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ANNUAL GUIDE TO 3D ae eis IDEA BUILDER —_ REVIEWED Behindthe | *™ A _* Wel ] m\ AY if) ) | |* (ES REALLY) MEDIA WEENEND PROJECTS owen BY Q== “RASPBERRY EYE” REMOTE SERVO CAM Build @ DIY pan/tilt webcam sentry and watch it from anywhere online. Webcams are a fun and useful too. Being able to control where they're looking remotely, though, takes their usefulness toa whole new level. Whather you're watching your pets while you're away or allowing friends to participate in an event from the other sie ofthe world, a web-enabled camera puts the end user in control of the experience. The “Raspberry Eye" Remote Servo Cam project combines two very popular maker tools — a 30 printer and a Raspberry Pi — to show you how to create your own remote-access pant camera. The Raspberry Pi provides a perfect base platform fo creating Internet-connected devices, The Flask framework allows you to take your existing Python apps (the preferred language for developing applications on the Raspberry Pi) and addin an HTML template to provide a \wob page interface forthe end user. This project has an HTML template document thats pretty bare bones, sit’ easily understood by anyone who wants to look under the hood and also provides a good starting point if you want to customize it for yourset. Advertorial MATT STULTZ SOFTWARE DEVELOPER Im orderto send the video from the Raspberry Pi across the web, ths project uses.a software package called MJPG- streamer, which wont overwhelm the liited processing power ofthe Pi. The servomotors, which handle the pan and tit ofthe camera, are controlled by the GPIO pins ofthe Raspberry Pi APython module called RPIO will make it easy to send the precise signals tothe servos needed o set their postion, The Raspberry Eye" Remote Servo Cam wil get you started with basi snooping using your Pi, but theres alot more you can doto extend the features. You can add Wi, create a custom enclosure for ‘outdoor deployment or increase your stealth byyconcealing the prjectin a common household object ikea cereal box ora book. You'l be able to contol the camera and viw its output froma web browser ona ‘computer thas on your local network you want to access "Raspberry Eye” Remote Servo Cam from the Internet, YoU can setup pot forwarding on your router. However, be aware that there are in security o access contol steps taken in the project — you're on your own for securing your “Raspberry Eye” Dowrlodthe enclosure’ desig flesromthe project agen print cute parts. These ofthe twopan viramsuiaeda be pind wth spar maar toalw the support armto be pnted caret you a’ have a0 printer you an adr the parts hugh ‘helo the pret page Whe you are wtng foryur parts, downed hecuston-made Cam isk Image rom he poet age and fash your Sard Deals anno ode this re ike onthe rn pge. Col he Mer Bend rom awa ‘te lSBrales ani tte cterilatinof fecal Sp abou I ctinssn rane bleckandrewes atari Temawayhecablestldng and curthwhteand greenwich wihteendattemancatie ‘naan Pas ea snk ting ‘sindeahaie Weg and ser ‘tebaerdotierovkesrnd those eis eotpinsan one ofyourtwein eas Do he sanethng th hata, appr tale ebth plsafyur sound e-phote Usingyou sleringten rahe ‘anwamibehetsirktbing oa tents ‘elejonsan hep. Fun the servo cable romoneof you serves downin ‘thelarge rectangular leon th top the projet case and push the servona place Useaseendiver torightnthe wo lang mounting sre thar were included with your motor Ru he connector fromthe second servo moto trughthesmalrestanglarhole inthe topefthe case, ut don tment thi sero jet. @) Build the “Raspberry Eye” Remote Servo Cam. radioshack.com/DIT PARTS TOOLS © Raspberry Pi single-board computer, RadioShack? 277-0195 O Soldering iron, RadioShack” 3D-printed case and pan/tilt mechanism (Download the 30 files) O Solder, RadioShack” e4-005, © SD card, 68 or are, RaloShack® +8 (© Wire steippers/cuters, RaclShack? +24 © Servomotrs ior (2), RadioShack” 2: oS A : © Jumpor wires and pin headers, RatloShack’ spa reed buahec pects © USB charger, 2 prt, RadioShack” © USB ables, Mer B (2), RadioShack” > © RespheryPi-conpatible USB webeam © Ethernet cable, RadioShack’ © Heat hin tubing slightly wider than your USB cable, RadioShack 7 © (able ties (aa sip ies or wie ies), RacShack 2272 O Q Filer sandpaper © Afinia H-Sories H480 30 Printer (optional) RadioShack” 27122 unthe jumper eso the catle you bul trough he ‘alr hoe onthe backa the case tp. Plug lack hearin itbeth sere canner ung the les ratcing he brownie ram each sere Pligthered uaa pis into the ener comestarhlecn ots Connector, matching the orang ies. Plgpuse omer wie ntoeat of herenaininghols onthe sere comets, ratching he elon wes, Push ser inthe sare ‘shapodoleon hegre wo pinta Soren the retort ac wth the wo lan bundled sews O Pugthe pre signal wire fem the panmetr the ‘ne atached othe projet case it in 230 the agphertyPi Pg signal wie oa he tit motor intopin22on the RaspherryP.Usethe Ethene cable teceneet the Piroyour network. With he SD care ingectaint te P connoe te USB power tothe Servos andthe RacpborryP. Connect tothe command linea SH and run thence Python seit to zero thomotorsto thee hone positon etre mauing. ‘Shut awn the Raspberry i and isconec the power. ‘achthe an axmtothepan servos tha tis aralllathelang set hecase Theil serv0 "Shuleonthe sane ie ae he US andere rs una treughthobattom es ofthe tits, butdon pit ogee yet Press the it ‘mnt hesere saan the panam Seeuit te place withthe remain sl sew Pace ‘heceneraonthearmandeeure bye dawnt ip tis. Tinh pessoa hey dt seit it mtn Power yp yu agen andthe inde sotwareFomyou ‘campate;open hip [pean ar yonow see ouput ram yor cna and seth eat tomone theca. CONTENTS peg Special Section EVOLUTION Welcome 08 Reader Input 10 Punks and Makers 12 How a music revolution fered the Maker erent Wrongs and ts 16 at you tink it does Made on Earth 16 Explore the amazing word of backyard techn Over the Top 112 Doyou have 3 0-printed concrete castle in y backyard? Well, why not? Ones to Watch 71 iy evo. Will this be the year that SLS machines printer dows pata . ako tothe desktop facades? my Rapid Roadster 72 drivable, witha full 30-prnted bod What Is Print Quality? 34 nd than avs scm Untether Your 3D Printer 74 Print-in-Place: The Additive Holy | 's\o0/S\isyouconi oly bint Stick itfrom the Start 76 Tips or geting that reat rst ayer and 30 P ter Buyer's Guide 38 From hacker-friendly to Rainbow Extrusion 77 Fragyoorexperts reveu 2830 printers. | Use Sharpes tosnaze up your prints neaply and eas. Heroes in the Making 22 Fi snd isneys pw animated re: faa ae Fused Filament Findings 66 19 Great Short Prints 77 ped with ngenuty aed high-tech to prierson he market od ast demo prints in 30 minutes or less ‘Arduino Gets Physical 70 we take an early look at the Materia 10 tory into 30 printers 2 makershed.com * You could stay on a fence, . = 7 Colm (el0 ceo) ] (ana Z Ge Organ eno Ne eg ea eC ee een oa ate a CEU ee Pee en eon eeu too. The push button controls and LCD screen make setup a breeze, and Rrra Ce eee ONL the welder youll ever need, for just $999. Get off the fence and get it Poorest et 7 E Du esa POT) ee re ee poe CONTENTS makezine.com/2 SKILL BUILDERS Glowing Recommendations 98 Vintage components that add Fun with Flexibles 102 Tipsfo ti PROJECTS Cyberpunk Spikes 78 30-print these salt kes and light therm up with fullecolor programmable LEDs. 3D Printed Eyeglasses 82 Finally! Design and print your ‘wn pecs 3D Print