic and dancelike, in triple meter

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22. subdivisions of rhythms, elaborations on the melody;
shift of melody to bass range; changing rhythms;
harmonic shift

39. REVIEW (CHAPS. 2223)


Chamber Music and Symphony in the Classical Era
1. music for small ensembles (two to ten players),
performed one on a part
2. string quartet; 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello
3. duo sonata; piano trio; quintet (strings, piano, winds)
4. divertimento; serenade
5. c
6. a
7. d
8. b
9. Italian opera overture
10. aggressive, ascending melody (rocket theme);
building crescendos (steamroller effects); addition
of minuet and trio to symphony
11. thirty to forty players; woodwinds; brass; strings;
(percussion)
12. salon (intimate setting); concert hall
13. first movement; sonata-allegro form
14. last movement; rondo, sonata-allegro, sonata-rondo
15. third movement; triple meter, moderate tempo;
graceful
16. second movement; A-B-A (three-part form),
modified sonata-allegro, theme and variations
17. second movement
18. andante (adagio)
19. folklike (simple, suspenseful)
20. jarring loud chord after very soft music

40. LISTEN (LG 2829; SH LG 1920)


Classical Chamber Music
1. sixty-eight quartets
2. 1797
3. Emperor; second movement based on a hymn Haydn
wrote for Emperor Franz Joseph
4. four movements
5. [I] Allegro, sonata-allegro form; [II] Poco adagio,
cantabile, theme and variations; [III] Menuetto,
Allegro, minuet and trio form; [IV] Presto, sonataallegro form
6. theme and four variations; each variation has the
same structure; also the theme has an internal phrase
structure
7. lyrical (flowing, balanced)
8. a little night music

9. serenade; chamber orchestra or double string quartet


with bass
10. [I] Allegro, sonata-allegro form; [II] Romanza,
Andante, sectional rondo form; [III] Allegretto;
minuet and trio form; [IV] Allegro, sonata-allegro
form
11. [1st theme]: ascending rocket theme, aggressive;
[2nd theme]: contrasting, lyrical and graceful,
new key
12. strong first theme, gentler second theme; varied
dynamics; change of keys; developing themes
13. [Minuet]: accented, decisive theme, dancelike; [Trio]:
lyrical, connected, soaring melody; minuet more
dancelike
15. first theme a rocket theme, gay and quick; second
theme begins with downward leap, opposite in
character to first, different key
16. salon or chamber setting

41. LISTEN (LG 3032; SH LG 2122)


The Classical Symphony
*1. four movements; fast (Allegro molto); slow
(Andante); moderate dance (Allegro moderato); fast
(Allegro assai)
*2. three-note motive (germ for growth)
*3. develops three-note motive, modulates, changes
melody, melody in bass with new melody above,
combines motives, expands them through sequence,
inversion
*4. more dramatic, emotional
*5. minor key, very expressive
6. accented triple meter with shifting accents; sounds
more angry than dancelike; trio in gentler mood
7. [a]: [Haydn] Adagio-Allegro, sonata-allegro form
(with slow introduction); [Beethoven] Allegro con
brio, sonata-allegro form
[b]: [Haydn] Allegretto (moderato); ternary
(A-B-A'); [Beethoven] Andante con moto, theme and
variations form (two themes)
[c]: [Haydn] Moderato, minuet and trio form;
[Beethoven] Allegro, scherzo and trio form
[d]: [Haydn] Presto, sonata-allegro form;
[Beethoven] Allegro, sonata-allegro form
8. yes
9. Haydn uses much more percussion (cymbals, bass
drum, triangle); Beethoven uses more woodwinds
(pairs of clarinets and bassoons) and strings; use of
trombones;
10. dramatic and commanding opening motive; high
energy

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138 | Chapter 11
11. high level of emotional expression, sudden shifts in
dynamics, drama, harmonic language
12. substituted scherzo for minuet in third movement,
longer movements, thematic development, more
emotional expression

42. REVIEW (CHAPS. 2223)

7. Fourth of July
8. poem Ode to Joy by Friedrich von Schiller
9. expression of universal brotherhood; suited spirit of
French Revolution
10. Council of Europe and European Union; national
anthem of Zimbabwe; Japan on New Year
11. triumphant, joyful mood; wavelike motion;
fortissimo
12. triumphant, joyful mood; forceful dynamics (ff)

The Classical Masters


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

b
c
a
b
a
a
c
b
c
c
[Haydn]: over 100 (104); [Mozart]: approximately 40
(41); [Beethoven]: 9
he lived a much shorter life; wrote in other forms
(opera)
his symphonies are much longer, more complex
works
Austria
a
a
b
a
b
b
a

43. EXPLORE (HTTN 5; SH 4)

44. REVIEW (CHAPS. 2425)


The Concerto and Sonata in the Classical Era
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

b
c
c
fanciful solo passage played as though improvised,
which interrupts a movement of a concerto; generally
played just before the coda (after the recapitulation)
ritornello form and sonata-allegro form
piano, violin
piano and violin
his student Barbara von Ployer
solo piano, piano and violin, piano and cello
thirty-two
c
a
b
Adagio (largo)
Yes
lilting, triple meter, but gentle rocking character;
major mode
alternates with orchestra, which imitates the soloist
slow-moving, lyrical (singing) melody; repeated
notes
first

Beethoven and the Politics of Music


1. Napoleon Bonaparte
2. Eroica Symphony (No. 3) and opera Fidelio
3. Napoleon declared himself emperor; Beethoven
feared he would trample human rights; called him
nothing more than an ordinary man
4. celebration of British victory at Battle of Vitoria
(1813)
5. Rule, Britannia, God Save the King, and
Marlborough sen va-t-en guerre (Marlborough, hes
gone to war)
6. panharmonicon (mechanical organ)

45. LISTEN (LG 3336; SH LG 2324)


The Classical Concerto and Sonata
1. [Theme 1]: refined, graceful theme (with trills), heard
in violins, then woodwinds
[Theme 2]: gently undulating (rocking) theme,
with repeated notes, heard in violins, then
woodwinds
2. decorated theme, with scales and figurations, begins
with sweep into theme

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3. in solo exposition before Theme 2, and in
recapitulation before Theme 2
4. a freely improvised section for the soloist; Theme 1,
Theme 2
*5. restful, gentle and lyrical, rocking motion
*6. [Variation 1]: features solo piano, with decorated
melody, accompanied by strings
[Variation 2]: woodwinds with melody accompanied
by piano figurations (in triplets), feeling of faster
tempo
[Variation 3]: woodwind dialogue, exchanged parts
of melody, answered by piano, more lyrical
[Variation 4]: change to minor mode, chromatic and
syncopated, strings answered by piano, seems slower
and mysterious in mood
[Variation 5]: forte statement in full orchestra,
marchlike; answered by piano with figurations and
scalar patterns
*7. keyed trumpet, could play full range with all diatonic
and chromatic tones; allowed for more virtuosic lines
*8. sonata-rondo (A-B-A-B-A-C-A-B-A-coda)
9. title given by poet Ludwig Rellstab, who compared
the work with the moonlit scenery along Lake
Lucerne in Switzerland
10. free form; like a song; singing melodies; forceful
dramatic writing
11. [I]: modified song form; Adagio
[II]: scherzo and trio; Allegretto
[III]: sonata-allegro form; Presto
No, it is not typical
*12. rondo (refrain, A-B-C-B-A-B); + (duple)
*13. uses Janissary (Turkish effects); melodic turns,
drone, accents, minor mode
*14. new instrument that was capable of dynamic contrast;
amateurs had pianos in their homes; ideal for
chamber music

46. LISTEN (LG 3738)


Haydn, Mozart, and Classical Choral Music
1. Mass: most important service of Catholic Church,
celebrated daily; Requiem Mass: setting of Mass for
the Dead, sung at funerals
*2. 1791, as he was dying
*3. Day of Judgement
*4. different performers: chorus and orchestra; soloists
for various verses; varied moods from dramatic and
powerful to lyrical; changing texture: polyphonic vs.
homophonic
*5. Book of Genesis (from Old Testament of Bible) and
John Miltons Paradise Lost

