Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 94

ARTIFICIAL LIFT

ARTIFICIAL LIFT Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

ARTIFICIAL LIFT Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

ARTIFICIAL LIFT Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500 INITIAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE Outflow 6000 NATURAL FLOW 5500 Reservoir Inflow Performance 5000 4500 4000
6500
INITIAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE
Outflow
6000
NATURAL FLOW
5500
Reservoir Inflow
Performance
5000
4500
4000
0
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
Flow Rate (
STB/day
)
Pwf, psi

Copyright 2007,

4500 4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Flow Rate ( STB/day ) Pwf, psi Copyright

, All rights reserved

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500 FINAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE Outflow 6000 NOT FLOWING 5500 5000 Reservoir Inflow Performance 4500 4000
6500
FINAL PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE
Outflow
6000
NOT FLOWING
5500
5000
Reservoir Inflow
Performance
4500
4000
0
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
Flow Rate (
STB/day
)
Pwf, psi

Copyright 2007,

4500 4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Flow Rate ( STB/day ) Pwf, psi Copyright

, All rights reserved

ARTIFICIAL LIFT ASSISTED PRODUCTION

6500 6000 BACK TO PRODUCTION BY ARTIFICIAL LIFT Outflow 5500 5000 Reservoir Inflow Performance 4500
6500
6000
BACK TO PRODUCTION BY
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Outflow
5500
5000
Reservoir Inflow
Performance
4500
4000
0
3000
6000
9000
12000
15000
Flow Rate (
STB/day
)
Pwf, psi

Copyright 2007,

4500 4000 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Flow Rate ( STB/day ) Pwf, psi Copyright

, All rights reserved

ARTIFICIAL LIFT As pressure in the reservoir declines, the producing capacity of the wells will
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
As pressure in the reservoir declines, the producing capacity
of the wells will decline. The decline is caused by a decrease
in the ability of the reservoir to supply fluid to the well bore.
Methods are available to reduce the flowing well bottom hole
pressure by artificial means.
PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP
BOMBEO CAVIDADES PROGRESIVAS (BCP)
(PCP)
BOMBEO ELECTROSUMERGIBLE (BES)
ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP (ESP)
BOMBEO MECANICO (BALANCIN)
SUCKER ROD BEAM PUMP
(BP)
BOMBEO HIDRAULICO (pistón o jet)
HYDRAULIC PUMP
(piston or jet)
POZOS NATURAL EN FLUJO FLOW NATURAL WELL
“GAS LIFT” CONTINUO
CONTINUOUS
GAS LIFT
(GL)
CHAMBER LIFT
CHAMBER LIFT
INTERMITTENT GAS LIFT
“GAS LIFT” INTERMITENTE
ARTIFICIAL ARTIFICIAL PLUNGER PLUNGER LIFT LIFT

Copyright 2007,

LIFT “GAS LIFT” INTERMITENTE ARTIFICIAL ARTIFICIAL PLUNGER PLUNGER LIFT LIFT Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

Comparison of Lift Methods

Typical Artificial Lift Application Range Ft./Lift 12,000 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000
Typical Artificial Lift Application Range
Ft./Lift
12,000
10,000
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
BPD
Rod
PC Pumps
Hydraulic Lift
Submersible Pump
Gas Lift
Pumps

Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 BPD Rod PC Pumps Hydraulic Lift Submersible Pump Gas Lift Pumps Copyright

Overall System Efficiency (%)

Comparison of Lift Methods

System Efficiency by Artificial Lift Method

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP
by Artificial Lift Method 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PCP

PCP

Hydraulic Piston

Pumps

Beam Pump

ESP

Hydraulic Jet

Pump

Artificial Lift Type

Gas Lift

(Continuous)

Gas Lift

(Intermittent)

Copyright 2007,

, All rights reservedPumps Beam Pump ESP Hydraulic Jet Pump Artificial Lift Type Gas Lift (Continuous) Gas Lift (Intermittent)

SCHEMATIC OF A CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT WELL

Gas Lift involves the supply of high

pressure gas to the casing/tubing annulus and its injection into the tubing deep in the well. The

increased gas content of the produced fluid

reduces the average flowing density of the fluids in the tubing, hence increasing the formation

drawdown and the well inflow rate.

Flowline Gas Injection Pwh Pressure Surface Casing Production Casing Static Tubing gradient Operating Valve
Flowline
Gas Injection
Pwh
Pressure
Surface Casing
Production Casing
Static
Tubing
gradient
Operating Valve
Gaslift valves
Packer
Pwf
Pr
Depth

Copyright 2007,

Static Tubing gradient Operating Valve Gaslift valves Packer Pwf Pr Depth Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

SCHEMATIC OF A CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT WELL

Copyright 2007,

SCHEMATIC OF A CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT WELL Copyright 2007, SIDE POCKET MANDREL WITH GAS LIFT VALVE

SIDE POCKET MANDREL WITH GAS LIFT VALVE

Flowline Gas Injection Surface Casing Production Casing Tubing Gaslift valves Packer Operating Valve
Flowline
Gas Injection
Surface Casing
Production Casing
Tubing
Gaslift valves
Packer
Operating Valve
Injection Surface Casing Production Casing Tubing Gaslift valves Packer Operating Valve video , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

TYPES OF CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT VALVES

Casing Pressure Operated Valve

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve

Pressure Operated Valve Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd
Pressure Operated Valve Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd
Pressure Operated Valve Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd

Pressure chamber

Valve Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007,

Bellows

Stem

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007, ,

Piod

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007, ,
Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007, ,

Ppd

Piod

Ball

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007, ,

Ppd

Copyright 2007,

Tubing Pressure Operated Valve Pressure chamber Bellows Stem Piod Ppd Piod Ball Ppd Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

