COMPONENTS
and
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
11/20/13
Introduc;on
One
of
the
most
powerful
tools
for
dealing
with
unbalanced
polyphase
circuits
is
the
method
of
symmetrical
components.
Developed
by
C.
L.
Fortescue
in
1918,
he
proved
that
an
unbalanced
system
of
n
related
phasors
can
be
resolved
into
n
systems
of
balanced
phasors
called
the
symmetrical
components
of
the
original
phasors.
The
n
phasors
of
each
set
of
components
are
equal
in
length,
and
the
angles
between
adjacent
phasors
of
the
set
are
equal.
Although
the
method
is
applicable
to
any
unbalanced
polyphase
system,
we
consider
only
threephase
systems.
11/20/13
Introduc;on
In
a
three
phase
system
which
is
normally
balanced,
unbalanced
fault
condiOons
generally
cause
unbalanced
currents
and
voltages
to
exist
in
each
of
the
phases.
If
the
currents
and
voltages
are
related
by
constant
impedances,
the
system
is
linear
and
the
principle
of
superposiOon
applies.
The
voltage
response
of
the
linear
system
to
the
unbalanced
currents
can
be
determined
by
considering
the
separate
responses
of
the
individual
elements
to
the
symmetrical
components
of
the
currents.
The
system
elements
of
interest
are
the
machines,
transformers,
transmission
lines,
and
loads
connected
to
or
Y
conguraOons.
11/20/13
Introduc;on
We
will
study
symmetrical
components
and
show
that
the
response
of
each
system
element
depends
on
its
connecOons
and
the
component
of
the
current
being
considered.
Equivalent
circuits,
called
sequence
circuits,
will
be
developed
to
reect
the
separate
responses
of
the
elements
to
each
current
component.
There
are
three
equivalent
circuits
for
each
element
of
the
three
phase
system.
By
organizing
the
individual
equivalent
circuits
into
networks
according
to
the
interconnecOons
of
the
elements,
we
arrive
at
the
concept
of
three
sequence
networks.
11/20/13
Introduc;on
Solving
the
sequence
networks
for
the
fault
condiOons
gives
symmetrical
current
and
voltage
components
which
can
be
combined
together
to
reect
the
eects
of
the
original
unbalanced
fault
currents
on
the
overall
system!
Analysis
by
symmetrical
components
is
a
powerful
tool
which
makes
the
calculaOon
of
unsymmetrical
faults
almost
as
easy
as
the
calculaOon
of
threephase
faults!!!
11/20/13
Networks
11/20/13
(1)
Va
(1)
c
(0)
a
( 2)
Va
Posi;ve
Sequence
Components
(1)
Vb
( 2)
(0)
Vb
(0)
Vc
Zero
Sequence
Components
Vb
( 2)
Vc
Nega;ve
Sequence
Components
11/20/13
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Vb = Vb + Vb + Vb
Vc = Vc + Vc + Vc
11/20/13
10
11/20/13
11
Va
Vc
Vb
11/20/13
12
( 2)
b
Va
0
Vb( )
0
Va( )
Va( )
( 2)
Vc
Vc
Vc( )
1
Vb
11/20/13
(1)
Vb
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
13
Va
( 2)
Vc
Va
2
Va( )
(1)
Vc
Va( )
1
(0)
Vc
(1)
Vc
Vb
( 2)
Vb
11/20/13
(0)
Vb
Vb
14
=
Posi;ve
Sequence
Components
Nega;ve
Sequence
Components
11/20/13
Zero
Sequence
Components
15
11/20/13
16
(0)
(1)
(0)
( 2)
Va = Va + Va + Va
(1)
( 2)
Vb = Va + a Va + aVa
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Vc = Va + aVa + a Va
11/20/13
17
1 1 1
a
a 1 1 1 a
1)
1)
(
(
2
2
Vb = 1 a
a Va = Va , = 1 a
a
2
2
2)
2)
(
(
1
a
a
1
a
a
V
Va
c
Va
V (0)
a 1 1
1)
(
Va
= 1 a2
V ( 2) 1 a
a
11/20/13
a
a 2
V
1 1
a
1
Vb = 1 a
3
2
1
a
Vc
1 a
2 V
a
b
a Vc
18
19
Example
One
conductor
of
a
threephase
line
is
open.
The
current
owing
to
the
connected
load
through
line
a
is
10
A.
With
the
current
in
line
a
as
a
reference
and
assuming
that
line
c
is
open,
nd
the
symmetrical
components
of
the
line
currents.
a
I a = 100
I b = 100 = 10180
b
c
11/20/13
Z
Z
Ic = 0
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
20
Example
0
I( )
1 1 1
a
I (1) = 1 1 a a 2
a 3
1 a 2 a
I ( 2)
a
1
0
I a( ) = (10 10 ) = 0
3
(1)
Ia
Ia
10
10
0
1
a2
a
(
3
3 j =
5
3
3+ 1 30 =
10
3
30
10
10
10 3
3
2
=
1 a =
1 cos ( 240 ) j sin ( 240 ) = + j
3
3
3 2
2
=
11/20/13
1 1 1
= 1 a
3
2
1
a
10
10
10 3
3
= (1 a ) =
1 cos (120 ) j sin (120 ) = j
3
3
3 2
2
=
( 2)
Ia
Ib
I
c
10
3
30
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
21
Example
0
()
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
I
=
0,
I
=
I
=
0,
I
=
I
=0
b
a
c
a
a
I (1) = 10 30, I (1) = I (1)e j 240 = 10 150, I (1) = I (1)e j120 = 10 90
a
b
a
c
a
3
3
3
I (2) = 10 30, I (2) = I (2)e j120 = 10 150, I (2) = I (2)e j 240 = 10 90
a
b
a
c
a
3
3
3
Note
that
components
IC(1)
and
IC(2)
have
nonzero
values
although
line
c
is
open
and
can
carry
no
net
current.
As
is
expected,
the
sum
of
the
components
in
line
c
is
zero.
Of
course,
the
sum
of
the
components
in
line
a
is
10
A,
and
the
sum
of
the
components
in
line
b
is
10
A.
11/20/13
22
11/20/13
23
Ia
a
+
Vab
Vca
+
c
11/20/13
+
Vbc
I ab
I ca
Ib
Ic
I bc
I a = I ab I ca
I b = I bc I ab
I c = I ca I bc
24
) (
()
()
()
I a( ) + I a( ) = I ab
+ I ab
+ I ab
I ca( ) + I ca( ) + I ca( )
1
) (
) (
()
()
()
= I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( )
=0
11/20/13
)
25
) (
) (
()
()
()
I a( ) + I a( ) = I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( ) + I ab
I ca( )
=0
Ia
1
+
Vab
Vca
+
c
11/20/13
+
Vbc
I ab
Ib
Ic
()
I ab
0
I ca
I bc
26
) (
(
1
2
1
2
I b( ) + I b( ) = (1 a ) I bc( ) + 1 a 2 I bc( )
11/20/13
27
3 j = 3 30
11/20/13
1
3
3
+j
=
2
2
2
3 + j = 330
28
30
+
3I
30
ab
ab
or:
1
(1)
I a( ) = 3I ab
30
( 2)
( 2)
I
=
3I
30
a
ab
This,
for
the
connected
load,
the
relaOonship
between
line
currents
and
phase
currents
follows
the
customary
relaOonship.
11/20/13
29
(1)
Ic
(1)
Ib
I ab
30
I ca( )
2
(1)
Ia
11/20/13
()
I ab
30
( 2)
I bc
Posi;ve
Sequence
Components
Ia
2
(1)
(1)
( 2)
30
Ib
30
30
I bc
( 2)
(1) 30
I ca
( 2)
Ic
Nega;ve
Sequence
Components
30
+
Vab
Vca
b
+
c
11/20/13
ZY
Ib
ZY
+
Van
ZY
+
Vbc I c
31
I
+
V
V
+
V
V
ab
ab
an
bn
an
bn
an
bn
=0
Here
as
well
a
nonzero
value
of
the
zerosequence
voltage
V(0)an
cannot
be
determines
from
the
linetoline
voltages
alone.
11/20/13
) (
) (
32
(1)
Vab
Van( )
1
30
(1)
ca
Vbn( )
1
( 2)
30
()
V
30 cn
1
(1)
Vbc
Vca
30
Vbc( )
2
( 2)
Vcn
Van( )
Vbn( )
30
30
( 2)
Vab
Posi;ve
Sequence
Components
11/20/13
Nega;ve
Sequence
Components
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
33
11/20/13
34
(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
3Van 30
Vab
3Van 30
= Z = ( 2) =
(1) = 1 (1)
1 ( 2)
I ab
I
ab
I a 30
I a 30
3
3
Vab
(1)
Van
( 2)
Z Van
(1) =
= ( 2)
3
Ia
Ia
11/20/13
35
36
Example
Three
idenOcal
10.58,
Yconnected
resistors
form
a
load
bank
with
a
threephase
voltage
raOng
of
2300
V
and
500
kVA.
If
the
load
bank
has
applied
voltages:
Vab = 1840 V
Vbc = 2760 V
Vca = 2300 V
nd
the
line
voltages
and
currents
in
per
unit
into
the
load.
Assume
that
the
neutral
of
the
load
is
not
connected
to
the
neutral
of
the
system
and
select
a
base
of
2300
V
and
500
kVA.