Your Medical Scan 83 Prep CT images for print Boat Hitch Table 84 Make an agjustable-height DIY Pickles: Beets and Grapes 86 Quick and tay vinegar pick tings reat or presen sing variety ruts and Remaking History 88 A1Sth-contury English nun TOOLBOX Tool Reviews 104 Recommendations fr uniqu and useful maker tools, ys, and materials, New Maker Tech 106 Dn the harizan for electra Books 107 Text tools for your bench or bedside table Universal Translator 90,” c Translate between thousands | is Nee of language pais witn voice recognition. cing he sp : 123 — Board Feet 1 Give your board a lit by adding ul from off-the-shall hardwa The Kit That Launched the |» rodtete te tat Tech Revolution 92 We celebrate the 40th an. y ofthe Altar 6800, Make-an-Entrance Party | cri Doorbell 94 ne : cunisouniefecewinwmetess. | Ea : ensers and a Raspber'y 5 ries Howtoons 95 Launch easy t-ma och pie and : Toy Inventor's Notebook 96 t Wie cet Assemble alaleidoscope with | | surface into acolortu tap. mrt & makershed.com Eliminate Print Failures . ED votive ExcelFil™ High Grade 3D Printing Filament “includes Free Shipping. Enter code MAKESD during checkout. Limited number of reseller opportunities available Email sales@cubicity.com for more information Make: Rockets _Leam how to build rockets from the ground up! Starting withthe |__ basics of rocket propulsion, readers will eam to inake rockets from household objects and then move onto propellant-powered ones, be -WAERSHED COM/MAKNGROCKETS - 7. “a Seas earner =F | »-Making Makers. Is your child a Maker? How will ow maintain their curiosity? This book >MAKERSHED.COM shares tories and resources to . i the li life to Maker Shed SEE es The official store of Make: WAKERSHED.COM/MAKINGMAKERS “Restrictions are difficult to enforce ina a e world where anybody can make anything” -Hod Lipson, a professor, Cornell University Creative Machines Lab ‘Todd Sotkiewicz Jason Babler 0 sereee ce renasmanny | ARtewrime — $lESiaion ERSTE Supra = breed SSSR ace estar armon— guzseet sean ee | eee ee ee ethan — a a anon coro vate eoroR eeemcrre. Michael Castor rro0uce Reseesenraine indy Lum Jettrey Braverman Brigitte Kunde sssocurenceuces baulse Glasgow Ryan Austin Keith Hammond unter Kirsh cuaggeeces— MAMMBREK Serna Mesto = cease See wamaarne cuca Gestalaree ‘Mer Wiesarver Mandala G/282°°0" pra TECHNICAL EDITOR a MARKETING, ‘Vickie Welch Sam-5 pm. PST ition mais, Vie Ss oeescne wees: a: MARKETING PROGRAMS PROGRAMS erent sonar uousiepey ‘Anna Kaziunas France Weesire commence ‘Suzanne Huston CTS AKERMCOH, me, epiroRs MANADING DIRECTOR ‘Vice PRESIDENT OF —s__ a ‘Dale Dougherty, CEO ‘Girsewcrane ant sep senate ; Nathan Hurst i Hone Kelly Peters ‘Johanna Nuding comrepnoaae beiminasiel Gua Whitmer rick McCarthy Sarah Slagle Rematenetet aoe sorgasar EE hime roms ea promess conrmaurons iano Bran es Bese ony | votcutperanstngralortanietpoticormponte wat woud ucioiinte Sorter noms Ceowueen Sevan vary art tees Eee. $ESenin cre suecone Yes and Michel Sioner Kelly MeVieker| Sereecscaeacy | Seman | (es, | fare | Meni Sica Ser att Os0 Men No Pars Sr Inmenwous | inrarured | Mesasgecownt | Gheetivee. | Gporegite aoe | Genie sere, [rman | Remain, | tumtrtge | Rahearezig eee Fetes, | Sy | sigma” | ESE" | aches os Shee. | Saeate Important butthe ‘Buddha statues © makershed.com L——] 6 amen) Cone Recall UP QUALITY | LARGE FORMAT Large Build Volume tte Se TNA] eT cen Rove aye) Pema an aeRO ie meese) eee Rata a) Environment with New arene Nae Quiet Operation with Tete eae ABS|PLA Printing with RES erent eer tog eee) Oreos GO BIG, GO BOX UP BOX Wwww.UP3D.com WELCOME makezine.comv/42 (WHAT IF THERE WERE A WORLD CUP FOR 30 PRINTING? THIS IDEA MUST have started incubating on my tip to Germany for Maker Faire Hannover, which took place during the World Cup. After a Saturday walking the Faire, | went to the hotel barat night to watch Belgium lose to ‘Argentina. The Netherlands beat Costa Rica ina shootout. After the last match, !bagan to leave when two brothers introduced themselves to me — Michel and Yes ‘Sinner from Luxembourg, Michel and Yves run 30printinaforbeginners.com and they ‘came to Hannover aftr visting Maker Faire Paris. As we talked, | mentioned that we ‘were preparing for Make: magazine's annual review of 30 printers. Our ovm “shootout” ‘would be held this year at America Makes, ‘a public-private partnership around additive manufacturing located in Youngstown, Ohio. Yves told me that, a an innavation ‘advisor for Goodyear, he had visited Akron many times, and he knew exactly where Youngstown was. Small world. | invited both of them to join us and they enthusiastically accepted. ‘America Makes renovated a storefront [once known as Furnitureland] in downtown Youngstown, acty that, lke many inthe Midwest, sfrugaling to rebound from the loss of its manufacturing base. Made of brick and timber beams, the facility covers three floors and includes many industrial 20 printers. Our editorial lead, Anna Kaziunas France, had made the arrangements for 2 different consumer 30 printers hwe ultimately tested 26] tobe set tpn the basement, and she prepped our team of 17 testers — 15 Americans, along with Michel and Yves. Seeing the array of 30 printers, Michel said to me: “This is 30 printer heaven.” Our weekend event began with a welcome from Raloh Resnick, founding director of America Makes, and ather representatives from Youngstown who ‘were excited that this event was taking place there. Youngstown was Rio for 3 printing, Ifthere were a 30 Wortd Cup, the US. ‘would have enough “teams” to form its own @ makershed.com ‘whieh | saw at Maker Faire Hannover Italy has XFAB from DWSLAB, Canada ‘would send the snaw-white Ditto Pro fram Vancouver. We would look at Zortrax’s ‘capable M200 from Poland and the DeeGreen from beD in the Czech Republi. Europe's strongest countryis probably the Netherlands, which leads with a favorite ofthe testers, Utimaker.Italso has Leaplrog and Felix. Tere are lesser-known companies in Sweden (ZZ Printer, ‘Spain Witbox from ba], France [Spider ot! {and the U.K. [Robox) [We weren't able to test all of these models! could imagine a quarterfinal with Poland playing Portugal In Asia, the fields less clear. China is producing a growing number of 30 printers, including FlashForge, which the Dremel printers derived from. The UP printer, hich is retabeled as finia for the ‘American market, is capable and low-cost ‘Anow printer we tested, the inexpensive dda Vine printer from X¥Zprinting, could represent Taiwan and China, bu it wasn't leader in print quality. There are some clones like Mbt that are inferior in design and performance, but China is nt the only country ‘making clones, None of Chinas printers may be a favorite this year, but watch out for them in the future, ‘The comparison to the Wortd Cup ‘breaks dawn when we consider South America. There is litle evidence of 30 printers coming from countries tke Brazil ‘or Argentina, though this could be due to ‘our own failure to find them, Nonetheless, judging by the printers we had in the basement of America Makes, we ‘would have enough countries for a round ‘of 16 global competitors. We could have a dda Vine v. Utimaker semi-final. might have predicted that MakerBot would get tothe finals, but lke Brazil, they fell short; the two most competitive printers, the ones fending up in the final match would be from the US. and the Netherlands: LulzBot TAZ 4 \.Ultimaker 2.0 BY DALEDOUGHERTY, founder ancl CEO of