Valve Mechanic

Casing Pressure Operated Valve

Required Pressure to open the valve

Required Pressure to open the valve

P

o

=

P

d

-

P

t

R

1 - R where R = A p / A b

Required Dome pressure to get the

opening pressure at P, T:

Copyright 2007,

to get the opening pressure at P, T: Copyright 2007, P d = , All rights

P d

=

, All rights reserved

P o

(1 R) +P t

R

P c

P d A b A p
P d
A b
A
p

P t

GAS LIFT MANDRELS

14
14

Copyright 2007,

GAS LIFT MANDRELS 14 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SIDE POCKET MANDRELS CONVENTIONAL MANDREL

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT MANDRELS 14 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SIDE POCKET MANDRELS CONVENTIONAL MANDREL

SIDE POCKET

MANDRELS

GAS LIFT MANDRELS 14 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SIDE POCKET MANDRELS CONVENTIONAL MANDREL

CONVENTIONAL

MANDREL

GAS LIFT MANDRELS 14 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SIDE POCKET MANDRELS CONVENTIONAL MANDREL
GAS LIFT MANDRELS 14 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SIDE POCKET MANDRELS CONVENTIONAL MANDREL
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007,
15
Copyright 2007,
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH
15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH

, All rights reserved

15 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved RK / BK LATCH

RK / BK LATCH

KICKOVER TOOL

THE KICKOVER TOOL IS RUN ON WIRELINE

AND USED TO PULL AND SET GAS LIFT

VALVES. THE ABILITY TO WIRELINE

CHANGE-OUT GAS LIFT VALVES GIVES GREAT FLEXIBILITY IN THE GAS LIFT

DESIGN

16

Copyright 2007,

CHANGE-OUT GAS LIFT VALVES GIVES GREAT FLEXIBILITY IN THE GAS LIFT DESIGN 16 Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

17 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

17

Copyright 2007,

17 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
17 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

18 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

18

Copyright 2007,

18 Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

UNLOADING PROCESS OF A GAS LIFT WELL

Valve 1 open Valve 1 Valve 1 open open Valve 2 open Valve 2 Valve
Valve 1
open
Valve 1
Valve 1
open
open
Valve 2
open
Valve 2
Valve 2
open
open
Valve 3
open
Valve 3
Valve 3
open
open
Valve 1
closed
closed
Valve 1
closed
Valve 1
Valve 2
open
Valve 2
closed
open
Valve 2
Valve 3
open
Valve 3
open
open
Valve 3

Copyright 2007,

Valve 2 closed open Valve 2 Valve 3 open Valve 3 open open Valve 3 Copyright

, All rights reserved

PRESSURES AND PRESSURE GRADIENTS VERSUS DEPTH IN

CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT

WELLHEAD GAS INJECTION PRESSURE PRESSURE PRESSURE AVAILABLE PRESSURE INJECTION POINT BALANCE POINT BOTTOMHOLE
WELLHEAD
GAS INJECTION
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
PRESSURE
AVAILABLE
PRESSURE
INJECTION POINT
BALANCE
POINT
BOTTOMHOLE
FLOWING
PRESSURE
100 PSI
AVERAGE.
RESERVOIR
DEPTH

PRESSURE

Copyright 2007,

BOTTOMHOLE FLOWING PRESSURE 100 PSI AVERAGE. RESERVOIR DEPTH PRESSURE Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT WELL PERFORMANCE

P r Excessive GLR Inflow Performance IPR BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, P wf
P
r
Excessive GLR
Inflow Performance
IPR
BOTTOM HOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, P wf

LIQUID PRODUCTION RATE, Q L

(a) Gas lift well analysis

Copyright 2007,

RATE, Q L (a) Gas lift well analysis Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Maximum liquid

, All rights reserved

Maximum liquid production Available gas Eonomic Optimum volume LIQUID PRODUCTION RATE, Q L
Maximum liquid production
Available gas
Eonomic Optimum
volume
LIQUID PRODUCTION RATE, Q L

GAS INJECTION RATE, Qgi

(b) Effect of gas injection rate

EFFECT OF THE POINT OF GAS INJECTION DEPTH

Maximum Injection Depth Available Gas Volume LIQUID RATE, Q L Injection Depth
Maximum Injection Depth
Available Gas Volume
LIQUID RATE, Q L
Injection Depth

Copyright 2007,

Available Gas Volume LIQUID RATE, Q L Injection Depth Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved GAS

, All rights reserved

GAS INJECTION RATE, Qgi

Available Gas Volume LIQUID RATE, Q L Injection Depth Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved GAS

GAS LIFT DESIGN FOR CASING PRESSURE OPERATED VALVES

Available gas surface pressure Psep pressure Pwh pko Closing pressure Opening pressure pvc1 pvc2 pcv3
Available gas surface pressure
Psep
pressure
Pwh
pko
Closing pressure
Opening pressure
pvc1
pvc2
pcv3
Tubing flowing pressure
depth

Copyright 2007,

Closing pressure Opening pressure pvc1 pvc2 pcv3 Tubing flowing pressure depth Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

GAS INJECTION RATE (MMSCF/D)

Copyright 2007,

Gas Injection Rate

SUB-CRITICAL

FLOW

ORIFICE FLOW

2007, Gas Injection Rate SUB-CRITICAL FLOW ORIFICE FLOW P TUBING = 5 5 % , All

P TUBING = 55%

Injection Rate SUB-CRITICAL FLOW ORIFICE FLOW P TUBING = 5 5 % , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

PRESSURE (PSI)

P CASING

Gas Flow Rate MMSCF/D

Different Injection Gas

Rates

Gas Passage through a RDO-5 Orifice Valve with a 1/2" Port

(163 deg F, Gas S.G. 0.83, Discharge Coefficient 0.84)