In
per
unit:
ZY
=
1.0
and
Vab = 0.8
11/20/13
Vbc = 1.2
Vca = 1.0
37
Example
Vab + Vbc + Vca = 0
a
+
ZY
V
=
1.0
Vbc = 1.2
ca
Vab
Vca
n
ZY
ZY
b
+
Vbc
+
Vab = 0.8
c
Law
of
cosines:
V 2 = V 2 + V 2 2 V V cos
ab
ca
bc
ca
bc
2
38
Example
Vab = 0.8
Vbc = 1.2
2
cos =
Vca = 1.0
2
= 41.41
2 Vca Vbc
2
cos =
82.82
Vca = 1.0
55.77
41.41
Vbc = 1.2
82.82
= 55.77
55.77
Vab = 0.8
Vca = 1.082.82
Vab = 0.8180
11/20/13
39
Example
11/20/13
40
Example
11/20/13
41
Example
The
absence
of
a
neutral
connecOon
means
that
zerosequence
currents
are
not
present
in
the
circuit.
Therefore,
the
phase
voltages
at
the
load
contain
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
components
only.
The
phase
voltages
are
found
from
(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
V
=
3V
30,
V
=
3V
30
ab
an
ab
an
But
the
3
factor
is
omimed
since
the
line
voltages
are
expressed
in
terms
of
the
base
voltage
from
line
to
line
and
the
phase
voltages
are
desired
in
per
unit
of
the
base
voltage
to
neutral
.
Thus,
1
1
Van( ) = Vab( ) 30 = 0.23468 ( 42.576 30 ) = 0.2346812.576
2
2
Van( ) = Vab( )30 = 0.98568 ( 170.73 + 30 ) = 0.98568 140.73
all
per
unit.
11/20/13
42
Networks
43
+
Vab
Vca
b
+
c
11/20/13
ZY
ZY
ZY
Zn
+
Vbc
44
V (0)
I (0)
a
a
V012 = Va(1) , I 012 = I a(1)
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
Sthree phase = V I *
T
= V012 I 012
= V012 T * I 012*
T
= V012
T
= V012
1 1
1 a2
1 a
1
a
a2
1 1
1 a2
1 a
1
a
a2
= 3 V012 I 012
11/20/13
1 1
1 a2
1 a
1
a
a2
1 1
1 a
1 a2
1
a2
a
I
012
1 0 0
*
T
*
0 0 1
45
46
Van
Ia =
=0
10
(1)
V
1
I a( ) = an = 0.2346812.576
10
(0)
Van( ) = 0
0
Van( ) = 0.2346812.576
1
()
( 2) Van
Ia =
= V 0.98568 140.73
10
0
0
1 1
2
2
Sthree phase = Va( ) I a( )* + Va( ) I a( )* + Va( ) I a( )*
= 0 + 3( 0.23468) + 3( 0.98568)
2
47
(
)+(I + I + I )+(I + I + I )
= (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))+ (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))+ (I( ) + I( ) + I( ))
In = Ia + Ia + Ia
0
a
= 3I a( )
0
b
1
a
1
b
1
c
2
a
2
b
=0
=0
11/20/13
48
49
+
Vab
Vca
b
+
c
11/20/13
ZY
Ib
ZY
I n = 3I a( )
0
+
ZY
Zn
+
Vbc I c
Vn = 3I a( ) Z n
0
50
a
V = V + V = Z I + 3I (0) Z
Y
a
n 1
b
b bn n
1
Ic
Vc Vcn Vn
The
abc
voltages
can
be
replaced
by
their
symmetrical
components
11/20/13
51
Va
1
a
a
0
Vb = Va(1) = ZY I a(1) + 3I a( ) Z n 1
1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
Vc
a
a
MulOply
by
A
1:
(0)
(0)
1
Va
Ia
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z A1 1
Y
a
n
a
a
1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
11/20/13
52
V (0)
I (0)
1
a
a
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z A1 1
Y
a
n
a
a
1
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
1 1 1 1
1
3
1
1
1
2
A 1 = 1 a a 1 = 1+ a + a 2
3
3
2
1 a
1+ a 2 + a
1
a 1
11/20/13
=
0
0
53
V (0)
I (0)
1
a
a
V (1) = Z I (1) + 3I (0) Z 0
Y
a
n
a
a
0
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
a
a
0
0
0
0
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) + 3Z n I a( ) = Z0 I a( )
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) = Z1 I a( )
1
2
2
2
Va( ) = ZY I a( ) = Z 2 I a( )
11/20/13
54
11/20/13
55
0
Va( ) Z0
(a)
11/20/13
+
3Zn
Reference
I a( ) Z
Y
1
1
Va( ) Z1
I a( ) Z
Y
2
Va( ) Z2
Reference
(b)
Reference
(c)
56
57
58
11/20/13
59
Networks
60
ZY
ZY
11/20/13
0
Va( )
ZY
Reference
61
Z
b
Reference
c
To
see
this
11/20/13
62
11/20/13
63
64
Example
Three
equal
impedances
of
j21
are
connected.
Determine
the
sequence
impedances
and
circuits
of
the
combinaOon.
Repeat
for
the
case
where
a
mutual
impedance
of
j6
exists
between
each
pair
of
adjacent
branches
in
the
.
a
a
j21
j21
j6
j21
j6
11/20/13
j6
b
j21
j21
j21
c
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
65
Example
The
linetoline
voltages
are
related
to
the
phase
currents
by
V
ab
Vbc
Vca
11/20/13
j21
= 0
0
0
j21
0
I ab
0 I bc
j21 I ca
66
Example
Transforming
to
symmetrical
components:
V (0)
ab
Vab(1)
V ( 2)
ab
V (0)
ab
Vab(1)
V ( 2)
ab
11/20/13
(0)
0 I ab
j21 0
(1)
= 0
j21 0 I ab
0
0
j21 I ( 2)
ab
I (0)
ab j21
= j211 I (1) = 0
ab
I ( 2) 0
ab
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
0
j21
0
(0)
0 I ab
(1)
0 I ab
j21 I ( 2)
ab
67
Example
V (0)
ab j21
V (1) = 0
ab
V ( 2) 0
ab
I a( )
0
+ a
j21
(0)
Va
Reference
Zerosequence
11/20/13
0
j21
0
Z
= ZY
3
Z
(0)
0 I ab
(1)
0 I ab
j21 I ( 2)
ab
+
(1)
Va
I a( ) Z
Y
I a( ) Z
Y
j7
Reference
Posi;vesequence
+
( 2)
Va
j7
Reference
Nega;ve
sequence
68
Example
For
the
second
part:
V (0)
ab j21
Vab(1) = j6
V ( 2) j6
ab
j21
j6
j6
j6
j21
j6
j6
j21
j6
I (0)
j6
ab
(1)
j6 I ab
j21 I ( 2)
ab
j6
1 0 0
1 1 1
+ j6
=
j15
j6
0 1 0
1 1 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
j21
Remember
this
trick!
11/20/13
69
Example
V (0)
1 0 0
ab
V (1) = 1 j15 0 1 0 + j6
ab
0 0 1
V ( 2)
ab
V (0)
1
ab
1
V ( 2)
ab
V (0)
3 0
ab
= Vab(1) = j15 + j6 0 0
0 0
V ( 2)
ab
11/20/13
I (0)
1 1 1 ab
(1)
1 1 1 I ab
1 1 1 I ( 2)
ab
I (0)
1 1 ab
(1)
1 1 I ab
1 1 I ( 2)
ab
I (0)
0 ab j33
(1) =
0 I ab 0
0 I ( 2) 0
ab
0
j15
0
I (0)
0
ab
(1)
0 I ab
j15 I ( 2)
ab
70
Example
V (0)
ab j33
V (1) = 0
ab
V ( 2) 0
ab
I a( )
0
+ a
j33
(0)
Va
Reference
Zerosequence
11/20/13
0
j15
0
I (0)
0
ab
(1)
0 I ab
j15 I ( 2)
ab
Z
= ZY
3
I a( ) Z
Y
I a( ) Z
Y
+
(1)
Va
j5
Reference
Posi;vesequence
+
( 2)
Va
j5
Reference
Nega;ve
sequence
71
11/20/13
72
Ia
Z aa
Z ab
Ib
b
Van
+
Vbn
_
Ic
Z ab
+
Vcn
Z ab
Z aa
Z aa
Z nn
Z an
Vcn
+
Vbn
Van
In
11/20/13
73
74
11/20/13
75
11/20/13
76
+
Van
_
+
Vbn
_
Ia
Ib
Ic
Z ab
Z ab
+
Vcn
Z ab
Z aa
Z aa
Z aa
Z nn
Z an
Vcn
+
Vbn
Van
In
11/20/13
77
)(
) (
Vbn Vbn = ( Z aa Z an ) I b + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I a + I c ) + ( Z an Z nn ) I n
Vcn Vcn = ( Z aa Z an ) I c + ( Z ab Z an ) ( I a + I b ) + ( Z an Z nn ) I n
11/20/13
78
11/20/13
79
(
(
(
)
)
)
(
(
(
)(
)(
)(
)
)
)
Z s = Z aa 2Z an + Z nn
Z m = Z ab 2Z an + Z nn
11/20/13
80
Vbb = Vbn Vbn = Z m Z s Z m I b
Vcc Vcn Vcn Z m Z m Z s I c
Since
this
does
not
explicitly
include
the
neutral
conductor,
Zs
and
Zm
can
be
regarded
as
parameters
of
the
phase
conductors
alone,
without
any
self
or
mutual
inductance
being
associated
with
the
return
path.
