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# SYMMETRICAL

COMPONENTS
and
SEQUENCE NETWORKS

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Introduc;on

One of the most powerful tools for dealing with unbalanced
polyphase circuits is the method of symmetrical components.

Developed by C. L. Fortescue in 1918, he proved that an
unbalanced system of n related phasors can be resolved into n
systems of balanced phasors called the symmetrical components
of the original phasors. The n phasors of each set of components
are equal in length, and the angles between adjacent phasors of
the set are equal.

Although the method is applicable to any unbalanced polyphase
system, we consider only three-phase systems.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Introduc;on

In a three- phase system which is normally balanced, unbalanced
fault condiOons generally cause unbalanced currents and voltages
to exist in each of the phases.

If the currents and voltages are related by constant impedances,
the system is linear and the principle of superposiOon applies. The
voltage response of the linear system to the unbalanced currents
can be determined by considering the separate responses of the
individual elements to the symmetrical components of the
currents.

The system elements of interest are the machines, transformers,
transmission lines, and loads connected to or Y conguraOons.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Introduc;on

We will study symmetrical components and show that the
response of each system element depends on its connecOons and
the component of the current being considered.

Equivalent circuits, called sequence circuits, will be developed to
reect the separate responses of the elements to each current
component.

There are three equivalent circuits for each element of the three-
phase system. By organizing the individual equivalent circuits into
networks according to the interconnecOons of the elements, we
arrive at the concept of three sequence networks.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Introduc;on

Solving the sequence networks for the fault condiOons gives
symmetrical current and voltage components which can be
combined together to reect the eects of the original unbalanced
fault currents on the overall system!

Analysis by symmetrical components is a powerful tool which
makes the calculaOon of unsymmetrical faults almost as easy as
the calculaOon of three-phase faults!!!

11/20/13

Networks

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

(Fortescue's Theorem) Three unbalanced phasors of a three-phase
system can be resolved into three balanced systems of phasors.
The balanced sets of components are:
1. PosiOve-sequence components consisOng of three phasors
equal in magnitude , displaced from each other by 120o in
phase, and having the same phase sequence as the original
phasors.
2. NegaOve-sequence components consisOng of three phasors
equal in magnitude , displaced from each other by 120o in
phase, and having the opposite phase sequence to that of the
original phasors.
3. Zero-sequence components consisOng of three phasors equal
in magnitude and with zero phase displacement from each
other.
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

When solving a problem by symmetrical components to designate
the three phases of the system as a, b, and c in such a manner that
the phase sequence of the voltages and currents in the system is
abc. Thus, the phase sequence of the posiOve-sequence
components of the unbalanced phasors is abc, and the phase
sequence of the negaOve-sequence components is acb.

If the original phasors are voltages, they may be designated Va, Vb,
and Vc. The three sets of symmetrical components are designated
by the addiOonal superscript 1 for the posiOve-sequence
components, 2 for the negaOve-sequence components, and 0 for
the zero-sequence components.
11/20/13

Networks

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

Superscripts are chosen so as not to confuse bus numbers with
sequence indicators.

The posiOve-sequence components of Va, Vb, and Vc are V(1)a, V(1)b,
and V(1)c, respecOvely. Similarly, the negaOve-sequence
components are V(2)a, V(2)b, and V(2)c, respecOvely, and the zero-
sequence components are V(0)a, V(0)b, and V(0)c, , respecOvely.

Phasors represenOng currents will be designated by I with
superscripts as for voltages.

11/20/13

Networks

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

(1)

Va

(1)
c

(0)
a

( 2)

Va

Posi;ve Sequence
Components

(1)

Vb

( 2)

(0)

Vb
(0)

Vc

Zero Sequence
Components

Vb

( 2)

Vc

Nega;ve Sequence
Components

11/20/13

Networks

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

Since each of the original unbalanced phasors is the sum of its
components, the original phasors expressed in terms of their
components are the synthesis of a set of three unbalanced phasors
from the three sets of symmetrical components.
0
1
2
Va = Va( ) + Va( ) + Va( )

(0)

(1)

( 2)

(0)

(1)

( 2)

Vb = Vb + Vb + Vb
Vc = Vc + Vc + Vc

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Networks

10

## SYNTHESIS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS FROM THEIR

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS (Fortescues Theorem)

The many advantages of analysis of power systems by the method
of symmetrical components will become apparent as we apply the
method to the study of unsymmetrical faults on otherwise
symmetrical systems.

It suces to say that the method consists in nding the
symmetrical components of current at the fault. Then, the values
of current and voltage at various points in the system can be found
by means of the bus impedance matrix. The method is simple and
leads to accurate predicOons of system behavior.

11/20/13

Networks

11

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

Is this a balanced three-phase voltage?

Va

Vc

Vb
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Networks

12

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

(0)
V
But look:
c
2
Va( )

( 2)
b

Va

0
Vb( )

0
Va( )

Va( )

( 2)

Vc

Vc

Vc( )
1

Vb
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(1)

Vb
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

13

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

Is this balanced?
(0)

Va
( 2)

Vc

Va

2
Va( )

(1)

Vc

Va( )
1

(0)

Vc

(1)

Vc

Vb
( 2)

Vb
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(0)

Vb

Vb

Networks

14

=
Posi;ve Sequence
Components

Nega;ve Sequence
Components

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Networks

Zero Sequence
Components

15

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

How do we do this? Namely, how do we resolve three
unsymmetrical phasors into symmetrical components?

First note the following:

(0)
(0)
SelecOng Va(0) as a reference, V (0) = V (0)
V
=
V
b
a
c
a

1
1
(1)
(1) j 240
SelecOng Va(1) as a reference, Vc( ) = Va( )e j120
Vb = Va e

( 2)
( 2) j 240
SelecOng Va(2) as a reference, V ( 2) = V ( 2)e j120
V =V e
b

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Networks

16

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

0
1
2

Va = Va( ) + Va( ) + Va( )

(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1) j 240
( 2) j120
Vb = Vb + Vb + Vb = Va + Va e
+ Va e

(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1) j120
( 2) j 240
Vc = Vc + Vc + Vc = Va + Va e
+ Va e

j120
Let: a = e

(0)

(1)

(0)

( 2)

Va = Va + Va + Va
(1)

( 2)

Vb = Va + a Va + aVa
(0)

(1)

( 2)

Vc = Va + aVa + a Va
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Networks

17

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

V (0)
V (0)
V

1 1 1
a
a 1 1 1 a

1)
1)
(
(

2
2
Vb = 1 a
a Va = Va , = 1 a
a

2
2

2)
2)
(
(
1
a
a
1
a
a

V
Va

c
Va

V (0)
a 1 1

1)
(

Va
= 1 a2

V ( 2) 1 a
a

11/20/13

a
a 2

V
1 1
a

1
Vb = 1 a

3
2
1
a

Vc

Networks

1 a
2 V

a
b

a Vc

18

## THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS OF UNSYMMETRICAL PHASORS

Observe that there are no zero-sequence components if the sum of
the unbalanced phasors is zero.

(0)
V
= 0 Va + Vb + Vc = 0

a

Since the sum of the line-line voltage phasors in a three-phase
system is always zero, zero-sequence components are never
present in the line voltages regardless of the degree of unbalance.

The sum of the three line-to-line neutral voltage phasors is not
necessarily zero, and voltages to neutral may contain zero-sequence
components.

The system of equaOons derived apply equally well to the currents.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

19

Example

One conductor of a three-phase line is open. The current owing to
the -connected load through line a is 10 A. With the current in line
a as a reference and assuming that line c is open, nd the
symmetrical components of the line currents.
a

I a = 100

I b = 100 = 10180
b
c

11/20/13

Z
Z

Ic = 0
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

20

Example

0

I( )
1 1 1
a
I (1) = 1 1 a a 2
a 3
1 a 2 a
I ( 2)
a
1
0
I a( ) = (10 10 ) = 0
3
(1)

Ia

Ia

10

10
0

1
a2
a

(
3

3 j =

5
3

3+ 1 30 =

10
3

30

10
10
10 3
3
2
=
1 a =
1 cos ( 240 ) j sin ( 240 ) = + j
3
3
3 2
2

=
11/20/13

1 1 1
= 1 a
3
2
1
a

10
10
10 3
3
= (1 a ) =
1 cos (120 ) j sin (120 ) = j
3
3
3 2
2
=

( 2)

Ia

Ib
I
c

10
3

30
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

21

Example

0
()
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
I
=
0,
I
=
I
=
0,
I
=
I
=0
b
a
c
a
a
I (1) = 10 30, I (1) = I (1)e j 240 = 10 150, I (1) = I (1)e j120 = 10 90
a
b
a
c
a
3
3
3

I (2) = 10 30, I (2) = I (2)e j120 = 10 150, I (2) = I (2)e j 240 = 10 90
a
b
a
c
a
3
3
3

Note that components IC(1) and IC(2) have nonzero values although
line c is open and can carry no net current. As is expected, the sum
of the components in line c is zero. Of course, the sum of
the components in line a is 10 A, and the sum of the components in
line b is 10 A.

11/20/13

Networks

22

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

In three-phase systems circuit elements are connected between
lines a, b, and c in either a Y or conguraOon. RelaOonships
between the symmetrical components of Y and currents and
voltages can be established by referring to the gure (next slide)
which shows symmetrical impedances connected in Y and .

Choose the reference phase for quanOOes as branch a-b. The
choice of reference phase is arbitrary and does not aect the
results.

11/20/13

Networks

23

Ia
a

+
Vab

Vca
+
c

11/20/13

+
Vbc

I ab

I ca

Ib
Ic

I bc

Networks

I a = I ab I ca
I b = I bc I ab
I c = I ca I bc

24

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

For a balanced three-phase system:

(0) 1
I
= ( Ia + Ib + Ic ) = 0
a

3

or the line currents into a connected circuit have no zero-
sequence currents.

SubsOtuOng components of current in the equaOon for Ia gives:
I a = I ab I ca

) (

()
()
()
I a( ) + I a( ) = I ab
+ I ab
+ I ab
I ca( ) + I ca( ) + I ca( )
1

) (

) (

()
()
()
= I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( )

=0
11/20/13

Networks

)
25

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

If a nonzero value of circulaOng current Iab(0) exists in the circuit it
cannot be determined from the line currents alone.

) (

) (

()
()
()
I a( ) + I a( ) = I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( )

=0
Ia
1

+
Vab

Vca
+
c
11/20/13

+
Vbc

I ab

Ib
Ic

()
I ab
0

I ca

I bc

Networks

26

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

1
1
2
2
Now since: I ca( ) = aI ab( ) , I ca( ) = a 2 I ab( )

SubsOtuOng:
1
2
1
2
(1)
( 2)

I a( ) + I a( ) = I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( )

(1)
( 2)
2
=
1
a
I
+
1
a
I
(
)
(
)
ab
ab

Similarly for phase b:

) (
(

1
2
1
2
I b( ) + I b( ) = (1 a ) I bc( ) + 1 a 2 I bc( )

11/20/13

Networks

27

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

Note:
1 a = 1 e j120 = 1 cos (120 ) j sin (120 )
1
3
3
= 1+ j
=
2
2
2

3 j = 3 30

= 1+

11/20/13

1
3
3
+j
=
2
2
2

3 + j = 330

Networks

28

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

Thus:
1
2
(1)
( 2)

I a( ) + I a( ) = (1 a ) I ab
+ (1 a 2 ) I ab

(1)
( 2)
=
3I

30
+
3I
30
ab
ab

or:
1
(1)

I a( ) = 3I ab
30

( 2)
( 2)
I
=
3I
30
a
ab

This, for the -connected load, the relaOonship between line
currents and phase currents follows the customary relaOonship.

11/20/13

Networks

29

(1)

Ic

(1)

Ib

I ab

30

I ca( )
2

(1)

Ia

11/20/13

()
I ab

30

( 2)

I bc

Posi;ve Sequence
Components

Ia
2

(1)

(1)

( 2)

30

Ib

30
30

I bc
( 2)

(1) 30

I ca

( 2)

Ic

Nega;ve Sequence
Components

Networks

30

Ia
a

+
Vab

Vca
b

+
c

11/20/13

ZY

Ib

ZY

+
Van

ZY

Vbc = Vbn Vcn
Vca = Vcn Van

+
Vbc I c

Networks

31

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

Proceeding in a similar way,

1
0
For a balanced three-phase system: Vab( ) = (Vab + Vbc + Vca ) = 0
3

(1)
( 2)
(0)
(0)
(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
V
+
V
=
V

I
+
V

V
+
V

V
ab
ab
an
bn
an
bn
an
bn

=0

Here as well a nonzero value of the zero-sequence voltage V(0)an
cannot be determines from the line-to-line voltages alone.

11/20/13

) (

) (

Networks

32

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

Using similar calculaOons as for the current,

1

## Vab( ) = (1 a )Van( ) = 3Van( ) 30

2

(1)

Vab
Van( )
1

30

(1)
ca

Vbn( )
1

( 2)

30

()
V
30 cn
1

(1)

Vbc

Vca

30

Vbc( )
2

( 2)

Vcn

Van( )

Vbn( )

30

30

( 2)

Vab
Posi;ve Sequence
Components
11/20/13

Nega;ve Sequence
Components
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

33

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

If the voltages to neutral are in per unit referred to the base voltage
to neutral and the line voltages are in per unit referred to the base
voltage from line-to-line, the 3 mulOpliers must be omimed the
equaOons.

If both voltages are referred to the same base, however, the
equaOons are correct as given . Similarly, when line and currents
are expressed in per unit, each on its own base, the 3 disappears
since the two bases are related to one another in the raOo of 3:1.