*6. Adam, Eve, three archangels (Gabriel, Uriel,


Raphael)
*7. with ambiguous harmonies, dissonance, and
chromatic harmonies, which suddenly shift from C
minor to C major
*8. [secco]: sparse accompaniment; free rhythmically
[text] And God said: Let there be lights
[accompagnato]: with rhythmic accompaniment by
orchestra
[text]: In splendor bright
*9. fourth day; sun, moon, and stars
*10. homophonic (chordal, homorhythmic, all voices
moving together)
*11. In all the lands resounds the word with soloists
singing
*13. very dramatic and forceful, with orchestra and only
male chorus in polyphonic texture; alternates with
gentle, heavenly sound of womens voices in a
simpler texture

47. LISTEN (LG 39; SH LG 25)


Mozarts Opera Don Giovanni
1. opera buffa (comic opera)
2. sung in vernacular (language of people); down-toearth plots; acts end in large ensemble finales;
humorous dialogue; use of satire and farcical
situations; popular tunes; traditional buffo (comic
bass) character
3. opera seria: in Italian; plots on serious mythological
subjects; less focus on solo arias; less use of castrato
4. Lorenzo da Ponte
5. Cos fan tutte, The Marriage of Figaro (Don
Giovanni)
6. Don Giovanni: a licentious young nobleman who has
abandoned Donna Elvira and has just killed Donna
Annas father, the Commmendatore, after violating
her
Leporello: servant of Giovanni, the comic (buffo) role
who tells part of the story
Donna Elvira: she was abandoned by Giovanni but
she still loves him; Leporello tells her about
Giovannis many exploits
7. sudden dynamic, quick tempo, wide range changes
8. rapid, speechlike delivery; exaggerated listing in
lilting minuet, of women Giovanni has had
9. he finds statute of Commendatore in the graveyard;
he invites the statue to dinner, and the statue accepts;
Giovanni is dragged to his fiery death by the statue
10. totally lacking in morals; very negative portrayal

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140 | Chapter 11
48. REVIEW (CHAP. 26)
From Classicism to Romanticism
1. [Mozart] Romantic symphony (no. 40), use of
minor keys, dramatic themes and modulations,
deeply emotional writing; [Haydn] use of new
instruments, sudden dynamic contrasts, daring
modulations
2. striking dynamic contrasts, explosive accents,
expansion of Classical forms, hymnlike slow
movements, dramatic intensity
3. Franz Schubert
4. chamber music and symphonies; songs (Lieder)
5. bubbling piano accompaniment
6. bouncy line, conjunct; repetitive (almost strophic)
7. change to minor mode; new music
8. [Romantic composers]: Chopin, Brahms,
Tchaikovsky (Beethoven, Schubert, Fanny
Mendelssohn Hensel, Mendelssohn, Clara
Schumann, Liszt, Berlioz, Verdi, Wagner)
9. b
10. a
11. b
12. b
13. a
14. b
15. b
16. a
17. a
18. b
19. b
20. a
21. a
22. a
23. b
24. [Classical]: c. 17501825
[Romantic]: c. 18201900

49. REVIEW (PRELUDE 5)

7. new improvements made them cheaper and more


responsive; technology strengthened sound; valves
added to brass; new wind instruments (tuba,
saxophone); piano gained cast-iron frame and thicker
strings
8. tuba, saxophone; piano became instrument we know
today
9. all of them (strings, brass, woodwinds, percussion)
10. new schools established to train more and better
musicians; music education open to women
11. longing for or interest in faraway place or style;
northern countries longed for southern warmth and
color
12. c
13. b
14. virtuoso performers; more professional musicians
and teachers; excelled in piano and voice; more
amateurs; some as composers; music patrons
15. creative process was male dominated; viewed as
inappropriate for women; women writers and
composers published works under pseudonyms
16. large orchestra with prominent brass and percussion;
extreme dynamics; grandiose and majestic
17. exotic scene in Russia; very large gate (or wall)

50. REVIEW (CHAP. 27)


Song in the Romantic Era
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

The Spirit of Romanticism


1. sympathy for the poor and oppressed; interest in
simple people and the individual; faith in humankind
and destiny; focus on emotions; longing and
discontent in condition of humankind
2. rise of the middle class; surge in urban commerce
(Industrial Revolution); new democratic ideals
3. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
4. c
5. a
6. b

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

strophic form
through-composed (durchkomponiert)
modified strophic form
song cycle; Schubert: Winters Journey (Winterreise),
The Lovely Maid of the Mill (Die schne Mllerin)
true
true
false
true
true
false
Goethe; Elfking; Schubert (Heine; In the lovely
month of May, Schumann)
Brahms, Robert Schumann; Clara Schumann, Fanny
Mendelssohn Hensell
eighteen; Goethe
a song cycle; Wilhelm Mller
600 (or more)
more than 100 songs
love, especially from a womans point of view
Heinrich Heine
bubbly piano accompaniment; simple melody that is
repeated; light quality; about a fish
modified strophic

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51. LISTEN (LG 4041; SH LG 2627)
Romantic Lieder
1. triplet pattern sets up image of galloping horse and
urgency; minor mode is ominous
2. through-composed; sons cry Mein Vater each time
at higher pitch level; accompaniment figure
3. [Narrator]: middle range; less emotional
[Father]: low range, calming line
[Son]: high range; dissonance
[Elfking]: middle range; major mode
4. boys cries to his father; very emotional
6. strophic form
7. wistful, melancholy, indecisive (because of the
harmony)
8. longing or unrequited love; fragile love
9. left without resolution or knowing what comes
next
10. frames the verses; sets the melancholy mood; leaves
us yearning
11. strophic (2 verses)
12. lilting triple meter, repeated intervals
13. disjunct

52. REVIEW (CHAP. 28)


Romantic Piano Music
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
*12.
*13.
*14.
*15.
*16.
*17.
18.
19.

true
false
true
Chopin; Liszt
Forest Murmurs, Wild Hunt; impromptu; prelude;
intermezzo
Chopin wrote much Romantic piano music; his
music is very songful and expressive
half Polish, half French
robbed time, rhythmic liberties taken within a
measure while maintaining the basic beat
George Sand (Aurore Dudevant)
nocturnes; preludes; tudes; impromptus; waltzes;
mazurkas; scherzos; rondos; marches; ballades;
polonaises and mazurkas
none (virtually none)
Hungary
Daniel Stern (Countess Marie dAgoult)
Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein
religious life; he took minor orders
thematic transformation
Richard Wagner
mostly songs and piano music; one piano trio, one
orchestral work, one string quartet; also a cantata
by her mother, then theory/composition studies with
a tutor

20. very close; both very musical; she performed his


music; he died shortly after she did
21. publishing music was discouraged as too public; she
was to be a wife and mother first; she could host
salon concerts for friends at her home

53. LISTEN (LG 4244; SH LG 2829)


Romantic Masters of Piano Music
1. triple (T); no (yes, after the introduction)
2. literally, robbed time, liberties taken with rhythm,
slowing down and speeding up
3. very rhythmic, dotted rhythms, syncopations, modal
and chromatic
4. melancholy, wistful, sad
5. yes
6. no
7. b
8. rushing fast notes, lilting meter (Z)
9. polyphonic texture, melody hidden among the fast
notes
10. yes
11. ternary (three-part): A-B-C' with short introduction
and coda
*12. Transcendental Etudes after Paganini; study or
exercise, each presenting a different technical
problem
*13. virtuoso violinist Paganini
*14. with a high note that alternates with each note of the
melody (a kind of pedal point)
*15. distance between high notes in melody exceeds the
natural span of the hand, so hand must pivot back and
forth; passagework and patterns that get faster and
faster

54. EXPLORE (HTTN 7, SH 6)


Chopin and the Salon
1. from French word salle, for room
2. gathering of musicians, artists, intellectuals with
similar tastes; performances in home of wealthy
patrons who host concerts
3. at a party hosted by the Countess dAgoult, who was
the mistress of Franz Liszt; Aurore Dupin, Baroness
Dudevant
4. Boston and Philadelphia
5. poet Amy Lowell; painter Sara Choate Sears;
composers Clara Kathleen Rogers and Amy Beach;
patroness Isabella Stewart Gardiner
6. affordable; family entertainment; a great deal of
piano music coucld be played by amateurs
7. private party, corporate event