(
(
(
11/20/13
)
)
)
81
11/20/13
82
0
V
Va(a)
aa
1
Va(a) = Vbb
( 2)
Vcc
Vaa
Va(a)
0
Va(a)
1
Va(a)
2
Va(a)
0
Va(a)
1
Va(a)
2
(0)
Zm I a
Zs Z m
0
Z m Z m I a(1)
0
Zs Z m
Z m Z m I ( 2)
a
I (0)
1 0 0
1 1 1 a
= ( Z Z ) 1 0 1 0 + Z 1 1 1 1 I (1)
s
m
m
0 0 1
1 1 1 ( 2)
I a
I a(0)
Z
+
2Z
0
0
m
s
=
I a(1)
0
Zs Z m
0
0
0
Z s Z m I ( 2)
a
11/20/13
Z Z
m
s
=
0
0
Z
m
+ Zm
Z m
Zm
83
0
0
aa Z s + 2Z m
a
V (1) =
I (1)
0
Z
Z
0
s
m
a
aa
V ( 2)
0
0
Z s Z m I ( 2)
a
aa
Now
dene
zero,
posiOve,
and
negaOvesequence
impedances
as:
Z0 = Z s + 2Z m
= Z aa + 2Z ab + 3Z nn 6Z an
Z1 = Z 2
= Z s Z m = Z aa Z ab
11/20/13
84
11/20/13
Z0
= 0
0
0
Z1
0
I (0)
0 a
0 I a(1)
Z 2 I ( 2)
a
85
Van
I a( )
0
Z0
Ia
Van
_
+
( 2)
11/20/13
Z1
_
+
Va(n)
1
Van
_
(1)
Va(n)
0
(1)
( 2)
Ia
Z2
n
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
Va(n)
2
_
86
Networks
87
11/20/13
88
89
11/20/13
90
Example
The
terminal
voltages
at
the
leuhand
and
righthand
ends
of
a
line
are
given
by:
The
line
impedances
in
ohms
are:
Determine
the
line
currents
Ia,
Ib,
and
Ic
using
both
symmetrical
components
and
without
symmetrical
components.
11/20/13
91
Example
11/20/13
92
Example
Since
1
2
I a( ) = I a( ) = 0 I a = I b = I c = 262.5 j175
11/20/13
93
Example
Without
using
symmetrical
components,
nd
11/20/13
94
Example
11/20/13
95
96
In
Zn
+
_
Ean
n
Ebn
Ecn
c
11/20/13
Ib
Ic
97
11/20/13
dt
+ ean
98
11/20/13
99
Vcn
a
= ( R + j Ls ) I b
I c
11/20/13
+ j M s
I
a
= R + j ( Ls + M s ) I b +
I c
0 1 1 a
I
1 0 1
b
1 1 0 I c
E
an
+ Ebn
Ecn
1 1 1 I a Ean
j M s 1 1 1 I b + Ebn
1 1 1 I E
c cn
100
Vcn
V (0)
an
V (1)
an
V ( 2)
an
I
I
E
a
a
1
1
1
an
= R + j ( Ls + M s ) 1 I b + j M s 1 1 1 1 I b + 1 Ebn
1
1
1
I
I
E
c
c
cn
I (0)
I (0)
E
1 1 1 a
an
= R + j ( L + M ) I (1) + j M 1 1 1 1 I (1) + 1 a 2 E
s
s
s
an
1 1 1 ( 2)
I ( 2)
aEan
a
I a
1 1 1 1
Since
the
synchronous
generator
is
1
1
11/20/13
101
V (0)
I (0)
an
a
V (1) = R + j ( L + M ) I (1) + j M 1
s
s
s
an
a
V ( 2)
I ( 2)
an
a
I (0)
3
a
= R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a(1) + j M s 0
0
2
I( )
a
(0)
(0)
R
+
j
L
+
M
I
+
j3
M
I
(
)
s
s a
s a
1
=
R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a( ) + Ean
2
R + j ( Ls + M s ) I a( )
11/20/13
I (0)
E
a
an
1 1 1
1
2
(1)
1 1 1 I a + a Ean
1 1 1 I ( 2)
aEan
a
I (0)
0 0 a 0
(1)
0 0 I a + 1 Ean
0 0 I ( 2) 0
a
102
11/20/13
103
In
Zn
+
_
Ean
n
Ebn
Ecn
c
11/20/13
Ib
Ic
104
I a( )
1
Ean
Z1
11/20/13
Ebn
Ecn
Z g1
I b( )
1
I c( )
1
+
_
Z g1
Va( )
Ean
Reference
105
I a( )
2
Z2
Zg 2
c
11/20/13
Zg 2
2
I c( )
2
Va( )
2
I b( )
_
Reference
106
Zn
I a( )
0
3I a( )
0
Zg0
Z0
Zg0
Zg0
I b( )
3Z n
11/20/13
0
I c( )
0
Va( )
Reference
107
108
11/20/13
109
110
Z0 = 3Z n + Z g 0
11/20/13
111
112
113
114
Turbine
Generators
2pole
4pole
Salientpole
Generators
Conven;onal
Conductor
Conven;onal
Conductor
With
Without
Cooled
Cooled
Cooled
Cooled
Dampers
Dampers
1.76
1.95
1.38
1.87
1
1
Xd
1.7
1.82
2.72
2.17
1.21
1.55
1.6
2.13
0.6
1.5
0.6
1.5
1.66
1.93
1.35
1.82
0.6
0.6
Xq
1.63
1.69
1.17
2.14
1.17
1.53
1.56
2.07
0.4
0.8
0.4
0.8
0.21
0.33
0.26
0.41
0.32
0.32
Xd
0.18
0.23
0.264
0.387
0.25
0.27
0.35
0.467
0.25
0.5
0.25
0.5
X
0.13
0.28
0.19
0.29
0.2
0.2
d
0.11
0.14
0.23
0.323
0.184
0.197
0.269
0.32
0.13
0.32
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.4
X2
=
Xd
=
Xd
=
Xd
=
Xd
0.13
0.32
0.30
0.45






X0*
*X0
varies
so
criOcally
with
armature
winding
pitch
that
an
average
value
can
not
really
be
given.
The
variaOon
is
from
0.1
to
0.7
Xd.
11/20/13
115
116
117
11/20/13
118
Example
A
salientpole
generator
without
dampers
is
rated
at
20
MVA,
13.8
kV,
and
has
a
directaxis
subtransient
reactance
of
0.25
per
unit.
The
negaOve
and
zerosequence
reactances
are,
respecOvely,
0.35
and
0.10
per
unit.
The
neutral
of
the
generator
is
solidly
grounded.
With
the
generator
operaOng
unloaded
at
rated
voltage
with
Ean
=
1.0
per
unit,
a
single
linetoground
fault
occurs
at
the
machine
terminals,
which
then
have
perunit
voltages
to
ground
of:
Vb = 1.013 102.25
Vc = 1.013 + 102.25
Va = 0
Determine
the
subtransient
currents
in
the
generator
and
the
line
toline
voltages
for
subtransient
condiOons
due
to
the
fault.
11/20/13
119
Example
Ia
a
+
_
Zn
Va = 0
In
Ean
Vb = 1.013 102.25
Ebn
Ecn
Ib
Ic
Vc = 1.013 + 102.25
11/20/13
120
Example
11/20/13
121
Example
Postfault
voltages:
Before
the
fault
occurred,
the
line
voltages
were
balanced
and
equal
to
13.8
kV.
11/20/13
122
Example
b
Vab
Vbc
a
n
Vca
c
Prefault
11/20/13
Vab
a
n
Vbc
Vca
c
Postfault
123
11/20/13
124
11/20/13
125
11/20/13
126
ThreePhase
Transformers
Three
idenOcal
singlephase
transformers
may
be
connected
so
that
the
three
voltage
raOng
are
connected
and
the
three
winding
of
the
other
voltage
raOng
are
Yconnected
to
form
a
threephase
transformer.
Such
a
transformer
is
said
to
be
Y
or
Y.
The
other
possible
connecOons
are
YY
and
.
If
each
of
the
three
singlephase
transformers
has
three
windings
(a
primary,
a
secondary
and
a
terOary),
two
sets
might
be
connected
in
Y
and
one
in
,
or
two
could
be
connected
with
one
Yconnected.
11/20/13
127
ThreePhase
Transformers
Instead
of
using
three
idenOcal
singlephase
transformers,
a
more
usual
unit
is
a
threephase
transformer
where
all
three
phases
are
on
the
same
iron
structure.
The
theory
is
the
same
for
a
threephase
transformer
as
for
a
bank
of
three
singlephase
transformers.
The
three
phase
unit
has
the
advantage
of
using
less
iron
to
form
the
core,
and
is
more
economical
as
well
as
smaller.
For
a
singlephase
transformer
the
dot
convenOon
can
sOll
be
used,
or
the
domed
ends
may
be
marked
H1
for
the
highvoltage
winding
and
X1
for
the
lowvoltage
winding.
The
opposite
ends
are
labeled
H2
and
X2.
11/20/13
128
ThreePhase
Transformers
A,
H1
B,
H2
N
n
a,
X1
b,
X2
Wiring
diagram
for
a
YY
connecOon.