When the currents are expressed on the same base, the equaOon is
correct as wrimen.

11/20/13

Networks

34

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

From the gure for the -connected load:

(1)
( 2)
Vab
Vab
Vab

= Z (1) = Z = ( 2)

I ab
I ab
I ab

SubsOtuOng:

(1)

(1)

( 2)

( 2)

3Van 30
Vab
3Van 30
= Z = ( 2) =
(1) = 1 (1)
1 ( 2)
I ab
I
ab
I a 30
I a 30
3
3

Vab

(1)

Van

( 2)

Z Van
(1) =
= ( 2)
3
Ia
Ia
11/20/13

Networks

35

## SYMMETRICAL Y AND CIRCUITS

But, from the gure for the Y-connected load:

1
2

Van( ) Z Van( )

(1) = 3 = ( 2)
Ia
Ia

2

Van( )
Z

( 2 ) = ZY 3 = ZY
Ia

As far as posiOve- or negaOve-sequence circuits are concerned.

Of course this is merely a vericaOon of a fact weve known all
along.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

36

Example

Three idenOcal 10.58-, Y-connected resistors form a load bank
with a three-phase voltage raOng of 2300 V and 500 kVA. If the load
bank has applied voltages:

Vab = 1840 V
Vbc = 2760 V
Vca = 2300 V

nd the line voltages and currents in per unit into the load. Assume
that the neutral of the load is not connected to the neutral of the
system and select a base of 2300 V and 500 kVA.

In per unit: ZY = 1.0 and

Vab = 0.8
11/20/13

Vbc = 1.2

Vca = 1.0

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

37

Example

Vab + Vbc + Vca = 0
a

+

ZY

V
=
1.0
Vbc = 1.2
ca
Vab

Vca

n
ZY
ZY

b

+
Vbc
+

Vab = 0.8

c

Law of cosines: V 2 = V 2 + V 2 2 V V cos
ab
ca
bc
ca
bc
2

11/20/13

Networks

38

Example
Vab = 0.8

Vbc = 1.2
2

cos =

Vca = 1.0
2

= 41.41

2 Vca Vbc
2

cos =

2

2 Vbc Vab

82.82

Vca = 1.0

55.77

41.41

Vbc = 1.2

82.82

= 55.77

55.77

Vab = 0.8
Vca = 1.082.82

Vab = 0.8180

11/20/13

Networks

39

Example

11/20/13

Networks

40

Example

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

41

Example

The absence of a neutral connecOon means that zero-sequence
currents are not present in the circuit. Therefore, the phase voltages
at the load contain posiOve- and negaOve-sequence components
only. The phase voltages are found from

(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
V
=
3V
30,
V
=
3V
30

ab
an
ab
an
But the 3 factor is omimed since the line voltages are expressed in
terms of the base voltage from line to line and the phase voltages
are desired in per unit of the base voltage to neutral . Thus,

1
1
Van( ) = Vab( ) 30 = 0.23468 ( 42.576 30 ) = 0.2346812.576

2
2
Van( ) = Vab( )30 = 0.98568 ( 170.73 + 30 ) = 0.98568 140.73

all per unit.
11/20/13

Networks

42

## Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components

If the symmetrical components of current and voltage are known,
the power expended in a three-phase circuit can be computed
directly from the components.

The total complex power owing into a three-phase circuit through
three lines a, b, and c is

Sthree phase = P + jQ = Va I a* + Vb I b* + Vc I c*

where Va, Vb, and Vc are the voltages to reference at the terminals
and la, lb, and Ic are the currents owing into the circuit in the three
lines. A neutral connecOon may or may not be present. If there is
impedance in the neutral connecOon to ground (see next slide),
then the voltages Va, Vb, and Vc must be interpreted as voltages
from the line to ground rather than to neutral.

Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

43

a

+
Vab

Vca
b

+
c

11/20/13

ZY

ZY

ZY
Zn

+
Vbc

Networks

44

## Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components

V (0)
I (0)
a
a
V012 = Va(1) , I 012 = I a(1)

V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a

Sthree phase = V I *
T

= V012 I 012

= V012 T * I 012*

T
= V012

T
= V012

1 1
1 a2
1 a

1
a
a2

1 1
1 a2
1 a

1
a
a2

= 3 V012 I 012
11/20/13

1 1
1 a2
1 a

1
a
a2

1 1
1 a
1 a2

1
a2
a

I
012

1 0 0
*
T
*

0 0 1

Networks

45

## Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components

T
*
*
*
*
Sthree phase = Va I a + Vb I b + Vc I c = 3 V012 I 012

( 0 ) ( 0 )*
(1) (1)*
( 2 ) ( 2 )*
= 3Va I a + 3Va I a + 3Va I a

which shows how complex power (in voltamperes ) can be
computed from the symmetrical components of the voltages to
reference (in volts) and line currents (in amperes) of an unbalanced
three-phase circuit.

Note how the transformaOon of a-b-c voltages and currents to
symmetrical components is power-invariant only if each product of
sequence voltage (in volts) Omes the complex conjugate of the
corresponding sequence current (in amperes) is mulOplied by 3, as
shown above. When the complex power Sthree-phase is expressed in
per unit of a three-phase voltampere base the 3 disappears.
11/20/13

Networks

46

## Power in Terms of Symmetrical Components

From the previous example:
(0)

Van
Ia =
=0
10
(1)
V
1
I a( ) = an = 0.2346812.576
10
(0)

Van( ) = 0
0

Van( ) = 0.2346812.576
1

## Van( ) = 0.98568 140.73

()
( 2) Van
Ia =
= V 0.98568 140.73
10

0
0
1 1
2
2
Sthree phase = Va( ) I a( )* + Va( ) I a( )* + Va( ) I a( )*

= 0 + 3( 0.23468) + 3( 0.98568)
2

11/20/13

Networks

47

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

If impedance Zn is inserted between the neutral and ground of the
Y-connected impedances then the sum of the line currents is equal
to the current In in the return path through the neutral:

In = Ia + Ib + Ic

Expressing the unbalanced line currents in terms of their
symmetrical components gives:
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)

(
)+(I + I + I )+(I + I + I )
= (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))+ (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))+ (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))

In = Ia + Ia + Ia
0
a

= 3I a( )

0
b

1
a

1
b

1
c

2
a

2
b

=0

=0

11/20/13

Networks

48

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Since the posiOve-sequence and negaOve-sequence currents add
separately to zero at neutral point n, there cannot be any posiOve-
sequence or negaOve sequence currents in the connecOons from
neutral to ground regardless of the value of Zn.

We see that the zero-sequence currents combining together at n
become 3In producing the voltage drop 3In(0)/Zn between neutral
and ground. It is important to disOnguish between voltages to
neutral and voltages to ground under unbalanced condiOons.

Designate voltages of phase a with respect to neutral and ground as
Van and Vn, respecOvely. Thus, the voltage of phase a with respect to
ground is given by Va = Van + Vn, where Vn = 3In(0)Zn
11/20/13

Networks

49

Ia
a

+
Vab

Vca
b

+
c

11/20/13

ZY

Ib

ZY

I n = 3I a( )
0

+
ZY
Zn

+
Vbc I c

Vn = 3I a( ) Z n
0

Networks

50

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

We can write the voltage drops to ground as:

I
Va Van Vn
1

a
V = V + V = Z I + 3I (0) Z
Y
a
n 1
b
b bn n

1
Ic
Vc Vcn Vn

The a-b-c voltages can be replaced by their symmetrical
components

11/20/13

Networks

51

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

The a-b-c voltages can be replaced by their symmetrical
components:

V (0)
I (0)

Va

1
a
a

0

Vb = Va(1) = ZY I a(1) + 3I a( ) Z n 1

1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)

Vc
a
a

MulOply by A 1:
(0)
(0)

1
Va
Ia
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z A1 1
Y
a
n

a
a
1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a

11/20/13

Networks

52

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

V (0)
I (0)
1
a
a
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z A1 1
Y
a
n

a
a
1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
1 1 1 1

1
3
1
1

1
2
A 1 = 1 a a 1 = 1+ a + a 2
3
3
2
1 a
1+ a 2 + a
1
a 1

11/20/13

Networks

=
0
0

53

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

V (0)
I (0)
1
a
a
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z 0
Y
a
n

a
a
0
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
0
0
0
0
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) + 3Z n I a( ) = Z0 I a( )

Va( ) = ZY I a( ) = Z1 I a( )
1

2
2
2
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) = Z 2 I a( )

11/20/13

Networks

54

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

(0)
(0)
(0)

Va = ZY + 3Z n I a = Z0 I a

1
1
1
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) = Z1 I a( )

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
V
=
Z
I
=
Z
I
a
Y a
2 a

This results tells us that currents of one sequence cause voltage
drops of only the same sequence in or Y-connected circuits with
symmetrical impedances in each phase.

This most (important) result allows us to draw the three single-
phase sequence circuits shown

11/20/13

Networks

55

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

These three circuits, considered simultaneously, provide the same
informaOon as the actual (unbalanced) circuit on Slide 50, and are
independent of one another because the above equaOons are
decoupled . Circuit (a) shown below is called the zero-sequence
circuit because it relates the zero-sequence voltage Va(0) to the zero-
sequence current Ia(0).
I a( ) Z
Y

0
Va( ) Z0

(a)

11/20/13

+
3Zn

Reference

I a( ) Z
Y
1

1
Va( ) Z1

I a( ) Z
Y

2
Va( ) Z2

Reference
(b)

Networks

Reference
(c)

56

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Clearly,

(0)
I
a
ZY

n
+
(0)
V
0
a
Va( ) Z0
3Zn
(0) = ZY + 3Z n = Z0
Ia

Reference

Z0 is called (dened) the impedance to zero-sequence current.

Note how we have recaptured our ability to draw a per-phase
equivalent circuit for an unbalanced system, only now we need
three of them.
11/20/13

Networks

57

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Likewise, Fig. (b) is called the posiOve-sequence circuit and Z1 is
called the impedance to posiOve-sequence current, and Fig. (c) is
the negaOve sequence circuit and Z2 is the impedance to negaOve-
sequence current.

The names of the impedances to currents of the dierent sequences
are usually shortened to the less descripOve terms zero-sequence
impedance Z0, posiOve sequence impedance Z1, and negaOve-
sequence impedance Z2.

Here the posiOve and negaOve-sequence impedances Z1 and Z2 are
equal to the usual per-phase impedance ZY which is generally the
case for staOonary symmetrical circuits.
11/20/13

Networks

58

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Each of the three sequence circuits presents one phase of the actual
three-phase circuit when the lamer carries current of only that
sequence.

When the three sequence currents are simultaneously present, all
three sequence circuits are needed to fully represent the original
circuit circuit.

Voltages in the posiOve-sequence and negaOve-sequence circuits
can be regarded as voltages measured with respect to either neutral
or ground whether or not there is a connecOon of some nite value
of impedance Zn between neutral and ground.

11/20/13

Networks

59

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Clearly in the posiOve-sequence circuit there is no dierence
between Va(1) and Van(1) and a similar statement applies to Va(2) and
Van(2) and in the negaOve-sequence circuit.

However, a voltage dierence can exist between the neutral and
the reference of the zero-sequence circuit. In Fig. (a) the current Ia(0)
owing through impedance 3Zn produces the same voltage drop
from neutral to ground as the current 3Ia(0) owing through
impedance Zn in the actual circuit on Slide 50.

If the neutral of the Y-connected circuit is grounded through zero
impedance, we set Zn = 0 and a zero-impedance connecOon then
joins the neutral point to the reference node of the zero-sequence
circuit.

Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

60

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

If there is no connecOon between neutral and ground, there cannot
be any zero-sequence current ow, for then Zn = , which is
indicated by the open circuit between neutral and the reference
node in the zero-sequence circuit below.
I a( ) Z
a
Y
0

ZY

ZY

11/20/13

0
Va( )

ZY

Networks

Reference

61

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Obviously, a -connected circuit cannot provide a path through
neutral, and so line currents owing into a -connected load or its
equivalent Y circuit cannot contain any zero-sequence components.

(0)
V
+
0
()
ab
I
a

a
Z

+ a
0
Z
Z

(0)
Va( )
I ab
=0

Z
b
Reference

c

To see this
11/20/13

Networks

62

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

For the -connected circuit:

Vab = Z I ab
Vbc = Z I bc
Vca = Z I ca

1
0)
(
Recall Slide 19: Vab = (Vab + Vbc + Vca )
3

0
(0)
Thus Vab + Vbc + Vca = 3Vab( ) = 3Z I ab

and since the sum of the line-to-line voltages is always zero,
()
Vab( ) = 0, I ab
=0
0

11/20/13

Networks

63

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF Y AND IMPEDANCES

Thus, in -connected circuits with impedances only and no sources
or mutual coupling there cannot be any circulaOng currents.

SomeOmes single-phase circulaOng currents can be produced in the
circuits of transformers and generators by either inducOon or
zero-sequence generated voltages.