Maker Meta, domestic league. Representing California are Deezmaker in Pasadena, Airwolf in Costa Mesa, Printrbot in Lincoln, and Type Ain San Francisco, Colorado has LLulzBot. South Carotina has 30 Systems, Goshen, indiana, isan untikely place fora 30 printing company, but that’s ‘here SeeMeCNC builds the Orion Delta 30 printer. An MIT spinoft, Formiabs, represents Boston, and MakerGear is Cleveland's entry. Market leader MakerBat represents a resurgent Brooklyn and the return of manufacturing in New York City. The US. league for 30 printers is very competitive, Dremel’ entry into 3D printing, which we preview inthis issue, could bea ‘game changer. Yetwihat makes a 30 World Cup possible is the increasing number of international entrants, The look-at-me design of the BeeTheFirst from BeeVeryCreative would ‘make Portugal a crowd faverite. Germany would enter its orange and green Fabbster, PATENT YOUR FUTURE Earn tech respect with a Digital Maker and Fabrication Bachelor of Science degree Digital fabrication is about to revolutionize how we invent and create, Lear to lead this revolution while developing your on inventions in an unprecedented univerit-wide, open lab environment. As pat oftheir cutculum, graduates ofthis program wil fle fr their own U.S. patent. This unprecedented degree isthe first ofits kind being offered frm the ete private university that ist focused atthe daw of the computer revolution on advancing computer technology, Be the ist to jon along line of tral blazing graduates that wl ead the next transformation of technology and industry. Patent your future, Invent something that changes everything! Learn more today at www.uat.edu/OMF READER INPUT ergo put them togeth it Y eer eet Det Bee ago and you eee I don't alway ory Deere aes es areata er Cron pile of glos ee ote La looking pretty good actualy. The [Maker Faire Bay Area blue] ribbon you gave uss ‘awesome, We put all the ribbons on display, but yours ismy favorite! Make on! = Carson, Arizona »> Tread your magazine frequently. and don't feellike lwould've had the inspira- tion to see [my Dream Machine] project through without past articles suchas the Forrest Mims Amateur Scientist series, and carl articles al the vay up te this publica INRESPONSE tion. Thank youfor TOVOLUME 40s producing a high: “WHERE ARE quaitymagazine if THEWOMEN IN thatalsoteachesas © MAKERSPACES?” muchasit generates There are community eager toleamandapply chology than ideas. We need more thereusedto foks thinking cit be, butthere’s| cally out there } stilagap.tima Thanks or being sysadminand asparkinthedark, | (ose Be het have been inthe ~ day Parry via web ‘ ann Mfilefor nearly . ns 20 years. Years > HiJason Fn seth, abbons on ae" bu? omy age, there were two [Babler Maker ony pen? Enc hs ore female program: creative direc ING: mers, and was tor]|malmost TN the only female halfway done wth ( sysadmininthe theclayT rex its entire company. Boing a girl and also havinga cute Southern accent, ad to work extra hard to prove myself, andi dia. finaly earned respect from the guys. Why is therea stereotype that girls aren't good at math or science? Ima math whiz and can thank my supergenius mom helping me with hhormework for that. If she had the op portunity, she could've been an electrical engineer. Doesn't matter ityou're a boy ora gr. don'tlet anyone discourage you and tell ‘you that you can't do something, With hard work and determination, you can do anything you set your mind to. — Susan MeRorie, Monroe, NC © “CNC Makerspace Shed” Update Since its publication in Volume 0, the “CNC Makerspace Shed” has gathered a lot of attention. For those who don't have access toa CNC machine, we've added instructions for hand cuting the trusses. Vist makezine.com/projects/ene-maker- space-shed to get all the details 40 makershed.com Share the gift of Make: this holiday season! BOTH YOU AND YOUR GIFT RECIPIENT WILL RECEIVE SIX ISSUES CHOCK FULL OF: « Fun and creative projects for all skill levels * Highlights on gadgets and gear for makers * Features on innovative makers * How-to guides and resources Make: Subscribe today! makezine.com/bogo ‘SHARE THE GIET OF MAKE: « SUBSCRIBE OR RENEW. JUST $34.95 FOR2 SUBSCRIPTIONS: 6 ISSUES / YEAR OFFER EXPIRES DECEMBER 31,2014 ‘SOAPBOX makezine.com/punks-and-makers GHKS ni [aKens How a music revolution powered the Maker Movement. LAST YEAR AT SOUTH BY SOUTHWEST, FORMER NIRVANA DRUMMER Dave Groh gave a speech about his beginnings that should resonate with any maker: ‘As muchas I wanted tobe ina band, | was there, alone in my bedroom, day in dy out with my h myself for hours. wo set up pillows in the formation ofa drum set on my bed and play along t records until there trippin bea one-man band. took my crappy old handheld taper and laid down a guitar track. would then take that cassete, place tin the home stereo, take another cassette, place THAT into the handh tplay on the stereo, record onthe handheld, and play drums al i of my guitar Voi 35 iteraly sweat down the Rush posters on my ventuall figured out howto d recorder the Mule tracking! At 12 years ola! This was the experience ofan entire generation, the indie/punk scene of the early’80s. And in that underground music revolution you can see the roots of today’s Maker Movement. What Grohl and his contemporaries were doing was ddemecratizing the tools of production in a way thats now echoed in everything from desktop manufacturing to crowdfunding, earned this firsthand as a teenager in Washington, 0. in the early 1980s, ‘when itwas one of the het spots of the ‘American punk rock movement. Bands ‘such as Minor Threat and the Teen Idles ‘were being formed by suburban kids and playing in church basements. Despite not knowing how to play an instrument and having limited talent, | got caught up in the ‘excitement ofthe moment and played in some ofthe lesser bands in the scene. It didnt lead to music stardom, butt did instill DIY spirit that largely informed the rest of my career. What was new about the 1980s punk phenomenon was thatthe bands did more than jst play; they also started to publish, Photocopiers were becoming common [Kinko's copy shops went national in the ear 80s), and from them started a zine” culture of DIY magazines that were Aistributed at stores, shows, and by mail Cheap four-track tape recorders such as the TEAC Portastudio ($1,200 when it was introduced in 1981} hit that market, allowing bands to record and mix their own ‘music without a professional studio. And 18 growing industry of small ving pressing plants let them make small-bateh singles and EPs, which they sold via mail order and (CHRIS ANDERSON 11> on local shops. This was the start ofthe DIY music industry. The tools of the major labels — recording, manufacturing, and marketing ‘muse — were now inthe hands of indwviduals. Eventually, some ofthese bands, led by Minor Threat and then Fugazi started their own indie label, Dischord Records, which produced hundred of ‘albums and is stil running today. They didn’t need to compromise theic music to get published and they didn't need to sel inbig numbers or get radio play. “They could find their own fans: indeed, the fans found them via word-of-mouth, and postcards poured into micro-tabels te order music that couldn't be found in most stores. The relative obscurity conferred authenticity and contributed to the rise tothe glabal underground that defines web culture today My bands did all ofthis, rom the photocopied fies tothe zines tothe four-track tapes to the indie-label albums. We never got very big, but that ‘wasn't the point. We still had day jobs, but we were doing what we thought was genuinely innovative and getting people atour shows. ‘Where the DIY punk movement ‘co-opted the means of praduction, in the web age people used desktop publishing, then websites, then blogs, ‘and now social media, Indie-pressed vinyl became YouTube music videos. Four track tape records became ProTools and iPad music apps. Garage bands became ‘Apple's GarageBand, Yesterday's garage bands are today's garage hardware startups and Kickstarter is the new indie launch pad. Punk’s not dead — it's just traded electric guitars for soldering irons. 