A
B
11/20/13
c, X3
H1
X2
b
a
H2
X1
N
C, H3
H3
X3
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
c
129
11/20/13
130
ThreePhase
Transformers
We
use
capital
lemers
A,
B,
and
C
to
idenOfy
the
phases
of
the
high
voltage
windings
and
lowercase
lemers
a,
b,
and
c
for
the
low
voltage
windings.
The
highvoltage
terminals
of
threephase
transformers
are
marked
H1,
H2,
and
H3,
and
the
lowvoltage
terminals
are
marked
X1,
X2,
and
X3.
In
YY
or

transformers
the
markings
are
such
that
voltages
to
neutral
from
terminals
H1,
H2,
and
H3,
are
in
phase
with
the
voltages
to
neutral
from
terminals
X1,
X2,
and
X3,
respecOvely.
11/20/13
131
ThreePhase
Transformers
Of
course,
the
windings
have
no
neutral,
but
the
part
of
the
system
to
which
the
winding
is
connected
will
have
a
connecOon
to
ground.
Thus,
the
ground
can
serve
as
the
eecOve
neutral
under
balanced
condiOons
and
voltages
to
neutral
from
the
terminals
of
the
do
exist.
To
conform
with
the
American
standard,
the
terminals
of
Y
and

Y
transformers
are
labeled
so
that
the
voltages
from
H1,
H2,
and
H3
to
neutral
lead
the
voltages
to
neutral
from
X1,
X2,
and
X3,
respecOvely,
by
30.
We
will
consider
this
phase
shiu
more
fully
later
on.
11/20/13
132
ThreePhase
Transformers
Shown
below
is
a
schemaOc
method
of
indicaOng
winding
connecOons
of
a
threephase
transformer.
Voltages
are
shown
for
a
66/6.6
kV,
YY
transformer
supplying
0.6
resistors
(or
impedances).
Shown
is
a
balanced
system
in
which
each
phase
can
be
treated
separately,
whether
or
not
the
neutral
points
are
connected.
+
+
66 kV
11/20/13
0.6
0.6
+
38.1 kV
+
3.81 kV
6.6 kV
0.6
133
ThreePhase
Transformers
Impedances
transfer
from
the
lowvoltage
side
to
the
highvoltage
side
by
the
raOo
of
the
linetoneutral
or
linetoline
voltages
(it
doesnt
mamer)
in
the
usual
way:
2
38.1
66
0.6
= 0.6
= 60
3.81
6.6
11/20/13
134
ThreePhase
Transformers
If
we
had
used
a
Y
transformer
to
obtain
6.6
kV
across
the
resistors
with
the
same
66
kV
primary,
the
winding
would
be
rated
6.6
kV
rather
than
3.81
kV.
So
far
as
the
voltage
magnitude
at
the
lower
voltage
terminals
is
concerned,
the
Y
transformer
could
then
be
replaced
by
a
YY
transformer
bank
having
an
eecOve
phasetoneutral
turns
raOo
of
38.1:6.6/31/2,
or
N1:N2/31/2,
so
that
the
same
60
resistance
per
phase
would
be
seen
by
the
primary.
We
see
that
the
criterion
for
the
selecOon
of
base
voltages
involves
the
square
of
the
raOo
of
linetoline
voltages
and
not
the
square
of
the
turns
raOo
of
the
individual
windings
of
the
Y
transformer.
11/20/13
135
ThreePhase
Transformers
Our
conclusion
is
that
to
transfer
the
ohmic
value
impedance
from
the
voltage
level
on
one
side
of
a
threephase
transformer
to
the
voltage
level
on
the
other,
the
mulOplying
factor
is
the
square
of
the
raOo
of
linetoline
voltages
regardless
of
whether
the
transformer
is
YY
or
Y.
This
is
illustrated
in
the
following
four
slides.
Therefore,
in
perunit
calculaOons
involving
transformers
in
three
phase
circuits
we
require
the
base
voltages
on
the
two
sides
of
the
transformer
to
have
the
same
ra5o
as
the
rated
linetoline
voltages
on
the
two
sides
of
the
transformer.
The
kilovoltampere
base
is
the
same
on
each
side.
11/20/13
136
ThreePhase
Transformers
YY
N1 : N 2
N
VLL
n
VLN
VLL
ZL
Vn
VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2
;
2
VLL
N1
=
V
N2
2
N1
VLL
ZH =
ZL =
ZL
V
N2
11/20/13
137
ThreePhase
Transformers
Y
N1 : N 2
N
VLL
VLN
VLL
3
V
ZL
Vn
VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2
VLL
N1
= 3
V
N2
;
2
2
N
VLL
1
ZH =
ZL
ZL =
V
N2 3
11/20/13
138
ThreePhase
Transformers
Y
N1
n
VLL
VLL
V
VLN
3 : N2
V
ZL
Vn
VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2
VLL
1 N1
=
V
3 N2
;
2
2
N
3
VLL
1
ZH =
ZL
ZL =
V
N2
11/20/13
139
ThreePhase
Transformers
N1
Vn
VLN
VLL
VLL
VLN
N1
=
Vn
N2
N
ZH = 1
N2
11/20/13
3 : N2
ZL
VLL
N1
=
V
N2
3
VLL
ZL
ZL =
V
3
140
Example
Three
transformers,
each
rated
25
MVA,
38.
1/3.81
kV,
are
connected
Y
with
a
balanced
load
of
three
0.6,
Yconnected
resistors.
Choose
a
base
of
75
MVA,
66
kV
for
the
highvoltage
side
of
the
transformer
and
specify
the
base
for
the
lowvoltage
side.
Determine
the
perunit
resistance
of
the
load
on
the
base
for
the
lowvoltage
side
.
Then,
determine
the
load
resistance
RL
in
ohms
referred
to
the
highvoltage
side
and
the
perunit
value
of
this
resistance
on
the
chosen
base.
11/20/13
141
Example
Since
3
38.1
= 66kV
the
raOng
of
the
transformer
as
a
three
phase
bank
is
75
MVA,
66Y/3.81
kV.
So,
for
the
base
for
the
low
voltage
side
is
75
MVA,
3.81
kV.
From
Eq.
1.54
on
the
handout
on
per
unit
values,
the
base
impedance
on
the
lowvoltage
side
is
2
2
( base kVLL ) = (3.81) = 0.1935
base MVA 3
75
and
on
the
lowvoltage
side
0.6
RL =
= 3.10
0.1935
11/20/13
per unit
142
Example
The
base
impedance
on
the
highvoltage
side
is
2
66
( ) = 58.1
75
The
resistance
referred
to
the
highvoltage
side
is
2
66
180
0.6
=
180
R
=
= 3.10
L
58.1
3.81
11/20/13
per unit
143
ThreePhase
Transformers
The
resistance
R
and
leakage
reactance
X
of
a
threephase
transformer
are
measured
by
the
shortcircuit
test
as
discussed
for
singlephase
transformers
in
EEL
3211.
In
a
threephase
equivalent
circuit
R
and
X
are
connected
in
each
line
to
an
ideal
threephase
transformer.
Since
R
and
X
will
have
the
same
per
unit
value
whether
on
the
lowvoltage
or
the
highvoltage
side
of
the
transformer,
the
perphase
equivalent
circuit
will
account
for
the
transformer
by
the
perunit
impedance
R
+
jX
without
the
ideal
transformer,
if
phaseshiu
is
not
important
in
the
calculaOons
and
all
quanOOes
in
the
circuit
are
in
per
unit
with
the
proper
selecOon
of
base.
11/20/13
144
ThreePhase
Transformers
The
Table
on
the
following
slide
lists
typical
values
of
transformer
impedances,
which
are
essenOally
equal
to
the
leakage
reactance
since
the
resistance
is
usually
less
than
0.01
per
unit.
11/20/13
145
Forcedoilcooled,
%
*
9
14
10
16
10
20
10
22
11
25
12
27
13
28
16
34
19
35
*
Percent
on
rated
kVA
base.
Typical
transformers
are
designed
for
the
minimum
value
shown.
DistribuOon
transformers
have
considerable
lower
reactance.
Resistances
of
transformers
are
typically
lover
than
1%.
11/20/13
146
Example
A
threephase
transformer
is
rated
400
MVA
,
220Y/22
kV.
The
Yequivalent
shortcircuit
impedance
measured
on
the
lowvoltage
side
of
the
transformer
is
0.121
,
and
because
of
the
low
resistance
this
value
may
be
considered
equal
to
the
leakage
reactance.
Determine
the
per
unit
reactance
of
the
transformer
and
the
value
to
be
used
to
represent
this
transformer
in
a
system
whose
base
on
the
highvoltage
side
of
the
transformer
is
100
MVA,
230
kV.
11/20/13
147
Example
On
its
own
base
the
transformer
reactance
is:
0.121
= 0.10 per unit
2
22 ) 400
(
On
the
chosen
base
the
reactance
becomes:
2
220 100
0.01
= 0.0228
230 400
11/20/13
per unit
148
11/20/13
149
Networks
150
11/20/13
H1
H2
H3
X1
IA
IB
I ab
N
I ca
I bc
IC
Ia
X3
Ic
X2
Ib
c
b
151
11/20/13
152
ThreePhase
Transformers
RelaOon
of
the
voltage
phasors
when
posiOvesequence
voltages
are
applied
to
terminals
A,B,
and
C.