A circuit and its zero-sequence circuit were shown on the previous
slide. Note, however, that even if zero-sequence voltages were
generated in the phases of the , no zero-sequence voltage could
exist between the terminals, for the rise in voltage in each phase
would then be matched by the voltage drop in the zero-sequence
impedance of each phase. Consider an example.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

64

Example

Three equal impedances of j21 are -connected. Determine the
sequence impedances and circuits of the combinaOon. Repeat for
the case where a mutual impedance of j6 exists between each
pair of adjacent branches in the .
a

a
j21

j21

j6

j21

j6

11/20/13

j6

b
j21

j21

j21

c
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

65

Example

The line-to-line voltages are related to the phase currents by

V
ab
Vbc

Vca

11/20/13

j21

= 0

0

0
j21
0

I ab

0 I bc

j21 I ca

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

66

Example

Transforming to symmetrical components:

V (0)
ab
Vab(1)

V ( 2)
ab
V (0)
ab
Vab(1)

V ( 2)
ab
11/20/13

(0)
0 I ab
j21 0
(1)
= 0
j21 0 I ab

0
0
j21 I ( 2)

ab

I (0)

ab j21
= j211 I (1) = 0

ab

I ( 2) 0

ab
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

0
j21
0

(0)
0 I ab
(1)
0 I ab

j21 I ( 2)
ab
67

Example

V (0)
ab j21
V (1) = 0
ab
V ( 2) 0
ab

I a( )
0

+ a

j21

(0)

Va

Reference
Zero-sequence

11/20/13

0
j21
0

Z
= ZY
3
Z

(0)
0 I ab
(1)
0 I ab

j21 I ( 2)
ab

+
(1)

Va

I a( ) Z
Y

I a( ) Z
Y

j7

Reference
Posi;ve-sequence

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

+
( 2)

Va

j7

Reference
Nega;ve sequence

68

Example

For the second part:

V (0)
ab j21
Vab(1) = j6

V ( 2) j6
ab

j21

j6
j6

j6
j21
j6

j6
j21
j6

I (0)

j6
ab

(1)
j6 I ab

j21 I ( 2)
ab

j6
1 0 0
1 1 1

+ j6

=
j15
j6
0 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
j21
Remember this trick!

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

69

Example

V (0)

1 0 0

ab
V (1) = 1 j15 0 1 0 + j6

ab

0 0 1

V ( 2)

ab
V (0)
1
ab

## Vab(1) = j15 + j61 1

1
V ( 2)
ab
V (0)
3 0
ab

= Vab(1) = j15 + j6 0 0

0 0
V ( 2)
ab

11/20/13

I (0)

1 1 1 ab
(1)
1 1 1 I ab
1 1 1 I ( 2)
ab
I (0)
1 1 ab

(1)
1 1 I ab
1 1 I ( 2)
ab
I (0)
0 ab j33
(1) =
0 I ab 0
0 I ( 2) 0
ab

Networks

0
j15
0

I (0)

0
ab
(1)
0 I ab

j15 I ( 2)
ab

70

Example

V (0)
ab j33
V (1) = 0
ab
V ( 2) 0
ab

I a( )
0

+ a

j33

(0)

Va

Reference
Zero-sequence

11/20/13

0
j15
0

I (0)

0
ab

(1)
0 I ab

j15 I ( 2)
ab

Z
= ZY
3

I a( ) Z
Y

I a( ) Z
Y

+
(1)

Va

j5

Reference
Posi;ve-sequence

Networks

+
( 2)

Va

j5

Reference
Nega;ve sequence

71

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Our concern is mostly with systems that are essenOally balanced but
which become unbalanced upon the occurrence of an
unsymmetrical fault.

PracOcally perfect symmetry is an idealizaOon, but since the eect
of the departure from symmetry is usually small, perfect balance
between phases is ouen assumed, especially if the lines are
transposed.

11/20/13

Networks

72

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Consider a three-phase line with a neutral conductor. The self-
impedance Zaa is the same for each phase conductor, and the
neutral conductor has self-impedance Znn.
a

Ia

Z aa
Z ab

Ib
b

Van

+
Vbn
_

Ic

Z ab

+
Vcn

Z ab

Z aa

Z aa

Z nn

Z an

Vcn

+
Vbn

Van

In
11/20/13

Networks

73

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

When currents in the line are unbalanced, then the neutral
conductor serves as a return path.

All the currents are assumed posiOve in the direcOons shown
even though some of their numerical values may be negaOve under
unbalanced condiOons caused by faults.

Because of mutual coupling, current ow in any one of the phases
induces voltages in each of the other adjacent phases and in the
neutral conductor.

Similarly, current in the neutral conductor induces voltages in
each of the phases.
11/20/13

Networks

74

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

The coupling between all three phase conductors is regarded as
being symmetrical and mutual impedance Zab is assumed between
each pair. The mutual impedance between the neutral conductor
and each of the phases is taken to be Zan.

The voltages induced in phase a, for example, by currents in the
other two phases and the neutral conductor can be treated as
sources as follows

11/20/13

Networks

75

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Z ab I b
Z ab I c
Z an I n
Ia

Z aa
+
a +
+
+
+
a

Van
Van
Z an I b
Z an I c
Z an I c

In
Z nn

+
+
+
n
n
_
_

Applying Kirchho's voltage law around the loop circuit gives

11/20/13

Networks

76

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Applying Kirchho's voltage law around the loop circuit gives:
Van = Z aa I a + Z ab I b + Z ab I c + Z an I n + Van ( Z nn I n + Z an I c + Z an I b + Z an I a )

+
Van
_

+
Vbn
_

Ia

Ib

Ic

Z ab
Z ab

+
Vcn

Z ab

Z aa

Z aa

Z aa

Z nn

Z an

Vcn

+
Vbn

Van

In
11/20/13

Networks

77

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Applying Kirchho's voltage law around the loop circuit gives:

Van = Z aa I a + Z ab I b + Z ab I c + Z an I n + Van

Z nn I n + Z an I c + Z an I b + Z an I a

The voltage drop across the line is

V V = Z Z I + Z Z
I b + I c + Z an Z nn I n
an
an
aa
an
a
ab
an

Similarly:

)(

) (

Vbn Vbn = ( Z aa Z an ) I b + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I a + I c ) + ( Z an Z nn ) I n
Vcn Vcn = ( Z aa Z an ) I c + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I a + I b ) + ( Z an Z nn ) I n
11/20/13

Networks

78

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

When the line currents return in the neutral conductor:

In = Ia + Ib + Ic

SubsOtuOng:

Van Van = ( Z aa Z an ) I a + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I b + I c ) ( Z an Z nn ) ( I a + I b + I c )
V V = Z Z I + Z Z
I + I c ) ( Z an Z nn ) ( I a + I b + I c )
(
(
bn
b n
aa
an ) b
ab
an ) ( a

Vcn Vcn = ( Z aa Z an ) I c + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I a + I b ) ( Z an Z nn ) ( I a + I b + I c )

Algebra

11/20/13

Networks

79

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Grouping terms,

V V = Z 2Z + Z I + Z 2Z + Z
Ib + Ic
an
an
aa
an
nn
a
ab
an
nn

Vbn Vbn = Z aa 2Z an + Z nn I b + Z ab 2Z an + Z nn I a + I c

Vcn Vcn = Z aa 2Z an + Z nn I c + Z ab 2Z an + Z nn I a + I b

We see that the presence of the neutral conductor changes the self-
and mutual impedances of the phase conductors to the following
eecOve values:

(
(
(

)
)
)

(
(
(

)(
)(
)(

)
)
)

Z s = Z aa 2Z an + Z nn

Z m = Z ab 2Z an + Z nn
11/20/13

Networks

80

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Van Van = Z s I a + Z m I b + I c

Vbn Vbn = Z s I b + Z m I a + I c

Vcn Vcn = Z s I c + Z m I a + I b

V V V
Z Z
I

Z
aa
an
an
s
m
m
a

Vbb = Vbn Vbn = Z m Z s Z m I b

Vcc Vcn Vcn Z m Z m Z s I c

Since this does not explicitly include the neutral conductor, Zs and
Zm can be regarded as parameters of the phase conductors alone,
without any self or mutual inductance being associated with the
return path.

(
(
(

11/20/13

Networks

)
)
)

81

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Remember the trick!

Z Z
Z Z
Z
Z
0
0
Zm Zm
s
m
m
s
m
m

Z m Z s Z m =
+ Zm Zm Zm
0
Zs Z m
0

0
0
Zs Z m Z m Z m Z m
Z m Z m Z s

Now express the a-b-c voltage drops and the currents on the line in
terms of their symmetrical components with phase a as the
reference.

11/20/13

Networks

82

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

0
V
Va(a)
aa
1
Va(a) = Vbb

( 2)
Vcc
Vaa

Va(a)
0

Va(a)
1

Va(a)
2

Va(a)
0

Va(a)
1

Va(a)
2

(0)
Zm I a

Zs Z m
0
Z m Z m I a(1)

0
Zs Z m
Z m Z m I ( 2)
a

I (0)

1 0 0
1 1 1 a

= ( Z Z ) 1 0 1 0 + Z 1 1 1 1 I (1)
s
m
m

0 0 1
1 1 1 ( 2)

I a

I a(0)
Z
+
2Z
0
0
m
s

=
I a(1)
0
Zs Z m
0

0
0
Z s Z m I ( 2)
a

11/20/13

Z Z
m
s
=
0

0

Z
m
+ Zm

Z m

Networks

Zm

83

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

V (0)
I (0)

0
0
aa Z s + 2Z m
a

V (1) =
I (1)

0
Z

Z
0
s
m

a
aa

V ( 2)
0
0
Z s Z m I ( 2)
a
aa

Now dene zero-, posiOve-, and negaOve-sequence impedances as:

Z0 = Z s + 2Z m
= Z aa + 2Z ab + 3Z nn 6Z an
Z1 = Z 2
= Z s Z m = Z aa Z ab
11/20/13

Networks

84

## V (0) V (0) V (0)

an
aa an
V (1) = V (1) V (1)
an
aa an
V ( 2) V ( 2) V ( 2)
an
aa an

11/20/13

Z0
= 0

0

0
Z1
0

Networks

I (0)

0 a

0 I a(1)

Z 2 I ( 2)
a

85

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

+
(0)

Van

I a( )
0

Z0

Ia

Van
_

+
( 2)

11/20/13

Z1

_
+
Va(n)
1

Van
_

(1)

Va(n)
0

(1)

( 2)

Ia

Z2

n
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

Va(n)
2

_
86

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Because of the assumed symmetry of the circuit of the line, we see
that the zero-, posiOve-, and negaOve-sequence equaOons decouple
from one another, and corresponding uncoupled zero-, posiOve-,
and negaOve-sequence circuits can be drawn.

Despite the simplicity of the line model, the model has incorporates
important characterisOcs of the sequence impedances which apply
to more elaborate and pracOcal line models. We note that the
posiOve- and negaOve-sequence impedances are equal and do not
include the neutral conductor impedances Znn and Zan which enter
into the calculaOon of only the zero-sequence impedance Zo.

Impedance parameters of the return-path conductors enter into the
values of the zero-sequence impedances, but they do not aect the
posiOve or negaOve sequence
impedance.
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

87

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

Most aerial transmission lines have at least two overhead
conductors called ground wires , which are grounded at uniform
intervals along the length of the line.

The ground wires combine with the earth return path to consOtute
an eecOve neutral conductor with impedance parameters much
like Znn and Zan but which depend on the resisOvity of the earth.

More advanced literature shows that the model developed here is
sOll valid with the numerical parameters adjusted accordingly.

11/20/13

Networks

88

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

In deriving the equaOons for inductance and capacitance of
transposed lines, we assumed balanced three-phase currents and
did not specify phase order. Those results are therefore thus valid
for both posiOve- and negaOve-sequence impedances.

When only zero-sequence current ows in a transmission line, the
current in each phase is idenOcal . The current returns through the
ground, through over head ground wires, or through both.

Because zero-sequence current is idenOcal in each phase conductor
(rather than equal only in magnitude and displaced in phase by 120o
from other phase currents), the magneOc eld due to zero-
sequence current is very dierent from the magneOc eld caused by
either posiOve- or negaOve-sequence current.
11/20/13

Networks

89

## SEQUENCE CIRCUITS OF A SYMMERTICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

The dierence in magneOc eld results in the zero-sequence
inducOve reactance of overhead transmission lines being 2 to 3.5
Omes as large as the posiOve-sequence reactance.

The raOo is toward the higher porOon of the specied range for
double-circuit lines and lines without ground wires.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

90

Example

The terminal voltages at the leu-hand and right-hand ends of a line
are given by:

The line impedances in ohms are:

Determine the line currents Ia, Ib, and Ic using both symmetrical
components and without symmetrical components.
11/20/13

Networks

91

Example

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

92

Example

Since
1
2
I a( ) = I a( ) = 0 I a = I b = I c = 262.5 j175
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

93

Example

Without using symmetrical components, nd

11/20/13

Networks

94

Example

11/20/13

Networks

95

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Consider a synchronous generator (next slide), grounded through a
reactor.

When a fault (not shown in the gure) occurs at the terminals of the
generator, currents la, lb, and Ic ow in the lines.

If the fault involves ground, the current owing into the neutral of
the generator is designated In and the line currents can be resolved
into their symmetrical components regardless of how unbalanced
they may be.

The equaOons developed earlier this semester for the idealized
synchronous machine are all based on the assumpOon of balanced
instantaneous armature currents. We assumed that ia + ib + ic = 0.
11/20/13

Networks

96

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Consider again a synchronous generator grounded through a
reactor:
Ia

In

Zn

+
_

Ean
n

Ebn
Ecn
c

11/20/13

Ib
Ic

Networks

97

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

When a fault (not indicated in the gure) occurs at the terminals o f
the generator, currents la, lb, and Ic ow in the lines.

If the fault involves ground, the current owing into the neutral of
the generator is designated In and the line currents can be resolved
into their symmetrical components regardless of how unbalanced
they may be.