12 makershed.com The people-and-solar-powered ELF Driving better health and a healthier planet BCs Rae Se) Aes Re eres De meme) Se aan ecco mee ae en aoe Ce oR RUC eal 1 Cae tier ecm koa CMa Sil een use lee Ste ied Toe Rem eure se ans Cree ease Rob Cottr, Fou at Who: Organic Tansit Prosiiee erase atc Se a aed ‘ShopBot 96 X 48 around without hurting the inet, Their first produc and growing a t rk in innovative way the tools aera future. SOAPBOX makezine.comv/42 ‘3D PRINTING IS ABOUT TO TURN MOST (OF WHAT YOU THINK YOU KNOW ABOUT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW ON TTS HEAD. Although physical objects ‘can be protected by copyright, patent, or trademark, that protections not always the same as the protection of digital goods like photographs or computer cade, Among other things, this can lead to confusion ‘about open-source licensing, and the ditferences between copyrights and patents Copyright isa type of intellectual property right that automatically protects creative works, such as paintings, poems, and sculptures. Software is also protected by copyright, essentially because it s treated like a novel or poem. The moment you create a work n the “copyright” category, it protected — you don't need te register your copyright in order to get protection. As a result, we are all owners of probably hundreds of thousands of copyrights, ‘whether we want them of net One of copyright’ limitations is thet itonly protects creative objects. Functional objects things that do things — are instead protectable by patent, While patent differs from copyright in many ways, one of the most important i that iis not automatic You need to apaly fora patent, something that requires a significant amount of time ‘and money. Every software program or ‘mural comes with an automatic copyright just waiting tobe licensed, but the act of creating a working engine gives you nothing Once you create an object protected by copyright or patent, you can impose all sorts of conditions on how iis used — that’s what a license does. Various open-source software and Creative Commons licenses take automatic copyright protection and Useiit to encourage openness by making that openness a condition of use. Those conditions are backed up by a legal right —ifyou use a protected work without complying withthe conditions, you may be infringing on its copyright. In the wor'd of 3D printing itis critical to remember that you are often working with two separate elements — the object and the fil, While a digital photograph and afile for a digital photograph are essentially the same thing, intellectual property law may treat the abject and the file that represents the object completely cifferently. ‘A purely functional object, like @ screw, falls firmly into the “patent” camp and cannot be protected by copyright However, forthe sake ofthis article e's say the seraw’s digital ile falls under copyright. Tha ile is posted on Thingiverse witha Creative Commans Attribution [NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 license. What does the license mean? Firstly, many people would not consider it an open-source Ucense, because it violates the open-sou 'No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor” provision. Secondly, it probably only applies tothe file, not tothe object created from the fle. That means copying the digital file without adhering tothe terms [attribution, share alke, or whatever) is copyrightinfringement. However, the Creative Commons license does not protect the physical functional object eepresented inthe fle — the screw itself. That means that, assuming its done without copying the digital file, anyone is free to copy the serew without worrying about the license terms. hardware and software MICHAEL WEINBERG Isvicepresident of Public Kowwedge.a none advocacy goup that represents consurmersin technology policy ssues in Washington. Ds @MWeinberePK Itis probably safe to say that this lack of protection forthe physical manifestations of their digital fles would come asa surprise tomany people uploading files of functional ‘abjacts to file-sharing websites, Inaddition, atleast one court has found that, unlike photographs, 30 scans of ‘objects are not protected by copyright. That does not mean that scans cannot infringe ‘on a copyright. Butit does mean that the scanner does not have a new copyright in the scan To understand how this works, imagine a sculpture created by Alice. Since the sculpture isa nonfunctional, creative work, ‘Alice has @ copyright in the sculpture. Bob ‘comes along and scans the sculpture. Bob has created a copy ofthe sculpture, and if he failed to get permission from Alice, he is probably infringing on her copyright However, Bob does not have new copyright ‘on hs scan, If Charles comes along and copies Bob's scan file without permission, he has not infringed on Bob's copyright because no such copyright exists, This illustrates the importance of keeping track of exactly what you are talking about in the world of physical infringements, Are you talking about the thing or ust a digital representation of thing? “Twenty-plus years of open Uicensing has trained many of us to think of openness in terms of copyright. In order to transition that training into the world of 30 printing, we need afairly nuanced understanding ‘of where copyright is — andi not — in play. That willbe hard, However tempting it may be, assuming latent copyrights ‘where none exist will nt make that process any easier. © Ye makershed.com a Laser cut even the most elaborate designs with ease. ay Whether you're working with wood, acrylic, paperboard or just about anything Cee SE Eee? oo Leapfrog @, # PRINTS 30 Printers BESTWITH Ipfrq.com Create The Future OK wynit BUicnien @ soo.0rmarer aM A D |= The world of backyard technology Errall us eetoramakeane.com " Nadeon HARPOON GUN LIGHTNING GUN ‘tating wth the 30 mal fom the gue coneed the designs into ateght STL Mterthe Hrpaon Gn, th lighting Gun the on es ite a hang ony owl fis | coud fed tomy Crvewight CNC maces. The machines do 0% ofthe work bt Since thee wae at fpr tht were repeated mee tins ev thepraaying still hat smoot the pasa rp them ar molding Fach of he pats wa molded ad mldnaking eat pty ql. Casting ek it mor tne, but oc he whe ings abe. ten csi semisiguretan sn that woul lx on impact thing was seme it waste at al befor the wl tig was dy fit instead of stating ter assembiy and cleanup. alt needed was a maser pit job totum pee of lasticinto a belavabl, formidable moatr hunting wezpen Vs _ makershed.com FORGING VIDEO GAME PROPS Deen aro eee) Itall started with @ phone call from a buddy over at 2K Games. Peer et De Ee ee eee ea PS eee een at his costumes and props, so he eed eee ey Killed him, but the results