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55. LISTEN (LGS 4546; SH LG 30)
Music in Nineteenth-Century America
1. his wife Jane Denny McDowell
2. A-A'-B-A
3. strophic (two verses) with an instrumental
introduction, interlude, and postlude
4. at the end of each B section, leading back to A (the
return of the opening music)
5. hammer dulcimer
6. piano
7. Oh, Susannah!, Camptown Races, Old Folks at
Home, My Old Kentucky Home
8. brass group (with percussion)
9. binary (A-A-B-B) or more correctly rounded binary
(A-A-B-A-B-A)
10. both are minstrel songs, because they talk about
African-Americans in the South; Camptown Races
uses dialect.
*11. New Orleans
*12. Home, Sweet Home; Union; The Star-Spangled
Banner; Yankee Doodle; Hail, Columbia; Camptown
Races
*13. rhythmic accompaniment, set against a high-range
melody; syncopated; imitates strumming and picking
on a banjo
*14. Camptown Races
*15. a
*16. a
17. slowing down and speeding up within the measures
throughout
18. b
19. a
20. cartoon music, after character is hit on head

56. REVIEW (CHAP. 30)


Romantic Program Music
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

d
a
e
f
c
b
a
b
Mendelssohn, Overture to A Midsummer Nights
Dream; based on Shakespeare play of same name
10. Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique
11. folk song or dance basis; works on folklore or life of
lower classes; works about national heroes, historic
events, or scenes from their country; political themes

12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

c
b
e
a
c
a
d
b

57. LISTEN (LGS 4749; SH LG 3133)


Berlioz, Smetana, and Grieg
1. 1830, in Rome (won Prix de Rome)
2. inspired by real-life infatuation; autobiographical;
deals with nature, death, and the grotesque (typical
Romantic themes); setting as program symphony;
impassioned music
3. Harriet Smithson (Shakespearean actress)
4. fixed idea, recurring musical theme that is varied;
unifies the work
5. occurs in each movement
6. diabolical, energetic, dramatic
7. loud chord at end of movement
*8. associated with death; bells tolling for the dead; set
against fast-moving infernal dance tune
9. c
10. b
11. [a]: rippling figures in flutes and clarinets
[b]: violins
[c]: French horns
[d]: double reeds, accompanied by muted strings
[e]: brass
12. dreamy depiction of sunrise; grotesque and ghostly
13. both use wide-ranging dynamics with crescendos
14. pastoral instruments (flute, oboe, horn); strings and
staccato woodwinds
15. major; minor
17. sad, reflective, melancholy
18. the death of Ase, Peers mother, sets him off on
adventures, including going to North Africa and
meeting an Arabian girl, Anitra, who dances for him

58. EXPLORE (HTTN 8; SH 7)


Music, Folklore, and Nationalism
1. values; right from wrong; preparation for adulthood
3. mythical bird that rises out of ashes and represents
hope (Egyptian); Stravinskys Firebird; Harry Potter
(Dumbledores familiar, Fawkes)
4. Grimm Brothers (Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm)
5. Charles Perrault collection (1697)

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6. story by German writer E. T. A. Hoffmann, expanded
by French writer Alexandre Dumas
7. theatrical genres (opera, ballet, musical)

59. REVIEW (CHAP. 31)

*14. Hiawatha; by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow


*15. no (yes, except that middle movments are inverted);
no (yes, all but second movement)
*16. modal melody suggestive of spiritual
*17. Slavonic Rhapsodies; Slavonic Dances; settings of
Czech folk songs

Absolute Music in the Nineteenth Century


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.

movements
Classical
Haydn; Mozart; Beethoven
four
first; sonata-allegro
three-part form; theme and variations
c
a
b
larger proportions; number of movements and tempo
schemes may vary
orchestra and soloist alternate in playing themes
Felix Mendelssohn, Chopin, Liszt, Robert
Schumann, Clara Schumann, Brahms, Tchaikovsky
public concerts on rise, became big business;
improved instruments and more educational
opportunities for musicians
form/structure; key centers; thematic development

60. LISTEN (LGS 52-53; SH LG 34)

61. EXPLORE (HTTN 9; SH 8)


Dvork, The Symphony, and African-American Music
1. spirituals, Creole tunes and dances, Native American
music
2. Hiawatha, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
3. to use the varied folk music of America as the basis
for their works; throw off domination of European
music
4. collection of spirituals in art song arrangement
(Jubilee Songs of the U.S.A., 1916)
5. Florence Price, wrote a symphony in the same key (E
minor) as Dvork s symphony and drawing on
African-American melodies and rhythmic ideas;
William Grant Still; drew on African-American work
songs, spirituals, jazz, ragtime, and blues in his
works, especially in the Afro-American Symphony
6. Paul Robeson, Marian Anderson, Leontyne Price,
Jessye Norman
7. iMusic selection is call and response, syncopated,
sung freely, in strophic form

Brahms and Dvork as Symphonists


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
*12.
*13.

four
FA-flatF = Frei aber froh (free but happy)
four
it is not a scherzo (nor a dance); it is a melancholy
waltz
[opening] arched melody, like an orchestral sigh;
[middle] smaller range; conjunct; chromatic
new orchestration (instruments); French horns and
oboes
Beethoven
form (four-movement structure and internal
movement form); emotional expression,
chromaticism, personal motto
dramatic, theatrical, passionate
crescendo, strong percussion
repetition (ostinato, repeated harmonic progression)
Dvork was working/teaching in the United States
when he wrote it
use of pentatonic melodies; inspired by his travels in
America; claimed himself it was American; loose
poetic basis on American epic poem

62. LISTEN (LG 5051)


*The Romantic Concerto and Chamber Music
*1. four
*2. [I.] Allegro moderato, sonata form
[II.] Tempo di minuet, scherzo
[III.] Andante; song without words
[IV.] Allegretto, sonata form
*3. piano, violin, cello
*4. all instruments play the melody, in alternation
*5. fast-slow-fast (Allegro moltoAndanteAllegro
molto); yes
*6. no orchestral exposition (violin begins with first
theme); cadenza at the end of development rather
than after recapitulation; no break before second
movement; cyclical (first movement referred to in
second movement)
*7. no
*8. soaring, broad, dramatic (in minor mode)
*9. at end of development; no
*10. Ferdinand David, a virtuoso violinist

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144 | Chapter 11
*11. more dramatic, emotional
*12. overall form of concerto; use of (modified) firstmovement concerto form; balanced symmetrical
phrases; use of orchestra
*13. sentimental; movements played without pause
(making it an extended work); cyclical form; minor
key; variations in form; highly virtuosic

22. [Malibran]: Rossini; [Viardot]: Gounod, Massenet,


Faur
23. yes; had visibility; established tradition of great
women singers in opera

64. LISTEN (LG 5455; SH LG 3536)


Verdi and Wagner

63. REVIEW (CHAP. 32)


National Schools of Romantic Opera
1. a [aria]: solo song with accompaniment, in lyrical
style; intended to express emotions and virtuosic
display
b. [recitative]: solo song in disjunct style; imitates the
natural inflections of the words and their rhythms;
secco (sparsely accompanied) or accompagnato
(accompanied) styles; recitative furthers plot and
action through dialogue
c. [chorus]: large ensemble, accompanies solo voices
or is independent; may comment on action, as in
Greek drama
d. [ensemble]: duets, trios, quartets, etc., in which each
character expresses his/her feelings; often closes an
act
2. supports the action; sets mood for scenes through
overture and interludes
3. text or script of an opera; written by librettist
4. f
5. g
6. a
7. c
8. d
9. e
10. b
11. b
12. a
13. a
14. b
15. b
16. b
17. a
18. setting in far-off land; music flavored with melodies,
rhythms, harmonies suggestive of locale; Bizet,
Carmen; Verdi, Aida; Puccini, Turandot, Madame
Butterfly
19. Esmeralda; Louise Bertin; Victor Hugo, The
Hunchback of Notre Dame
20. Jenny Lind; P. T. Barnum
21. sisters; both daughters of famous Spanish tenor
Manuel Garcia

1. Victor Hugos play The King Is Amused (Le roi


samuse)
2. Renaissance era (early sixteenth century) in northern
Italy (Mantua)
3. lilting, catchy melody; rousing
4. ladies man; after them all, thinks they are fickle
5. [Duke] wooing a beautiful woman
[Maddalena] joking, laughing off his advances
[Gilda] heartbroken, lamenting her lost love
[Rigoletto] vengeful
6. memorable melodies and appealing stories
7. Italy
8. Macbeth, Otello, Falstaff
9. Aida; setting in Egypt
10. Falstaff (1893)
11. German legend of The Ring of the Nibelung
12. father of the gods; his favorite of the nine Valkyries
(daughters of Wotan)
13. The Valkyries are picking up the dead, taking the
fallen on their horses to Valhalla.
15. true
16. false
17. true
18. true
19. false
20. true
21. false
22. Bayreuth Festival
23. Cosima, daughter of Franz Liszt