Recall the equaOons developed for the idealized synchronous
machine are all based on the assumpOon of balanced instantaneous
armature currents. We assumed that ia + ib + ic = 0, and then set ia =
(ib + ic) in order to arrive at the terminal voltage of phase a in the
form:
di
van = Ria ( Ls + M s )

11/20/13

dt

+ ean

Networks

98

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

In sinusoidal steady-state: Van = RI a j ( Ls + M s ) I a + Ean

Had we NOT then set ia = (ib + ic) then we would have found:

dia
d

van = Ria Ls
+ M s ( ib + ic ) + ean
dt
dt

Van = RI a j Ls I a + j M s ( I b + I c ) + Ean

Similarly:
Vbn = RI b j Ls I b + j M s ( I a + I c ) + Ebn
Vcn = RI c j Ls I c + j M s ( I a + I b ) + Ecn

11/20/13

Networks

99

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

In matrix form:
V
an
Vbn

Vcn

a
= ( R + j Ls ) I b

I c

11/20/13

+ j M s

I
a
= R + j ( Ls + M s ) I b +

I c

0 1 1 a
I
1 0 1
b

1 1 0 I c

E
an
+ Ebn

Ecn
1 1 1 I a Ean
j M s 1 1 1 I b + Ebn
1 1 1 I E
c cn

Networks

100

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Following the usual procedure we express the a-b-c quanOOes of
the machine in terms of symmetrical components of phase a of the
armature:
V
an
1 Vbn

Vcn
V (0)
an
V (1)
an
V ( 2)
an

I
I
E

a
a
1
1
1

an

= R + j ( Ls + M s ) 1 I b + j M s 1 1 1 1 I b + 1 Ebn

1
1
1
I
I
E

c
c
cn

I (0)
I (0)
E

1 1 1 a
an

= R + j ( L + M ) I (1) + j M 1 1 1 1 I (1) + 1 a 2 E
s
s
s
an

1 1 1 ( 2)

I ( 2)
aEan

a
I a
1 1 1 1
Since the synchronous generator is
1
1

## designed to supply balanced three-phase

= 1 a a 2 = 1 e j 240 e j120
voltages, we have shown the generated
2
j120
j
240
1 a

## voltages Ean, Ebn, and Ecn as a

a 1 e
e
posi;ve- sequence set of phasors.

11/20/13

Networks

101

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

V (0)
I (0)

an
a
V (1) = R + j ( L + M ) I (1) + j M 1
s
s
s

an
a

V ( 2)
I ( 2)
an
a
I (0)
3
a
= R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a(1) + j M s 0

0
2
I( )
a

(0)
(0)

R
+
j

L
+
M
I
+
j3

M
I
(
)
s
s a
s a

1
=
R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + Ean

2
R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a( )

11/20/13

I (0)
E

a
an

1 1 1

1
2
(1)
1 1 1 I a + a Ean

1 1 1 I ( 2)
aEan
a
I (0)
0 0 a 0

(1)
0 0 I a + 1 Ean
0 0 I ( 2) 0
a

Networks

102

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

(0)
0
0
0
0
Van = R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + j3 M s I a( ) = RI a( ) j ( Ls 2 M s ) I a( )

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
Van = Ean R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a = Ean RI a j ( Ls + M s ) I a
Van(2) = R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a(2) = RI a(2) j ( Ls + M s ) I a(2)

Van(0) = Z g 0 I a(0)
V (1) = E Z I (1)
an
an
g1 a
(2)
2
Van = Z g 2 I a( )

Zg0, Zg1, and Zg2 are the zero-, posiOve-, and negaOve-sequence
impedances, respecOvely, of the generator.

11/20/13

Networks

103

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Original Network:
Ia

In

Zn

+
_

Ean
n

Ebn
Ecn
c

11/20/13

Ib
Ic

Networks

104

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

0
0
0
0

Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + j3 M s I a( ) = Z g 0 I a( )
1
1
1
PosiOve-Sequence Network:
Van( ) = Ean j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Ean Z g1 I a( )
1

2
2
2
I a( )
Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Z g 2 I a( )
a
Single Phase Equivalent:
Z g1
+
_

I a( )
1

Ean

Z1

11/20/13

Ebn
Ecn

Z g1

I b( )
1

I c( )
1

Networks

+
_

Z g1

Va( )

Ean

Reference

105

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

0
0
0
0

Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + j3 M s I a( ) = Z g 0 I a( )
1
1
1
NegaOve-Sequence Network:
Van( ) = Ean j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Ean Z g1 I a( )
2

2
2
2
I a( )
Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Z g 2 I a( )
a
Single Phase Equivalent:
Zg 2

I a( )
2

Z2

Zg 2
c

11/20/13

Zg 2
2
I c( )

2
Va( )

2
I b( )

Networks

_
Reference

106

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

0
0
0
0

Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + j3 M s I a( ) = Z g 0 I a( )
1
1
1
Zero-Sequence Network:
Van( ) = Ean j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Ean Z g1 I a( )
0

2
2
2
I a( )
Van( ) = j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) = Z g 2 I a( )
a
Single Phase Equivalent:
Zg0

Zn

I a( )
0

3I a( )
0

Zg0

Z0

Zg0

Zg0

I b( )

3Z n

11/20/13

0
I c( )

Networks

0
Va( )

Reference

107

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The sequence circuits shown are the single-phase equivalent circuits
of the balanced three-phase machine through which the
symmetrical components of the unbalanced currents are considered
to ow.

The sequence components of current are owing through
impedances of their own sequence only, as indicated by the
appropriate subscripts on the impedances shown in the gure. This
is because the machine is symmetrical with respect to phases a, b,
and c .

The posiOve-sequence circuit is composed of an emf in series with
the posiOve-sequence impedance of the generator.
11/20/13

Networks

108

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The negaOve- and zero-sequence circuits contain no emfs but
include the impedances of the generator to negaOve- and zero-
sequence currents , respecOvely.

The reference node for the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence circuits
is the neutral of the generator.

So far as posiOve- and negaOve-sequence components are
concerned, the neutral of the generator is at ground potenOal if
there is a connecOon between neutral and ground having a nite or
zero impedance since the connecOon will carry no posiOve- or
negaOve-sequence current.

11/20/13

Networks

109

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Once again, we see that there is no essenOal dierence between
Va(1) and Van(1) in the posiOve-sequence circuit or between Va(2) and
Van(2) in the negaOve-sequence circuit.

This explains why the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence voltages Va(1)
and Va(2) are wrimen without subscript n .

The current owing in the impedance Zn between neutral and
ground is 3Ia(0), By referring to the zero-sequence gure we see that
the voltage drop of zero sequence from point a to ground is (Slide
107)
(0)
(0)
(0)
Van = Z g 0 I a 3Z n I a

where Zg0 is the zero-sequence impedance per phase of the
generator.
11/20/13

Networks

110

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The zero-sequence circuit, which is a single-phase circuit assumed
to carry only the zero-sequence current of one phase, must
therefore have an impedance of 3Zn + Zg0, as shown in the previous
gure.

The total zero-sequence impedance through which Ia(0) ows is:

Z0 = 3Z n + Z g 0

11/20/13

Networks

111

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Usually, the components of current and voltage for phase a are
found from equaOons determined by the sequence circuits.

The equaOons for the components of voltage drop from point a of
phase a to the reference node (or ground) are:

0
0
Van( ) = Z g 0 I a( )

1
1
Van( ) = Ean Z g1 I a( )

2
2

Van( ) = Z g 2 I a( )

where Ean is the posiOve-sequence voltage to neutral, Z1 and Z2 are
the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence impedances of the generator,
respecOvely, and Z0 is dened by Z
0 =
3Z
n +
Z g 0 .
11/20/13

Networks

112

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The equaOons developed to this point are based on a simple
machine model which assumes the existence of only fundamental
components of currents.

On this basis the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence impedances are
found to be equal to one another but quite dierent from the zero-
sequence impedance.

In fact, however, the impedances of rotaOng machines to currents
of the three sequences will generally be dierent for each
sequence. The mmf produced by negaOve-sequence armature
current rotates in the direcOon opposite to that of the rotor which
has the dc eld winding.
11/20/13

Networks

113

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

Unlike the ux produced by posiOve-sequence current, which is
staOonary with respect to the rotor, the ux produced by the
negaOve-sequence current is sweeping rapidly over the face of the
rotor. The currents induced in the eld and damper windings
counteract the rotaOng mmf of the armature and thereby reduce
the ux penetraOng the rotor.

This condiOon is similar to the rapidly changing ux immediately
upon the occurrence of a short circuit at the terminals of a machine.

The ux paths are the same as those encountered in evaluaOng
subtransient reactance. So, in a cylindrical-rotor machine
subtransient and negaOve-sequence reactances are
equal. Typical values conrm this statement (next slide).
11/20/13

Networks

114

## Typical Reactance of Three-Phase Synchronous Machines

Data furnished rom ABB Power T & D Company, Inc.

Turbine Generators
2-pole
4-pole
Salient-pole Generators

Conven;onal
Conductor
Conven;onal
Conductor
With
Without

Cooled
Cooled
Cooled
Cooled
Dampers
Dampers

1.76
1.95
1.38
1.87
1
1
Xd
1.7 1.82
2.72 2.17
1.21 1.55
1.6 2.13
0.6 1.5
0.6 1.5

1.66
1.93
1.35
1.82
0.6
0.6
Xq

1.63 1.69
1.17 2.14
1.17 1.53
1.56 2.07
0.4 0.8
0.4 0.8
0.21
0.33
0.26
0.41
0.32
0.32
Xd
0.18 0.23
0.264 0.387
0.25 0.27
0.35 0.467
0.25 0.5
0.25 0.5
X
0.13
0.28
0.19
0.29
0.2
0.2
d
0.11 0.14
0.23 0.323
0.184 0.197 0.269 0.32 0.13 0.32
0.2 0.5

0.2
0.4
X2
= Xd
= Xd
= Xd
= Xd
0.13 0.32
0.30 0.45

-
-
-
-
-
-
X0*
*X0 varies so criOcally with armature winding pitch that an average
value can not really be given. The variaOon is from 0.1 to 0.7 Xd.
11/20/13

Networks

115

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The reactances in both the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence circuits
are ouen taken to be equal to the subtransient or transient
reactance, depending on whether subtransient or transient
condiOons are being studied.

When only zero-sequence current ows in the armature winding of
a three-phase machine, the current and mmf of one phase are a
maximum at the same Ome as the current and mmf of each of the
other phases.

The windings are so distributed around the circumference of the
armature that the point of maximum mmf produced by one phase is
displaced 120 electrical degrees in space from the point of
maximum mmf of each of the other phases.
11/20/13

Networks

116

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

If the mmf produced by the current of each phase had a perfectly
sinusoidal distribuOon in space, a plot of mmf around the armature
would result in three sinusoidal curves whose sum would be zero at
every point. No ux would be produced across the air gap, and the
only reactance of any phase winding would be that due to leakage
and end turns.

In an actual machine the winding is not distributed to produce
perfectly sinusoidal mmf. The ux resulOng from the sum of the
mmfs is very small, which makes the zero-sequence reactance the
smallest of the machine's reactances-just somewhat higher than
zero of the ideal case where there is no air-gap ux due to zero-
sequence current.
11/20/13

Networks

117

## Sequence Circuits of the Synchronous Machine

The equaOons on slide 112, which apply to any generator carrying
unbalanced currents, are the starOng points for the derivaOon of
equaOons for the components of current for dierent types of
faults. As we shall see, they apply to the Thvenin equivalent
circuits at any bus of the system as well as to the case of a loaded
generator under steady-state condiOons. When compuOng transient
or subtransient condiOons, the equaOons apply to a loaded
generator if E' or E" is subsOtuted for Ean.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

118

Example

A salient-pole generator without dampers is rated at 20 MVA, 13.8
kV, and has a direct-axis subtransient reactance of 0.25 per unit.
The negaOve- and zero-sequence reactances are, respecOvely, 0.35
and 0.10 per unit. The neutral of the generator is solidly grounded.
With the generator operaOng unloaded at rated voltage with Ean =
1.0 per unit, a single line-to-ground fault occurs at the machine
terminals, which then have per-unit voltages to ground of:

Vb = 1.013 102.25
Vc = 1.013 + 102.25
Va = 0

Determine the subtransient currents in the generator and the line-
to-line voltages for subtransient condiOons due to the fault.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

119

Example

Ia
a

+
_

Zn

Va = 0

In

Ean

Vb = 1.013 102.25

Ebn
Ecn

Ib
Ic

Vc = 1.013 + 102.25

11/20/13

Networks

120

Example

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

121

Example

Post-fault
voltages:

Before the fault occurred, the line voltages were balanced and
equal to 13.8 kV.
11/20/13

Networks

122

Example

b

Vab

Vbc
a
n

Vca

c

Pre-fault

11/20/13

Vab
a
n

Vbc

Vca
c

Networks

Post-fault

123

11/20/13

Networks

124

## Sequence Circuits of -Y Transformers

The sequence equivalent circuits of three-phase transformers
depend on the connecOons of the primary and secondary
windings. The dierent combinaOons of and Y windings
determine the conguraOons of the zero-sequence circuits
and the phase shiu in the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence
circuits.

For this reason we need to review three-phase transformers.

11/20/13

Networks

125

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

126

Three-Phase Transformers

Three idenOcal single-phase transformers may be connected so that
the three voltage raOng are -connected and the three winding of
the other voltage raOng are Y-connected to form a three-phase
transformer.

Such a transformer is said to be Y- or -Y.

The other possible connecOons are Y-Y and -.