are impressive ers nny battling huge monsters — or you can play as the beast. Based on, eee eee ea een Bee cee ct ea ea ey eg aor ceed LASER CUTTER Ueceptively simple at fist lance, ths proved tobe the mest fut piece to mae. Al tod tare ware 4 separate components that had tobe Ned 3D prated, mld cast, repped painted an assembled to ge the final su LAZARUS DEVICE ‘Tis one uses 30-prnted shel bonded ta tocast resi fondation pee and hear duty lecrical safety glove Fr the tubes nthe acide stated with sma sigs and ros ado aluminum stack, te the int sce acy tubs, and then filed ‘the tubes with cstiled water and fod cling before sealing them ht ‘makezine.com 17 MADE ON EARTH Pea Pee ene A eee Belgian artist Eric van Hove created V12 Laraki a replica of a Mercedes- Peres a ee een ete renee ener Pe rte een ee parts that seem insignificant have to match perfectly” says van Hove. “It ee ee Cae nr) is eventualy jammed.” Van Hove employed 57 local master craftsmen on Cee en cao a ee AUT) eee enna’ The Mercedes V12is one of the most complex engines made, and wile vvan Hove's version doesn't run, he's planning a similar electric motorcycie Pete rome er cers maces “The craftsmen got transformed completely by this,” he says, “They realized their potential. For many of them they went beyond what they Cee a ed tert PEARLY PISTONS SA LIGHT PAPER CUT ‘THEBLACKBOOKGALLERY.COM/ARTISTS/HARI-DEEPTI \When Harikrishnan Panicker and Deept Nai moved from their native India to their current home of Denver, Colorado, the husband-and-wife team started hosting screen- printing workshops as a way tomeet people. ‘As Hari & Deepli they began showing resulting collaborations, which evolved into tedays cut-paper wonderland, “The initial boxes were not it, but were hand-painted watercolor dioramas,” explains Hari, “In India we had seen shadow puppetry the Balinese artform. We tried it, and immediately knew t vould be incredible.” The couple works on each scone together. ‘We are extremely inspired by nature, and are always looking at things with that ‘aspect — whether it could work as a ight bor. We start with an idea, think, st and sketch tout together, transfer all the layers toa piece of vellum, and then spit the cutting up: ‘Their pieces have ranged from five inches by seven inches. tos feet square. The largest took them about a month from planning to installation —Gregory Hayes makerine.com MADE ON EARTH | —— s ach EEEEEEBIRD CALLS ecvicwasscou Cellphones are frequently seen as stress-inducing devices, | sounds, and lights ofthe birds. Not only do the birds call to allowing our obligations to follow us wherever we go. et | eachother, but viewers ofthe piece can also call the birds collaborating artists Neil Mendoza and Anthony Goh used on a nearby 1940s-style rotary phone. broken and discarded cell phones to create a sculpture ‘According to Neil, the installation “creates an altemate thats both peaceful ané beautiful. Escape isa kinetic, reality inwhich these unwanted phones and noises become interactive installation of high-tech birds perched ina tree. | something beautitul." This piace certainly succeeds in that Each Arduino-equipped bird connects via Ethernet toa | endeavor. central Raspberry Pi, which coordinates the movements, Matt Richardson 2 makershed.com om "AMBIENT LIGHTNING ener ie eieieererreres ee Pe Li Sas pein rer tty ae eee ) Seems Ghai coS petcapemen tit creer ee Hesperia aren sire Srp e banerayaret rei daylight and even lightning when pene MSE DS Ua ke COE ee CCL rns) popes eeeeeaens Reuertcenenr eee word, not just in your backyard. Beer rene ciieueetuetictn ten arn apt, een ANIMATED ea E FIGHTERS ARE ARMED WITH INGENUITY AND HIGH-TECH TOOLS HEROES IN THE MAKING pope rien Se ce Disney movies inhabit penn ea Dey Cenc Sree tae ry er Soit' fitting thatthe latest Disney hero ee Te the pages of a Marvel comic, Hiro Hamada, Se ee ee Cae eer a His closest companion: an inflatable robot es Robotics has been done before, including Dee eae See ee acer) ee eee robotics. n bringing maker tech to the big Cenc ucey ee Cee crt Cee eee Reems cae eae Fe a eed Dee Uc De es fairy-tale fantasy and "80s nostalgia, but Big Hero is celebrating the maker, and Berens Ree Le kers. Alot of us are hobbyists, 0 printers, aE eet et eee eed eee eee ee es eee) printing spot, and the Internet of Thinas, sen eter ee! nation, we've always tried to find a way to ee ee ot ROOTED IN REALITY ee em) maker tools inthe story are re-envisioned with a sort of Disney panache, based in Pe ne ‘example of what could be coming next. Hiro De eee een ete eet ey kilobots designed this year at Harvard. The Se eee ad Pent at ee aid On eee aes Using better materials. Over the city float inflatable wind turbines, sending power Coe ee em Soe on nd eee ne eect ee een eras Pa sae eer the next five to 10 years and think, where eC aU ee See eee ey Perce CeCe OAs appears as a nurse robot for Hiro who, ee ee mc Ree eet ote! ‘some modifications, including 3D-printed Oe eT eee ed Pere eee es Ce ee er ous pe ee ee ey Pee eect Ce Leet ei from research on core soft robotics ideas, ee ee eee) Poneman ee the crunchyron-the-outside exoskeleton, for example. White exploring ideas forthe technology Pree ee Cu eee ee ea cas Petree ee ha ae eee eee Se uo aad eee eee ee Be ee ead eens Breen rtd Petraes pee huggable, and all things good,” says Hall. Se re CE CC cna ee ett Ere ae Seer and entire being, actualy came out ofthat Cet eee eet eC Ty See eee cy Sea eee eer aouy paren FEATURES Foe SR bs] ] (] 3 a oe = “1 *« rs Baymax does, and asked, “Why don't you Ee eng ene ey interacting with people, they need to be soft Sree teen aed ee eer ae tet eee eS eas Cees rea ree ee ee Rd OR Cee ee Pea Esra ry Pee eet eos aN Vay ee re ee eee CE ees ‘Two Marvel writers, Steven Seagle and Pie tenet oat Ce a eee See eee ser ers ee ee past asingle comic. This was before anime, Dee ace ry cere ee tery See ey Be ere eeu more prescient today. The pair gave the characters robust bios and backstories, and Per et erent Inthe movi, Hiro inherits Baymax from his brother —a slight diversion from the ee eee ae ed Pee een ae eC) aes Coy your heart, ale in your house, a hole in your family?" asks Seagle, “Robotics kind ‘of came as away to make that somatic ce ead Seagle and Rouleau still work together, See ree ree as SE eae) ‘work, the Cartoon Network show Ben 10, Peter tet tent geet the characters and their stories. The cast includes more than just Hiro and Baymax, andin Disneys interpretation, they're all Ge eer ae Pes eee eee ay this time as a comic written by Chris CeCe ees pee as eee ee carry ee eee Dee Cee eee cer) Se gtd Pe Cee ea es ee eee cen og See fun could have with them and they could have with me,” says Claremont, of writing er tr! ee Coe ener ea eed Se eres ec e Cee ees Pee aera Pe eet cc chemistry (Honey Lemmon), and magnetic erent ee eeu eee eur eet et ae Dee ers and the idea that they had been on other eet ee Sr ees that sort of thing,” he says. “So they formed De te cance their sprit really kind of infused some of en ee eee ent rere ae Oe aos have the guts to try to tackle some ofthis, eg eee the fact that this movie could celebrate that, Cee eee ee es Pee eet) get into science.” To that end, Disney also ee ae related to the movie: Six kids who send Videos oftheir approach to solving a world problem will win trips to the Big Hero 6 Cees Bornes eter Rete ee the ability to make a really great illus- tration of what that future could be,” See