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ARTIFICIAL LIFT

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

INITIAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE

6500

Outflow
6000

NATURAL FLOW

Pwf, psi

5500

Reservoir Inflow
Performance
5000

4500

4000
0

3000

6000

9000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )


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12000

15000

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

FINAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE

6500

Outflow
6000

NOT FLOWING

Pwf, psi

5500

5000

Reservoir Inflow
Performance

4500

4000
0

3000

6000

9000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )


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12000

15000

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500

BACK TO PRODUCTION BY
ARTIFICIAL LIFT

6000

Outflow

Pwf, psi

5500

5000

Reservoir Inflow
Performance

4500

4000
0

3000

6000

9000

Flow Rate ( STB/day )


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12000

15000

ARTIFICIAL LIFT

As pressure in the reservoir declines, the producing capacity


of the wells will decline. The decline is caused by a decrease
in the ability of the reservoir to supply fluid to the well bore.
Methods are available to reduce the flowing well bottom hole
pressure by artificial means.

BOMBEO CAVIDADES
PROGRESSIVE
CAVITYPROGRESIVAS
PUMP (PCP) (BCP)

BOMBEO
ELECTRICAL
ELECTROSUMERGIBLE
SUBMERSIBLE PUMP
(BES)
(ESP)

SUCKER ROD
BEAM PUMP
(BP)
BOMBEO
MECANICO
(BALANCIN)
BOMBEO
HYDRAULIC
HIDRAULICO
PUMP (piston
(pistn
or jet)
o jet)

POZOS
EN FLUJO
NATURAL
FLOWNATURAL
WELL

GAS
CONTINUOUS
LIFT CONTINUO
GAS LIFT

PLUNGER
LIFT
PLUNGER
LIFT

(GL)
CHAMBER
CHAMBER
LIFT LIFT

INTERMITTENT
GAS LIFT
GAS
LIFT INTERMITENTE
ARTIFICIALPLUNGER
PLUNGERLIFT
LIFT
ARTIFICIAL
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Comparison of Lift Methods


Typical Artificial Lift Application Range
Ft./Lift
12,000
11,000
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
1,000

Rod
Pumps

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2,000

3,000

PC Pumps

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4,000

5,000

6,000

7,000

Hydraulic Lift

8,000

9,000

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 BPD

Submersible Pump

Gas Lift

Comparison of Lift Methods


System Efficiency by Artificial Lift Method
100

Overall System Efficiency (%)

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
PCP

Hydraulic Piston
Pumps

Beam Pump

ESP

Artificial Lift Type

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Hydraulic Jet
Pump

Gas Lift
(Continuous)

Gas Lift
(Intermittent)

SCHEMATIC OF A CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT WELL

Flowline

Gas Lift involves the supply of high


pressure gas to the casing/tubing annulus and its
injection into the tubing deep in the well. The
increased gas content of the produced fluid
reduces the average flowing density of the fluids
in the tubing, hence increasing the formation
drawdown and the well inflow rate.

Gas Injection
Pwh

Pressure

Tubing
Operating Valve

Depth

Surface Casing
Production Casing
Static
gradient

Gaslift valves
Packer
Pwf

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Pr

SCHEMATIC OF A CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT WELL


SIDE POCKET MANDREL WITH GAS LIFT VALVE

Flowline

Gas Injection

Surface Casing
Production Casing
Tubing

Gaslift valves
Packer

Operating Valve

video
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TYPES OF CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT VALVES

Casing Pressure Operated Valve

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve

Pressure chamber
Bellows

Stem

Piod
Ball

Ppd
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Piod

Ppd

Valve Mechanic

Casing Pressure Operated Valve


Required Pressure to open the valve

Po = Pd - Pt R
1-R

Pd
Ab

where R = Ap / Ab
Required Dome pressure to get the
opening pressure at P, T:

Pc

Ap

Pd = Po (1 R) +Pt R
Pt

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GAS LIFT MANDRELS

SIDE POCKET
MANDRELS

CONVENTIONAL
MANDREL

14
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RK / BK LATCH

15
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KICKOVER TOOL
THE KICKOVER TOOL IS RUN ON WIRELINE
AND USED TO PULL AND SET GAS LIFT
VALVES. THE ABILITY TO WIRELINE
CHANGE-OUT GAS LIFT VALVES GIVES
GREAT FLEXIBILITY IN THE GAS LIFT
DESIGN

