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BOSfluids

Tutorial
Water hammer (part 3)
Dynamic Analysis using
Caesar II

The Water hammer tutorial is a 3 part tutorial describing the


phenomena of water hammer in a piping system and how BOSfluids
can be used to examine the resulting pressure spike and unbalanced
forces in the system. The third part of the tutorial describes how
unbalanced forces can be exported by BOSfluids and imported in the
pipe stress analysis program Caesar II to perform a dynamic stress
analysis.

BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

1. INTRODUCTION
A piping system, illustrated in Figure 1, is subject to a sudden valve closure at the pump
suction end, resulting in a water hammer. BOSfluids will be used to calculate the pressure
rise and the unbalanced forces that result from the closure. The unbalanced force time
history results can be exported to a data file, which can be imported by a pipe stress analysis
software package such as CAESAR II.
The first part of the Water Hammer tutorial describes the model construction, some of the
theory of pressure waves and the set-up of the analysis. The second part describes the postprocessing of results and the available output options in BOSfluids. The dynamic analysis of
the water hammer event is completed in this third part of the tutorial, which describes how
to export a piping model and unbalanced force results to CAESAR II.

Figure 1 | 3-D model of piping system

Typically a thorough investigation of a piping system does not only require a fluid flow
analysis, as performed in BOSfluids, but also a static and dynamic stress analysis. To
prevent the need to model the same piping system twice, BOSfluids allows the import and
export of the complete piping system. Also the results from the fluid flow analysis can be
exported.
This final part of the Water Hammer tutorial shows how to import a BOSfluids model into
the pipe stress analysis package CAESAR II and how the unbalanced force results of a
BOSfluids flow analysis can be used in CAESAR II to perform a dynamic stress analysis.

Copyright Dynaflow Research Group.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

2. MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN PIPING SYSTEMS


Mechanical vibrations in piping systems can be created through a variety of different
excitation mechanisms. The response of the system depends on the mechanical properties,
restraints and geometry. Generally, two types of excitation mechanisms are defined;
harmonic excitation and a step/shock excitation. Harmonic excitation is a constant periodic
force on a system, while shock/step excitation originates from a sudden impulse force
applied to a system.
The water hammer event described in this tutorial consists of both excitation mechanisms.
Initially a large pressure peak is generated followed by a harmonic pressure force due to the
reflection of the pressure waves in the closed system. The initial peak provides the largest
force and hence a large mechanical response in the system, while the secondary reflections
will have a smaller amplitude, but are still able to generate a large mechanical response if
the excitation frequency is close to the mechanical natural frequency of the piping system.
Typically a dynamic stress analysis is started by investigating the effect of the largest loads
on the most flexible section of the system, since it is generally here where the largest
displacements and stress concentrations will occur. At locations where the piping system is
constraint by supports, it must be made sure that the supports can sustain the maximum
loads.
The unbalanced forces in the event of a water hammer are generated by pressure waves
traveling through the piping system. The pressure waves generate a pressure difference
between two elbows in a straight section of pipe and thereby an axial force. The axial force
on this pipe section can be calculated by:

With

the friction force along the pipe wall,

elbows and

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the pressure difference between the two

the internal diameter.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

3. CREATING THE CAESAR II MODEL


It is common for piping engineers to construct the piping model first in a pipe stress package
like CAESAR II to determine the locations of restraints and to perform code compliance
checks. As a second step, a fluid flow analysis is performed to examine the effect fluid
dynamics due to valve closures, pump trips etc. In BOSfluids it is possible to import a piping
model from a software package such as CAESAR II.

3.1. Importing the BOSfluids model in CAESAR II


For the current water hammer tutorial, the piping model has been created in BOSfluids. To
obtain the piping model in CEASAR II, the BOSfluids model can be imported in CAESAR II.
1. Within BOSfluids open the water hammer model from the first part of the tutorial.
2. Select FileExport. An Export Model window will appear, requesting a File Name and
Type. Select the file type Caesar II Neutral File from the drop down menu and click
browse. Select the directory where the file will be saved and name it Hammer.cii.

Figure 2 | Export the BOSfluids model

3. An Export Options window is shown to select which scenario to export. Also the
required units and CEASAR II version can be selected. Note that CEASAR II is not
backward compatible, so the neutral file should have a file version equal to or lower
than the CEASAR II version the user is currently running.
4. Having created the neutral file, open CEASAR II (version 5.3 will be used in this
tutorial). The neutral file can be converted to a CAESAR II input file by selecting
ToolsExternal InterfacesCAESAR II neutral file from the toolbar.
5. The Neutral File Generator window will appear. Select Convert Neutral file to CAESAR
II Input File, browse to the neutral file created in step 3 and click Convert.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Figure 3 | Convert the neutral file to a CAESAR II input file