If each of the three single-phase transformers has three windings (a
primary, a secondary and a terOary), two sets might be connected in
Y and one in , or two could be -connected with one Y-connected.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

127

Three-Phase Transformers

Instead of using three idenOcal single-phase transformers, a more
usual unit is a three-phase transformer where all three phases are
on the same iron structure.

The theory is the same for a three-phase transformer as for a bank
of three single-phase transformers.

The three phase unit has the advantage of using less iron to form
the core, and is more economical as well as smaller.

For a single-phase transformer the dot convenOon can sOll be used,
or the domed ends may be marked H1 for the high-voltage winding
and X1 for the low-voltage winding. The opposite ends are labeled
H2 and X2.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

128

Three-Phase Transformers
A, H1
B, H2

N

n

a, X1
b, X2

Wiring diagram for a Y-Y connecOon.
A
B

11/20/13

c, X3

H1

X2

b
a

H2

X1
N

C, H3

H3

X3
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

c
129

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

130

Three-Phase Transformers

We use capital lemers A, B, and C to idenOfy the phases of the high-
voltage windings and lowercase lemers a, b, and c for the low-
voltage windings.

The high-voltage terminals of three-phase transformers are marked
H1, H2, and H3, and the low-voltage terminals are marked X1, X2, and
X3.

In Y-Y or - transformers the markings are such that voltages to
neutral from terminals H1, H2, and H3, are in phase with the voltages
to neutral from terminals X1, X2, and X3, respecOvely.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

131

Three-Phase Transformers

Of course, the windings have no neutral, but the part of the
system to which the winding is connected will have a connecOon
to ground. Thus, the ground can serve as the eecOve neutral under
balanced condiOons and voltages to neutral from the terminals of
the do exist.

To conform with the American standard, the terminals of Y- and -
-Y transformers are labeled so that the voltages from H1, H2, and
H3 to neutral lead the voltages to neutral from X1, X2, and X3,
respecOvely, by 30. We will consider this phase shiu more fully
later on.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

132

Three-Phase Transformers

Shown below is a schemaOc method of indicaOng winding
connecOons of a three-phase transformer. Voltages are shown for a
66/6.6 kV, Y-Y transformer supplying 0.6- resistors (or
impedances). Shown is a balanced system in which each phase can
be treated separately, whether or not the neutral points
are connected.
+

+
66 kV

11/20/13

0.6
0.6

+
38.1 kV

+
3.81 kV

6.6 kV

0.6

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

133

Three-Phase Transformers

Impedances transfer from the low-voltage side to the high-voltage
side by the raOo of the line-to-neutral or line-to-line voltages (it
doesnt mamer) in the usual way:
2

38.1
66
0.6
= 0.6
= 60

3.81
6.6

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

134

Three-Phase Transformers

If we had used a Y- transformer to obtain 6.6 kV across the
resistors with the same 66 kV primary, the winding would be
rated 6.6 kV rather than 3.81 kV.

So far as the voltage magnitude at the lower voltage terminals is
concerned, the Y- transformer could then be replaced by a Y-Y
transformer bank having an eecOve phase-to-neutral turns raOo of
38.1:6.6/31/2, or N1:N2/31/2, so that the same 60- resistance per
phase would be seen by the primary.

We see that the criterion for the selecOon of base voltages involves
the square of the raOo of line-to-line voltages and not the square of
the turns raOo of the individual windings of the Y- transformer.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

135

Three-Phase Transformers

Our conclusion is that to transfer the ohmic value impedance from
the voltage level on one side of a three-phase transformer to the
voltage level on the other, the mulOplying factor is the square of the
raOo of line-to-line voltages regardless of whether the transformer
is Y-Y or Y-.

This is illustrated in the following four slides.

Therefore, in per-unit calculaOons involving transformers in three-
phase circuits we require the base voltages on the two sides of the
transformer to have the same ra5o as the rated line-to-line voltages
on the two sides of the transformer. The kilovoltampere base is the
same on each side.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

136

Three-Phase Transformers

Y-Y

N1 : N 2
N
VLL

n
VLN

VLL

ZL

Vn

VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2

;
2

VLL
N1
=
V
N2
2

N1
VLL
ZH =
ZL =
ZL

V
N2

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

137

Three-Phase Transformers

Y-

N1 : N 2
N
VLL

VLN

VLL

3
V

ZL

Vn

VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2

VLL
N1
= 3
V
N2

;
2

2
N
VLL
1
ZH =
ZL
ZL =
V
N2 3

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

138

Three-Phase Transformers

-Y

N1
n

VLL

VLL

V
VLN

3 : N2
V

ZL

Vn

VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2

VLL
1 N1
=
V
3 N2

;
2

2
N

3
VLL
1
ZH =
ZL
ZL =
V
N2

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

139

Three-Phase Transformers

N1
Vn

VLN

VLL

VLL

VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2
N
ZH = 1
N2

11/20/13

3 : N2

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

ZL

VLL
N1
=
V
N2

3
VLL
ZL
ZL =
V
3

140

Example

Three transformers, each rated 25 MVA, 38. 1/3.81 kV, are
connected Y- with a balanced load of three 0.6-, Y-connected
resistors. Choose a base of 75 MVA, 66 kV for the high-voltage side
of the transformer and specify the base for the low-voltage side.
Determine the per-unit resistance of the load on the base for the
low-voltage side . Then, determine the load resistance RL in ohms
referred to the high-voltage side and the per-unit value of this
resistance on the chosen base.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

141

Example

Since 3 38.1 = 66kV
the raOng of the transformer as a three-
phase bank is 75 MVA, 66Y/3.81 kV. So, for the base for the low-
voltage side is 75 MVA, 3.81 kV.

From Eq. 1.54 on the handout on per unit values, the base
impedance on the low-voltage side is

2
2

( base kVLL ) = (3.81) = 0.1935

base MVA 3
75

and on the low-voltage side
0.6
RL =
= 3.10
0.1935
11/20/13

per unit

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

142

Example

The base impedance on the high-voltage side is

2
66
( ) = 58.1

75

The resistance referred to the high-voltage side is
2

66
180
0.6
=
180

R
=
= 3.10
L

58.1
3.81

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

per unit

143

Three-Phase Transformers

The resistance R and leakage reactance X of a three-phase
transformer are measured by the short-circuit test as discussed for
single-phase transformers in EEL 3211.

In a three-phase equivalent circuit R and X are connected in each
line to an ideal three-phase transformer. Since R and X will have the
same per- unit value whether on the low-voltage or the high-voltage
side of the transformer, the per-phase equivalent circuit will
account for the transformer by the per-unit impedance R + jX
without the ideal transformer, if phase-shiu is not important
in the calculaOons and all quanOOes in the circuit are in per unit
with the proper selecOon of base.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

144

Three-Phase Transformers

The Table on the following slide lists typical values of transformer
impedances, which are essenOally equal to the leakage reactance
since the resistance is usually less than 0.01 per unit.

11/20/13

Networks

145

## Typical Range of Transformer Reactances

(for power transformers 25,000 kVA and larger)

Nominal System
Forced-air-cooled,

Voltage (kV)
% *

34.5
5 8

69
6 10

115
6 11

138
6 13

161
6 14

230
7 16

345
8 17

500
10 20

700
11 21

Forced-oil-cooled,
% *
9 14
10 16
10 20
10 22
11 25
12 27
13 28
16 34
19 35

* Percent on rated kVA base. Typical transformers are designed for the minimum value
shown. DistribuOon transformers have considerable lower reactance. Resistances of
transformers are typically lover than 1%.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

146

Example

A three-phase transformer is rated 400 MVA , 220Y/22 kV. The
Y-equivalent short-circuit impedance measured on the low-voltage
side of the transformer is 0.121 , and because of the low
resistance this value may be considered equal to the leakage
reactance.

Determine the per unit reactance of the transformer and the value
to be used to represent this transformer in a system whose base on
the high-voltage side of the transformer is 100 MVA, 230 kV.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

147

Example

On its own base the transformer reactance is:

0.121
= 0.10 per unit
2

22 ) 400
(

On the chosen base the reactance becomes:
2

220 100
0.01
= 0.0228

230 400

11/20/13

per unit

Networks

148

## Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Shin and Equivalent Circuits

As menOoned previously, phase shiu occurs is Y- transformers. We
now examine this in more detail, parOcularly the posiOve- (ABC) and
negaOve- (ACB) phase sequence.

Recall that in a posiOve-sequence set of line-to-neutral voltages VB(1)
lags VA(1) by 120o, whereas VC(1) lags VA(1) by 240o.

In a negaOve-sequence set of line-to-neutral voltages VB(2) leads VA(2)
by 120o, whereas VC(2) leads VA(2) by 240o.

11/20/13

Networks

149

## Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Shin and Equivalent Circuits

Shown below is the schemaOc wiring diagram of a Y- transformer,
where the Y side is the high-voltage side. Recall that capital lemers
apply to the high-voltage side and that windings drawn in parallel
are linked by the same ux.
A
a
X1
H1 I

Ia
A

I ab
I ca
H2 I B
B
N
I bc
X3 I c

c

H3 I C
X2 I b
C
b

In the diagram winding A-N is the phase on the Y-connected side,
which is linked magneOcally with the phase winding a-b on the -
connected side.
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

150

## Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Shin and Equivalent Circuits

The locaOon of dots on the windings shows that VAN is always in
phase with Vab regardless of phase sequence. If H1 is the terminal to
which line A is connected, it is customary to connect phases B and C
to terminals H2 and H3, respecOvely.
A

11/20/13

H1
H2

H3

X1

IA
IB

I ab
N

I ca
I bc

IC

Networks

Ia

X3

Ic

X2

Ib

c
b

151

## Three-Phase Transformers: Phase Shin and Equivalent Circuits

The American standard for designa5ng terminals H1 and X1 on Y-
transformers requires that the posi5ve-sequence voltage drop from
H1 to neutral lead the posi5ve-sequence voltage drop from X1 to
neutral by 30 regardless of whether the Y or the winding is on the
high-voltage side.

Similarly, the voltage from H2 to neutral leads the voltage from X2 to
neutral by 30, and the voltage from H3 to neutral leads the voltage
from X3 to neutral by 30.

Let us examine the phasor diagrams.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

152

Three-Phase Transformers

RelaOon of the voltage phasors when posiOve-sequence voltages
are applied to terminals A,B, and C. The voltages VA(1) = VAN(1) (only
for brevity) and Vab(1) are in phase because of the dots, and then the
other voltages for the phasor diagrams can be determined. For
instance, on the high-voltage side VB(1) lags VA(1) by 120. These two
voltages and VC(1) meet at the Ops of their arrows. Line-to-line
voltages can then be drawn.
(1)
(1)
B

Vab
(1)
(1)
(1)
V
a
b
1
AB
(
)

(1)
(1)
VB
V
V
30
a
b

(1)
(1)
1
()
30
V AN = V A
30
V
(1)
A
BC
30
(1)
(1)
(1)
1
VC
Vc( ) V
Vca

bc
30
30
1)
(

VCA
C(1)
c(1)

High-Voltage Side Symmetrical
Components
& Sequence
Low-Voltage Side
11/20/13
153
Networks

Three-Phase Transformers

For the low-voltage diagram Vbc(1) and Vca(1) can be drawn in phase
with VB(1) and VC(1) can, respecOvely, and then the line-to-neutral
voltages follow. We see that VA(1) leads Va(1) can by 30 and terminal
a must be marked X1 to saOsfy the American standard. Terminals b
and c are marked X2 and X3, respecOvely.
(1)
B(1)

Vab
(1)
(1)
a
b(1)
V AB

(1)
(1)
(1)
VB
V
V
30
a
b

(1)
(1)
1
()
30
V AN = V A
30
V
(1)
A
BC
30
(1)
1)
(
(1)
1
V
C

Vc( ) V
Vca
bc
30
30
1
(
)

VCA
C(1)
c(1)

High-Voltage Side Low-Voltage Side
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

154

Three-Phase Transformers

RelaOon of the voltage phasors when negaOve-sequence voltages
are applied to terminals A, B, and C. We note from the dots on the
wiring diagram that VA(2) (not necessarily in phase with VA(1)) is in
phase with Vab(2). Auer drawing VA(2) in phase with Vab(2), we
complete the diagrams similarly to the posiOve-sequence diagrams
but keeping in mind that VB(2) leads VA(2) by 120. The completed
diagrams below show that VA(2) lags Va(2) by 30.

( 2)

VCA
A(2)

( 2)

2
VC( )

VA

V AB

30

2
VB( )

30

( 2)

11/20/13

C(2)

c(2)

( 2)

( 2)

Vca

VBC

2
Vc( )

a(2)

30

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

( 2)

2
Vb( )

( 2)

Va

30

B(2)

30

( 2)

Vab

Vbc

30

b(2)
155

Three-Phase Transformers

If N1 and N2 represent the number of turns in the high-voltage and
low-voltage windings, respecOvely, of any phase, then the diagrams
show that
(1) N1 (1)
( 2) N1 ( 2)

VA =
Vab
VA =
Vab

N2
N2
by transformer acOon. It then follows from the geometry that

2
(1) N1
(1)
( 2) N1

VA =
3Va 30
VA =
3Va( ) 30
N2
N2

Similarly, currents in the Y-. transformer are displaced by 30 in the
direcOon of the voltages since the phase angles of the currents with
respect to their associated voltages are determined by the load
impedance.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

156

Three-Phase Transformers

The raOo or the rated line-to-line voltage of the Y winding to the
rated line-to-line voltage of the winding equals 31/2N1/N2 , so that
in choosing he line-to-line voltage bases on the two sides of the
transformer in the same raOo, we obtain in per unit:

1
1
1
1

V A( ) = Va( ) 130
I A( ) = I a( ) 130

( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
V
=
V

30
I
=
I
1 30

A
a
A
a

Transformer impedance and magneOzing currents are handled
separately from the phase shiu, which can be represented by an
ideal transformer. This explains why in the above equaOons the per-
unit magnitudes of voltage and current are exactly the same on
both sides of the transformer (for instance, |VA(1)| = |Va(1)|).
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

157

Three-Phase Transformers

Usually, the high-voltage winding in a Y- transformer is Y
connected.