The
voltages
VA(1)
=
VAN(1)
(only
for
brevity)
and
Vab(1)
are
in
phase
because
of
the
dots,
and
then
the
other
voltages
for
the
phasor
diagrams
can
be
determined.
For
instance,
on
the
highvoltage
side
VB(1)
lags
VA(1)
by
120.
These
two
voltages
and
VC(1)
meet
at
the
Ops
of
their
arrows.
Linetoline
voltages
can
then
be
drawn.
(1)
(1)
B
Vab
(1)
(1)
(1)
V
a
b
1
AB
(
)
(1)
(1)
VB
V
V
30
a
b
(1)
(1)
1
()
30
V AN = V A
30
V
(1)
A
BC
30
(1)
(1)
(1)
1
VC
Vc( ) V
Vca
bc
30
30
1)
(
VCA
C(1)
c(1)
HighVoltage
Side
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
LowVoltage
Side
11/20/13
153
Networks
ThreePhase
Transformers
For
the
lowvoltage
diagram
Vbc(1)
and
Vca(1)
can
be
drawn
in
phase
with
VB(1)
and
VC(1)
can,
respecOvely,
and
then
the
linetoneutral
voltages
follow.
We
see
that
VA(1)
leads
Va(1)
can
by
30
and
terminal
a
must
be
marked
X1
to
saOsfy
the
American
standard.
Terminals
b
and
c
are
marked
X2
and
X3,
respecOvely.
(1)
B(1)
Vab
(1)
(1)
a
b(1)
V AB
(1)
(1)
(1)
VB
V
V
30
a
b
(1)
(1)
1
()
30
V AN = V A
30
V
(1)
A
BC
30
(1)
1)
(
(1)
1
V
C
Vc( ) V
Vca
bc
30
30
1
(
)
VCA
C(1)
c(1)
HighVoltage
Side
LowVoltage
Side
11/20/13
154
ThreePhase
Transformers
RelaOon
of
the
voltage
phasors
when
negaOvesequence
voltages
are
applied
to
terminals
A,
B,
and
C.
We
note
from
the
dots
on
the
wiring
diagram
that
VA(2)
(not
necessarily
in
phase
with
VA(1))
is
in
phase
with
Vab(2).
Auer
drawing
VA(2)
in
phase
with
Vab(2),
we
complete
the
diagrams
similarly
to
the
posiOvesequence
diagrams
but
keeping
in
mind
that
VB(2)
leads
VA(2)
by
120.
The
completed
diagrams
below
show
that
VA(2)
lags
Va(2)
by
30.
( 2)
VCA
A(2)
( 2)
2
VC( )
VA
V AB
30
2
VB( )
30
( 2)
11/20/13
C(2)
c(2)
( 2)
( 2)
Vca
VBC
2
Vc( )
a(2)
30
( 2)
2
Vb( )
( 2)
Va
30
B(2)
30
( 2)
Vab
Vbc
30
b(2)
155
ThreePhase
Transformers
If
N1
and
N2
represent
the
number
of
turns
in
the
highvoltage
and
lowvoltage
windings,
respecOvely,
of
any
phase,
then
the
diagrams
show
that
(1) N1 (1)
( 2) N1 ( 2)
VA =
Vab
VA =
Vab
N2
N2
by
transformer
acOon.
It
then
follows
from
the
geometry
that
2
(1) N1
(1)
( 2) N1
VA =
3Va 30
VA =
3Va( ) 30
N2
N2
Similarly,
currents
in
the
Y.
transformer
are
displaced
by
30
in
the
direcOon
of
the
voltages
since
the
phase
angles
of
the
currents
with
respect
to
their
associated
voltages
are
determined
by
the
load
impedance.
11/20/13
156
ThreePhase
Transformers
The
raOo
or
the
rated
linetoline
voltage
of
the
Y
winding
to
the
rated
linetoline
voltage
of
the
winding
equals
31/2N1/N2
,
so
that
in
choosing
he
linetoline
voltage
bases
on
the
two
sides
of
the
transformer
in
the
same
raOo,
we
obtain
in
per
unit:
1
1
1
1
V A( ) = Va( ) 130
I A( ) = I a( ) 130
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
( 2)
V
=
V
30
I
=
I
1 30
A
a
A
a
Transformer
impedance
and
magneOzing
currents
are
handled
separately
from
the
phase
shiu,
which
can
be
represented
by
an
ideal
transformer.
This
explains
why
in
the
above
equaOons
the
per
unit
magnitudes
of
voltage
and
current
are
exactly
the
same
on
both
sides
of
the
transformer
(for
instance,
VA(1)
=
Va(1)).
11/20/13
157
ThreePhase
Transformers
Usually,
the
highvoltage
winding
in
a
Y
transformer
is
Y
connected.
InsulaOon
costs
for
a
given
step
up
in
voltage
are
thereby
reduced
since
this
connecOon
takes
advantage
of
the
fact
that
the
voltage
transformaOon
from
the
lowvoltage
side
to
the
highvoltage
side
of
the
transformer
is
31/2N1/N2,
where
the
N1:N2
raOo
is
the
same
as
before.
11/20/13
158
ThreePhase
Transformers
If
the
highvoltage
windings
are
connected
(shown
below),
the
transformaOon
raOo
of
line
voltages
is
reduced
rather
than
increased.
You
should
verify
that
the
voltage
phasor
diagrams
are
exactly
the
same
as
before
and
are
therefore
sOll
valid
as
are
the
subsequent
equaOons.
A
I a X1
H1
IA
B
C
11/20/13
H2
IB
I AB
I CA
I BC
Ic
X3
Ib X
2
H3
IC
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
159
ThreePhase
Transformers
Under
normal
operaOng
condiOons
only
posiOvesequence
quanOOes
are
involved
and
then
the
general
rule
for
any
Y
or
Y
transformer
is
that
voltage
is
advanced
30
when
it
is
stepped
up.
We
can
indicate
this
phase
shiu
in
voltage
by
an
ideal
transformer
of
j
complex
turns
raOo
1: e 6
(1)
(1)
V
V
Since:
V (1) = V (1) 130, I (1) = I (1) 130 A = a
A
a
A
a
1)
1)
(
(
IA
Ia
per
unit
impedance
values
are
the
same
when
move
from
one
side
of
the
ideal
transformer
to
the
other.
11/20/13
160
ThreePhase
Transformers
Real
and
reacOve
power
ow
is
also
not
aected
by
the
phase
shiu
because
the
current
phase
shiu
compensates
exactly
for
the
voltage
phase
shiu
as
far
as
power
values
are
concerned.
This
is
easily
seen
by
wriOng
the
perunit
complex
power
for
each
side
of
the
Y
(or
Y)
transformer
from
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)
V A = Va 130
I A = I a 130
as
follows:
11/20/13
161
ThreePhase
Transformers
Hence,
if
only
P
and
Q
quanOOes
are
required,
it
is
not
necessary
to
include
ideal
transformers
for
the
phase
shiu
of
transformers
in
the
impedance
diagram.
In
most
situaOons
we
can
eliminate
the
ideal
transformers
from
the
perunit
impedance
diagram,
and
then
the
calculated
currents
and
voltages
are
proporOonal
to
the
actual
currents
and
voltages.
Phase
angles
of
the
actual
currents
and
voltages
can
be
found
if
needed
by
noOng
from
the
oneline
diagram
the
posiOons
of
the
Y
and
Y
transformers
and
by
applying
the
rules
learned;
namely
11/20/13
162
ThreePhase
Transformers
11/20/13
163
ThreePhase
Transformers
It
is
also
important
to
note
from
(1) (1)*
(1)
(1)*
(1) (1)*
V A I A = Va 30 I a 30 = Va I a
that
(1) (1)* 1
IA
VA
= (1)*
1)
(
Ia
Va
i.e,
the
current
raOo
of
any
transformer
with
phase
shiu
is
the
reciprocal
of
the
complex
conjugate
of
the
voltage
raOo.
Generally,
only
voltage
raOos
are
shown
in
circuit
diagrams,
but
it
is
always
understood
that
the
current
raOo
is
as
given
above.
11/20/13
164
ThreePhase
Transformers
Consider
the
singleline
diagram
indicaOng
Y
transformers
to
step
up
voltage
from
a
generator
to
a
highvoltage
transmission
line
and
to
step
down
the
voltage
to
a
lower
level
for
distribuOon.
Ta
11/20/13
Transmission Line
Tb
To Load
165
ThreePhase
Transformers
Consider
also
the
equivalent
circuit
shown.
The
transformer
resistance
and
leakage
reactance
are
in
per
unit
and
exciOng
current
is
neglected.
Blocks
with
ideal
transformers
indicaOng
phase
shiu
are
shown
along
with
the
equivalent
circuit
for
the
transmission
line.
Ra
Xa
RL
1/ e
11/20/13
XL
Xb
Rb
/1
166
ThreePhase
Transformers
Here
is
a
further
simplicaOon
where
the
resistances,
shunt
capacitors,
and
ideal
transformers
are
neglected.
Here
we
rely
upon
the
singleline
diagram
to
remind
us
to
account
for
phase
shiu
due
to
the
Y
transformers
.
We
must
remember
that
posiOvesequence
voltages
and
currents
in
the
highervoltage
transmission
line
lead
the
corresponding
quanOOes
in
the
lowervoltage
generator
and
distribuOon
by
30.