65. LISTEN (LG 56, 59; SH LG 39)


Late Romantic Opera and Exoticism
*1. Prosper Merime story; libretto by Henri Meilhac
and Ludovic Halvy
*2. trumpet fanfare, staccato tune with percussion,
singing fanfare
*3. soldiers, cigarette girls, street boys; sets scene for
entrance of Carmen
*4. dotted rhythm

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*5. character is capricious, carefree about love; music is
repetitive (rhythmic motive), has descending
chromatic line
*7. verse and chorus (strophic, with solo verse
alternating with chorus)
*8. realism of emotions; violence
9. jubilant, marchlike, festive
10. orchestration, triplets, and grace notes (ornaments)
12. play by David Belasco; from short story by John
Luther Long; derived from Pierre Lotis tale Madame
Chrysanthme
13. in Act II, as she is waiting for her husband to return
14. initial distant, ethereal quality; builds to dramatic
climax (high note)
15. she gives her son to Pinkerton, then kills herself with
a samurai dagger
16. faraway setting; evocation of geisha culture; use of
pentatonic and whole-tone scales; instruments
evoking the Japanese gagaku
17. Pietro Mascagni, Ruggero Leoncavallo
18. realism, result of naturalism movement; depicted
everyday people in down-to-earth situations

66. LISTEN (LG 57, 60; SH LG 37)


Two Late Romantic Masters
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
*11.
*12.
*13.
*14.

Catholic Mass for the Dead


Italian poet and humanist Alessandro Manzoni
the day of judgment
terror, powerful; loud dynamics, fast and agitated
tempo, pounding chords, minor key; rushing strings
ethereal, peaceful; soft dynamics; soaring solo line
very soft, with a leap of an octave to a high note by
the soloist, on the words grant them rest.
too theatrical
concert hall, as it needs very large forces and is
theatrical (church, as it is the Catholic Mass for the
Dead)
Milan, 1874
It shows the trumpet-playing angels announcing the
day of judgment.
poems from The Chinese Flute, by Hans Bethge
(adaptions from Li Tai Po)
solo voice (tenor and alto/baritone), orchestra
pentatonic scale, use of triangle and woodwinds, thin
texture, text
images of pavilion of green and of white porcelain,
tiger, jade bridge to pavilion, drinking tea, silken
sleeves

67. REVIEW (CHAP. 33)


Tchaikovsky and the Ballet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.

16.
17.

19.
20.

true
false
false
true
true
a. Swan Lake
b. The Sleeping Beauty
c. The Nutcracker
E. T. A. Hoffmann; Alexandre Dumas (pre)
teacher at Conservatory of Moscow
guilt ridden; unaccepting
patroness; supported his music; never met him
Americans loved it; he was more famous in New
York than in Russia
symphony, opera, concerto (piano and violin),
overture, chamber music, keyboard music, choral
music, song
Christmas eve in a family home
children Clara and Fritz; godfather;
Nutcracker/Prince; Mouse King; Sugar Plum Fairy
Act II takes place in land of sweets
(Confiturembourg) ruled by Sugar Plum Fairy;
dances reveal all attractions of magic realm
new meter, tempo, and instrumentation
*[March]: lively duple meter with brass; majestic
[Sugar Plum Fairy]: light (pizzicato), with bell-like
celesta; ethereal
[Trepak]: very energetic; with tambourine
harp, oboe (woodwinds)
dreamy, lilting

68. REVIEW (PRELUDE 6)


Modernism in the Arts
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

c
a
c
b
retain freshness of first impressions; show continual
change in appearance; focus on light and color;
simple subjects (nature, everyday scenes)
6. alienation from established institutions with a focus
on dynamism of twentieth century; arose around
1909
7. rejection of high art; produced absurd works with
simplicity of a childs view; founded 1918

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146 | Chapter 11
8. wrote simple, everyday music; influenced the
group Les Six
9. Surrealism; artists Salvador Dali and Joan Mir
10. was a Germanic movement against Impressionism
and involved delving into the soul
11. artists Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka; writer
Franz Kafka; composers Arnold Schoenberg, Anton
Webern, and Alban Berg
12. wide melodic leaps, extreme ranges for instruments,
hyperexpressive harmonies, pressing the diatonic
tonal system
13. return to earlier eras and objectivity; preferred
absolute over programmatic music genres; focus on
craftsmanship and balance; invoked Classical ideals
14. The simplicity and abstraction of non-Western arts
was an attraction; primitivism was manifested in
powerful, driving rhythms.

69. LISTEN (LG 6162; SH LG 40)


Debussy and Ravel
1. Symbolist poem by Stphane Mallarm
2. mythological faun (half man, half goat) waking in
forest, vaguely remembering episode or dream with
nymphs, then sleeping again in sun
4. [melody/rhythm]: langorous, chromatic melody;
fluid, rhapsodic movement; relaxed rhythm and beat
[harmony/texture]: parallel chords; unresolved
dissonances; blue chords; homophonic texture
[form]: loose A-B-A'
[timbre/color]: instrumental color changing
throughout, like brushstrokes
[other]: antique cymbals; some non-Western
characteristics
5. abridged section A'; varied instrumentation; antique
cymbals and blue chords
6. floating meter, lilting feeling; varied motion; colorful
instruments
7. no strong sense of meter; colorful instruments
(woodwinds)
*8. Cervantes; Don Quixote
*9. wayward but chivalrous knight Don Quizote who
takes on challenges; Dulcinea is his fair lady, a
product of his imagination in whom he sees the
image of the Madonna
*10. Man of La Mancha
*11. guijira; lilting rhythm that alternates between T and Z
(sesquialtera)
*12. jota; quick triple-meter dance, accompanied by
castanets and guitars
*13. he was born in the Basque region of France (near
Spain), in Ciboure

*14. b
*15. c
*16. Mother Goose Suite (China), The Child and the
Enchantments and violin sonata (jazz and blues),
Sheherazade (Asia), Songs of Madagascar (Africa),
Tzigane (Gypsy)

70. EXPLORE (HTTN 11; SH 10)


The Paris World Exhibition of 1889
1. Eiffel Tower
2. Indonesian ensemble with percussion (gongs,
chimes, drums), among other instruments; Java
3. scale (pentatonic); timbre (percussive); texture;
veiled beat
4. (Algeria, Senegal, Congo, Anan (Vietnam), New
Caledonia, Turkey, United States, Russia, Cambodia)
5. belly dancers; whirling dervishes
6. nineteenth-century dance of African-American
origin; features rhythmic strutting with linked arms
(parody
of white plantation owners; southern U.S. [among
slaves])
7. Spanish (flamenco)
8. Spain, Gypsy, Asia, Africa, China, jazz, blues,
others

71. REVIEW (CHAP. 35)


Early Modern Musical Style
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

d
e
b
c
a
f
true
false
true
false
true
true
false
false
true
true
He abandoned tonality, first using atonality, then
applying a new organization principle to music:
serialism, in which a twelve-tone row is established
that controls all the pitch material in a work.