16
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17
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18
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UNLOADING PROCESS OF A GAS LIFT WELL

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Valve 1

open

Valve 1

open

Valve 1

open

Valve 2

open

Valve 2

open

Valve 2

open

Valve 3

open

Valve 3

open

Valve 3

open

Valve 1

closed

Valve 1

closed

Valve 1

closed

Valve 2

open

Valve 2

open

Valve 2

closed

Valve 3

open

Valve 3

open

Valve 3

open

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Video 2

PRESSURES AND
PRESSURE GRADIENTS
VERSUS DEPTH IN
CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT
WELLHEAD
PRESSURE

GAS INJECTION
PRESSURE

PRESSURE
AVAILABLE
PRESSURE

DEPTH

INJECTION POINT

BALANCE
POINT

BOTTOMHOLE
FLOWING
PRESSURE

100 PSI
AVERAGE.
RESERVOIR
PRESSURE
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Pr

Excessive GLR

Inflow Performance
IPR

LIQUID PRODUCTION RATE, QL

(a) Gas lift well analysis

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LIQUID PRODUCTION RATE, QL

BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, Pwf

GAS LIFT WELL PERFORMANCE

Maximum liquid production

Available gas
volume

Eonomic Optimum

GAS INJECTION RATE, Qgi

(b) Effect of gas injection rate

EFFECT OF THE POINT OF GAS INJECTION DEPTH

LIQUID RATE, QL

Injection Depth

Maximum Injection Depth

Available Gas Volume

GAS INJECTION RATE, Qgi

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GAS LIFT DESIGN FOR CASING PRESSURE OPERATED VALVES

Available gas surface pressure

Psep Pwh

pko

pressure

Closing pressure

pvc1

depth

pvc2

pcv3

Tubing flowing pressure

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Opening pressure

GAS INJECTION RATE (MMSCF/D)

Gas Injection Rate

SUB-CRITICAL
FLOW

ORIFICE FLOW

PTUBING = 55%

PRESSURE (PSI)
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PCASING

Different Injection Gas


Rates
Gas Passage through a RDO-5 Orifice Valve with a 1/2" Port
(163 deg F, Gas S.G. 0.83, Discharge Coefficient 0.84)
9

Gas Flow Rate MMSCF/D

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

Pressure psi

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Gas Lift Performance Curve


Technical
Optimum

SLOPE = 1.0
Economic Limit
4
x
Kick-Off
Lift-Gas Requirement

2 Initial Oil Rate at Kick-off

3 Technical cut-off limit


4 Max. Oil Rate

Incremental
Lift-Gas Volume

x
x

NET OIL PRODUCTION


OR REVENUE

x
x

x
x

2
x

3
1
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LIFT-GAS INJECTION RATE


OR PRODUCTION COSTS

OPTIMIZATION OF GAS LIFT GAS DISTRIBUTION

Qo
Optimum total field gas lift
performance curve

Qo1

WELL 1

Qgi
Qo
Qo2

WELL 2

Qot

Nodal
analysis

Qgi

Qo
WELL n

n
Qgi
i=1

Qon

Qgi
Qgi

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n
Qoi
i=1

Qgit

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS

SCENARIOS
1.

CONTNUOUS GAS INJECTION AND LIQUID


PRODUCTION.

2. CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID


PRODUCTION.
3.

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THE WELL DOES NOT RECEIVE GAS AND THERE


IS NOT LIQUID PRODUCTION

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS


CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

DETERMINATION OF THE WORKING GAS LIFT VALVE

Pwh
.

Pr

Inj.Pressure
.

Pr
A
Val. 1

Depth

Val. 2

Val. 3

A
B
C

QA

QB

QC

QL

When there is not consistency in the data, then a hole in the tubing or multiple injection points
may exist, in which case a temperature log is necessary to arrive at a final conclusion.
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GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS


CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

Under this scenario the well is circulating gas due to the following possible causes:
Under this scenario the well is circulating gas due to the following possible causes:
Hole in the tubing
Hole in the tubing
No transference of the injection point to the next valve
No transference of the injection point to the next valve
Formation damage restricts the inflow capacity of the reservoir
Formation damage restricts the inflow capacity of the reservoir
Organic or inorganic deposits in the tubing or flowline
Organic or inorganic deposits in the tubing or flowline
The causes of no transference of the injection point to the next deeper valve are:
The causes of no transference of the injection point to the next deeper valve are:

High tubing pressure


High tubing pressure
Low gas injection pressure
Low gas injection pressure

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GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS


NO GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

Possible causes:
Possible causes:
Gas injection valve closed
Gas injection valve closed
Gas line broken
Gas line broken
Gas line restriction due to hydrates formation (Freezing Problems)
Gas line restriction due to hydrates formation (Freezing Problems)
High gas lift valve opening pressure
High gas lift valve opening pressure

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CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT

Range of application

Medium-light oil (15 - 40 API)


GOR 0 - 4000 SCF / STB
Depth limited to compression capacity
Low capacity to reduce the bottom hole flowing pressure
High initial investment (Gas compressors cost)
Installation cost low (slick line job)
Low operational and maintenance cost
Simplified well completions
Flexibility - can handle rates from 10 to 50,000 bpd
Can best handle sand / gas / well deviation
Intervention relatively less expensive

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ROD PUMPING SYSTEM


Walking Beam
CounterBalance
Pitman

Horse Head

Gear Box

Elevator
Polish Rod
Stuffing Box
Flowline
Gas line

Prime Mover

SUCKER RODS
PLUNGER

TRAVELING
VALVE

Casing

crank

Tubing
Sucker Rods

FLUID

WORKING
BARREL
STANDING
VALVE

FLUID

Plunger

PLUNGER MOVING UP

PLUNGER MOVING DOWN

Traveling Valve

Standing Valve

ANIM
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ROD PUMPING SYSTEM


SUBSURFACE PUMP COMPONENTS

SUCKER ROD
PLUNGER
BARREL

STANDING
VALVE

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BALLS AND
SEATS

ROD PUMPING SYSTEM


RANGE OF APPLICATION

Extra heavy-light oil (8.5 - 40 API)


Oil Production: 20 - 2000 STB/day
GOR: 2.000 PCN / BN (can handle free gas, but pump
efficiency is decreased)

Maximum depth: 9000 feet for light oil and 5000 feet
for heavy-extra heavy oil
Subsurface equipment stands up to 500 F
Tolerant to solids production (5-10 % volume)
Tolerant to pumping off conditions
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Types of Pumping Units

Mark II

Beam Balanced

Low
Profile
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Air Balanced
Drawings Courtesy of Lufkin Industries, Inc. Lufkin, Texas

BEAM PUMPING SYSTEM


(AIR BALANCED UNIT)

1. Mtodos de Levantamiento Artificial


2. Situacin Actual de los Mtodos de Levantamiento
Artificial en Venezuela

3. Descripcin de los diferentes Sistemas de


Levantamiento Artificial
4. Estado del Arte del Levantamiento Artificial

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How can we change the flow rate ?


Change the pump stroke length
Typical range 54 306 inches

Change the number of strokes


Typical range 5 15 spm

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Downhole Pumps

Insert Pump - fits inside the production tubing and is


seated in nipple in the tubing.
Tubing Pump - is an integral part of the production
tubing string.

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Insert Pumps
Pump is run inside the tubing attached to sucker rods
Pump size is limited by tubing size

Lower flow rates than tubing pump


Easily removed for repair

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Insert Pump

Tubing

Plunger

Traveling valve
Barrel
Standing valve
Seating nipple
Ball & seat
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Cage

Tubing Pumps

Integral part of production tubing string


Cannot be removed without removing production
tubing
Permits larger pump sizes
Used where higher flow rates are needed

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Tubing Pump
Tubing
Connection
w/tubing

Plunger

Traveling
valve
Barrel
Cage
Standing
valve
Ball & seat
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Tubing Anchors
Often a device is used to prevent the
tubing string from moving with the rod
pump during actuation. A tubing anchor
prevents the tubing from moving, and
allows the tubing to be left in tension which
reduces rod wear.

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Tubing Anchors
No buckling
Neutral point

Buckling

Downstroke
Standing valve closed; full
fluid load stretched tubing
down to most elongated
position. Tension in tubing
at maximum for cycle. No
buckling

Upstroke
Traveling valve closed;
portion of fluid load transferred to rods. Tubing relieved
of load contracts. Tension in
tubing at minimum for cycle.
Buckling occurs from pump
to neutral point

Breathing

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Pump Displacement
(Sizing)
PD = 0.1484 x Ap (in2) x Sp (in/stroke) x N
(strokes/min)
PD = pump displacement (bbl/day)
Ap = cross sectional area of piston (in2)
Sp = plunger stroke (in)
N = pumping speed (strokes/min)
0.1484 = 1440 min/day / 9702 in3/bbl