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Copyright 2007,

Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100
Coefficient 0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100

0

100

200

300

400

0.84) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Copyright 2007, 0 100 200

, All rights reserved

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

Pressure psi

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

Gas Lift Performance Curve

1
1

Kick-Off Lift-Gas Requirement

2
2

Initial Oil Rate at Kick-off

3
3

Technical cut-off limit

4
4

Max. Oil Rate

x

Incremental

Lift-Gas Volume

Copyright 2007,

 x Incremental Lift-Gas Volume Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved SLOPE = 1.0 Economic Limit

, All rights reserved

SLOPE = 1.0 Economic Limit Technical Optimum 4 x x x x x x x
SLOPE = 1.0
Economic Limit
Technical
Optimum
4
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
2
x
3
NET OIL PRODUCTION
OR REVENUE
1
1

LIFT-GAS INJECTION RATE

OR PRODUCTION COSTS

x x x x x 2 x 3 NET OIL PRODUCTION OR REVENUE 1 LIFT-GAS INJECTION

OPTIMIZATION OF GAS LIFT GAS DISTRIBUTION

Qo Optimum total field gas lift performance curve ΔQo1 WELL 1 Qgi Qo ΔQo2 Qot
Qo
Optimum total field gas lift
performance curve
ΔQo1
WELL 1
Qgi
Qo
ΔQo2
Qot
WELL 2
Nodal
n
Qgi
analysis
ΔQoi
Qgit
i=1
Qo
n
ΔQgi
ΔQon
i=1
WELL n
Qgi
ΔQgi

Copyright 2007,

analysis ∑ ΔQoi Qgit i=1 Qo n ∑ ΔQgi ΔQon i=1 WELL n Qgi ΔQgi Copyright

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS

SCENARIOS

1. CONTNUOUS GAS INJECTION AND LIQUID

PRODUCTION.

2. CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID

PRODUCTION.

3. THE WELL DOES NOT RECEIVE GAS AND THERE

IS NOT LIQUID PRODUCTION

Copyright 2007,

3. THE WELL DOES NOT RECEIVE GAS AND THERE IS NOT LIQUID PRODUCTION Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS

CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

DETERMINATION OF THE WORKING GAS LIFT VALVE

Pwh Inj.Pressure Pr . . Val. 1 Val. 2 Val. 3 A B C Depth
Pwh
Inj.Pressure
Pr
.
.
Val. 1
Val. 2
Val. 3
A
B
C
Depth
Pr A B C Q A Q B Q C Q L
Pr
A
B
C
Q A
Q B
Q C
Q
L

When there is not consistency in the data, then a hole in the tubing or multiple injection points

may exist, in which case a temperature log is necessary to arrive at a final conclusion.

Copyright 2007,

exist, in which case a temperature log is necessary to arrive at a final conclusion. Copyright

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS

CONTINUOUS GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

Under this scenario the well is circulating gas due to the following possible causes:

Under this scenario the well is circulating gas due to the following possible causes:

Hole Hole in in the the tubing tubing

No No transference transference of of the the injection injection point point to to the the next next valve valve

Formation Organic Formation or damage damage inorganic restricts restricts deposits the the in inflow inflow the tubing capacity capacity or flowline of of the the reservoir reservoir Organic or inorganic deposits in the tubing or flowline

The The causes causes of of no no transference transference of of the the injection injection point point to to the the next next deeper deeper valve valve are: are:

High tubing pressure

High Low Low gas tubing gas injection injection pressure pressure pressure

Copyright 2007,

• Low • Low gas tubing gas injection injection pressure pressure pressure Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

GAS LIFT WELL DIAGNOSIS

NO GAS INJECTION AND NO LIQUID PRODUCTION SCENARIO

Possible Possible causes: causes: •Gas •Gas •Gas injection injection line broken valve valve closed closed
Possible Possible causes: causes:
•Gas •Gas •Gas injection injection line broken valve valve closed closed
•Gas line broken
•Gas line restriction due to hydrates formation (Freezing Problems)
•Gas line restriction due to hydrates formation (Freezing Problems)
•High •High gas gas lift lift valve valve opening opening pressure pressure

Copyright 2007,

•High •High gas gas lift lift valve valve opening opening pressure pressure Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

CONTINUOUS GAS LIFT

Range of application

Medium-light oil (15 - 40 °API)

GOR 0 - 4000 SCF / STB

Depth limited to compression capacity

Low capacity to reduce the bottom hole flowing pressure

High initial investment (Gas compressors cost)

Installation cost low (slick line job)

Low operational and maintenance cost

Simplified well completions

Flexibility - can handle rates from 10 to 50,000 bpd

Can best handle sand / gas / well deviation

Intervention relatively less expensive

Copyright 2007,

best handle sand / gas / well deviation • Intervention relatively less expensive Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

ROD PUMPING SYSTEM

Walking Beam CounterBalance Horse Head Pitman Gear Box Elevator Polish Rod Stuffing Box Flowline Prime
Walking Beam
CounterBalance
Horse Head
Pitman
Gear Box
Elevator
Polish Rod
Stuffing Box
Flowline
Prime Mover
Gas line
Casing
crank
Tubing
Sucker Rods
Plunger
Traveling Valve
Standing Valve
Copyright 2007,
, All rights reserved
FLUID
FLUID