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18. They used a smaller orchestra, focused more on
winds than strings; piano often included; timbre is
bright and hard.
19. They returned to succinct, tightly organized forms;
they revived forms from earlier eras, such as toccata,
fugue, suite, and concerto grosso.
20. [melody]: disjunct, wide-ranging, irregular phrasing
[harmony]: dissonant, no sense of tonality, probably
12-tone structure
[rhythm]: no sense of regular meter, or constantly
changing meter
[timbre]: many different instruments featured;
Klangfarbenmelodie (different colors); extreme
ranges

72. LISTEN (LG 63; SH LG 41)


The Music of Stravinsky
1. The Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring (Le sacre
du printemps)
2. polyrhythms, polytonality, percussive dissonance,
primitive rhythmic treatment, new treatment of
instruments
3. setting (pagan Russia), use of Russian folk songs and
folklike melodies
4. more brass (8 French horns, 5 trumpets), more
woodwinds, huge percussion section
5. celebration of the arrival of spring; rivalry of two
tribes, selection of a maiden to sacrifice to save the
fertility of the earth, evocation of the ancestors,
sacrificial dance of maiden (Part II)
6. sudden, irregular accents; percussive dissonance;
ostinatos; melodic repetition
7. It caused a riot; people shouted; some found the work
and dancing offensive; Stravinsky left in a rage; some
declared it the work of a madman; others found it
magnificent
8. [melody]: disjunct, but not prominent; no sense of
phrasing
9. [harmony]: dissonant, harsh
10. [rhythm]: irregular accents and constantly changing
meter
11. [timbre]: many different instruments featured;
extreme ranges
12. Oranienbaum, near St. Petersburg, Russia
13. Paris
14. Switzerland; California (near Los Angeles)
15. Agon, Threni: Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah
16. [choral works]: Symphony of Psalms, Canticum
sacrum, Threni, Requiem Canticles
[operas]: The Rakes Progress, Oedipus Rex

73. LISTEN (LG 6466; SH LG 4243)


Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern
1. Sprechstimme; means spoken voice; vocal melody
is spoken or recited rather than sung on exact pitches
and in exact rhythm; to bring spoken word and music
close together; Expressionist treatment makes weird
and effective presentation of text
2. Albert Giraud collection of poems entitled Pierrot
lunaire
3. voice (mezzo soprano) and chamber ensemble
4. the moon, moonbeams, guilt
5. deals with inner dark feelings (guilt, atonement,
fantasies, depression)
6. dissonant harmony, very active counterpoint; canonic
treatment
*7. less dissonant, more homophonic treatment
8. atonality; twelve-tone music (serial, dodecaphonic);
atonal (Expressionist)
9. their teacher
10. Expressionist play by Georg Bchner
11. main character represents the insulted and injured
of the earth; deals with dark side of humans (sadism,
infidelity, illegitimacy, jealousy, murder, guilt)
12. Sprechstimme makes him sound confused, crazy;
puts focus on text
*13. heartbreaking scene, with child on hobbyhorse, not
understanding the situation
14. Lulu
*15. chamber orchestra
*16. tone-color melody, each note sounded by a different
instrumental color, making the music very disjunct;
instrumental timbre like dots of colors in pointillistic
painting
*17. inversion and retrograde inversion of a theme
*18. serial
*19. theme and variations; inverted tone row and
retrograde inversion of tone row
*20. shot by an American sentry in Austria during World
War II when he stepped outside to smoke a cigar after
curfew

74. REVIEW (CHAPS. 3738)


Nationalism in the Twentieth Century
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

d
b
f
a
e
b

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148 | Chapter 11
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

17.

c
a
c
f
e
combined objectivity with Neoclassicism and new
harmonic idiom
miltary bands (British bands tradition)
John Philip Sousa; Stars and Stripes Forever, The
Washington Post, Semper Fidelis
Charles Ives
a. [woodwinds] flutes, piccolos, clarinets,
saxophones, bassoons, other sizes of clarinet
b. [brass] trumpets, French horns, trombones,
tuba/sousaphone
c. [percussion] cymbals, bass drum, snare drum
traditions of marches in parades and for sporting
events

75. EXPLORE (HTTN 12; SH 11)


BartkA Folk-Song Collector
1. identify national styles within Eastern Europe; to
study and preserve their traditional music
2. one who engages in the comparative study of musics
of the world, with a focus on cultural context
collecting music on site, from the people, in the field
3. drew extensively from melodic, rhythmic, modal, and
poetic structures of traditional music; used free
speech rhythms and language inflections
4. Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Croatian,
Hungarian, Roma (Gypsy), Arab
5. Gypsy
6. [vocal melodies] built on modal scales; follow natural
inflection of language
[rhythms] irregular and additive meters; based on free
speech rhythms
7. meter built from smaller unit groups
(2 + 3 + 2 + 2 = 9)
8. folk accordion
9. repetitive, built on small motives, modal, decorated
(ornamented)
10. asymmetrical, additive (11/16), feels like changing
meter (2+2+3+2+2), use of triplets

76. LISTEN (LG 6769; SH LG 4445)


European Nationalists
1. Bartk treats the various instruments of the orchestra
in a soloistic manner; the entire orchestra is the
soloist

2. 1943; the conductor Serge Koussevitzky


3. five
4. pentatonic scales; dancelike rhythms; irregular
rhythms
5. Shostakovich, Symphony No. 7
6. rondo (A-B-A'-C"-B"-A")
7. shifting (changing) between + and ", asymmetrical
8. yes; primitive, dramatic
9. Hungarian
10. search for his native Hungarian music; the rhythms
and melodies of the different folk traditions
11. Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta; string
quartets; Bluebeards Castle; Mikrokosmos
12. World War II; Nazi alliance with Hungarian
government; Bartk took anti-Fascist stand.
*13. a humorous story about a misunderstanding by the
Russian czar to a military report, forcing court
advisers to invent a military hero and his life (birth,
love, wedding, a troika ride, and death).
*14. three-horse sleigh; jingling bells; use of sleigh bells,
triangle, tambourine, cymbals, and celesta
15. collection of medieval poems found at a monastery in
Benedikbeuren, written by wandering monks; texts
on moralizing and satirical themes; also about
drinking, gambling, and love
16. very percussive, harsh dissonances, strong accents,
hypnotic ostinatos
17. refers throughout to the turning wheel of fortune,
which can change ones luck

77. LISTEN (LG 7071; SH LG 46)


American Modernists
1. He draws on American traditions (parades, park
concerts, church services) and uses popular tunes
from his childhood in New England (hymns, patriotic
songs, marches, parlor ballads, fiddling songs).
2. London Bridge, The Girl I Left Behjind Me, Arkansas
Traveler, Semper fidelis, My Old Kentucky Home,
Marching through Georgia, British Grenadiers
3. dissonant, clashing
4. realism of an amateur band making mistakes and
playing out of tune
5. Three Places in New England (including Putnams
Camp), Concord Sonata, A Symphony: New England
Holidays
6. It was not well received; society was not ready for his
experimental music. He self-published his music. He
was recognized finally in 1947 when his Third
Symphony won the Pulitzer Prize.
*7. East Liverpool, Ohio, the daughter of a minister

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*8. her teacher Djane Lavoie-Herz, Scriabin, Henry
Cowell
*9. high level of dissonance, but gently impressionistic;
mystical (from her study of Eastern religions);
shifting meters; subtle contrasts in dynamics
*10. she married the musicologist-folklorist Charles
Seeger
*11. collecting and arranging American folk songs;
developed folk music programs for local schools

78. LISTEN (LG 7273; SH LG 4748)


Still and Copland
1. Harlem Renaissance; celebrated and promoted
African-American culture and arts
2. blues, spirituals, jazz
3. three works of art by three African-American artists,
one for each movement; Augusta Savage, sculpture
entitled Gamin, of a young street-smart kid in
Harlem
4. bluesy feel, with modal harmonies and lowered thirds
and sevenths in melody; very syncopated; stride
accompaniment and ostinatos
5. a pioneer celebration in spring around a newly built
farmhouse in the Pennsylvania hills; a bride and
famer husband show emotions over their new
partnership
6. first hint of daybreak over the horizon (also
introduces the characters)
7. Simple Gifts ( Tis the gift to be simple; Shaker
hymn)
8. theme and five variations
9. clarinet
10. Rodeo
Billy the Kid
11. same tune, same meter, some variations, homophonic
treatment
12. choir vs. orchestra, more variety in timbre, Copland
uses augmentation and theme and variations vs. a
three-part form (choir)

79. LISTEN (LG 7475; SH LG 49)


Revueltas and Mariachi Music
1. mariachi band; using pairs of violins and trumpets;
piano simulates guitars
2. outspoken Spanish poet killed by the Fascists during
the Spanish Civil War; his death moved Revueltas,
who was a Loyalist and who fought against the
Fascists