Manufacturers put the constant and Ap


together as K for each plunger size, so
PD = K x Sp X N
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Volumetric efficiency
Calculated pump displacement will differ
from surface rate due to:
Slip/leakage of the plunger
Stroke length stretch
Viscosity of fluid
Gas breakout on chamber
Reservoir formation factor (Bo) defines higher
downhole volume

Volumetric efficiency Ev = Q / PD
Typical values : 70 80%
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Exercise

A)Determine the pump speed (SPM) needed


to produce 400 STB/d at the surface with a
rod pump having a 2-inch diameter
plunger, a 80-inch effective plunger stroke
length, and a plunger efficiency due to
slippage of 80%. The oil formation volume
factor is 1.2.
B)If my pump speed is not to exceed 10 SPM
what is an alternative plunger design ?
Sol.
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Exercise (Equations)

A) SPM = (q x Bo / Ev) / (0.1484 x Ap x Sp)

B) Ap = (q x Bo / Ev) / (0.1484 x SPM x Sp)

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Rod Design Considerations

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Weight of rod string


Weight of fluid
Maximum stress in rod
Yield strength of rod material
Stretch
Buckling
Fatigue loading
Inertia of rod and fluid as goes through a stroke
Buoyancy
Friction
Well head pressure
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Counterweight
Balances the load on the surface prime
mover
A pump with no counterweight would have
a cyclic load on the prime mover load
only on upstroke
Sized on an average load through the
cycle
Equivalent to buoyant weight of rods plus half
the weight of the fluid
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Prime Mover HorsePower Estimations

Hydraulic Horsepower = power required to lift a given volume of fluid


vertically in a given period of time
= 7.36 x 10-6 x Q x G x L
where Q = rate b/d (efficiency corrected), G= SG of fluid, L = net lift
in feet
Frictional Horsepower
= 6.31 x 10-7 x W x S x N
Where W=weight of rods in lb, S=stroke length,N=SPM
Polished Rod Horsepower (PRHP)= sum (hydraulic, frictional)
Prime mover HP = PRHP x CLF / surface efficiency
where CLF = cyclic load factor dependent on model of motor typical
range 1.1 to 2.0

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Gas Separators

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WF

A
rod
pump
is
designed to pump or
lift liquids only. Any
entrained
gas
(formation gas) must
be separated from the
produced liquids and
allowed to vent up the
annulus.
If gas is
allowed to enter the
pump, damage will
often occur due to gas
lock or fluid pound.

Pump Problems
Downhole pump failures can result from:
Abrasion from solids
Corrosion (galvanic, H2S embrittlement, or acid)
Scale buildup
Normal wear seal and valves
Gas locking
Stress from fluid pounding
Rod breaks
Plunger jams

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Rod Pumping
Advantages
Possible to pump off
Best understood by field
personnel
Some pumps can handle
sand or trash
Usually the cheapest
(where suitable)
Low intake pressure
capabilities
Readily accommodates
volume changes
Works in high
temperatures
Reliable diagnostic and
troubleshooting tools
available
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Disadvantages
Maximum volume
decreases rapidly with
depth
Susceptible to free gas
Frequent repairs
Deviated wellbores are
difficult
Reduced tubing bore
Subsurface safety difficult
Doesnt utilize formation
gas
Can suffer from severe
corrosion

Identifying Problems with


Rod Pumping
Dynamometer

Measures the load applied to the top rod in a string


of sucker rods (the polished rod)
A dynamometer card is a recording of the loads on
the polished rod throughout one full pumping cycle
(upstroke and downstroke)
A dynamometer load cell can be permanently
installed on a well to continuously monitor rod loads
and dynamics. This device is called a Pump-off
Controller

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CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

Load

Upstroke

Downstroke

Displacement

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Dynamometer Card

Polished Rod Load

Upstroke

F Maximum load

End of
upstroke
and beginning
of downstroke

D
C

End of
downstroke
and beginning
of upstroke

Minimum load

Downstroke

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Polished Rod Position (0 - stroke


length)

Sonolog Fluid Level Survey

Charge ignited

Sonolog

Sound reflection
Tubing collars

Fluid level
Fluid level

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BEAM PUMPING WELL OPTIMIZATION