SUCKER RODS

PLUNGER

TRAVELING

VALVE

WORKING

BARREL

STANDING

VALVE

FLUID
FLUID

PLUNGER MOVING DOWN

PLUNGER MOVING UP

ANIM
ANIM

ROD PUMPING SYSTEM

SUBSURFACE PUMP COMPONENTS

SUCKER ROD PLUNGER BARREL STANDING BALLS AND VALVE SEATS
SUCKER ROD
PLUNGER
BARREL
STANDING
BALLS AND
VALVE
SEATS

Copyright 2007,

PUMP COMPONENTS SUCKER ROD PLUNGER BARREL STANDING BALLS AND VALVE SEATS Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

ROD PUMPING SYSTEM

RANGE OF APPLICATION

Extra heavy-light oil (8.5 - 40 °API)

Oil Production: 20 - 2000 STB/day

GOR: 2.000 PCN / BN (can handle free gas, but pump efficiency is decreased)

Maximum depth: 9000 feet for light oil and 5000 feet

for heavy-extra heavy oil

Subsurface equipment stands up to 500 °F

Tolerant to solids production (5-10 % volume)

Tolerant to pumping off conditions

Copyright 2007,

to solids production (5-10 % volume) • Tolerant to pumping off conditions Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

Types of Pumping Units

Types of Pumping Units Copyright 2007, Mark II Low Profile , All rights reserved Drawings Courtesy

Copyright 2007,

Mark II

Types of Pumping Units Copyright 2007, Mark II Low Profile , All rights reserved Drawings Courtesy

Low

Profile

Types of Pumping Units Copyright 2007, Mark II Low Profile , All rights reserved Drawings Courtesy

, All rights reserved

Drawings Courtesy of Lufkin Industries, Inc.

II Low Profile , All rights reserved Drawings Courtesy of Lufkin Industries, Inc. Beam Balanced Lufkin,

Beam Balanced

II Low Profile , All rights reserved Drawings Courtesy of Lufkin Industries, Inc. Beam Balanced Lufkin,

Lufkin, Texas

Air Balanced

BEAM PUMPING SYSTEM

(AIR BALANCED UNIT)

BEAM PUMPING SYSTEM (AIR BALANCED UNIT) Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
BEAM PUMPING SYSTEM (AIR BALANCED UNIT) Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

BEAM PUMPING SYSTEM (AIR BALANCED UNIT) Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

How can we change the flow rate ? • Change the pump stroke length –

How can we change the flow rate ?

Change the pump stroke length

Typical range 54 306 inches

Change the number of strokes

Typical range 5 15 spm

Copyright 2007,

– 306 inches • Change the number of strokes – Typical range 5 – 15 spm

, All rights reserved

Downhole Pumps

Insert Pump - fits inside the production tubing and is

seated in nipple in the tubing.

Tubing Pump - is an integral part of the production tubing string.

Copyright 2007,

the tubing. • Tubing Pump - is an integral part of the production tubing string. Copyright

, All rights reserved

Insert Pumps

Pump is run inside the tubing attached to sucker rods

Pump size is limited by tubing size

Lower flow rates than tubing pump

Easily removed for repair

Copyright 2007,

by tubing size • Lower flow rates than tubing pump • Easily removed for repair Copyright

, All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Insert Pump Ball & seat Tubing Plunger Traveling valve Barrel

, All rights reserved

Insert Pump

Ball & seat
Ball & seat

Tubing

Plunger

Traveling valve

Barrel

Standing valve Seating nipple

Cage

Tubing Pumps

Integral part of production tubing string

Cannot be removed without removing production

tubing

Permits larger pump sizes

Used where higher flow rates are needed

Copyright 2007,

tubing • Permits larger pump sizes • Used where higher flow rates are needed Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Tubing Pump Tubing Connection w/tubing Plunger Traveling valve Barrel Cage

, All rights reserved

Tubing Pump

Tubing Connection w/tubing Plunger Traveling valve Barrel Cage Standing valve Ball & seat
Tubing
Connection
w/tubing
Plunger
Traveling
valve
Barrel
Cage
Standing
valve
Ball & seat

Tubing Anchors

Often a device is used to prevent the tubing string from moving with the rod

pump during actuation. A tubing anchor

prevents the tubing from moving, and

allows the tubing to be left in tension which

reduces rod wear.

Copyright 2007,

from moving, and allows the tubing to be left in tension which reduces rod wear. Copyright

, All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Tubing Anchors

Copyright 2007, Tubing Anchors No buckling Buckling “F” Neutral point Downstroke Upstroke Traveling valve closed;
No buckling Buckling “F”
No buckling
Buckling
“F”

Neutral point

Tubing Anchors No buckling Buckling “F” Neutral point Downstroke Upstroke Traveling valve closed; portion of fluid

Downstroke

Upstroke

Traveling valve closed; portion of fluid load trans- ferred to rods. Tubing relieved of load contracts. Tension in

tubing at minimum for cycle.

Buckling occurs from pump to neutral point

Breathing

Standing valve closed; full fluid load stretched tubing down to most elongated position. Tension in tubing at maximum for cycle. No buckling

tubing down to most elongated position. Tension in tubing at maximum for cycle. No buckling ,
tubing down to most elongated position. Tension in tubing at maximum for cycle. No buckling ,

, All rights reserved

Pump Displacement (Sizing)

PD = 0.1484 x A p (in 2 ) x S p (in/stroke) x N (strokes/min)

PD = pump displacement (bbl/day) A p = cross sectional area of piston (in 2 ) S p = plunger stroke (in) N = pumping speed (strokes/min) 0.1484 = 1440 min/day / 9702 in 3 /bbl

Manufacturers put the constant and A p

Copyright 2007,

together as K PD = K x S p X N

for each plunger size, so

the constant and A p Copyright 2007, together as K PD = K x S p

, All rights reserved

Volumetric efficiency

Calculated pump displacement will differ from surface rate due to:

Slip/leakage of the plunger

Stroke length stretch

Viscosity of fluid

Gas breakout on chamber

Reservoir formation factor (B o ) defines higher downhole volume

Volumetric efficiency E v = Q / PD

Typical values : 70 80%

Copyright 2007,

• Volumetric efficiency E v = Q / PD – Typical values : 70 – 80%

, All rights reserved

Exercise

A)Determine the pump speed (SPM) needed

to produce 400 STB/d at the surface with a

rod pump having a 2-inch diameter

plunger, a 80-inch effective plunger stroke length, and a plunger efficiency due to

slippage of 80%. The oil formation volume

factor is 1.2.