3. focus on high and low-register instruments; focused


heavily on winds and piano
4. son is a type of traditional Mexican dance
5. strongly rhythmic and syncopated; percussive
accents; use of rhythmic ostinatos
6. rondo (rondo-like)
7. early twentieth-century arts movement that drew on
elements of traditional and popular culture in Mexico
8. Carlos Chvez, Manuel Ponce
9. he was viewed as a revolutionary and a hero
10. Sensemay; poetry of the Afro-Cuban writer Nicols
Guillen
11. Jalisco region of western Mexico
12. large acoustic bass guitar; round-back folk guitar
13. Mexican cowboys with wide sombreros
14. violins and trumpets
15. a traditional Mexican dance song with shifting meter
16. The Man from Cihuatln
17. zapateado (Spanish flamenco-style dance), strong
syncopations
18. Jarabe tapatio, or Mexican Hat Dance
19. triple
20. two verses (each repeated immediately), two
choruses
21. mambo, danzn, chachacha, salsa cumbia

80. REVIEW (PRELUDE 7)


The Rise of American Popular Styles
1. comedy sketch with music; many written by
immigrant composers
2. music businesses of songwriters and publishers in
New York City
3. Over There
4. a. [prohibition] banned the manufacture and sale of
alcohol
b. [Nineteenth Amendment] granted women the right
to vote
c. [Harlem Renaissance] promoted the arts and
culture of African Americans
d. [ballroom dancing] craze for Charleston, tango,
and others; new fashions for women
e. [Great Depression]: crash of Wall Street stock
market; 1929
5. Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy (of Company B); God
Bless America
6. Aaron Copland, Leonard Bernstein, Pete Seeger
7. Blowin in the Wind and The Times They are AChangin (war, civil rights)
If I Had a Hammer, We Shall Overcome (civil rights)
8. LPs and 45 rpms
9. Your Hit Parade, Dick Clarks American Bandstand,
The Ed Sullivan Show

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10. Black Eyed Peas member will.i.am
11. Public Enemys Dont Believe the Hype (against
discrimination, poverty, corruption, government
policies); Michael Jacksons We Are the World
(against famine in Africa)

81. LISTEN (CHAP. 40)


Ragtime, Blues, and Jazz
1. ragtime, blues, Western art, and popular music
2. African-American piano style noted for ragged
rhythm, or syncopation; later popular in ensembles;
Scott Joplin; Maple Leaf Rag and The Entertainer
3. to elevate ragtime to equal art music
4. opera; Treemonisha
5. three-line stanzas, with first two lines the same, all
rhyming
6. Sample: I woke up this morning with an awful aching
head.
I woke up this morning with an awful aching head.
My new man had left me, just a room and an empty
bed.
7. twelve- or sixteen-bar stanzas; twelve-bar blues = I
(four) IV (two) I (two) V (two) I (two)
8. pitch slightly dropped, usually on 3rd, 5th, or 7th
scale tone
9. Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday
10. trumpet (cornet), clarinet, trombone, rhythm (piano,
string bass, drums)
11. singing with vocables rather than words; Louis
Armstrong
12. true
13. true
14. false
15. true
16. false
17. true
18. alcohol and drug abuse; used opium and heroin; was
jailed; died of cirrhosis of the liver

82. EXPLORE (HTTN 14; SH 13)


The Roots of Jazz
1.
2.
3.
4.

West Africa, Europe, Americas


call-and-response patterns and vocal inflections
communal song to synchronize group tasks
religious folk song, often with refrain

5. New Orleans
6. hand clapping, storytelling, call and response,
syncopation, various instruments
7. musical storytellers; preserved and transmitted
history, stories, poetry of African peoples; glorified
deities
8. dancing to accompaniment of drums, gourds, mouth
harps, and banjos; strongly accented, with
syncopations and polyrhythmic elaborations; use of
rhythmic interjections, vocal glides and percussive
sounds, all derived from African musics; musical
scales using blue notes
9. in Mississippi Delta, as a raspy-voiced singer
accompanied by steel-string guitar; Charlie Patton
and B. B. King
10. covers of famous blues; expressive singing style;
influence on Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, among
others
11. [Swing Low, Sweet Chariot]: slow and syncopated,
free and improvisational; call-and-response style;
emotional; theme of preparation for death
12. [Pine Apple Rag]: highly syncopated melody over
steady oom-pah bass; short sections with repeats;
disjunct melody
13. [When the Saints Go Marching In]: instruments
treated equally (multiple improvisation); trombone
(and tuba) and percussion; regular tempo; voice and
instruments exchange ideas

83. LISTEN (LG 7677; SH LG 5051)


Early Jazz Styles
1. syncopated rhythms (ragged rhythms); on piano, in
right hand
2. section of a rag (or march); sixteen measures
3. A-A-B-B-A-C-C-D-D
4. piano roll (Steinway player piano)
5. C (trio)
6. steady, duple-meter accompaniment to syncopated
melody in right hand
7. twelve-bar blues
8. first
9. six
10. clarinet, trumpet
11. blue notes (bent pitches)
12. [Holiday]: rhythmic flexibility, bent pitches, scoops
[Shaw]: creative improvisation; disjunct
[Berigan]: gut-bucket style playing (raspy)
13. Louis Armstrong, Bessie Smith

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84. REVIEW (CHAP. 40)
The Swing Era and Beyond
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

1930s and 1940s


Great Depression; economic slowdown
Duke Ellington
[bebop]: Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Bud
Powell, Thelonious Monk
[cool jazz]: Miles Davis
[West Coast jazz]: Dave Brubeck, Gerry Mulligan,
Chet Baker
[avant-garde jazz] Kpjm Coltrane
[free jazz] Ornette Coleman
third stream; Gunther Schuller
Wynton Marsalis
jazz improvisation with amplified instruments and
rock rhythms; Miles Davis, Jerry Garcia, Gary
Burton
new sounds and interactivity between computers
and performers; use of MIDI and interactive
performance

85. LISTEN (LG 7879; SH LG 52)


Big Band and Bebop
1. 32-bar song form (A-A-B-A)
2. big band (ensemble with trumpets, trombones,
saxophones, piano, guitar, bass, drums)
3. trumpet (Ray Nance), piano (Duke Ellington)
4. exchanges between groups of instruments
5. bent notes, shakes, glissandos
6. they collaborated on many works; each ones work
complements the others
7. Black and Tan Fantasy; Mood Indigo; Sophisticated
Lady; Black, Brown, and Beige
8. 13 Grammy awards, Pulitzer Prize nomination
*9. Charlie Parker (alto saxophone), Miles Davis
(trumpet)
*10. Dizzy Gillespie; trumpet
*11. septet (seven)
*12. repeated riffs and ostinatos, short melodic ideas
tossed around
*13. a solo passage that interrupts the accompaniment; at
the beginning of Chorus 2
*14. a short, repeated melodic idea
*15. abrupt, short ideas, alternated with more lyrical
lines

86. REVIEW (CHAP. 41)


Musical Theater
1. comic opera, operetta
2. Johann Strauss, Jr., Gilbert and Sullivan
3. Show BoatEdna Ferber novel; My Fair Lady
George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion;
Fiddler on the Roofstories by Sholem Aleichem;
Kiss Me, KateShakespeares Taming of the Shrew;
Guys and Dollsstories by Damon Runyon;
FannyMarcel Pagnol trilogy; Porgy and Bess
play by DuBose and Dorothy Heyward; Carousel
Ferenc Molnrs Liliom; Oklahoma!Lynn Riggss
Green Grow the Lilacs; South Pacificstories by
James Michener; The King and IMargaret Landon,
Anna and the King of Siam; The Sound of Music
memoir of Baroness Maria von Trapp
4. Lerner and LoeweMy Fair Lady, (Camelot);
Rodgers and HartBabes in Arms; Rodgers and
HammersteinOklahoma! (Carousel, South Pacific,
The King and I, The Sound of Music); Kander and
EbbKiss of the Spider Woman
5. a
6. c
7. b
8. b
9. a
10. Riverdance, Billy Elliott, West Side Story
11. West Side Story; Porgy and Bess
12. Porgy and Bess
13. 1968; Hair
14. Beauty and the Beast, The Lion King
15. [Rent]: Puccinis La Bohme
[Wicked]: L. Frank Baums Wizard of Oz

87. LISTEN (LG 8081; SH LG 5354)


Hearing Musical Theater
1. Clara, then Bess later in the show
2. languid melody, plays on interval of a third, minor
key, slow tempo, text
3. blue notes, slides, pitch inflections, syncopation,
relaxed tempo, solo/chorus, dialect of text
4. Catfish Row, a black tenement in Charleston, South
Carolina
5. Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris, Girl Crazy,
Strike Up the Band, Lady Be Good
6. Stephen Sondheim