ae) thatthe things we put on screen here are Sete ety Cee gent Lod Pra ee aoa ase) nes FEATURES HOW THE NEW COMPUTE MODULE HELPS MAKERS CREATE, EMBEDDED LINUX PRODUCTS. Pree} IN AN EXPANSIVE AND NOISY OAKLAND WORKSHOP, THREE COLLABORATORS (CREATE A NEW PRODUCT: A HACKABLE (CAMERA THAT USERS CRANK TO TAKE ANIMATED GIFS. More than 5,000 miles way in Shefild, United Kingdom, a team of developersis working on a sleek top media player based on open technology. Inthe Netherlands, a voice controlled home autoriation project is becoming a product. All three of these {groups are integrating Raspberry Ps new Compute Module into their products, a ‘major leap forward in the accessibility of ‘a powerful technology With it fledging jeas can mare easily becom: Unt Pi-based project and you become 2 product, you faced a challenging leap — the chasm between projact and product was wide. With mare established ha pment platforms and less complex gies there's typically a pathway for makers to “go pro. For example, Arduina isa gateway to programming Atmel’ AVR micrachips, rmakershed.com makezine.com/raspberry-pl-inside the silicon atthe core of standard Arduino can be snapped intoa custom-printed boards. The Arduino platform is popular _circut board, Itcomes complete wth a CPU, because it does away with the complicated RAM, and onboard flash memory, the bare toolchain and simplifies the process of essentials for an embedded Linux device. programming AVR chips. ter learning Tohelo people get started, the foundation Arduino, makers can advance to creating _also sells a developrnent kit including a their projects withthe AVR chips alone, Compute Module and an VO breakout board essentially using the “brains” of the @ tohandle power regulation and make the Arduino and excising any ofthe features @ various VO pins easily accessible. When they don't need — lke taking the you snap the Compute Module into training wheels off a bike. This the board, you essentially have leads to the use of Atmel ‘Raspberry Pi that's suited chipsin products that for product development. have their beginnings as Compared toa standard TU Oe eer maker projects. RaspherryPi,ithas ee re ie Winns VO Bne es occ ac) Foundation is betting wellas additional De eee that the same willbe display and camera Sener eee true fois inexpensive, connectors. single board Linux “The Compute Module ‘computer: While the main ‘opens the door to a much purpose ofthe foundation is larger market. Instead of toadvance the education of adults being useful solely in an acadernic ‘and children inthe field of computers, or hobbyist setting, the Raspberry Pi Raspberry Pihas dominated the hobyist_ becomes a practical option for embedded market for inexpensive Linux computers. Linux products Commanty found at the core of multimedia _—_Thayire certainty not the first to jump and ntemet-connected projects, the Pitas into embeddable “computer on modules: become the tool makers reach forwhen Gumstix, fram Redwood City, California, they need more power and features thana started shipping Linux-based modules a standard Arduino afford. full decade ago. But Gumstix along with With the announcement ofthe Compute most other companies that offer a similar Module in Apri, the Raspberry Pi Foun: product, aim squarely at commercial and dation has given makers a platform to industrial applications, not necessarily the prototype and eventually integrate the ‘maker-gone-pro demographic. technology into refined products, much ike What also sets Raspberry Pi apart from Arduino users have learned to do. According other Linux modules ists user base: With tothe foundation's announcement, they _more than Srmilion Raspberry Pisin the want to free the core technology ofthe _—_wild, the community is much arger than Raspberry ite go forth and becomean _—that of ary other Linux development board. integral part of new and exciting prod With 50 many users hammering at new and devices.” Within months ofthe software updates, problems are quickly announcement, crowdfunding campaigns reported and the foundation has been ‘were touting that their upcoming product aggressive about software development ‘would have Raspberry Pi inside. The large community also means that Tomake this possible, the Raspberry _ when someone develops withthe Fi, they Piteam frst hadto tackle the size issue. __canteverage the abundance of tutorials, While the Raspberry Pi Model Bis small, support, code examples, programs, and its stil too bulky tobe integrated into circuit diagrams thatare free online. ‘most products. Therefore, they squeezed. For Next Thing Company from Oakland, the core components down ontoamuch California, the Compute Module couldr't smaller board, making tthe same formas have been announced at a better time. ‘a standard DDR2SODIMM memory madule, They were using Raspberry Pi Model B to Much ike snapping a RAM module into prototype a hackable GIF camera, OTTO, laptop’s motherboard, the Compute Module Before they heard the news, they debated makezine.com 27 FEATURES ‘whether to continue withthe Model B ‘My feeling atthe time was that's not ‘a real product fit has a Raspberry Pin it” says Dave Rauchwerk, one of OTTO's creators. “I's something for makers only I's great, but it’s limited in scope, isa fun ‘way ta learn and experiment, but it won't get youto that next step. ‘But within 24 hours of the Compute Module announcement, Rauchwerk was on the phone with Eben Upton creator of the Raspberry Pi ‘After | profusely ‘thanked Ehen for ‘making the Raspberry Piin the first place, | ssid, ‘So yeah, we're making this camera and | really need that Compute Module,” says Rauchwerk The Raspberry Pi tearn was delighted to see The Next Thing Company take the Compute Module and commit to Using itso soon after the announcement Iwas just the sort of creative project they wanted to see based on the Pi ‘Before, you had to have abig design 23 makershed.com Raspberry Pi Inside department and ts of money todo this, says James Adams, Raspberry P's director of hardware. "What really excites me about the Compute Module isthe fact that a few guysina garage can actually do this now, That's usually where all the interesting and inventive stuff comes from: ‘i's exactly that kind of fun product that you can'timagine getting through the product approval process ata conventional company” adds Upton. “i's thing that has tobe crowdfunded.” The team behind OTTO showed ofan early prototype ofthe camera at Maker Faire Bay Area, claiming the title of creating the first-ever product tobe powered by the Compute Module. The company achieved its © ccowdrunding goat of $60,000 in June and (© expects to ship the cameras to backers in December, but other groups using the Compute Module are hot on the tral, Sheffield, United Kingdom-based FiveNinjas quickly exceeded the €90,000 ($150,000 Kickstarter goal for Si top media player based on the Compute Module, which is also scheduled to ship to backers in December Other than the ‘onboard Raspberry Fi, what sets Slice ‘apart from other media playersis the internal hard drive — users can load it up with media to play even when they don't have an internet connectin. FiveNinjas already has an advantage because Raspberry Pi's hardware and soft- ware development leads, James Adams and Gordon Hollingworth, are onthe team. But the Compute Module itself also be- nefits from this arrangement. Designing the module and also developing a product around it helps make it beter. ‘We're