InsulaOon costs for a given step up in voltage are thereby reduced
since this connecOon takes advantage of the fact that the voltage
transformaOon from the low-voltage side to the high-voltage side of
the transformer is 31/2N1/N2, where the N1:N2 raOo is the same as
before.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

158

Three-Phase Transformers

If the high-voltage windings are -connected (shown below), the
transformaOon raOo of line voltages is reduced rather than increased.
You should verify that the voltage phasor diagrams are exactly the
same as before and are therefore sOll valid as are the subsequent
equaOons.
A

I a X1

H1

IA

B
C

11/20/13

H2

IB

I AB

I CA
I BC

Ic

X3

Ib X
2

H3

IC
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

159

Three-Phase Transformers

Under normal operaOng condiOons only posiOve-sequence quanOOes
are involved and then the general rule for any -Y or Y- transformer
is that voltage is advanced 30 when it is stepped up.

We can indicate this phase shiu in voltage by an ideal transformer of

j
complex turns raOo 1: e 6

(1)
(1)
V
V
Since: V (1) = V (1) 130, I (1) = I (1) 130 A = a
A
a
A
a
1)
1)
(
(

IA
Ia

per unit impedance values are the same when move from one side of
the ideal transformer to the other.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

160

Three-Phase Transformers

Real and reacOve power ow is also not aected by the phase shiu
because the current phase shiu compensates exactly for the voltage
phase shiu as far as power values are concerned.

This is easily seen by wriOng the per-unit complex power for each
side of the Y- (or -Y) transformer from

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
V A = Va 130
I A = I a 130

as follows:

1

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

161

Three-Phase Transformers

Hence, if only P and Q quanOOes are required, it is not necessary to
include ideal transformers for the phase shiu of transformers in the
impedance diagram.

In most situaOons we can eliminate the ideal transformers from the
per-unit impedance diagram, and then the calculated currents and
voltages are proporOonal to the actual currents and voltages.

Phase angles of the actual currents and voltages can be found if
needed by noOng from the one-line diagram the posiOons of the Y-
and -Y transformers and by applying the rules learned; namely

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

162

Three-Phase Transformers

## When stepping up from the low-voltage to

the high-voltage side of a Y- or -Y
voltages and currents by 30 and retard
nega;ve-sequence voltages and currents by
30.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

163

Three-Phase Transformers

It is also important to note from

(1) (1)*
(1)
(1)*
(1) (1)*
V A I A = Va 30 I a 30 = Va I a

that

(1) (1)* 1
IA
VA

= (1)*
1)
(

Ia
Va

i.e, the current raOo of any transformer with phase shiu is the
reciprocal of the complex conjugate of the voltage raOo.

Generally, only voltage raOos are shown in circuit diagrams, but it is
always understood that the current raOo is as given above.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

164

Three-Phase Transformers

Consider the single-line diagram indicaOng Y- transformers to step
up voltage from a generator to a high-voltage transmission line and
to step down the voltage to a lower level for distribuOon.
Ta

11/20/13

Transmission Line

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Tb

165

Three-Phase Transformers

Consider also the equivalent circuit shown. The transformer
resistance and leakage reactance are in per unit and exciOng current
is neglected. Blocks with ideal transformers indicaOng phase shiu are
shown along with the equivalent circuit for the transmission line.
Ra

Xa

RL

1/ e

11/20/13

XL

Xb

Rb

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

/1

166

Three-Phase Transformers

Here is a further simplicaOon where the resistances, shunt
capacitors, and ideal transformers are neglected. Here we rely upon
the single-line diagram to remind us to account for phase shiu due
to the Y- transformers . We must remember that posiOve-sequence
voltages and currents in the higher-voltage transmission line lead the
corresponding quanOOes in the lower-voltage generator and
distribuOon by 30.

Xa
XL
Xb

An example will clarify...
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

167

Example

The gure below shows a three-phase generator rated 300 MVA, 23
kV supplying a system load of 240 MVA, 0.9 power-factor lagging at
230 kV through a 330-MVA 23/230Y-kV step-up transformer of
leakage resistance 11%.

NeglecOng magneOzing current and choosing base values at the
load of 100 MVA and 230 kV, nd IA, IB, and IC supplied to the load in
per unit with VA as reference. Specifying the proper base for the
generator circuit, d Ia, Ib, and Ic from the generator and its terminal
voltage.
T
a

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

168

Three-Phase Transformers

I
a

+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt

11/20/13

1: e

IA

+
VA

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

169

Three-Phase Transformers

I
a

+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt

11/20/13

1: e

IA

+
VA

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

170

Three-Phase Transformers

I
a

+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt

11/20/13

1: e

IA

+
VA

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

171

Three-Phase Transformers

Ia
j
IA
6

1: e

+
+ j1 +
30

Va
Vt

The generator base is 23 kV. This means that the terminal voltage of
the generator is kV.

The real power supplied by the generator is

which corresponds to 216 MW absorbed by the load since there are
no I2R losses.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

172

Sequence Circuits of Y Transformers

11/20/13

Networks

173

## Sequence Circuits of -Y Transformers

The sequence equivalent circuits of three-phase transformers
depend on the connecOons of the primary and secondary windings.
The dierent combinaOons of and Y windings determine the
conguraOons of the zero-sequence circuits and the phase shiu in
the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence circuits.

Remember that no current ows in the primary of a transformer
unless current ows in the secondary, if we neglect the relaOvely
small magneOzing current.

The primary current is determined by the secondary current and the
turns raOo of the windings, again with magneOzing current
neglected. These principles guide us in the analysis of individual
cases.
11/20/13

Networks

174

## Sequence Circuits of -Y Transformers

Five possible connecOons of two-winding transformers will be
discussed.

The arrows on the connecOon diagrams of the gures to follow
show the possible paths for the ow of zero-sequence current.

Absence of an arrow indicates that the transformer connecOon is
such that zero-sequence current cannot ow.

The zero-sequence equivalent circuits developed are approximate
since resistance and the magneOzing-current path are omimed from
each circuit.

11/20/13

Networks

175

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I
=
I
+
I
+
I
I
=
I
+
I
+
I
A A
N1 : N 2
a
a
a
a
A
A
A
a

B
b

0
1
2
I B = I B(0) + I B(1) + I B(2)
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
N
n

()
()
3I
Z Z 3I
0
1
2
(0)
(1)
( 2)
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )
I C = I C + I C + I C
C
c

The arrows show the direcOons chosen for the currents.
0
A

11/20/13

0
a

Networks

176

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

We rst treat the transformers as ideal and add series leakage
impedance later when the shunt magneOzing current can also be
included if necessary.

We conOnue to designate voltages with respect to ground by a
single subscript and voltages with respect to neutral have two
subscripts.

Capital lemers are assigned to the high-voltage and lowercase lemers
are assigned on the other side. As before, windings that are drawn
in parallel.
11/20/13

Networks

177

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

As before, windings that are drawn in parallel direcOons are those
linked magneOcally on the same core. Two such windings are:
0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )

0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )

+ A
VA

N1 : N 2

+
V AN

3I A( )
0

11/20/13

ZN

+
Van

3I a( )
0

Zn

+
Va

Networks

178

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

The voltage measured with respect to ground on the high-voltage
side is:

V A = V AN + VN

(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)

V
+
V
+
V
=
V
+
V
+
V
+
3Z
I
A
A
A
AN
AN
AN
N A

EquaOng quanOOes of the same sequence again conrms the fact
that posiOve- and negaOve-sequence voltages to ground are equal
to posiOve- and negaOve-sequence voltages to neutral:

1
2
(1)
( 2)
V A( ) = V AN
, V A( ) = V AN

11/20/13

Networks

179

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

The zero-sequence voltage dierence between neutral and ground
(0)
3Z
I
is N A .

Similarly on the low-voltage side:

0
1
2
0
1
2
0

Va( ) + Va( ) + Va( ) = Van( ) + Van( ) + Van( ) 3Z n I a( )

The minus sign is because the direcOon of Ia(0) is out of the
transformer and into the lines on the low-voltage side.

11/20/13

Networks

180

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol

Voltages and currents on both sides of the transformer are related
by turns raOo N1/N2:

N1 (0)
(0)
(1)
( 2) N 2 (0) N 2 (1) N 2 ( 2)
Va + Va + Va = V AN +
V AN +
V AN 3Z n
IA

N1
N1
N2
N1

MulOply by N1/N2:

2
N1 (0)
N1 (0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)

Va + Va + Va = V AN + V AN + V AN 3Z n I A
N2
N2

But

) (

0
1
2
0
(0)
(1)
( 2)
V A( ) + V A( ) + V A( ) = V AN
+ V AN
+ V AN
+ 3Z N I A( )

11/20/13

Networks

181

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

SubsOtuOng we obtain:
Symbol
V ( ) +V ( ) +V ( ) 3Z I ( )

N1 (0)
N1
0
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)

Va + Va + Va = V AN + V AN + V AN 3Z n I A( )
N2
N2

2

N1 (0)
N1 (0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)

Va + Va + Va = V A + V A + V A 3Z N I A 3Z n I A
N2
N2

EquaOng components of the same sequence:

) (

0
A

1
A

2
A

0
N A

N1 (0)
N
0
0
Va = V A( ) 3 Z N Z n 1 I A( )
N2

N2

N1 (1)
N1 ( 2)
1
2
Va = V A( ) ,
Va = V A( )
N2
N2
11/20/13

Networks

182

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol
The posiOve- and negaOve-sequence relaOons are exactly the same
as for the usual per-phase equivalent circuit of the transformer and
therefore applies when posiOve- or negaOve-sequence voltages and
currents are present. The zero-sequence equivalent circuit is:
(0)

IA
A

+
V A( )
0

Leakage

3Z N

N
3Z n 1
N2

I a( )
0

N1 : N 2

+ a

V A( )

0
Va( )

Ideal

11/20/13

Networks

183

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol
The leakage impedance Z of the transformer in series on the high-
voltage side so that the total impedance to zero-sequence current is
now Z + 3ZN + 3(N1/N2 )2Zn referred to the high-voltage side.

The shunt magneOzing impedance could also be added to the circuit
if desired. When voltages on both sides of the transformer are
expressed in per unit on kilovolt line-to-line bases chosen in
accordance with the rated voltages, the transformer turns raOo
becomes unity. Then the zero-sequence circuit is:

A
a
Z Zo = Z + 3Z N + 3Z n per unit
o

Reference Bus
11/20/13

Networks

184

## CASE 1. Y-Y Bank, Both Neutrals Grounded

Symbol
Note that impedances connected from neutral to ground in the
actual circuit are mulOplied by 3 in the zero-sequence circuit.

Where both neutrals of a Y-Y bank are grounded directly or through
an impedance, a path through the transformer exists for zero-
sequence currents in both windings. Provided the zero-sequence
current can follow a complete circuit outside the transformer on
both sides, it can ow in both windings of the transformer. In the
zero-sequence circuit, points on the two sides of the transformer
are connected by the zero-sequence impedance of the transformer
in the same manner as in the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence
networks.
11/20/13

Networks

185

## CASE 2. Y-Y Bank, One Neutral Grounded

0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )

0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )

N1 : N 2

0
1
2
I B = I B( ) + I B( ) + I B( )

(0)

(1)

( 2)

IC = IC + IC + IC

(0)

3I A

n
ZN

11/20/13

Symbol

0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )

Networks

186

## CASE 2. Y-Y Bank, One Neutral Grounded

Symbol

If either one of the neutrals of a Y-Y bank is ungrounded, zero-
sequence current cannot ow in either winding. This can be seen by
seng either ZN or Zn equal to innity.

The absence of a path through one winding prevents current in the
other and an open circuit exists for zero-sequence current between
the two parts of the system connected by the transformer.
A

Zo

Reference Bus
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

187

CASE 3. - Bank

0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )

0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )

N1 : N 2

+
0
1
2
I B = I B( ) + I B( ) + I B( ) V AB

+
Vab

0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )

a
0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )

b
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )

11/20/13

Symbol

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

188

CASE 3. - Bank

Symbol

The phasor sum of the line-to-line voltages equals zero on each side
of the - transformer, and so:

(0)
(0)
V
=
V
=0
AB
ab

Applying the rules of the convenOonal dot notaOon for coupled
coils:
V AB
(1)

( 2)

V AB + V AB

11/20/13

N1
=
Vab
N2

N1 (1)
2
=
Vab + Vab( )
N2

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

189

CASE 3. - Bank

Symbol
The line-to-line voltages can be expressed in terms of the line-to-
neutral voltages in the usual way.

(1)
(1)
(1)
2
V
=
1
a
V
=
3V
30
) an
an
Recall from Slide 34: ab (
2
2
2

Vab( ) = (1 a )Van( ) = 3Van( ) 30

N1
1)
2)
1
2
(
(
Thus 3V AN 30 + 3V AN 30 =
3Van( )30 + 3Van( ) 30
N2

(1) N1 (1)
( 2) N1 ( 2)
and so
V AN =
Van , V AN =
Van

N2

11/20/13

N2

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

190

CASE 3. - Bank

Symbol

Thus, the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence equivalent circuits for the
- transformer, like those for the Y-Y connecOon, correspond
exactly to the usual per-phase equivalent circuits.