B)If my pump speed is not to exceed 10 SPM

what is an alternative plunger design ?

Copyright 2007,

my pump speed is not to exceed 10 SPM what is an alternative plunger design ?

, All rights reserved

Exercise (Equations)

A) SPM = (q x Bo / Ev) / (0.1484 x Ap x Sp)

B) Ap = (q x Bo / Ev) / (0.1484 x SPM x Sp)

Copyright 2007,

SPM = (q x Bo / Ev) / (0.1484 x Ap x Sp) B) Ap =

, All rights reserved

Rod Design Considerations

Weight of rod string

Weight of fluid

Maximum stress in rod

Yield strength of rod material

Stretch

Buckling

Fatigue loading

Inertia of rod and fluid as goes through a stroke

Buoyancy

Friction

Well head pressure

Copyright 2007,

fluid as goes through a stroke • Buoyancy • Friction • Well head pressure Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

Counterweight

Balances the load on the surface prime mover

A pump with no counterweight would have a cyclic load on the prime mover load

only on upstroke

• Sized on an “average” load through the

cycle

Equivalent to buoyant weight of rods plus half

the weight of the fluid

Copyright 2007,

cycle – Equivalent to buoyant weight of rods plus half the weight of the fluid Copyright

, All rights reserved

Prime Mover HorsePower - Estimations

Hydraulic Horsepower = power required to lift a given volume of fluid

vertically in a given period of time = 7.36 x 10 -6 x Q x G x L

where Q = rate b/d (efficiency corrected), G= SG of fluid, L = net lift

in feet

Frictional Horsepower = 6.31 x 10 -7 x W x S x N Where W=weight of rods in lb, S=stroke length,N=SPM

Polished Rod Horsepower (PRHP)= sum (hydraulic, frictional)

Prime mover HP = PRHP x CLF / surface efficiency

where CLF = cyclic load factor dependent on model of motor typical

range 1.1 to 2.0

Copyright 2007,

where CLF = cyclic load factor dependent on model of motor typical range 1.1 to 2.0

, All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Gas Separators • A designed to pump or lift liquids

, All rights reserved

Gas Separators

A

designed to pump or

lift liquids only. Any

gas

(formation gas) must be separated from the

entrained

pump is

rod

produced liquids and

allowed to vent up the

annulus. If gas is

allowed to enter the

pump, damage will

often occur due to gas

lock or fluid pound.

Pump Problems

Downhole pump failures can result from:

Abrasion from solids

Corrosion (galvanic, H 2 S embrittlement, or acid)

Scale buildup

Normal wear seal and valves

Gas locking

– Stress from “fluid pounding”

Rod breaks

Plunger jams

Copyright 2007,

Gas locking – Stress from “fluid pounding” – Rod breaks – Plunger jams Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

Rod Pumping

Advantages

Possible to pump off

Best understood by field

personnel

Some pumps can handle

sand or trash

Usually the cheapest (where suitable)

Low intake pressure

capabilities

Readily accommodates

volume changes

Works in high temperatures

Reliable diagnostic and

troubleshooting tools

available

Copyright 2007,

and troubleshooting tools available Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved • Disadvantages – Maximum volume

, All rights reserved

Disadvantages

Maximum volume

decreases rapidly with

depth

Susceptible to free gas

Frequent repairs

Deviated wellbores are

difficult

Reduced tubing bore

Subsurface safety difficult

– Doesn’t utilize formation gas

Can suffer from severe corrosion

Identifying Problems with Rod Pumping

Dynamometer

Measures the load applied to the top rod in a string

of sucker rods (the polished rod)

– A “dynamometer card” is a recording of the loads on

the polished rod throughout one full pumping cycle

(upstroke and downstroke)

A dynamometer load cell can be permanently

installed on a well to continuously monitor rod loads

and dynamics. This device is called a “Pump-off

Controller”

Copyright 2007,

monitor rod loads and dynamics. This device is called a “Pump -off Controller” Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved

CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

Upstroke Downstroke Load
Upstroke
Downstroke
Load

Displacement

Copyright 2007,

CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD Upstroke Downstroke Load Displacement Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

Polished Rod Load

Dynamometer Card

Upstroke

F Maximum load D C E End of downstroke and beginning Minimum load of upstroke
F
Maximum load
D
C
E
End of
downstroke
and beginning
Minimum load
of upstroke
B

Downstroke

and beginning Minimum load of upstroke B Downstroke End of upstroke and beginning of downstroke A

End of

upstroke and beginning

of downstroke

A

Copyright 2007,

of upstroke and beginning of downstroke A Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Polished Rod Position

, All rights reserved

Polished Rod Position (0 - stroke

length)

Sonolog Fluid Level Survey

Fluid level

Sonolog Fluid Level Survey Fluid level Charge ignited Sonolog Fluid level Sound reflection Tubing collars Copyright

Charge ignited

Sonolog Fluid level
Sonolog
Fluid level

Sound reflection

Fluid level Charge ignited Sonolog Fluid level Sound reflection Tubing collars Copyright 2007, , All rights

Tubing collars

Fluid level Charge ignited Sonolog Fluid level Sound reflection Tubing collars Copyright 2007, , All rights