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7. rival gangs in New York; Maria and Tony fall in love,
but Tony belongs to a different gang; Tony killed in
fight; Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet
8. syncopated dance rhythms, instruments (bongos,
cowbells); syncopation, orchestration; jazzy riffs
9. A-A'-B-A" (32-bar song form)
10. different characters reflect on the situation with
different emotions; Tony and Maria sing love song;
others ready for fight; grand finale of section
11. dynamic music; gangs and gang warfare still
prevalent
12. both; some art music works, some popular, many in
between (film and musical theater)
13. conductor, teacher, pianist, television personality

88. REVIEW (CHAP. 42)


Music for Films
1. emotions supporting a scene: Gone With the Wind;
E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial; The Lord of the Rings:
The Fellowship of the Ring; mood throughout:
Schindlers List; others
2. music for hero or heroine: might be passionate;
military character: might be marchlike; social class
distinctions: Titanic
3. bagpipes (Braveheart); guitar (Brokeback Mountain)
4. music contradicts what is on screen; creates irony
5. underscoring: music from source not seen on screen;
source music: music (group) part of drama of film
6. theme associated with a person or concept; Star
Wars, Jaws; others
*7. live performance on piano or organ
*8. The Jazz Singer (1927); (Don Juan, 1926)
*9. a. [Steiner] King Kong; Gone With the Wind;
Casablanca; The Big Sleep; The Treasure of the
Sierra Madre; others
b. [Korngold] The Adventures of Robin Hood
c. [Herrmann] Citizen Kane; Vertigo; Psycho
d. [Rsza] Ben-Hur; Spellbound
*10. f
*11. e
*12. d
*13. b
*14. c
*15. a
16. 1981
17. Indiana Jones (march theme); love interest Marion
Ravenswood (trio)
18. ternary (A-B-A'-coda); each section subdivides into
small ternary segments
19. focus on brass and percussion
20. trio

89. REVIEW (CHAP. 43)


The Many Voices of Rock
1. vocal genre, popular from 1940s through 1960s, with
solo singer and instrumental group (piano, guitar,
acoustic bass, drums, tenor sax); strong driving beat
in Y; Louis Jordan, Ruth Brown, Bo Diddley, Joe
Turner, B. B. King
2. country-western, pop, gospel
3. [African American]: Chuck Berry, Fats Domino,
Little Richard
[White]: Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis
4. a. [soft rock]: lyrical, less driving beat; the
Carpenters, Olivia Newton-John
b. [acid rock]: San Franciscostyle music that
focused on drugs, high volume levels, instrumental
improvisations, and new sound technologies;
Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead
c. [art rock]: large forms, complex harmonies,
quotations from classical music; Moody Blues;
Emerson, Lake, and Palmer; the Who; Frank
Zappa and the Mothers of Invention
d. [heavy metal]: simple, repetitive motives, loud,
distorted instrumental solos; Led Zeppelin, Black
Sabbath
e. [punk rock]: provoking lyrics; shocking behavior;
simple, loud, repetitive, distorted instrumental
solos; Sex Pistols, the Clash
f. [reggae]: Jamaican style with offbeat rhythms and
chanted vocals; Bob Marley and the Wailers,
Black Uhuru
g. [rap]: highly rhythmic style, musical patter; Run
DMC, Public Enemy, Queen Latifah, N.W.A.,
Snoop Doggy Dogg, Ice-T
h. [grunge rock]: Seattle-based punk, harsh guitar
sounds; Soundgarden, Nirvana, Pearl Jam
5. Beatles provided direction in rock in mid-1960s;
turning point in style; direction from British; group
continued to experiment and grow more expressive;
nostalgia.
6. we listen less and look more; more attention to
performer and physical aspects of performance; more
glamorous
7. developed in the 1960s with the Beatles (Sgt.
Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band, Abbey Road);
idea of unified album by theme has remained central
to popular music
11. women have taken a leading (solo) role in many
styles of rock as composers and performers

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90. REVIEW (PRELUDE 8)
New Directions in the Arts
1. a. [pop art]: Andy Warhol; Robert Rauschenberg
b. [postmodernism]: Jasper Johns
c. [abstract expressionism]: Robert Motherwell;
Jackson Pollock
d. [new wave cinema]: Michelangelo Antonioni;
Jean-Luc Godard; Federico Fellini
e. [performance art]: Laurie Anderson; John Cage
f. [feminist art]: Judy Chicago
g. [ethnic art] Faith Ringgold
2. a. [poetry]: Maya Angelou, Derek Walcott, Isaac
Bashevis Singer, Gao Xingjian, V. S. Naipaul
b. [novel/poetry]: E. L. Doctorow (Ragtime); Gabriel
Garca Mrquez (One Hundred Years of Solitude);
Kurt Vonnegut (Cats Cradle; Slaughterhouse
Five); Maya Angelou (I Know Why the Caged Bird
Sings); Toni Morrison (The Bluest Eye; Beloved);
Amy Tan (The Joy Luck Club); J. K. Rowling
(Harry Potter books).
c. [film]: Jean-Luc Godard (Breathless); Federico
Fellini (La Strada); Michelangelo Antonioni
(Blowup; The Passenger); Jane Campion (Two
Friends); Quentin Tarantino (Kill Bill films; Pulp
Fiction; Inglourious Bastrds); Godfrey Reggio
(Koyaanisqatsi; Powaqqatsi)
3. false
4. false
5. true
6. true
7. true
8. dissonance; disjunct melody, extreme ranges,
complex rhythms
9. lush orchestrations; soaring lines
10. dramatic, like film music

91. LISTEN (LG 8486; SH LG 56)


The New Virtuosity of the Modern Age
*1. 1941; written during World War II, when Messiaen
was in a prisoner-of-war camp (Stalag VIIA in
Germany)
*2. quartet: violin, clarinet, cello, piano; at the prisoner
camp (Stalag VIIA)
*3. Revelation of St. John: angel descending to earth
saying, There shall be no more time
*4. powerful, dissonant chords, disjunct passages in fast
tempo; lyrical, slow, and distant sounding with muted
strings

*5. religion, mysticism, bird songs, medieval music


(Gregorian chant, modes), non-Western music
(gamelan, subtle rhythms of India)
*6. piano solo; 1945
*7. massive forces; divides the strings into many parts;
huge percussion section
*8. six-note sequence of pitches; three
*9. second hexachord is transposed retrograde of the
first; these two make up a twelve-tone sequence;
third hexachord is a rearrangement of pitches from
the second hexachord
*10. unifying device; six-note figure is contrapuntal and
heard staccato in the low range; alternates with
higher-range material
*11. intense, highly dissonant
*13. music director of New York Philharmonic Orchestra;
head of IRCAM (French government center for
computer music)
14. Federico Garca Lorca, Spanish poet who was killed
by the Fascists during the Spanish Civil War
15. Ancient Voices of Children; four books of madrigals;
Songs, Drones and Refrains of Death; Night Music
16. flute and metallic percussion (marimba, glockenspiel,
antique cymbals)
17. whispers, trills, flutter tonguing, glissandos, neighing
(like a horse)
18. regular beat, like a galloping horse; dark text about
death; solo voice with instruments
19. atonal, unusual instruments, strange vocal effects,
highly disjunct, no sense of meter

92. EXPLORE (HTTN 15; SH 14)


Modern Performers Say Yes, We Can!
1. slamming the keyboard with hands, fists, forearms;
reaching inside the piano and plucking strings;
inserting substances under the strings
2. highly developed finger independence; much agility
to move around the keyboard fast; willingness to try
and to devise new, unusual techniques
3. to make compositional decisions about tempo,
dynamics, timbre, note durations, pitches
4. there is no musical content; it can be performed on
any instrument; the music is the silence and the
sounds in the concert environment.
5. ability to sing microtonal intervals; making nonvocal
sounds with the voice; vocal flexibility and agility;
precise sense of pitch; ability to sing unsingable
leaps; special effects (flutter-tonguing, trills, buzzing,
whispering, etc.)
6. Cathy Berberian, Jan DeGaetani

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7. They both push their technique beyond what had
been possible, redefining what is possible.

93. LISTEN (LG 87, 89, 91; SH LG 57-58)

3.
4.
*5.
6.
*7.