6. A CAESAR II model file has now been created and can be opened by selecting
FileOpen from the toolbar.

3.2. Completing the CEASAR II model


Having imported the BOSfluids model, some additional modeling is required before the
model can be run in CAESAR II. The piping layout, node numbering and pipe properties
such as diameter and thickness are all imported from BOSfluids. Non-pipe elements, such as
the valve, are imported as ridged elements with a weight of 1 N. Structural boundary
conditions and restraints and some additional pipe properties should be added. For this
model only rest supports are applied, so maximum flexibility is achieved.
Complete the model by adding the following parameters.
Table 1 | Additional model parameters

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Parameter

Description

Pressure

17.2 barg

Pipe material

A106 B

Allowable Stress Code

B31.3

Valve weight

1000 N

Anchor restraint

Nodes: 1, 125

Rest support (+Y)

Nodes: 5, 26, 40, 50, 55, 60, 65


70, 80, 95, 100, 105

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

4. DYNAMIC STRESS ANALYSIS


When performing a dynamic stress analysis typically two steps are required. The first step is
the determination of the systems modal natural frequencies. The second step is the
determination of the pipe stresses due to the dynamic loads. But first a static stress analysis
has to be performed.

4.1. Static Stress Analysis


Before performing a dynamic stress analysis in CAESAR II a static stress analysis has to be
performed. Since the dynamic analysis in CAESAR II uses a linear calculation, the status of
non-linear effects such as lift off from supports and friction need to be determined from a
static stress analysis. The dynamic analysis uses the results from a static load case as
equilibrium situation. For example when the pipe experiences a gap with respect to a
support for a certain static load case, this support will not be taken into account during the
dynamic analysis, when it uses this static load case as base. When the pipe is restraint by the
same support for another static load case and this load case would be taken as base, the pipe
would be unable to experience lift off from the support during the dynamic analysis.
For our current water hammer model we use the sustained static loads as base for our
dynamic analysis.

Figure 4 | Perform a static analysis

4.2. Modal Analysis


Once the static analysis has been performed (where the static loads case should not lead to
stresses exceeding the allowable), a modal analysis is performed, see Figure 5. During a
modal analysis the various natural vibration modes and associated natural frequencies are
calculated. We are primarily interested in the vibration modes that could get excited by the
unbalanced forces caused by the water hammer. As explained in the first parts of this

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

tutorial the highest forces will occur in the longest stretches of piping, so a first investigation
should be made for the modes that show a vibration in axial direction for the pipe sections
from node 40 to 75 and from node 90 to 110, see Figure 6.

Figure 5 | Perform a modal analysis

Figure 6 | Vibration modes of interest

When the results of the modal analysis are examined, the second mode shape that is found
shows a vibration along the axis in the pipe section from node 40 to 75. The associated
natural frequency is 0.69 Hz.
Recall that from the results of the BOSfluids analysis (see part 2 of this tutorial) the water
hammer caused an initially a large pressure peak followed by a periodic oscillation of the
pressure (pressure waves reflecting from both ends of the piping system). The frequency
associated with the periodic oscillation was found to be 4.16 Hz, see Figure 7.
A quick estimation of the dynamic load factor for the found mode shape can be made by
using the following relation:

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) )

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Figure 7 | Frequency spectrum of the pressure results at node 50

A conservative assumption where no dampening is assumed (=0), would lead to a dynamic


amplification of:

) )

So the first structural mode of interest would be excited by the periodic part of the fluid
dynamics with an amplification of 2.8%. This means no problems are expected for this
dynamic interaction. However the excitation of the higher mode shapes is more complex
and should not be dismissed so easily. To get a more thorough understanding of the
dynamic response of the piping system under the loads of the water hammer, a dynamic
analysis using the time history of the unbalanced forces should be performed.

4.3. Time History Analysis


To perform a time history analysis the results of the unbalanced loads are imported in
CAESAR II using the Export Forces feature in BOSfluids. But first the output range and
resolution are redefined.
4.3.1. Output Range and Temporal Resolution
The output range and temporal resolution was already determined in part 1 of the tutorial
before performing the dynamic flow analysis, however the dynamic stress analysis might
require some adjustments of the analysis parameters.
During the fluid flow analysis the temporal resolution was set automatically by BOSfluids.
Investigation of the results showed that it was sufficiently small to capture the initial force
peak and the following harmonic oscillations, see Figure 8.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Figure 8 | Force results at node 50

The temporal resolutions used by the solver and used for the output are found by opening
the Transient Warning & Messages report. The time step used by the solver is found to be
0.3657 ms and the output interval is 6.0 ms.
For the dynamic stress analysis, the temporal resolution should be small enough to capture
the highest natural frequency of interest. A conservative approximation would be to choose
the temporal resolution to be 10% of the time period of the highest frequency. To determine
the highest frequency of interest again the dynamic load factor is used. From Figure 9 it can
be seen that for frequency ratios below 0.2 the dynamic load factor remains 1.0 (no
amplification).