Xa
XL
Xb
An
example
will
clarify...
11/20/13
167
Example
The
gure
below
shows
a
threephase
generator
rated
300
MVA,
23
kV
supplying
a
system
load
of
240
MVA,
0.9
powerfactor
lagging
at
230
kV
through
a
330MVA
23/230YkV
stepup
transformer
of
leakage
resistance
11%.
NeglecOng
magneOzing
current
and
choosing
base
values
at
the
load
of
100
MVA
and
230
kV,
nd
IA,
IB,
and
IC
supplied
to
the
load
in
per
unit
with
VA
as
reference.
Specifying
the
proper
base
for
the
generator
circuit,
d
Ia,
Ib,
and
Ic
from
the
generator
and
its
terminal
voltage.
T
a
Load
11/20/13
168
ThreePhase
Transformers
I
a
+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt
11/20/13
1: e
IA
+
VA
Load
169
ThreePhase
Transformers
I
a
+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt
11/20/13
1: e
IA
+
VA
Load
170
ThreePhase
Transformers
I
a
+ j1 +
30
Va
Vt
11/20/13
1: e
IA
+
VA
Load
171
ThreePhase
Transformers
Ia
j
IA
6
1: e
+
+ j1 +
30
Va
V A Load
Vt
The
generator
base
is
23
kV.
This
means
that
the
terminal
voltage
of
the
generator
is
kV.
The
real
power
supplied
by
the
generator
is
which
corresponds
to
216
MW
absorbed
by
the
load
since
there
are
no
I2R
losses.
11/20/13
172
11/20/13
173
174
11/20/13
175
11/20/13
0
a
176
177
0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )
+ A
VA
N1 : N 2
+
V AN
3I A( )
0
11/20/13
ZN
+
Van
3I a( )
0
Zn
+
Va
178
V
+
V
+
V
=
V
+
V
+
V
+
3Z
I
A
A
A
AN
AN
AN
N A
EquaOng
quanOOes
of
the
same
sequence
again
conrms
the
fact
that
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
voltages
to
ground
are
equal
to
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
voltages
to
neutral:
1
2
(1)
( 2)
V A( ) = V AN
, V A( ) = V AN
11/20/13
179
11/20/13
180
MulOply
by
N1/N2:
2
N1 (0)
N1 (0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Va + Va + Va = V AN + V AN + V AN 3Z n I A
N2
N2
But
) (
0
1
2
0
(0)
(1)
( 2)
V A( ) + V A( ) + V A( ) = V AN
+ V AN
+ V AN
+ 3Z N I A( )
11/20/13
181
N1 (0)
N1
0
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
Va + Va + Va = V AN + V AN + V AN 3Z n I A( )
N2
N2
2
N1 (0)
N1 (0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
(1)
( 2)
(0)
Va + Va + Va = V A + V A + V A 3Z N I A 3Z n I A
N2
N2
EquaOng
components
of
the
same
sequence:
) (
0
A
1
A
2
A
0
N A
N1 (0)
N
0
0
Va = V A( ) 3 Z N Z n 1 I A( )
N2
N2
N1 (1)
N1 ( 2)
1
2
Va = V A( ) ,
Va = V A( )
N2
N2
11/20/13
182
IA
A
+
V A( )
0
Leakage
3Z N
N
3Z n 1
N2
I a( )
0
N1 : N 2
+ a
V A( )
0
Va( )
Ideal
11/20/13
183
Reference
Bus
11/20/13
184
185
0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )
N1 : N 2
0
1
2
I B = I B( ) + I B( ) + I B( )
(0)
(1)
( 2)
IC = IC + IC + IC
(0)
3I A
n
ZN
11/20/13
Symbol
0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )
186
Zo
Reference
Bus
11/20/13
187
CASE
3.

Bank
0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )
0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )
N1 : N 2
+
0
1
2
I B = I B( ) + I B( ) + I B( ) V AB
+
Vab
0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )
a
0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
b
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )
11/20/13
Symbol
188
CASE
3.

Bank
Symbol
The
phasor
sum
of
the
linetoline
voltages
equals
zero
on
each
side
of
the

transformer,
and
so:
(0)
(0)
V
=
V
=0
AB
ab
Applying
the
rules
of
the
convenOonal
dot
notaOon
for
coupled
coils:
V AB
(1)
( 2)
V AB + V AB
11/20/13
N1
=
Vab
N2
N1 (1)
2
=
Vab + Vab( )
N2
189
CASE
3.

Bank
Symbol
The
linetoline
voltages
can
be
expressed
in
terms
of
the
lineto
neutral
voltages
in
the
usual
way.
(1)
(1)
(1)
2
V
=
1
a
V
=
3V
30
) an
an
Recall
from
Slide
34:
ab (
2
2
2
Vab( ) = (1 a )Van( ) = 3Van( ) 30
N1
1)
2)
1
2
(
(
Thus
3V AN 30 + 3V AN 30 =
3Van( )30 + 3Van( ) 30
N2
(1) N1 (1)
( 2) N1 ( 2)
and
so
V AN =
Van , V AN =
Van
N2
11/20/13
N2
190
CASE
3.

Bank
Symbol
Thus,
the
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
equivalent
circuits
for
the

transformer,
like
those
for
the
YY
connecOon,
correspond
exactly
to
the
usual
perphase
equivalent
circuits.
Since
a
circuit
provides
no
return
path
for
zerosequence
current,
no
zerosequence
current
can
ow
into
either
side
of
a

bank
although
it
can
someOmes
circulate
within
the
windings.
11/20/13
191
CASE
3.

Bank
Symbol
Hence,
I A(0) = I a(0) = 0
The
zerosequence
equivalent
circuit
is
shown
below:
A
Zo
Reference Bus
11/20/13
192
0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )
0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )
N1 : N 2
(0)
(1)
( 2)
IB = IB + IB + IB
B
0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )
3I A( )
0
+
V AN
+
Vab
ZN
11/20/13
Symbol
0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
b
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )
193
11/20/13
194
(0)
(1)
( 2)
VA + VA + VA
11/20/13
N1 (0) N1 (1) N1 ( 2)
0
= Vab +
Vab +
Vab + 3Z N I A( )
N2
N2
N2
195
(0)
N1 (0)
=
Vab
N2
(1)
N1 (1)
N1 (1)
=
Vab = 3 V A 30
N2
N2
( 2)
N1 ( 2)
N1 ( 2)
=
Vab = 3 V A 30
N2
N2
V A 3Z N I A
VA
VA
11/20/13
196
11/20/13
197
198
0
1
2
I A = I A( ) + I A( ) + I A( )
0
1
2
I a = I a( ) + I a( ) + I a( )
N1 : N 2
(0)
(1)
+
V AN
( 2)
IB = IB + IB + IB
B
+
Vab
0
1
2
I b = I b( ) + I b( ) + I b( )
0
1
2
I C = I C( ) + I C( ) + I C( )
0
1
2
I c = I c( ) + I c( ) + I c( )
11/20/13
Symbol
199
Reference Bus
11/20/13
200
11/20/13
201
N
3 1 30
N2
Symbol
I a( )
1
V A( )
Va( )
Ideal
11/20/13
202
N
3 1 30
N2
Symbol
I a( )
2
2
V A( )
2
Va( )
Ideal
11/20/13
203
V A( ) = Va( )e j30
1
2
2
V A( ) = Va( )e j30
11/20/13
Symbol
1
1
I A( ) = I a( )e j30
2
2
I A( ) = I a( )e j30
204
11/20/13
205
j 42.576+30)
2
j 170.7330)
V A( ) = 0.9857e (
(1)
( 2)
VA = VA + VA
1
1
2
2
1
2
VB( ) = a 2V A( ) , VB( ) = aV A( ) , VB = VB( ) + VB( )
(1)
(1)
( 2)
( 2)
(1)
( 2)
VC = aV A , Vc = a V A , VC = VC + VC
11/20/13
V AB = V A VB
VBC = VB VC
VCA = VC V A
206
207
11/20/13
208
11/20/13
209
210
H1 X1
H1 X1
H2 X2
H2 X2
H3 X3
H3 X3
11/20/13
211
212
11/20/13
213
11/20/13
214
11/20/13
215
Za
Zb
Zc
Ib
b
Ic
c
11/20/13
216
Vbb = 0 Z b 0 I b
V
0
0
Z
I
cc
c
c
In
terms
of
symmetrical
components
of
voltage
and
current:
V (0)
aa Z a
Va(a1) = 0
V ( 2) 0
aa
11/20/13
0
Zb
0
(0) (0)
Z
0 I a Vaa
a
0 I a(1) Va(a1) = 1 0
2
2
(
)
(
)
Zc I V
0
a aa
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
Networks
0
Zb
0
(0)
0 Ia
0 I a(1)
Z c I ( 2)
a
217
()
()
0
aa
0
a
= 1 0
V ( 2)
0
aa
1
Vaa
Zb
0
0 I a1
2
(
)
Zc
I a
1 1
1
= 1 a
3
1 a 2
1 Za
a2 0
a 0
1 1
1
= 1 a
3
1 a 2
1 Za
a 2 Zb
a Z c
Z +Z +Z
a
b
c
1
2
= Z a + aZ b + a Z c
3
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c
Z +Z +Z
a
b
c
1
2
= Z a + aZ b + a Z c
3
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c
11/20/13
0
Zb
0
Za
a 2 Zb
aZ c
I (0)
1 a
(1)
a I a
a 2 I ( 2)
a
0
I a( )
1
I a( )
( 2)
Ia
0 1 1
0 1 a2
Z c 1 a
aZ b
2
a Zc
Za
(0)
Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c I a
3
3
2
4
Z a + a Z b + a Z c Z a + a Z b + a Z c I a(1)
4
2
3
3
Z a + a Z b + a Z c Z a + a Z b + a Z c I ( 2)
a
(0)
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c I a
2
Z a + Zb + Zc
Z a + a Z b + aZ c I a(1)
2
2)
(
Z a + aZ b + a Z c
Z a + Zb + Zc I
a
Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c
218
Z a + a Z b + aZ c Z a + aZ b + a Z c a
aa Z a + Zb + Zc
1
1
2
2
I (1)
V ( ) = Z + aZ + a Z
Z
+
Z
+
Z
Z
+
a
Z
+
aZ
b
c
a
b
c
a
b
c
aa 3 a
a
(2)
2
2
Z
+
a
Z
+
aZ
Z
+
aZ
+
a
Zc
Z a + Z b + Z c I ( 2)
V
a
b
c
a
b
a
aa
(0) 1
1
1
0
1
2
Vaa = ( Z a + Z b + Z c ) I a( ) + ( Z a + a 2 Z b + aZ c ) I a( ) + ( Z a + aZ b + a 2 Z c ) I a( )
3
3
3
V (1) = 1 Z + aZ + a 2 Z I (0) + 1 Z + Z + Z I (1) + 1 Z + a 2 Z + aZ I (2)
(
(
(
b
c) a
b
c) a
b
c) a
3 a
3 a
aa 3 a
V (2) = 1 Z + a 2 Z + aZ I (0) + 1 Z + aZ + a 2 Z I (1) + 1 ( Z + Z + Z ) I (2)
(
(
aa
a
b
c) a
a
b
c) a
b
c
a
3
3
3 a
(0)
(0)
V
=
Z
I
aa
a a
If
Z a = Zb = Zc Va(a1) = Z a I a(1)
Va(a) = Z a I a( )
2
11/20/13
219
11/20/13
220
221
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
11/20/13
222
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
We
have
developed
singlephase
equivalent
circuits
in
the
form
of
zero,
posiOve,
and
negaOvesequence
circuits
for
load
impedances
transformers
transmission
lines
synchronous
machines
These
consOtute
the
main
parts
of
the
threephase
power
transmission
network.