Copyright 2007,

Fluid level Charge ignited Sonolog Fluid level Sound reflection Tubing collars Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

BEAM PUMPING WELL OPTIMIZATION

Copyright 2007,

BEAM PUMPING WELL OPTIMIZATION Copyright 2007, REAL TIME DATA MONITORING Variables • Dynagraph Card • Motor
REAL TIME DATA MONITORING
REAL TIME
DATA
MONITORING
OPTIMIZATION Copyright 2007, REAL TIME DATA MONITORING Variables • Dynagraph Card • Motor Current Demand •
OPTIMIZATION Copyright 2007, REAL TIME DATA MONITORING Variables • Dynagraph Card • Motor Current Demand •
OPTIMIZATION Copyright 2007, REAL TIME DATA MONITORING Variables • Dynagraph Card • Motor Current Demand •
OPTIMIZATION Copyright 2007, REAL TIME DATA MONITORING Variables • Dynagraph Card • Motor Current Demand •

Variables

Dynagraph Card Motor Current Demand Liquid Production Rate

Production Gas Liquid Ratio

Water Cut Tubing Head Pressure and Temperature

Casing Head Pressure and Temperature

Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure and Temperature

(fluid level in the annulus)

Pumping Velocity

, All rights reserved

BEAM PUMPING WELL OPTIMIZATION

Variables which could change once a year

Data required for calculations at a particular point in time during the life of the reservoir :

Reservoir Average Pressure and Depth Stroke Length

Pump Configuration

Tubing Configuration Flowline Configuration

Production Casing Size

Oil PVT data

Copyright 2007,

• Flowline Configuration • Production Casing Size • Oil PVT data Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

AUTOMATIC BEAM PUMPING WELL

TARGET OPTIMIZATION

(a) Full pump card Load
(a) Full pump card
Load

Displacement

(b) Pump off card Load
(b) Pump off card
Load

Displacement

Copyright 2007,

(b) Pump off card Load Displacement Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved The conditions of an

, All rights reserved

The conditions of an optimized beam pumping well are maximum production with a dynamic

fluid level at 100 feet above the pump or sufficient

submergence of the pump to produce a full pump card .

For low productivity wells the full pump card Condition is difficult to maintain and a pump off condition is generated. When pump off condition

is detected, the pumping unit is shut down by a

pump off controller for a predetermined period of time to allow fluid build up in the casing-tubing

annulus. The shut down time may be determined

from a build up test.

PUMP ROD PERFORMANCE FROM

CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

(b) Restriction in the well Load
(b) Restriction in the well
Load

Displacement

(c) Sticking Plunger Load
(c) Sticking Plunger
Load

Displacement

Copyright 2007,

(c) Sticking Plunger Load Displacement Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved (d) Excessive friction in the

, All rights reserved

(d) Excessive friction in the pumping system Load
(d) Excessive friction in
the pumping system
Load

Displacement

PUMP ROD PERFORMANCE FROM

CONVENTIONAL DYNAGRAPH CARD

Load
Load

Displacement

(e) Liquid pound

Load
Load

Displacement

Copyright 2007,

(e) Liquid pound Load Displacement Copyright 2007, (g) Gas lock , All rights reserved Load Displacement

(g) Gas lock

, All rights reserved

Load
Load

Displacement

(f) Gas pound

Load
Load

Displacement

(h) Plunger undertravel

PUMP OFF CONTROLLER

Pump off Controller
Pump off Controller

Copyright 2007,

PUMP OFF CONTROLLER Pump off Controller Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

Typical ESP Installation

Copyright 2007,

Typical ESP Installation Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
Typical ESP Installation Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

The Basic ESP System

100 to 100,000 BPD

Installed to 15,000 ft

Equipment diameters from 3.38” to 11.25”

Casing Sizes - 4 1/2” to 13

5/8”

Variable Speed Available

Metallurgies to Suit Applications

Copyright 2007,

to 13 5/8” • Variable Speed Available • Metallurgies to Suit Applications Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

to 13 5/8” • Variable Speed Available • Metallurgies to Suit Applications Copyright 2007, , All

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

Range of Application

Extra heavy - light (8.5 - 40 °API)

Gas Volume at bottom hole conditions:

less than 15 %

Maximum Temperature: 500 °F

Very sensible to solids production and pump

Copyright 2007,

Temperature: 500 °F • Very sensible to solids production and pump Copyright 2007, , All rights

, All rights reserved

off condition.

Copyright 2007,

The Basic ESP System

Each "stage" consists

of an impeller and a

diffuser. The impeller

takes the fluid and

imparts kinetic energy

to it. The diffuser converts this kinetic energy into potential energy (head).

kinetic energy to it. The diffuser converts this kinetic energy into potential energy (head). , All

, All rights reserved

kinetic energy to it. The diffuser converts this kinetic energy into potential energy (head). , All

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP SCHEMATIC

Oil flows up, through

suction side of

impeller, and is

discharged with higher pressure, out through the diffuser.