certainly insiders with the Compute Module,” Adams says, “Butts allowed us ta see what the problems are with it when designing a praduct. We found uf that we needed to fix withthe software, ‘Which has been fed back into the Raspberry Pi software stack ‘And Upton was happy to allow Adams, ‘and Hollingworth to take on Slice asa side project. "They're experiencing the pain of doing a Compute Module-based Uae Lay ou ec) wth intemal mena, One UTE A or ae ac ee oer one ets Kickstarter” he says, “They're sanding off some ofthe rough edges and you can see the software getting better so thatthe next person coming down the road has a slightly smoother experience, ‘company in Holland called Athom is benefiting from this tight feedback loop. ‘Athom will soon release a crowedfunded Compute Module-based product called Homey, 2 voice-contralled hore automation hub. It'started as a personal project for Emile Nijssen, He was running the first version of Homey on a Windows computer three years ago, but moved it toa Raspberry Pi for portability twas around the time that the Compute Module was announced that Nijssen was thinking of turning hs personal project into product. "We had a few options,” he says. “One ‘was to build and design our own board with a system-on-chip on it but that ‘wasn't feasible in the time frame we had ‘envisioned, The other was to make a shield for the Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone Black, but that’s expensive and not at all optimized for a product. Itis exactly that gap that Upton hoped the Compute Module would fil. He sees itasa new stepping-stone toward manufacturing ‘consumer electronics with an embedded Linwe system-on-chip (SoC ‘Small businesses haven't had the opportunity to build electronic devices that are competitive with what a large company ‘can bulla” he says. "We've gone from an era ‘where you can buy 6502's out ofa bucket makezine.com/raspberry-pl-inside ° =Ze— ata trade show to where everything relies ‘on poorly documented and not generally available SoCs” Price is another major factor. Its not \ypically cost effective to work with SoCs Unless you're producing in quantities of tens of thousands or higher. “Even f you're smarter than your average consumer electronics company, you ve got to be 10times as smart as they are, because they're paying one tenth ofthe price for components,” says Upton. The Raspberry Pifoundation has fixed the price of the Compute Module so that, whether you're buying 100 or 10,000, it costs $30 per board The foundation's strategy isn't to lock ‘developers into the Raspberry Pi platform, and it not expecting Compute Modules tobe used in mass-produced consumer electronics products. Upton says it would bea success for Raspberry Piifa product can graduate from the Compute Module and take the next stepinto using S direct, “OTTO and Slice are two really good examples ofthe sort of thing that | want to see, which is people doing professional- quality consumer electronics at price wich is broadly competitive but at volumes that are accessible to 2 not particularly extravagant crowdfunding campaign.” There's sence of excitement fram the first product developers to use the Raspberry Pi Compute Module. ll three of these products are doing something new ‘and uncharted, and they're eager to see what others will do witht ;Builaing embedded hardware today is Uke building a web app in 199,” says OTTO's Rauchiverk. “You have to create al of the toolsand all ofthe infrastructure to build the thing you want to make, We're laying this groundwork for our own products and ‘open sourcing it for others. What kind of ‘things would people make if they didn't have to doall the plumbing first?” Evenits creators are waiting to see what path the Compute Module wil take, This is step into the unknown for us, There's lot of enthusiasm, but I still don't know i's going to work,” says Upton. “But there's 2 tantalizing feeling that could be bigger than Raspberry Fi. Its exciting.“ @ ‘makerine.com 27 Z Special Section Special Sec Caceres Ce ene situation. These preparations, See ee reat ett Oe nue Ce eset Cen) ‘comparison data that we could only dream Oar gees eros Eee ee a types of data: the quantified print-quality scores and the qualitative evaluation of Beet cn ct Cee Be auc Ue meee Breet ere Rese er ean aera ‘machines), some exceptions had to be enone hare tant ay} eee eee ec Pee eee a eae ean os Ce een Ce eens Cee ce re toweighted Pass/Fail scores. Many of our Eiteee gery Pere eee Ronen) Denese re ee eee ae eee Ocoee eed ceed Kacie states on page 36 — “consumers want accurate prints atthe push ofa but- ton” and consumer adoption of 3DP (with lower prices and widespread technological transformations that their adoption could DO ee nea Deer ecm quality?” and “What should we expect from OE Ea rmakershe An Old-Fashioned American Shootout = DURING THE 2013 STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS, PRESIDENT OBAMA referenced the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute ORO can nT cecal inspiration. A year and a half later, Make: chose to conduct its annual See a eee ce ae ne eee ce Cn ee ons fee ee ee ecm ee named America Makes in October 2013, honors the city’s industrial past While embracing a technological future. Aiming to become a center point of research and development for the rapid-moving world of 3D printing, Dee ee re eee a eet — from desktop to industrial — while offering knowledge and facilities to companies and universities who are looking to bolster their capabilities, eee nen eeu eco is rE ea eae) windmills, is very inspiring, After our weekend of testing, America Makes founding director Ralph Resnick opened the doors to the public. The look eee ee etc s Cet Cee oe ae ec) ees FREEDOM. NO EXCEPTIONS. Introducing LulzBot Mini. LULZBOT. lulzbot.com/mini Special Section | rrintauatiy WHAT IS PRINT QUALITY? Testing to failure and quantitative methods are more informative than visual inspection WRITTEN BY ANDREAS BASTAIN et 4 °F 24 makershed.com makezinec om/3d-evolution ‘TRADITIONALLY, DESKTOP 3D PRINTER MANUFACTURERS HAVE DISCUSSED print quality and precision in terms of layer height. While layer height does play role in print quality itis just one land a ‘small one at thal of several measurable Contributors to overall perceptions of qual- iy, Print quality a combination of visual perceptions and functional characteristic, ‘such as dimensional accuracy, surface finish, overhang capabilites, depost- tion control, motion mechanics, motion control, material properties, and slicing algorithms, These factors are interrelated ‘and adjusting one affects others, mak~ ing it somewhat dificult to identity each ‘one’s contribution to overall print quality. However i's possible to create test ‘geometries that probe specific components of print quality and to indi- vidually evaluate those ‘geometries white holding all other variables constant, allowing for a more ‘quantitative and parametric assessment of print ‘quality than could be achieved by compar- ing any number of more traditional printed models. WHY THIS SET OF GEOMETRIES? Each model was designed to carefully probea single aspect of print quality. While not exhaustive, they test key aspects that ‘are most closely elated to perceptions of quality as wel a functionality and per- formance. Each geometry was optimized for minimal material consumption and ‘minimal print time. ‘Additionally, some probes, like the positive fine