Since a circuit provides no return path for zero-sequence current,
no zero-sequence current can ow into either side of a - bank
although it can someOmes circulate within the windings.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

191

CASE 3. - Bank

Symbol

Hence, I A(0) = I a(0) = 0

The zero-sequence equivalent circuit is shown below:
A

Zo

Reference Bus

11/20/13

Networks

192

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )

0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )

N1 : N 2

(0)

(1)

( 2)

IB = IB + IB + IB
B

0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )

3I A( )
0

+
V AN

+
Vab

ZN

11/20/13

Symbol

0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )

b
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )

Networks

193

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

Symbol
If the neutral of a Y- bank is grounded, zero-sequence currents
have a path to ground through the Y because corresponding
induced currents can circulate in the .

The zero-sequence current circulaOng in the magneOcally
balances the zero-sequence current in the Y but cannot ow in the
lines connected to the . Hence:
I a( ) = 0
0

11/20/13

Networks

194

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

Symbol

Phase-A voltage on the Y side can be wrimen the same as on Slide
179:
0
1
2
0
(0)
(1)
( 2)

V A( ) + V A( ) + V A( ) = V AN
+ V AN
+ V AN
+ 3Z N I A( )

From which we obtain

(0)

(1)

( 2)

VA + VA + VA

11/20/13

N1 (0) N1 (1) N1 ( 2)
0
= Vab +
Vab +
Vab + 3Z N I A( )
N2
N2
N2

Networks

195

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

Symbol

EquaOng corresponding sequence components:
(0)

(0)

N1 (0)
=
Vab
N2

(1)

N1 (1)
N1 (1)
=
Vab = 3 V A 30
N2
N2

( 2)

N1 ( 2)
N1 ( 2)
=
Vab = 3 V A 30
N2
N2

V A 3Z N I A
VA
VA

11/20/13

Networks

196

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

Symbol
N
From: V A(0) 3Z N I A(0) = 1 Vab(0)
N2

We draw the zero-sequence circuit as follows:

(0)
(0)
I
I

A
a
Z
N

Z o = Z + 3Z N
3Z N

Reference Bus

The leakage impedance Z is referred to the the high-voltage side of
the transformer.

11/20/13

Networks

197

## CASE 4. Y- Bank, Grounded Y

Symbol
The equivalent circuit provides for a zero-sequence current path
from the line on the Y side through the equivalent resistance and
leakage reactance of the transformer to the reference node.

An open circuit must exist between the line and the reference node
on the side.

When the connecOon from neutral to ground contains impedance
ZN (as shown), the zero-sequence equivalent circuit must have
impedance 3ZN in series with the equivalent resistance and leakage
reactance of the transformer to connect the line on the Y side to
ground.
11/20/13

Networks

198

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )

0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )

N1 : N 2

(0)

(1)

+
V AN

( 2)

IB = IB + IB + IB
B

+
Vab

0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )

0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )

0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )

11/20/13

Symbol

Networks

199

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

Symbol
An ungrounded Y is a special case where the impedance ZN between
neutral and ground is innite. The impedance 3Zn in the zero-
sequence equivalent circuit of Case 4 becomes innite and zero-
sequence current cannot ow in the transformer windings.

The zero-sequence circuit:
0
0

I( )
I( )
Z
A

Reference Bus

11/20/13

Networks

200

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

Symbol

The posiOve- and negaOve-sequence equivalent circuits of the Y-
transformer shown on the next two slides and are based on our
review.

We use the rule from Slide 163 that when stepping up from the low-
voltage side to the high-voltage side of a -Y or Y- transformer,
advance the posiOve-sequence voltages (and currents) by 30 and
retard the negaOve-sequence voltages (and currents) by 30.

11/20/13

Networks

201

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

The posiOve-sequence circuit:
I A( )
1

N
3 1 30
N2

Symbol

I a( )
1

V A( )

Va( )

Ideal

11/20/13

Networks

202

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

The negaOve-sequence circuit:
I A( )
2

N
3 1 30
N2

Symbol

I a( )
2

2
V A( )

2
Va( )

Ideal

11/20/13

Networks

203

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y

V A( ) = Va( )e j30
1

2
2
V A( ) = Va( )e j30

11/20/13

Symbol

1
1
I A( ) = I a( )e j30

2
2
I A( ) = I a( )e j30

Networks

204

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y Example

The resisOve Y-connected load bank considered in the example on
Slides 38 and following is supplied from the low-voltage Y-side of a
Y- transformer. The voltages at the load are the same as in the
earlier example. Find the voltages and currents in per unit on the
high-voltage side of the transformer.

1
Van( ) = 0.23468e j 42.576
We found: per unit
2

Van( ) = 0.9857e j170.73

and since each resistor was 1.0 per unit:

(1)
j 42.576
I
=
0.23468e

an
I ( 2) = 0.9857e
j170.73
per unit
an

11/20/13

Networks

205

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y Example

Advancing the phase angle of the low-voltage posiOve-sequence
voltage by 30o and retarding the negaOve-sequence voltage by 30o
gives on the high-voltage side:
V A( ) = 0.23468e (

j 42.576+30)

2
j 170.7330)
V A( ) = 0.9857e (

(1)

( 2)

VA = VA + VA

1
1
2
2
1
2
VB( ) = a 2V A( ) , VB( ) = aV A( ) , VB = VB( ) + VB( )

(1)

(1)

( 2)

( 2)

(1)

( 2)

VC = aV A , Vc = a V A , VC = VC + VC
11/20/13

Networks

V AB = V A VB
VBC = VB VC
VCA = VC V A
206

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y Example

The absence of a neutral connecOon means that zero-sequence
currents are not present. Therefore, the phase voltages at the load
contain posiOve- and negaOve-sequence components only . The
phase voltages are found from Slide 203 with the 31/2 factor omimed
since the line voltages are expressed in terms of the base
voltage from line to line and the phase voltages are desired in per
unit of the base voltage to neutral.
11/20/13

Networks

207

11/20/13

Networks

208

## CASE 5. Y- Bank, Ungrounded Y Example

This example emphasizes the fact that in going from one side of the
-Y or Y- transformer to the other, the posiOve-sequence
components of currents and voltages on one side must be phase
shiued separately from the negaOve-sequence components on the
same side before combining them together to form the actual
voltage on the other side.

11/20/13

Networks

209

## Remarks on Phase Shin

The American NaOonal Standards InsOtute (ANSI) requires
connecOon of Y- and -Y transformers so that the posi5ve-
sequence voltage to neutral, VH1N, on the high-voltage side leads the
posi5ve sequence voltage to neutral, VX1n, on the low-voltage side
by 30.

The wiring diagram on Slide 199 and the connecOon diagram of
shown on the next slide (gure a) both saOsfy the ANSI
requirement; and because the connecOons of the phases to the
transformer terminals H1, H2, H3 X1, X2, X3 are respecOvely marked
A, B, C a, b, c as shown, we nd that the posiOve-sequence voltage
to neutral VAN(1) leads the posiOve-sequence voltage to neutral Van(1)
by 30.
11/20/13

Networks

210

H1 X1

H1 X1

H2 X2

H2 X2

H3 X3

H3 X3

11/20/13

Networks

211

## Labeling of Lines Connected to a Three-Phase Y- Transformer

It is not absolutely necessary, however, to label lines amached to the
transformer terminals X1, X2, and X3 by the lemers a, b, and c,
respecOvely, as shown on the previous slide, since no standards
have been adopted for such labeling.

In fact, in calculaOons the designaOon of lines could be chosen as
shown in gure b on the previous slide, which shows the lemers b, c,
and a associated, respecOvely, with X1, X2, and X3.

If the scheme (b) is preferred, it is necessary only to exchange b for
a, c for b, and a for c in the wiring and phasor diagrams of Slide 197,
which would then show that Van(1) leads VAN(1) by 90 and that Van(2)
lags VAN(2) by 90. Similar statements also apply to the
corresponding currents.
11/20/13

Networks

212

## Labeling of Lines Connected to a Three-Phase Y- Transformer

We shall conOnue to follow the labeling scheme of Figure a. The
results on Slide 204 then become idenOcal to the ANSI requirement.

When problems involving unsymmetrical faults are solved, posiOve-
and negaOve-sequence components are found separately and phase
shiu is taken into account, if necessary, by applying the results of
Slide 204.

11/20/13

Networks

213

## Labeling of Lines Connected to a Three-Phase Y- Transformer

A transformer in a three-phase circuit may consist of three
individual single-phase units, or it may be a three-phase
transformer. Although the zero-sequence series impedances of
three-phase units may dier slightly from the posiOve- and
negaOve-sequence values, it is customary to assume that series
impedances of all sequences are equal regardless of the type of
transformer.

Recall the Table on Slide 146 which lists transformer reactances.
Reactance and impedance are almost equal for transformers of
1000 kVA or larger. For simplicity in out calculaOons we omit the
shunt admimance which accounts for the exciOng current.

11/20/13

Networks

214

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

So far we have been parOcularly concerned with systems that are
normally balanced.

Let us now look at the equaOons of a three-phase circuit when the
series impedances are unequal.

We shall reach a conclusion that is important in analysis by
symmetrical components.

11/20/13

Networks

215

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

Consider the unsymmetrical part of a system with three unequal
series impedances Za, Zb, and Zc:
Ia
a

Za

Zb

Zc

Ib
b

Ic
c

11/20/13

Networks

216

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

If we assume no mutual inductance (no coupling) among the three
impedances, the voltage drops across the part of the system shown
are given by:
V Z

0 0 Ia
aa
a

Vbb = 0 Z b 0 I b

V
0
0
Z
I
cc
c
c

In terms of symmetrical components of voltage and current:
V (0)
aa Z a
Va(a1) = 0

V ( 2) 0
aa
11/20/13

0
Zb
0

(0) (0)
Z
0 I a Vaa

a
0 I a(1) Va(a1) = 1 0

2
2
(
)
(
)

Zc I V
0
a aa
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
Networks

0
Zb
0

(0)
0 Ia

0 I a(1)

Z c I ( 2)
a
217

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

V( )
Z
I( )
0
0

()
()
0
aa

0
a

= 1 0

V ( 2)
0
aa
1

Vaa

Zb
0

0 I a1

2
(
)

Zc
I a

1 1
1
= 1 a
3
1 a 2

1 Za

a2 0

a 0

1 1
1
= 1 a
3
1 a 2

1 Za

a 2 Zb

a Z c

Z +Z +Z
a
b
c
1
2
= Z a + aZ b + a Z c
3
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c

Z +Z +Z
a
b
c
1
2
= Z a + aZ b + a Z c
3
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c

11/20/13

0
Zb
0
Za
a 2 Zb
aZ c

I (0)

1 a

(1)
a I a
a 2 I ( 2)
a
0
I a( )
1
I a( )

( 2)
Ia

0 1 1

0 1 a2

Z c 1 a

aZ b

2
a Zc

Za

(0)
Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c I a

3
3
2
4
Z a + a Z b + a Z c Z a + a Z b + a Z c I a(1)

4
2
3
3
Z a + a Z b + a Z c Z a + a Z b + a Z c I ( 2)
a
(0)
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c I a

2
Z a + Zb + Zc
Z a + a Z b + aZ c I a(1)

2
2)
(

Z a + aZ b + a Z c
Z a + Zb + Zc I
a
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c

Networks

218

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

V (0)
I (0)
2
2

Z a + a Z b + aZ c Z a + aZ b + a Z c a
aa Z a + Zb + Zc

1
1
2
2
I (1)
V ( ) = Z + aZ + a Z

Z
+
Z
+
Z
Z
+
a
Z
+
aZ
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
aa 3 a
a
(2)
2
2

Z
+
a
Z
+
aZ
Z
+
aZ
+
a
Zc
Z a + Z b + Z c I ( 2)
V
a
b
c
a
b
a
aa
(0) 1
1
1
0
1
2
Vaa = ( Z a + Z b + Z c ) I a( ) + ( Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c ) I a( ) + ( Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c ) I a( )

3
3
3
V (1) = 1 Z + aZ + a 2 Z I (0) + 1 Z + Z + Z I (1) + 1 Z + a 2 Z + aZ I (2)
(
(
(
b
c) a
b
c) a
b
c) a
3 a
3 a
aa 3 a
V (2) = 1 Z + a 2 Z + aZ I (0) + 1 Z + aZ + a 2 Z I (1) + 1 ( Z + Z + Z ) I (2)
(
(
aa
a
b
c) a
a
b
c) a
b
c
a
3
3
3 a

(0)
(0)
V
=
Z
I
aa
a a

If Z a = Zb = Zc Va(a1) = Z a I a(1)

Va(a) = Z a I a( )
2

11/20/13

Networks

219

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

If the impedances are unequal, however, the voltage drop
of any one sequence is dependent on the currents of all three
sequences.

Thus, we conclude that the symmetrical components of unbalanced
currents owing in a balanced load or in balanced series
impedances produce voltage drops of like sequence only.

If asymmetric coupling (such as unequal mutual inductances)
existed among the three impedances of Slide 212, the square matrix
would contain o-diagonal elements and the end result would

11/20/13

Networks

220

## Unsymmetrical Series Impedances

Although current in any conductor of a three-phase transmission
line induces a voltage in the other phases, the way in which
reactance is calculated eliminates consideraOon of coupling. The
self-inductance calculated on the basis of complete transposiOon
includes the eect of mutual reactance.