Contemporary Composers Look to World Music


1. sixteen sonatas in four groups of four; groups are
separated by an interlude
2. binary (A-A-B-B)
3. various types of materials inserted between the piano
strings to change the timbre
4. Javanese gamelan
*6. mechanical piano works by Nancarrow; sub-Saharan
African music; mathematical puzzles
*7. rhythm
*8. highly structured; illusion of disorder is created by
highly organized mathematical treatment of rhythm
in cycles; chaotic
*9. highly virtuosic and technical, nonmelodic with
focus on rhythm; energetic and accented
*10. hands play off top end of piano
*11. extremely difficult
*12. 2001: A Space Odyssey; Atmosphres, Lux aeterna;
1968; Stanley Kubrick
13. symphonic suite (suite)
14. some movements have titles that make the program
clear (Fanfare, The Stream Flows, The Three Gorges
of the Long River); all influenced by folk music
Sheng knew as a child; several refer to places in
southern China where Sheng lived
15. pentatonic melodies; linear textures; fluid meter;
percussive use of instruments (harp, brass); sliding
effects (low brass, timpani, strings)
16. modern Western instruments; three-part structure;
orchestration
17. Hun (Lacerations) In memoriam, 196675, as a
portrait of the Cultural Revolution; operas, including
Madame Mao; others in Major Works list

94. EXPLORE (LG 88, 90)


The Sounds of Java and Eastern Africa
1. orchestra made up largely of metallic percussion
instruments; played in Java, Bali, and Sunda; played
for court performances and shadow-puppet plays
2. evil king Rahwana has kidnapped Sinta, wife of King
Rama; brother of evil king is cast out for suggesting
that Rahwana return Sinta to her husband; from the
Hindu epic Ramayama

*8.
*9.
*10.
*11.
*13.
*14.
*15.
*16.

introductory piece (overture) to play


slndro (pentatonic) scale
changes in tempo and texture
Cage, Ligeti, Debussy
[Chordophones]: musical bows, zithers, harps, lyres,
fiddles
[Idiophones]: log xylophones, plucked metal
instruments (lamellaphones)
[Aerophones]: flutes, trumpets
[Membranophones]: pitched and unpitched drums,
entenga
royal court ensemble of pitched and unpitched
drums
Kangawo, a subchief, loses a magical headband that
brings him good luck; feels unprotected and dies
they begin by striking the patterns on the sides of
their drums rather than the heads
six
as apprentice to master drummer (oral tradition)
Ligeti
fast-paced, complex, syncopated, polyrhythmic
gamelan work is highly polyrhythmic and tempos are
flexible; Stravinskys music is less complex (less
polyrhythmic) with more driving rhythms; Bartk
uses shifting meters but not layered polyrhythms

95. LISTEN (LG 92)


Chinese Traditional Music
1. Abing
*2. apprentice Daoist monk; played in Daoist temple;
expelled and became street musician; blind
3. created gradually through improvisation; has been
disseminated orally
4. erhu; two-string fiddle with bow hairs between
strings
5. yangqin; hammered dulcimer
6. pentatonic
7. DEGAB
8. four; no
9. adding flowers or melodic embellishments;
decorative, with variations in melody
10. four times
11. ethereal, heavenly; thinner sound; higher in
pitch
12. metallic; serves as accompaniment (harmony)
13. non-Western scale (missing tones); linear texture
(accompaniment is sparse); slides between pitches on
erhu; unusual timbre

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96. EXPLORE (HTTN 16; SH 15)
Improvisation as Compositional Process
1. performers free to make up elements of the music,
based on some set of rules (scale, mode, harmonic
pattern)
2. the composer provides some basic material (melody,
harmony, rules); performer interprets these within a
known style
3. no
4. Abing
5. raga, or scale type, provides pitches and mood of
work; tala provides an organizational scheme for
rhythm/meter; overall structure predetermined
6. sitar, tambura
*7. dastgah
8. no; uses microtonal pitches
9. short grace notes

97. REVIEW (CHAP. 46)

16. interactive machines designed to augment and


expand performance in real time; enhanced real
instrument
17. Yo-Yo Ma
18. Dantes Divine Comedy, Inferno
19. J. S. Bach, Cello Suite No. 2, Sarabande
20. delicate, energetic, emphatic, frenzied, tormented

98. REVIEW (CHAP. 47)


Some Current Trends
1.
2.
*3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Technology and Music


1. sounds made by natural sources that are recorded and
manipulated; late 1940s; France; *Pierre Boulez,
Olivier Messiaen, Darius Milhaud
2. used an oscillator that could create waveforms that
were subjected to alteration (filters, reverberation,
amplifier)
3. altered its pitch, volume, dimensions; played it
backward, add echo; filtered out overtones; spliced in
other components
*4. Electronic Studies; Song of the Youths
5. oscillator; see 2 above; this led to the development of
the synthesizer
6. RCA synthesizer; only a few existed (one at
Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center)
7. Robert Moog, Donald Buchla
8. Yamaha DX7
9. Musical Instrument Digital Interface; a standardized
communications protocol; allows synthesizers to
communicate with other devices, including
instruments
10. can recreate realistic sounds (natural, instruments,
voice); affordable
11. a
12. c
13. e
14. b
15. d

10.
11.

b
a
Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings
more immediate appeal; more emotional
b
a
Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, John
Adams
hypnotic, mesmerizing, soothing, or trancelike
meditative music; inspired by religious belief;
nonpulsed music with chains of suspensions; Henryk
Grecki, Arvo Prt, John Taverner
funeral service for Princess Diana at Westminster
Abbey; Taverners Song for Athene
Nixon in China: historic visit of President Nixon to
China in 1972
The Death of Klinghoffer: hijacking of the cruise
ship Achille Lauro by Palestinian terrorists and
killing of Jewish-American passenger Leon
Klinghoffer; El Nio, a nativity work modeled on
Handels Messiah

99. LISTEN (LG 9495; SH LG 5960)


The Return to Romantic Ideals
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

11.

tone poem, program music


tintinnabulation
Chinese reflex balls
shimmering, metallic Percussion instruments
her brother, Andrew Blue Higdon, who died of skin
cancer
solo flute is her instrument; clarinet was her brothers
Floating down the aisle of a glass cathedral, as a
center for spiritual growth
Focus on instrument families; much metallic
percussion, solo woodwinds, dark instruments, use of
brass in homophonic settings
words (mention of tambourine relaized in Carigliano
work with instrument) nonlyrical vocal style

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156 | Chapter 11
12. modern (angular lines, asymmetrical phrasing,
dissonant; syncopated); Broadway-musical style
singing (breathy, speechlike); quirky
13. deamy, mysterious, frenetic, dramatic
14. progresses from innocence (Clothes Line), to
awareness of the world (Blowin in the Wind), to
political fury (Masters of War) to a premonition of
the apocalypse (All Along the Watchtower).

12. sacred Hindu scripture (Song of God)


13. Chapter 11, when Krishna, an avatar of Vishnu,
reveals himself as the Supreme God, the all-powerful
creator and destroyer of the world
14. Nixons visit to China in 1972; terrorist hijacking of
an ocean liner; novels Frankenstein and Moby-Dick;
short stories The Fly and The Nose; supernatural
event at Versailles

100. LISTEN (LG 9697; SH LG 6162)


Minimalism and Postminimalism
1. Estonia (former USSR)
2. he looked to medieval and Renaissance sacred music,
especially Gregorian chant and organum; he
developed the tintinnabular style to simulate the
ringing of bells; most choral works set religious texts
3. Psalm 95 in Catholic Bible (Psalm 96 in Protestant
Bible); in Latin
4. sometimes monophonic, sometimes homophonic
5. weaving of melodic lines that hover around a central
pitch; triadic pitches that ring throughout
6. yes; based on simple ideas that are repeated
7. the last days and hours before the first test on June
16, 1945 of the atomic bomb at the Los Alamos
Laboratory, New Mexico; issues over the morality of
the creation and the fear/dread the scientists feel
8. the physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer
9. a sonnet by John Donne
10. the fear/dread/anguish of Oppenheimer; sighing
motive (2-note descending idea)

101. REVIEW (APPENDIX I)


Musical Notation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
20.

treble (G) clef; bass (F) clef


A; D
quarter; three
six; third
disjunct
flat; B; lowers it by a half step
sharp; C; raises the pitch by a half step
D; doubling (unison)
two
first and second ending; work is binary, played twice,
each time with a different ending
downbeat
first
sixteenth note
yes
homophonic
top line (right hand)
harpsichord