REAL TIME
DATA
MONITORING

Variables
Dynagraph Card
Motor Current Demand
Liquid Production Rate
Production Gas Liquid Ratio
Water Cut
Tubing Head Pressure and Temperature
Casing Head Pressure and Temperature
Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure and Temperature
(fluid level in the annulus)
Pumping Velocity

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BEAM PUMPING WELL OPTIMIZATION

Variables which could change once a year


Data required for calculations at a particular point
in time during the life of the reservoir :
Reservoir Average Pressure and Depth
Stroke Length
Pump Configuration
Tubing Configuration
Flowline Configuration
Production Casing Size
Oil PVT data

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AUTOMATIC BEAM PUMPING WELL


TARGET OPTIMIZATION

(a) Full pump card


Load

The conditions of an optimized beam pumping


well are maximum production with a dynamic
fluid level at 100 feet above the pump or sufficient
submergence of the pump to produce a full pump
card .

Displacement

Load

(b) Pump off card

Displacement
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For low productivity wells the full pump card


Condition is difficult to maintain and a pump off
condition is generated. When pump off condition
is detected, the pumping unit is shut down by a
pump off controller for a predetermined period
of time to allow fluid build up in the casing-tubing
annulus. The shut down time may be determined
from a build up test.

PUMP ROD PERFORMANCE FROM


CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

Load

(b) Restriction in the well

(c) Sticking Plunger

Displacement
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Load

Load

Displacement

(d) Excessive friction in


the pumping system

Displacement

Load

Load

PUMP ROD PERFORMANCE FROM


CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

Displacement

Displacement
(f) Gas pound

Load

Load

(e) Liquid pound

Displacement

(g) Gas lock


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Displacement
(h) Plunger undertravel

PUMP OFF CONTROLLER

Pump off Controller

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Typical ESP Installation

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The Basic ESP System


100 to 100,000 BPD
Installed to 15,000 ft
Equipment diameters from
3.38 to 11.25
Casing Sizes - 4 1/2 to 13
5/8
Variable Speed Available
Metallurgies to Suit
Applications

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ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

Range of Application
Extra heavy - light (8.5 - 40 API)
Gas Volume at bottom hole conditions:
less than 15 %

Maximum Temperature: 500 F


Very sensible to solids production and pump
off condition.

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The Basic ESP System

Each "stage" consists


of an impeller and a
diffuser. The impeller
takes the fluid and
imparts kinetic energy
to it. The diffuser
converts this kinetic
energy into potential
energy (head).

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ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP SCHEMATIC

Oil flows up, through


suction side of
impeller, and is
discharged with
higher pressure, out
through the diffuser.
Impeller
Diffuser
Shaft
video
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ESP PRESSURE GRADIENT PROFILE

Pwh
Pressure
Pwh

Depth

gas

ESP

Pdn

Pdn

Pup
P

Pup
Pwf

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Pwf

Pr

NODAL ANALYSIS FOR A PUMPING SYSTEM

FLOWING PRESSURE

Discharge Pressure, Pdn

P
Intake
Pressure,
Pup

FLOW RATE, QL
HP = 1.72x10-5P (QoBo + QwBw)

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ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE

OPTIMUM
RANGE

HORSE POWER
SP. GR: =1.0

0
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100
PUMP EFFICIENCY,%

PUMP EFFICIENCY

HP MOTOR LOAD

HEAD, ft / stage

HEAD CAPACITY

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FLOW RATE, QL

ESP SELECTION

1) TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD = P / fluid density


2) FROM TYPICAL PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE
DETERMINE HEAD (FT) PER STAGE AND EFFICIENCY
TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

3) NUMBER OF STAGES =
FEET/STAGE

4) HORSE POWER REQ.(HP) = 1.72x10-5P (QoBo + QwBw)

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Progressive Cavity Pump

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PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Gear Box
Drive head

Wellhead

Electric motor

ROTOR

Flowline

Casing
Tubing
Rod String

STATOR

Rotor
Stator

Stop
pin

When the rotor and stator are in place,


defined sealed cavities are formed. As the
rotor turns within the stator, the cavities
progress in an upward direction. When fluid
enters a cavity, it is actually driven to the
surface in a smooth steady flow.

video
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PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

When the rotor and stator are in place,


defined sealed cavities are formed. As the
rotor turns within the stator, the cavities
progress in an upward direction. When fluid
enters a cavity, it is actually driven to the
surface in a smooth steady flow.

video
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PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Range of Application and Capabilities

Extra heavy Light oil (8.5 - 40 API)


Production Capacity: 20-3500 STB/day
GOR: 0 -5000 SCF/ STB

Maximum Depth:
- 3000 feet: 500 - 3000 STB/day heavy-extra heavy oil
- 7000 feet : < 500 STB/day heavy-extra heavy oil
Maximum Temperature for subsurface pump: 250 F
Low profile surface components (very low environmental impact)

Does not create emulsions


Does
not gas lock.
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PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Range of Application and Capabilities (cont.)