Except
for
rotaOng
machines,
all
parts
of
the
network
are
staOc
and
without
sources.
Each
individual
part
is
assumed
to
be
linear
and
threephase
symmetrical
when
connected
in
Y
or
conguraOon.
11/20/13
223
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
On
the
basis
of
these
assumpOons,
we
have
found
that:
In
any
part
of
the
network
voltage
drop
caused
by
current
of
a
certain
sequence
depends
on
only
the
impedance
of
that
part
of
the
network
to
current
ow
of
that
sequence.
The
impedances
to
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
currents,
Z1
and
Z2,
are
equal
in
any
staOc
circuit
and
may
be
considered
approximately
equal
in
synchronous
machines
under
subtransient
condiOons.
In
any
part
of
the
network
impedance
to
zerosequence
current,
Z0,
is
generally
dierent
from
Z1
and
Z2.
11/20/13
224
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
On
the
basis
of
these
assumpOons,
we
have
found
that:
Only
posiOvesequence
circuits
of
rotaOng
machines
contain
sources
which
are
of
posiOvesequence
voltages.
Neutral
is
the
reference
for
voltages
in
posiOve
and
negaOve
sequence
circuits,
and
such
voltages
to
neutral
are
the
same
as
voltages
to
ground
if
a
physical
connecOon
of
zero
or
other
nite
impedance
exists
between
neutral
and
ground
in
the
actual
circuit.
No
posiOve
or
negaOvesequence
currents
ow
between
neutral
points
and
ground.
11/20/13
225
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
On
the
basis
of
these
assumpOons,
we
have
found
that:
Impedances
Zn
in
the
physical
connecOons
between
neutral
and
ground
are
not
included
in
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
circuits
but
are
represented
by
impedances
3Zn
between
the
points
for
neutral
and
ground
in
the
zero
sequence
circuits
only.
11/20/13
226
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
These
characterisOcs
of
individual
sequence
circuits
guide
the
construcOon
of
corresponding
sequence
networks.
The
object
of
obtaining
the
values
of
the
sequence
impedances
of
the
various
parts
of
a
power
system
is
to
enable
us
to
construct
the
sequence
networks
for
the
complete
system.
The
network
of
a
parOcular
sequenceconstructed
by
joining
together
all
the
corresponding
sequence
circuits
of
the
separate
partsshows
all
the
paths
for
the
ow
of
current
of
that
sequence
in
one
phase
of
the
actual
system.
11/20/13
227
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
In
a
balanced
threephase
system
the
currents
owing
in
the
three
phases
under
normal
operaOng
condiOons
consOtute
a
symmetrical
posiOvesequence
set.
These
posiOvesequence
currents
cause
voltage
drops
of
the
same
sequence
only.
Because
currents
of
only
one
sequence
occurred
in
our
preceding
study,
we
considered
them
to
ow
in
an
independent
perphase
network
which
combined
the
posiOvesequence
emfs
of
rotaOng
machines
and
the
impedances
of
other
staOc
circuits
to
posiOve
sequence
currents
only.
That
same
perphase
equivalent
network
is
now
called
the
posiOve
sequence
network
in
order
to
disOnguish
it
from
the
networks
of
the
other
two
sequences.
11/20/13
228
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
We
have
discussed
the
construcOon
of
impedance
and
admimance
representaOons
of
some
rather
complex
posiOvesequence
networks.
Generally,
we
have
not
included
the
phase
shiu
associated
with
Y
and
Y
transformers
in
posiOvesequence
networks
since
pracOcal
systems
are
designed
with
such
phase
shius
summing
to
zero
around
all
loops.
In
detailed
calculaOons,
however,
we
must
remember
to
advance
all
posiOvesequence
voltages
and
currents
by
30
when
stepping
up
from
the
lowvoltage
side
to
the
highvoltage
side
of
a
Y
o
r
Y
transformer.
11/20/13
229
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
The
transiOon
from
a
posiOvesequence
network
to
a
negaOve
sequence
network
is
simple.
Threephase
synchronous
generators
and
motors
have
internal
voltages
of
posiOve
sequence
only
because
they
are
designed
to
generate
balanced
voltages.
Since
the
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
impedances
are
the
same
in
a
staOc
symmetrical
system,
conversion
of
a
posiOvesequence
network
to
a
negaOvesequence
network
is
accomplished
by
changing,
if
necessary,
only
the
impedances
that
represent
rotaOng
machinery
and
by
oming
the
emfs.
11/20/13
230
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
ElectromoOve
forces
are
omimed
on
the
assumpOon
of
balanced
generated
voltages
and
the
absence
of
negaOvesequence
voltages
induced
from
outside
sources.
Of
course,
in
using
the
negaOvesequence
network
for
detailed
calculaOons,
we
must
also
remember
to
retard
the
negaOve
sequence
voltages
and
currents
by
30
when
stepping
up
from
the
lowvoltage
side
to
the
highvoltage
side
of
a
Y
or
Y
transformer.
11/20/13
231
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Since
all
the
neutral
points
of
a
symmetrical
threephase
system
are
at
the
same
potenOal
when
balanced
threephase
currents
are
owing,
all
the
neutral
points
must
be
at
the
same
potenOal
for
either
posiOve
or
negaOvesequence
currents.
Therefore,
the
neutral
of
a
symmetrical
threephase
system
is
the
logical
reference
potenOal
for
specifying
posiOve
and
negaOve
sequence
voltage
drops
and
is
the
reference
node
of
the
posiOve
and
negaOvesequence
networks.
Impedance
connected
between
the
neutral
of
a
machine
and
ground
is
not
a
part
of
either
the
posiOve
or
negaOvesequence
network
because
neither
posiOve
nor
negaOvesequence
current
can
ow
in
an
impedance
so
connected.
11/20/13
232
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
NegaOvesequence
networks,
like
the
posiOvesequence
networks,
may
contain
the
exact
equivalent
circuits
of
parts
of
the
system
or
be
simplied
by
oming
series
resistance
and
shunt
admimance.
11/20/13
233
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Zerosequence
equivalent
circuits
determined
for
the
various
separate
parts
of
the
system
are
readily
combined
to
form
the
complete
zerosequence
network
.
A
threephase
system
operates
single
phase
insofar
as
the
zero
sequence
currents
are
concerned,
for
the
zerosequence
currents
are
the
same
in
magnitude
and
phase
at
any
point
in
all
the
phases
of
the
system.
Therefore,
zerosequence
currents
will
ow
only
if
a
return
path
exists
through
which
a
completed
circuit
is
provided.
11/20/13
234
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
The
reference
for
zerosequence
voltages
is
the
potenOal
of
the
ground
at
the
point
in
the
system
at
which
any
parOcular
voltage
is
specied.