Copyright 2007,

with higher pressure, out through the diffuser. Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Impeller Diffuser Shaft

, All rights reserved

Impeller

Diffuser

Shaft

video
video

Depth

ESP PRESSURE GRADIENT PROFILE

Copyright 2007,

Pwh

Depth ESP PRESSURE GRADIENT PROFILE Copyright 2007, Pwh ESP Pdn gas Pup Pwf Pressure Pwh Pup
ESP Pdn
ESP
Pdn

gas

Pup

Pwf

Pressure

Pwh

GRADIENT PROFILE Copyright 2007, Pwh ESP Pdn gas Pup Pwf Pressure Pwh Pup ΔP Pdn Pwf
Pup ΔP
Pup
ΔP

Pdn

GRADIENT PROFILE Copyright 2007, Pwh ESP Pdn gas Pup Pwf Pressure Pwh Pup ΔP Pdn Pwf
GRADIENT PROFILE Copyright 2007, Pwh ESP Pdn gas Pup Pwf Pressure Pwh Pup ΔP Pdn Pwf
GRADIENT PROFILE Copyright 2007, Pwh ESP Pdn gas Pup Pwf Pressure Pwh Pup ΔP Pdn Pwf

Pwf

Pr

, All rights reserved

NODAL ANALYSIS FOR A PUMPING SYSTEM

Discharge Pressure, P dn ΔP ΔP Intake Pressure, P up 0 FLOWING PRESSURE
Discharge Pressure, P dn
ΔP
ΔP
Intake
Pressure,
P
up
0
FLOWING PRESSURE

Copyright 2007,

Pressure, P up 0 FLOWING PRESSURE Copyright 2007, 0 , All rights reserved FLOW RATE, Q

0

, All rights reserved

FLOW RATE, Q L

P up 0 FLOWING PRESSURE Copyright 2007, 0 , All rights reserved FLOW RATE, Q L

HP = 1.72x10-5ΔP (QoBo + QwBw)

Copyright 2007,

ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE OPTIMUM HEAD CAPACITY RANGE 100 PUMP EFFICIENCY HORSE POWER SP.
ELECTRICAL SUBMERSIBLE PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE
OPTIMUM
HEAD CAPACITY
RANGE
100
PUMP EFFICIENCY
HORSE POWER
SP. GR: =1.0
0
0
0
FLOW RATE, Q L
, All rights reserved
HEAD, ft / stage
HP MOTOR LOAD
PUMP EFFICIENCY,%

ESP SELECTION

1) TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD =

ΔP / fluid density

2) FROM TYPICAL PUMP PERFORMANCE CURVE

DETERMINE HEAD (FT) PER STAGE AND EFFICIENCY

3) NUMBER OF STAGES =

TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD

FEET/STAGE

4) HORSE POWER REQ.(HP) = 1.72x10-5ΔP (QoBo + QwBw)

Copyright 2007,

TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD FEET/STAGE 4) HORSE POWER REQ.(HP) = 1.72x10-5 Δ P (QoBo + QwBw) Copyright

, All rights reserved

Progressive Cavity Pump
Progressive Cavity Pump
Progressive Cavity Pump Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
Progressive Cavity Pump Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Progressive Cavity Pump Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Gear Box Drive head Electric motor Flowline Wellhead Casing Tubing Rod String Rotor Stator Stop
Gear Box
Drive head
Electric motor
Flowline
Wellhead
Casing
Tubing
Rod String
Rotor
Stator
Stop
pin
ROTOR STATOR
ROTOR
STATOR

When the rotor and stator are in place, defined sealed cavities are formed. As the rotor turns within the stator, the cavities progress in an upward direction. When fluid enters a cavity, it is actually driven to the

surface in a smooth steady flow.

video Copyright 2007,
video
Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

When the rotor and stator are in place,

defined sealed cavities are formed. As the

rotor turns within the stator, the cavities progress in an upward direction. When fluid enters a cavity, it is actually driven to the surface in a smooth steady flow.

video Copyright 2007,
video
Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

a cavity, it is actually driven to the surface in a smooth steady flow. video Copyright

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Range of Application and Capabilities

Extra heavy Light oil (8.5 - 40 °API)

Production Capacity: 20-3500 STB/day

GOR: 0 -5000 SCF/ STB

Maximum Depth:

- 3000 feet: 500 - 3000 STB/day heavy-extra heavy oil

- 7000 feet : < 500 STB/day heavy-extra heavy oil

Maximum Temperature for subsurface pump: 250 °F

Low profile surface components (very low environmental impact)

Does not create emulsions

Does not gas lock.

low environmental impact) • Does not create emulsions • Does not gas lock. , All rights

, All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP SYSTEM

Range of Application and Capabilities (cont.)

Able to produce:

High concentrations of sand.

High viscosity fluid.

High percentages of free gas.

Copyright 2007,

of sand. – High viscosity fluid. – High percentages of free gas. Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

Progressive Cavity Pump Advantages

Simple two piece design

Capable of handling

solids & high viscosity fluids

Will not emulsify fluid

High volumetric

efficiencies

, All rights reserved

Progressive Cavity Pump Limitations

Production rates 3500 bbls/day

Lift capacity 7000 ft.

Elastomer incompatible with certain

fluids/gases

Aromatics (12%)

H 2 S (max. 6%), CO 2 (max. 30%)

Other chemical additives

Max. Temperature up to 250 ºF.

, All rights reserved

PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP

WITH BOTTOM DRIVE MOTOR

Tubing

APPLICATIONS:

Progressing

Cable

Cavity Pump

Intake

Horizontal wells

Gear Box &

Flex Drive

Deep wells

Protector

Deviated wells with severe dogleg

Motor

Copyright 2007,

wells with severe dogleg M o t o r Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved Rotor

, All rights reserved

Rotor

Stator

Intake

Gearbo

x

Protect

or

Motor

Applications

Heavy oil and bitumen.

Production of solids-laden fluids.

Medium to sweet crude.

Agricultural areas.

Urban areas.