feature test and the overhang test, are designed to coax the printer into failure state [extruder jam or geometry ‘compile breakdown). Testing to failure gen- ‘erates more information than other testing strategies, offers a quantitative framework for evaluating print results, and allows for shareable evaluation protocols. instead of subjectively evaluating how “blobby” a fine feature testi, you can create features that will reliably push the extruder into a failure state during printing. When the print fails, you can quantify the point of failure by measuring the height of failure with a set of calipers. WHY NOT JUST MAKE ONE BIG TEST PRINT? Its often tempting to integrate al test features into one piece of geometry. While insome cases this is viable, combined geometry test prints are incompatible vith testing to failure. Failed geometry ‘may interfere withthe proper compiling of other model features. Additionally, rix- ing test features changes the conditions under wihich the features are printed. For ‘example, overhangs compile best when the previous layer has a chance tooo! before the next layer is deposited, Ina combination test print, ‘overhang features may have addi- tional time to coot botweon layers, potentallyimprov- ing the printer's performance on the feature. When testing overhangs insolation, each layer has the same {and minimal) amount of time {0.cool, making for consistent and challenging conditions for each averhang angle. I the machine can compile all the overhang angles under these demanding conditions, it wan't have trouble with more integrative combined geometries. WHAT DID THIS MEAN FOR THIS YEAR'S SHOOTOUT? Inadeition to evaluating this year's crop of desktop 3D printers using more quan titative methods, we are sharing all the test prints and evaluation protocols at ‘makezine.com/go/print-quality so that others can replicate our results, The excit- ing implication is that changes to soft- ‘ware, mechanics, and materials can now be correlated with changes in a specific quality performance quantity, providing a ‘methodical, quantitative framework for cvaluating and improving print quality. @ DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY TEST: Probes pit’ ity to fabricate dimension ally cect geometies inthe XY plane Reveals baclash in Xan Y tection if present OVERHANG TEST: Tests printer's ait to compile oerangs at 30, 45,60, and 70 dogs. BRIDGING TEST: Gauges printer's abi ity ta span unsupported hrizantal ans of 20mm, 3mm, 40am, 5mm, and ‘om: POSITIVE FINE FEATURE TEST: “Tests prite'saity toresoWe fine features fom 3mm square to ‘4mm square ‘TOLERANCE TEST: Ouantites printers ability ‘reste fe negative= space featres inthe XY plane, spectcaly the Clearance between'a captive pinand a oe. XY RESONANCE TEST: Tests te printer's allt to reso ingle- extrusion width features and exposes resonance inthe XY gantry. ‘LRESONANCE TEST: Epses mectanical issues inthe Z nti system, / Special Section | Printin-riace XS. 8 THE ADDITIVE HOLY GRAIL Prepare to 3D print movable parts and joints 5) makershed.com PRINT-IN-PLACE MODELS ARE THE HEIGHT OF DESIGN FOR 20 PRINTING, These objects incorporate various types of joints, moving pats, ‘and hinges that sometimes unfurl into designs much larger than the printer's build area, Sharing platforms lke Thingiverse and Youmagine now showcase a wide variety of design strategies that ‘embrace and push lament-based desktop 3D printers to their tit, Inthe last few years, desktop 20 printers have become increasingly more sophisticated, but not all 30 printers can reproduce the same results. While printer manufacturers puta lot of emphasis ‘on layer resolution in their sales materials, layer height has title to do with successful PIP prints The overall stablity ofa printer can have an effect — printers that experience issues with backlash, tack a rigid frame, or require frequent bet tension: ing will certainly struggle. But the diversity of the n be mostly attributed tothe software layer: Slicing software does more than merely create the digital instructions for the 30 printer — slicers interpret the design — and each program uses diferent algorithms. Slicers have eccentricities. Some are finely tuned to print bridges or easly removable sup- port material, Others have a tendency to produce zitty surfaces, unsightly zippers, or have thin top surfaces. Individual profiles have an even greater effect, multiplying these innate issues, Many ofthese aberrations can be attributed to the fact that there is no design standard, Designers individualy create PIP designs to work with their printer. Through trial and error, they discover the right tolerances for their own preferred make and ‘model. A designer optimizing fora MakerBot Rep- {ator slicing with MakerWare might develop a ditlerent set of personal guidelines than a designer slicing with Cura for an Ulti- maker, or a LulzBat TAZ using Slicgr. D Samuel N. Bernier’s articulated te robot [used in our testing]is a Bp smartbutextreme example of results etry Bro Pee aoe Adjust the Z-offst. I Peer) eR ts Core eet Cee na See cra Deen ea cee Pr Pere) Creer aa) eae SCs er ets CoE) rac Met een ee eco Pere ein Aes Peace eT Coe aue PSs ee Ce) Reet en aca sion width to match, Most en Nea eee ee ee their default extrusion Co Cn} ae) Ce ra Picucur Ce tolerances in their design Eee eee makezine.com/3d-evolution ‘a print-in-place design. The indhidual parts that make up the limbs have a gap of just over 0.3mm 2 printer can't accurately print tat gap, the joints willbe fused together. The arms have over hangs of 65°, which, while in the range of possibile ity area challenge for many machines. Another tough spot are the hinged limbs, whi with short bridges. I's nat a coincidence that many of these qualities were tested in our review process vith individual test probes. Ifa printer isnt set up to create flawless bridges, smooth overhangs, or accurate-sized parts, itwon't have a chance on a PIP design tke the LeFabShop rabot.In our testing, there were few printers that could prat this design flavessiy with stock settings. itwe want a future where 3D-printed prod- ucts are ubiqutousin our homes, we need great designs. Not just useful replacement parts, but products that have just as much thought and devalopment as the ones we buy off the shelves, The mast unique wil utilize challenging features, like overhangs and bridges, to push our printers to their limits. Additionally, consumers will expect a curate prints withthe push ofa button, The current culture of tweaking and calibrating won't extend past the maker audience. The growing diversity of both hardware and slicing software runs counter to. goal of universal printabilty, The solution might be found in design software, Programs ke OpenSCAD, Autodesk In- ventor, and SolidWorks can create adaptable, para- metric designs. By changing values for elements like gap tolerances, designers can create variations towork with multiple printers, Web interfaces lke Thingiverse's Custorizer tet the consumer easily adapt a design on their software or design workllows include parametric features Print-in-place designs tke the LeFabShop robot test our assumptions. For our test team, the result ofthe print-in-place test provoked more «questions than it answered. What do we expect recreated 2, Unfortunately, not all from a30 printer? Andis there a future where we can expect all 3D printers to perform ta the same threshold? @ makezine.com 37