Since
zerosequence
currents
may
be
owing
in
the
ground,
the
ground
is
not
necessarily
at
the
same
potenOal
at
all
points
and
the
reference
node
of
the
zerosequence
network
does
not
represent
a
ground
of
uniform
potenOal.
We
have
discussed
the
fact
that
the
impedance
of
the
ground
and
ground
wires
is
included
in
the
zerosequence
impedance
of
the
transmission
line,
and
the
return
circuit
of
the
zerosequence
network
is
a
conductor
of
zero
impedance,
which
is
the
reference
node
of
the
system.
11/20/13
235
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
It
is
because
the
impedance
of
the
ground
is
included
in
the
zero
sequence
impedance
that
voltages
measured
to
the
reference
node
of
the
zerosequence
network
give
the
correct
voltage
to
equivalent
ideal
ground.
11/20/13
236
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Consider
the
oneline
diagrams
of
a
small
power
system
and
the
corresponding
zerosequence
network,
simplied
by
oming
resistances
and
shunt
admimances:
T
R
P
N
M
Q
S
Z
ONELINE
DIAGRAM
n
11/20/13
237
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Consider
the
oneline
diagrams
of
a
small
power
system
and
the
corresponding
zerosequence
network:
Case
5
T
R
Case
4
P
N
M
Q
S
Z
Case
4
WATCH
THE
ORDER!
ONELINE
DIAGRAM
n
11/20/13
238
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Consider
the
oneline
diagrams
of
a
small
power
system
and
the
corresponding
zerosequence
network:
R
Case
5
T
Case
4
N
M
T
R
P
N
M
Q
S
Q
S
Case
4
3Z
n
Reference
ZEROSEQUENCE
NETWORK
11/20/13
239
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Consider
the
oneline
diagrams
of
a
small
power
systems
and
the
corresponding
zerosequence
network:
N
Q
Z
W
P
M
P
X
V
R
S
U
T
ONELINE
DIAGRAM
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
11/20/13
Networks
240
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Consider
the
oneline
diagrams
of
a
small
power
systems
and
the
corresponding
zerosequence
network:
Case
2
Q
Case
4
N
W
Z
Case
1
M
P
V
X
Case
4
R
S
T
U
Case
3
Case
3
ONELINE
DIAGRAM
Symmetrical
Components
&
Sequence
11/20/13
Networks
241
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
Case
4
N
Q
W
R
S
V
M
P
Case
4
U
Case
3
Case
3
T
ZEROSEQUENCE
NETWORK
11/20/13
Case
2
Z
X
Case
1
Reference
242
SEQUENCE
NETWORKS
The
analysis
of
an
unsymmetrical
fault
on
a
symmetrical
system
consists
in
nding
the
symmetrical
components
of
the
unbalanced
currents
that
are
owing.
Therefore,
to
calculate
the
eect
of
a
fault
by
the
method
of
symmetrical
components,
it
is
essenOal
to
determine
the
sequence
impedances
and
to
combine
them
to
form
the
sequence
networks.
The
sequence
networks
carrying
the
symmetrical
component
currents
are
then
interconnected
to
represent
various
unbalanced
fault
condiOons,
as
we
have
described.
11/20/13
243
EXAMPLE
Draw
the
negaOve
and
zerosequence
network
for
the
oneline
system
shown
again
below.
Assume
zerosequence
reactances
for
the
generator
and
motors
of
0.05
per
unit.
A
currentlimiOng
reactor
of
0.4
is
in
each
of
the
neutrals
of
the
generator
and
the
larger
motor.
The
zerosequence
reactance
of
the
transmission
line
is
1.5
/km.
T1
T2
M1
M2
Details:
A
300MVA,
20kV
threephase
generator
supplies
a
number
of
synchronous
motors
over
a
64km
transmission
line
having
transformers
at
both
ends.
The
motors
are
all
rated
13.2
kV.
The
neutral
of
motor
M1
is
grounded
through
a
reactance,
the
second
motor
M2
is
ungrounded
Symmetrical
(a
highly
unusual
situaOon).
Components
&
Sequence
11/20/13
Networks
244
EXAMPLE
Rated
inputs
to
the
motors
are
200
MVA
and
100
kV
for
M1
and
M2.
The
threephase
transformer
T1
is
rated
350
MVA,
230/20
kV
with
leakage
reactance
of
10%.
Transformer
T2
is
composed
of
three
singlephase
transformers,
each
rated
127/13.2
kV,
100
MVA
with
a
leakage
reactance
of
10%.
Series
reactance
of
the
transmission
line
is
0.5
/km.
Assume
that
the
generator
and
both
motors
have
a
subtransient
reactance
of
0.2
per
unit.
T1
T2
M1
M2
11/20/13
245
EXAMPLE
First,
let
us
draw
the
reactance
diagram
using
the
generator
raOng
as
the
base
in
the
generator
circuit.
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
kV
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
The
threephase
raOng
of
T2
is 3
100
= 300
kVA
127 220
3
246
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
In
the
transmission
line: 230
kV,
since
T1
is
rated
230/20
kV.
13.2
In
the
motor
circuit: 230
=
13.8
kV.
220
The
reactances
of
the
transformers
converted
to
the
proper
base
are:
300
T1:
0.1
= 0.0857
per
unit
350
2
13.2
T2:
0.1
= 0.0915
per
unit
13.8
11/20/13
247
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
2
230
The
base
impedance
of
the
transmission
line
is:
= 176.3
300
0.5 64
The
reactance
of
the
line
is
=
0.1815
per
unit.
176.3
2
300 13.2
The
reactance
of
motor
M1
is: X d
= 0.2
= 0.2745
per
unit
200 13.8
2
300 13.2
and
M2: X d
= 0.2
= 0.2745
per
unit
100 13.8
11/20/13
248
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
Draw
the
nega;vesequence
circuit.
Note
that
the
negaOvesequence
reactances
of
the
system
are
equal
to
the
posiOvesequence
reactances,
hence
the
negaOvesequence
network
is
idenOcal
to
the
posiOvesequence
network
except
we
omit
the
posi;vesequence
emfs
from
the
nega;vesequence
network.
The
required
network
drawn
without
transformer
phase
shins
is
11/20/13
249
EXAMPLE
T1
20
k
V
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
Base
Base
The
nega;vesequence
circuit:
j0.0857
j0.2
j0.1815
13.8
kV
T2
Base
(220:13.2
kV)
M1
M2
j0.0915
j0.2745
j0.5490
Reference
11/20/13
250
EXAMPLE
T2
T1
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
Base
Base
The
posi;vesequence
circuit
(not
asked
for):
j0.0857
j0.1815
M2
j0.0915
j0.2
11/20/13
13.8
kV
Base
M1
+
Eg
j0.2745
j0.5490
Em1
+
Em2
Reference
251
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
Draw
the
zerosequence
circuit.
The
zerosequence
leakage
reactance
of
the
transformers
is
equal
to
the
posiOvesequence
reactance,
so
for
T1
and
T2,
X0
=
0.0857
pu
and
0.0915
pu,
respecOvely.
11/20/13
252
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
Zerosequence
reactances
of
the
generator
and
motor
are:
Generator:
X 0
= 0.05
per
unit
2
300 13.2
Motor
1: X
0 =
0.05
=
0.0686
per
unit
200 13.8
2
300 13.2
Motor
2: X
0 = 0.05
=
0.1372
per
unit
100 13.8
11/20/13
253
EXAMPLE
T2
T1
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
Base
Base
The
base
impedances
are:
2
20 )
(
Generator:
Zbase
=
= 1.333
300
2
13.8)
(
Motor
Circuit:
Zbase
=
=
0.635
13.8
kV
Base
M1
M2
300
11/20/13
254
EXAMPLE
13.8
kV
T2
T1
Base
20
k
V
(220:13.2
kV)
(20:230
kV)
230
kV
M1
Base
Base
M2
In
the
impedance
network
for
the
generator:
0.4
3Z
=
3
n
=
0.900
per
unit
1.333
0.4
and
for
the
motor: 3Z n
= 3
=
1.890
per
unit
0.635
1.5 64
For
the
transmission
line:
Z0 =
= 0.5445
per
unit
176.3
11/20/13
255
EXAMPLE
The
zerosequence
network
is:
Case 4
j0.05
j0.0857
Case 4
j0.5445
j0.0915
M1
j0.686
M2
j1.372
j0.900
j1.890
Reference
11/20/13
256
SUMMARY
Unbalanced
voltages
and
currents
can
b
e
resolved
in
to
their
symmetrical
components.
Problems
are
solved
by
treaOng
each
set
of
components
separately
and
superimposing
the
results.
In
balanced
networks
having
strictly
symmetrical
coupling
between
phases
the
currents
of
one
phase
sequence
induce
voltage
drops
of
like
sequence
only.
Impedances
of
circuit
elements
to
currents
of
dierent
sequences
are
not
necessarily
equal.
A
knowledge
of
the
posiOvesequence
network
is
necessary
for
powerow
studies,
fault
calculaOons,
and
stability
studies.
11/20/13
257
SUMMARY
If
the
fault
calculaOons
or
stability
studies
involve
unsymmetrical
faults
on
otherwise
symmetrical
systems,
the
negaOve
and
zero
sequence
networks
are
also
needed.
Synthesis
of
the
zerosequence
network
requires
parOcular
care
because
the
zerosequence
network
may
dier
from
the
others
considerably.
Next
Unsymmetrical
Faults
11/20/13
258
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