Copyright 2007,

fluids. • Medium to sweet crude. • Agricultural areas. • Urban areas. Copyright 2007, , All

, All rights reserved

fluids. • Medium to sweet crude. • Agricultural areas. • Urban areas. Copyright 2007, , All

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Characteristics

Interference fit between the rotor and

stator creates a series of isolated cavities

Rotation of the rotor causes the cavities to move or “progress” from one end of

the pump to the other

Copyright 2007,

the cavities to move or “progress” from one end of the pump to the other Copyright

, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Displacement

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics Displacement Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

Copyright 2007,

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics Displacement Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Flow Characteristics

Non Pulsating

Pump Generates Pressure Required To

Move Constant Volume Flow is a function of RPM

Copyright 2007,

Generates Pressure Required To Move Constant Volume • Flow is a function of RPM Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics Pulsationless Flow Q FLOW RATE = A CAVITY AREA V FLUID CAVITY

Pulsationless Flow

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics Pulsationless Flow Q FLOW RATE = A CAVITY AREA V FLUID CAVITY
Progressing Cavity Pump Basics Pulsationless Flow Q FLOW RATE = A CAVITY AREA V FLUID CAVITY

QFLOW RATE = ACAVITY AREAVFLUID CAVITY VELOCITY

Copyright 2007,

Pump Basics Pulsationless Flow Q FLOW RATE = A CAVITY AREA V FLUID CAVITY VELOCITY Copyright

, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics PC Pump Types

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics PC Pump Types CONVENTIONAL 1:2 MULTILOBE 2:3 Copyright 2007, , All rights

CONVENTIONAL 1:2

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics PC Pump Types CONVENTIONAL 1:2 MULTILOBE 2:3 Copyright 2007, , All rights

MULTILOBE 2:3

Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
Copyright 2007,
, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Rotation

The Rotor turns eccentrically

within the Stator.

Movement is actually a

combination of two movements:

Rotation about its own axis

Rotation in the opposite

direction of its own axis about

the axis of the Stator.

Copyright 2007,

Rotation in the opposite direction of its own axis about the axis of the Stator. Copyright

, All rights reserved

Rotation in the opposite direction of its own axis about the axis of the Stator. Copyright

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics PCP Description

Stator Pitch (one full turn) Eccentricity Stator Rotor Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved
Stator Pitch
(one full turn)
Eccentricity
Stator
Rotor
Copyright 2007,
, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

PCP Description

D = Minor Diameter of Stator D Major Diameter of Stator D P P =
D = Minor Diameter of Stator
D
Major Diameter of Stator
D
P
P = Stator Pitch length
(one full turn = two cavities)
E
E

Copyright 2007,

of Stator D P P = Stator Pitch length (one full turn = two cavities) E

, All rights reserved

4E
4E

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Pumping Principle

The geometry of the helical gear formed by the rotor and the stator is fully defined by the following parameters:

the diameter of the Rotor

= D (in.)

eccentricity

= E (in.)

pitch length of the Stator

= P (in.)

The minimum length required for the pump to create effective pumping action is the pitch length. This is the

length of one seal line.

Copyright 2007,

effective pumping action is the pitch length. This is the length of one seal line. Copyright

, All rights reserved

Progressing Cavity Pump Basics

Pumping Principle

Each full turn of the Rotor produces two cavities of fluid.

Pump displacement = Volume produced for each turn of the rotor

V = C *D*E*P C = Constant (SI: 5.76x10 -6 , Imperial: 5.94x10 -4 )

At zero head, the flow rate is directionally proportional to

the rotational speed N:

Q = V*N

Copyright 2007,

head, the flow rate is directionally proportional to the rotational speed N: Q = V*N Copyright

, All rights reserved

Given:

Example

Pump eccentricity (e) = 0.25 in

Pump rotor diameter (D) = 1.5 in

Pump stator pitch (p) = 6.0 in

Pump speed (N) = 200 RPM Find:

Pump displacement

Theoretical fluid rate

Copyright 2007,

Pump speed (N) = 200 RPM Find: – Pump displacement – Theoretical fluid rate Copyright 2007,

, All rights reserved

HYDRAULIC JET PUMP
HYDRAULIC JET PUMP
HYDRAULIC JET PUMP POWER FLUIDO FLUID DE POTENCIA COMBINED FLUID RETURN NOZZLE BOQUILLA FLUIDOS FLUIDS

POWER FLUIDO FLUID DE POTENCIA

COMBINED

FLUID

RETURN

NOZZLE

BOQUILLA

FLUIDOS FLUIDS
FLUIDOS
FLUIDS

INLET

PRODUCTION

CHAMBER

THROAT

DIFUSOR

DIFUSSER

REVESTIDOR CASING

FORMATION

FORMACION

DIFUSSER REVESTIDOR CASING FORMATION FORMACION video NOZZLE THROAT DIFUSSER Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

NOZZLE

DIFUSSER REVESTIDOR CASING FORMATION FORMACION video NOZZLE THROAT DIFUSSER Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

THROAT

DIFUSSER REVESTIDOR CASING FORMATION FORMACION video NOZZLE THROAT DIFUSSER Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

DIFUSSER

Copyright 2007,

DIFUSSER REVESTIDOR CASING FORMATION FORMACION video NOZZLE THROAT DIFUSSER Copyright 2007, , All rights reserved

, All rights reserved

HYDRAULIC JET PUMP
HYDRAULIC JET PUMP

OPPORTUNITIES FOR APLICATION:

HYDRAULIC JET PUMP OPPORTUNITIES FOR APLICATION: • Can be installed in small tubing diameter (down to

Can be installed in small tubing

diameter (down to 2-3/8”) and with

coiled tubing (1-1/4”).

Highly deviated/horizontal wells with

small hole diameter.

Can be hydraulically recovered without

using wireline.

Low equipment costs

No moving parts

High solids content

High GOR

No depth limitations

Extra heavy-light oil (8.5 - 40 °API)

Production: 100 -20000 STB/day

Copyright 2007,

• Extra heavy-light oil (8.5 - 40 °API) • Production: 100 -20000 STB/day Copyright 2007, ,

, All rights reserved