Figure 9 | Dynamic load factor

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

The highest natural frequency of interest could therefore be estimated by:

Using this relation with an excitation frequency of 4.16 Hz, the highest frequency of interest
becomes 20.8 Hz. The required output interval to capture this frequency can be estimated by
.
The output range should be long enough to capture at least 2 periods of the smallest natural
frequency of interest. This frequency was found in the modal analysis to be 0.69 Hz. This
would mean the output range should be approximately 4 seconds (where an extra 1.2
seconds was taken for the initial transient).
4.3.2. Rerun the Simulation and Export the Results from BOSfluids
The new parameters for the output range and interval can entered in the analysis settings.
Since the valve in the water hammer case closes after 1 second the Output Start Time is taken
to be 1 second, the End Time and the Simulation Time are increased to 5 seconds and the
output interval is set to 0.005 seconds, see Figure 10.

Figure 10 | Analysis settings

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Rerun the simulation in the Run tab.


Change to the Results tab and check the output data by re-generating the unbalanced force
plot for node 50 as in Figure 8. The start time, end time and time step should be changed
according to the new analysis settings.
The unbalanced forces can be exported by selecting ToolsExport Forces. By selecting File
Type : Caesar II, the time history results for each node pair (these were defined in part 1) are
stored in separate files, see Figure 11.

Figure 11 | Export the unbalanced forces

CAESAR II will always start its dynamic stress analysis at zero seconds, so when a data file
does not start at zero seconds CAESAR II will still perform calculations for the time between
zero and the output start time using a zero force input. BOSfluids can shift the output data
so the first data point starts at zero seconds by ticking the Start at Zero option, this will
reduce computation times during the CAESAR II dynamic analysis.
Click Export to generate the data files.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

The data files consist of simple ascii based text and can be opened by any text editor. Before
importing the files in CAESAR II confirm that the correct units are used for the time history
results (force in Newton and time in milliseconds).
4.3.3. Importing the Data File in CAEAR II
When the data files are made, store the data files in the same directory as the CAESAR
model. The time history data files can now be imported in CAESAR by selecting Time
History from the Analysis Type drop down menu.
Multiple data files can be imported and solved in a load case, however the user should be
carefully evaluate the sign of the applied forces. The forces on different pipe sections should
work against each other in such a way the resulting deformation represents the worst case
scenario in terms of resulting stresses. Since the current tutorial is primarily written to
provide an example for the import/export of BOSfluids models/results, only one data file is
imported in CAESAR II. The other file and the combined case are left for the user to carry
out themselves.
The unbalanced force results for the pipe section from node 45 to 75 are imported in the
CAESAR II dynamic stress module by following the steps below:
1. In the first tab Time History Definitions the time history file is referenced by typing #<file
name> in the name field. Delete all default input lines, untick the comment (Cmt)
checkbox for the first line and use the input parameters as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12 | Time History Definitions

2. Select the Force Sets tab. Add a force set in the X-direction at a node anywhere on the
pipe section of interest except for the bend nodes, in this case on Node 50. The
magnitude is set at 1.0, since the actual magnitude of the forces is defined by the data
file. Define a force set with number 1 as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13 | Force Sets

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

3. Select the Time History Load Cases tab. This tab links the time history profile set in the first
tab with the force set in the second tab. Define one load case as shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14 | Time history load cases

4. Select the Static/Dynamic Combinations tab. According to the code the dynamic loads
(occasional loads) should be combined with the static sustained loads in a combined load
case and tested against the allowables. Create one static/dynamic load case combination
combining the static sustained load case (S2) with the dynamic time history load case
(D1), as shown in Figure 15.

Figure 15 | Static/Dynamic Combinations

5. Select the Control Parameters tab. Define the following parameters:


-

Static Load Case for Nonlinear Restraint Status: 2 (the sustained static load case)

Stiffness Factor for Friction: 1.0

Frequency Cutoff: 20Hz

Time History Time Step: 5ms

Load Duration: 6.5 sec (the total time of the time history 5 sec + one period of the
lowest natural frequency 1.5 sec)

Damping ratio: 0.03

Mass Model: Consistent (gives more accurate results)

See also Figure 16.

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Figure 16 | Control Parameters

6. Run the dynamic analysis.


4.3.4. Results
The results of the dynamic analysis show the highest stress, 136MPa occurs at node 90. This
stress is still below the allowable (74% of the allowable), see Figure 17. The largest
displacements are found in the pipe section where the force was applied, see Figure 18.
These large displacements of 212 mm are caused by the lack of horizontal supports.

Figure 17 | Dynamic Output: Stress report

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BOSfluids

Water Hammer Part 3

Figure 18 | Dynamic Output: Displacement report

4.4. Conclusion
This concludes the Water Hammer tutorial, where the fluid dynamics and the structural
dynamics of a water hammer event on a piping system were investigated. This tutorial is not
written with the intention to give a thorough overview of the CAESAR II dynamic module.
For a more elaborate overview of all the functions of the CAESAR II dynamic module you
are referred to the CAESAR II user manual.
For more BOSfluids tutorials you are referred to the BOSfluids website.

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