The assumpOon of transposiOon yields equal series impedances.
Thus, the component currents of any one sequence produce only
voltage drops of like sequence in a transmission line; that is,
posiOve-sequence currents produce posiOve-sequence voltage
drops only. Likewise, negaOve-sequence currents produce
negaOve-sequence voltage drops only and zero-sequence currents
produce zero-sequence voltage drops only.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

221

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

222

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

We have developed single-phase equivalent circuits in the form of
zero-, posiOve-, and negaOve-sequence circuits for

transformers
transmission lines
synchronous machines

These consOtute the main parts of the three-phase power
transmission network. Except for rotaOng machines, all parts of the
network are staOc and without sources. Each individual part is
assumed to be linear and three-phase symmetrical when connected
in Y or conguraOon.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

223

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

On the basis of these assumpOons, we have found that:

In any part of the network voltage drop caused by current of a
certain sequence depends on only the impedance of that part of
the network to current ow of that sequence.

The impedances to posiOve- and negaOve-sequence currents, Z1
and Z2, are equal in any staOc circuit and may be considered
approximately equal in synchronous machines under
subtransient condiOons.
In any part of the network impedance to zero-sequence current,
Z0, is generally dierent from Z1 and Z2.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

224

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

On the basis of these assumpOons, we have found that:

Only posiOve-sequence circuits of rotaOng machines contain
sources which are of posiOve-sequence voltages.
Neutral is the reference for voltages in posiOve- and negaOve-
sequence circuits, and such voltages to neutral are the same as
voltages to ground if a physical connecOon of zero or other nite
impedance exists between neutral and ground in the actual
circuit.
No posiOve- or negaOve-sequence currents ow between neutral
points and ground.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

225

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

On the basis of these assumpOons, we have found that:

Impedances Zn in the physical connecOons between neutral and
ground are not included in posiOve- and negaOve-sequence
circuits but are represented by impedances 3Zn between the
points for neutral and ground in the zero sequence circuits only.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

226

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

These characterisOcs of individual sequence circuits guide the
construcOon of corresponding sequence networks.

The object of obtaining the values of the sequence impedances of
the various parts of a power system is to enable us to construct the
sequence networks for the complete system.

The network of a parOcular sequence-constructed by joining
together all the corresponding sequence circuits of the separate
parts-shows all the paths for the ow of current of that sequence in
one phase of the actual system.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

227

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

In a balanced three-phase system the currents owing in the three
phases under normal operaOng condiOons consOtute a symmetrical
posiOve-sequence set. These posiOve-sequence currents cause
voltage drops of the same sequence only.

Because currents of only one sequence occurred in our preceding
study, we considered them to ow in an independent per-phase
network which combined the posiOve-sequence emfs of rotaOng
machines and the impedances of other staOc circuits to posiOve-
sequence currents only.

That same per-phase equivalent network is now called the posiOve-
sequence network in order to disOnguish it from the networks of
the other two sequences.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

228

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

We have discussed the construcOon of impedance and admimance
representaOons of some rather complex posiOve-sequence
networks.

Generally, we have not included the phase shiu associated with Y
and Y transformers in posiOve-sequence networks since pracOcal
systems are designed with such phase shius summing to zero
around all loops.

In detailed calculaOons, however, we must remember to advance all
posiOve-sequence voltages and currents by 30 when stepping up
from the low-voltage side to the high-voltage side of a Y o r Y
transformer.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

229

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

The transiOon from a posiOve-sequence network to a negaOve-
sequence network is simple.

Three-phase synchronous generators and motors have internal
voltages of posiOve sequence only because they are designed to
generate balanced voltages.

Since the posiOve- and negaOve-sequence impedances are the same
in a staOc symmetrical system, conversion of a posiOve-sequence
network to a negaOve-sequence network is accomplished by
changing, if necessary, only the impedances that represent rotaOng
machinery and by oming the emfs.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

230

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

ElectromoOve forces are omimed on the assumpOon of balanced
generated voltages and the absence of negaOve-sequence voltages
induced from outside sources.

Of course, in using the negaOve-sequence network for detailed
calculaOons, we must also remember to retard the negaOve-
sequence voltages and currents by 30 when stepping up from the
low-voltage side to the high-voltage side of a Y or Y
transformer.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

231

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Since all the neutral points of a symmetrical three-phase system are
at the same potenOal when balanced three-phase currents are
owing, all the neutral points must be at the same potenOal for
either posiOve- or negaOve-sequence currents.

Therefore, the neutral of a symmetrical three-phase system is the
logical reference potenOal for specifying posiOve- and negaOve-
sequence voltage drops and is the reference node of the posiOve-
and negaOve-sequence networks.

Impedance connected between the neutral of a machine and
ground is not a part of either the posiOve- or negaOve-sequence
network because neither posiOve- nor negaOve-sequence current
can ow in an impedance so connected.
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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

232

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

NegaOve-sequence networks, like the posiOve-sequence networks,
may contain the exact equivalent circuits of parts of the system or
be simplied by oming series resistance and shunt admimance.

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

233

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Zero-sequence equivalent circuits determined for the various
separate parts of the system are readily combined to form the
complete zero-sequence network .

A three-phase system operates single phase insofar as the zero-
sequence currents are concerned, for the zero-sequence currents
are the same in magnitude and phase at any point in all the phases
of the system.

Therefore, zero-sequence currents will ow only if a return path
exists through which a completed circuit is provided.

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

234

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

The reference for zero-sequence voltages is the potenOal of the
ground at the point in the system at which any parOcular voltage is
specied.

Since zero-sequence currents may be owing in the ground, the
ground is not necessarily at the same potenOal at all points and the
reference node of the zero-sequence network does not represent a
ground of uniform potenOal.

We have discussed the fact that the impedance of the ground and
ground wires is included in the zero-sequence impedance of the
transmission line, and the return circuit of the zero-sequence
network is a conductor of zero impedance, which is the reference
node of the system.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

235

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

It is because the impedance of the ground is included in the zero-
sequence impedance that voltages measured to the reference node
of the zero-sequence network give the correct voltage to equivalent
ideal ground.

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

236

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Consider the one-line diagrams of a small power system and the
corresponding zero-sequence network, simplied by oming

T
R

P
N

M

Q
S

Z

ONE-LINE DIAGRAM
n

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

237

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Consider the one-line diagrams of a small power system and the
corresponding zero-sequence network:

Case 5

T
R

Case 4

P
N

M

Q
S

Z

Case 4

WATCH THE ORDER!

ONE-LINE DIAGRAM
n

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

238

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Consider the one-line diagrams of a small power system and the
corresponding zero-sequence network:

R Case 5 T
Case 4 N
M

T
R

P
N
M

Q
S

Q
S

Case 4
3Z
n

Reference

ZERO-SEQUENCE NETWORK
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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

239

SEQUENCE NETWORKS
Consider the one-line diagrams of a small power systems and the
corresponding zero-sequence network:

N

Q

Z
W

P

M
P
X
V

R
S

U
T

ONE-LINE
DIAGRAM
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

240

SEQUENCE NETWORKS
Consider the one-line diagrams of a small power systems and the
corresponding zero-sequence network:
Case 2

Q

Case 4 N

W
Z

Case 1

M
P
V
X

Case 4
R
S

T
U
Case 3
Case
3

ONE-LINE
DIAGRAM
Symmetrical Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

241

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

Case 4

N
Q
W

R
S
V
M

P

Case 4

U
Case 3
Case 3
T

ZERO-SEQUENCE NETWORK
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

Case 2
Z
X
Case 1

Reference

242

SEQUENCE NETWORKS

The analysis of an unsymmetrical fault on a symmetrical system
consists in nding the symmetrical components of the unbalanced
currents that are owing. Therefore, to calculate the eect of a fault
by the method of symmetrical components, it is essenOal to
determine the sequence impedances and to combine them to form
the sequence networks. The sequence networks carrying the
symmetrical -component currents are then interconnected to
represent various unbalanced fault condiOons, as we have
described.

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

243

EXAMPLE

Draw the negaOve- and zero-sequence network for the one-line
system shown again below. Assume zero-sequence reactances for
the generator and motors of 0.05 per unit. A current-limiOng
reactor of 0.4 is in each of the neutrals of the generator and the
larger motor. The zero-sequence reactance of the transmission line
is 1.5 /km.
T1
T2
M1

M2

Details: A 300-MVA, 20-kV three-phase generator supplies a number
of synchronous motors over a 64-km transmission line having
transformers at both ends. The motors are all rated 13.2 kV. The
neutral of motor M1 is grounded through a reactance, the second
motor M2 is ungrounded Symmetrical
(a highly
unusual situaOon).
Components & Sequence
11/20/13

Networks

244

EXAMPLE

Rated inputs to the motors are 200 MVA and 100 kV for M1 and M2.
The three-phase transformer T1 is rated 350 MVA, 230/20 kV with
leakage reactance of 10%. Transformer T2 is composed of three
single-phase transformers, each rated 127/13.2 kV, 100 MVA with a
leakage reactance of 10%. Series reactance of the transmission line
is 0.5 /km. Assume that the generator and both motors have a
subtransient reactance of 0.2 per unit.

T1
T2
M1
M2

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

245

EXAMPLE

First, let us draw the reactance diagram using the generator raOng
as the base in the generator circuit.
13.8 kV
T2
T1

Base
20 kV
(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base

Base
M2

The three-phase raOng of T2 is 3 100 = 300
kVA

127 220
3

## its line-to-line voltage raOo is = kV

13.2 13.2

A base of 300 MVA, 20 kV in the generator circuit requires a 300
MVA base in all parts of the system and the following voltage bases:
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

246

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

In the transmission line: 230
kV, since T1 is rated 230/20 kV.

13.2
In the motor circuit: 230
= 13.8
kV.
220

The reactances of the transformers converted to the proper base
are:
300
T1: 0.1 = 0.0857
per unit
350

2
13.2
T2: 0.1 = 0.0915
per unit
13.8

11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

247

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

2
230
The base impedance of the transmission line is: = 176.3

300

0.5 64
The reactance of the line is = 0.1815
per unit.
176.3

2

300 13.2
The reactance of motor M1 is: X d = 0.2
= 0.2745
per unit
200 13.8

2

300 13.2
and M2: X d = 0.2
= 0.2745
per unit
100 13.8

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

248

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

Draw the nega;ve-sequence circuit.

Note that the negaOve-sequence reactances of the system are equal
to the posiOve-sequence reactances, hence the negaOve-sequence
network is idenOcal to the posiOve-sequence network except we
omit the posi;ve-sequence emfs from the nega;ve-sequence
network. The required network drawn without transformer phase
shins is
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

249

EXAMPLE

T1
20
k
V

(20:230 kV)
230 kV
Base
Base

The nega;ve-sequence circuit:
j0.0857

j0.2

j0.1815

13.8 kV
T2
Base
(220:13.2 kV)
M1
M2

j0.0915

j0.2745

j0.5490

Reference
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

250

EXAMPLE

T2
T1
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
Base
Base

The posi;ve-sequence circuit (not asked for):
j0.0857

j0.1815

M2

j0.0915

j0.2

11/20/13

13.8 kV
Base
M1

+
Eg

j0.2745

j0.5490

Em1

+
Em2

Reference

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

251

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

Draw the zero-sequence circuit.

The zero-sequence leakage reactance of the transformers is equal
to the posiOve-sequence reactance, so for T1 and T2, X0 = 0.0857 pu
and 0.0915 pu, respecOvely.

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

252

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

Zero-sequence reactances of the generator and motor are:

Generator: X 0 = 0.05
per unit

2
300 13.2
Motor 1: X 0 = 0.05 = 0.0686
per unit
200 13.8

2
300 13.2
Motor 2: X 0 = 0.05
= 0.1372
per unit
100 13.8

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

253

EXAMPLE

T2
T1
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
Base
Base

The base impedances are:
2

20 )
(
Generator: Zbase
= = 1.333

300

2

13.8)
(
Motor Circuit: Zbase = = 0.635

13.8 kV
Base
M1
M2

300

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

254

EXAMPLE
13.8 kV

T2
T1
Base
20
k
V

(220:13.2 kV)
(20:230 kV)
230 kV
M1
Base
Base

M2

In the impedance network for the generator:

0.4
3Z
=
3
n = 0.900
per unit
1.333

0.4
and for the motor: 3Z n = 3 = 1.890
per unit
0.635

1.5 64
For the transmission line: Z0 = = 0.5445
per unit
176.3

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

255

EXAMPLE

The zero-sequence network is:

Case 4

j0.05

j0.0857

Case 4

j0.5445

j0.0915

M1

j0.686

M2

j1.372

j0.900
j1.890
Reference

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## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

256

SUMMARY

Unbalanced voltages and currents can b e resolved in to their
symmetrical components. Problems are solved by treaOng each set
of components separately and superimposing the results.

In balanced networks having strictly symmetrical coupling between
phases the currents of one phase sequence induce voltage drops of
like sequence only.

Impedances of circuit elements to currents of dierent sequences
are not necessarily equal.

A knowledge of the posiOve-sequence network is necessary for
power-ow studies, fault calculaOons, and stability studies.
11/20/13

## Symmetrical Components & Sequence

Networks

257

SUMMARY

If the fault calculaOons or stability studies involve unsymmetrical
faults on otherwise symmetrical systems, the negaOve- and zero-
sequence networks are also needed. Synthesis of the zero-sequence
network requires parOcular care because the zero-sequence
network may dier from the others considerably.

Next Unsymmetrical Faults

11/20/13

Networks

258