Able to produce:
High concentrations of sand.
High viscosity fluid.
High percentages of free gas.

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Progressive Cavity Pump


Advantages
Simple two piece design
Capable of handling
solids & high viscosity
fluids
Will not emulsify fluid
High volumetric
efficiencies

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Progressive Cavity Pump


Limitations
Production rates 3500 bbls/day
Lift capacity 7000 ft.
Elastomer incompatible with certain
fluids/gases
Aromatics (12%)
H2S (max. 6%), CO2(max. 30%)
Other chemical additives

Max. Temperature up to 250 F.


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PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP


WITH BOTTOM DRIVE MOTOR
Tubing

APPLICATIONS:

Progressing
Cable
Cavity Pump

Horizontal wells
Deep wells

Rotor
Stator

Intake
Gear Box &
Flex Drive

Intake
Gearbo
x

Protector
Protect
or

Deviated wells with severe dogleg


Motor

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Motor

Applications

Heavy oil and bitumen.


Production of solids-laden
fluids.
Medium to sweet crude.
Agricultural areas.
Urban areas.

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Characteristics

Interference fit between the rotor and


stator creates a series of isolated
cavities
Rotation of the rotor causes the cavities
to move or progress from one end of
the pump to the other

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Displacement

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Flow Characteristics

Non Pulsating
Pump Generates Pressure Required To
Move Constant Volume
Flow is a function of RPM

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Pulsationless Flow

Q
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FLOW RATE

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=A

CAVITY AREA

FLUID CAVITY VELOCITY

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PC Pump Types

CONVENTIONAL 1:2

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MULTILOBE 2:3

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Rotation
The Rotor turns eccentrically
within the Stator.
Movement is actually a
combination of two movements:
Rotation about its own axis
Rotation in the opposite
direction of its own axis about
the axis of the Stator.

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PCP Description

Stator Pitch
(one full turn)

Eccentricity

Stator

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Rotor

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


PCP Description
D = Minor Diameter of Stator
Major Diameter of Stator

P = Stator Pitch length


(one full turn = two cavities)

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4E

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Pumping Principle

The geometry of the helical gear formed by the rotor and


the stator is fully defined by the following parameters:
the diameter of the Rotor
= D (in.)
eccentricity
= E (in.)
pitch length of the Stator
= P (in.)
The minimum length required for the pump to create
effective pumping action is the pitch length. This is the
length of one seal line.

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Progressing Cavity Pump Basics


Pumping Principle
Each full turn of the Rotor produces two cavities of fluid.
Pump displacement = Volume produced for each turn of
the rotor
V = C *D*E*P
C = Constant (SI: 5.76x10-6, Imperial: 5.94x10-4)
At zero head, the flow rate is directionally proportional to
the rotational speed N:
Q = V*N

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Example
Given:
Pump eccentricity (e) = 0.25 in
Pump rotor diameter (D) = 1.5 in
Pump stator pitch (p) = 6.0 in
Pump speed (N) = 200 RPM
Find:
Pump displacement
Theoretical fluid rate

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HYDRAULIC JET PUMP

NOZZLE
THROAT
DIFUSSER

FLUIDOFLUID
DE
POWER
COMBINED
POTENCIA
FLUID
RETURN
PRODUCTION
INLET
BOQUILLA
NOZZLE
CHAMBER
THROAT

CASING
REVESTIDOR

DIFUSSER
DIFUSOR

FLUIDOS
FLUIDS
FORMATION
FORMACION

video
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HYDRAULIC JET PUMP


OPPORTUNITIES FOR APLICATION:

Can be installed in small tubing


diameter (down to 2-3/8) and with
coiled tubing (1-1/4).
Highly deviated/horizontal wells with
small hole diameter.
Can be hydraulically recovered without
using wireline.
Low equipment costs
No moving parts
High solids content
High GOR
No depth limitations
Extra heavy-light oil (8.5 - 40 API)
Production: 100 -20000 STB/day
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