You are on page 1of 7

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
journal homepage:

Review of emotions research in marketing, 2002–2013
Sanjaya S. Gaur n, Halimin Herjanto 1, Marian Makkar
AUT School of Business, AUT Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology (AUT), Wellesley Campus,
WY Building Level 4, 120 Mayoral Drive, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 18 March 2014
Received in revised form
6 August 2014
Accepted 6 August 2014
Available online 3 September 2014

Study of emotions has been an important area of research for past several decades. Since emotions play
an important role in purchase decisions, this area has particular importance for marketing scholars.
In this study, we review the emotions research conducted within the marketing field between 2002 and
2013. Within the broad domain of emotions, this study focuses on social/personality issues, cognitive
factors, the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. We found a
total of 340 emotion-related articles, published in 19 marketing journals. There was a gradual increase in
number of articles published every year with the trend peaking in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The review of
extant literature offers interesting insights into emotion-related research, and helps in identifying clear
directions for future studies.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Consumer behavior

1. Introduction
Study of emotions has been a thriving area of research within
the psychology domain for long. Psychology scholars have found
that emotions have a vital role in determining peoples' behaviors
and actions (Carlson et al., 2007). In more recent years, this topic
has been taken up by many applied disciplines, including marketing (Solomon, 2008). In the marketing discipline, scholars argue
that the constitutional character of emotions is very relevant and
evident in human consumption. However, the extant literature on
emotions is limited in explicating different dimensions of emotions as they relate to consumer decision making (Erevelles, 1998).
We review the extant literature to take a stock of what we know.
In an effort to develop a nuanced understanding of the importance of emotions for consumer behavior, scholars in the marketing
discipline have developed theoretical models by borrowing theories
on emotions from disciplines such as psychology and sociology
(Huang, 2001). Researchers have also focused on specific areas of
emotions in marketing such as its measurement (Bellman, 2007),
causes and consequences (Penz and Hogg, 2011), functions (Eyal
and Fishbach, 2007), coping mechanisms (Bee and Madrigal, 2007)
and communication (Landwehr et al., 2011). Despite these efforts,
study of emotions in the marketing discipline is only in the
preliminary stages (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy, 1984; Bagozzi
et al., 1998; Huang, 2001). Given the significance of emotions for

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 64 9 9219999x5465; fax: þ 64 9 9219629.
E-mail addresses: (S.S. Gaur), (H. Herjanto), (M. Makkar).
Present address: McKendree University, Lebanon, IL 62254, USA.
0969-6989/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

marketing research, it is important to determine its current status,
trends, patterns, and development.
Erevelles (1998) first provided a review of emotions in the
marketing discipline. However, this study had a limited scope as
it focused solely on the concept of affect. It is also a bit outdated as
there have been several theoretical and methodological advances in
recent years. We extend Erevelles' (1998) study by examining the
current research trends in emotions research in the marketing
literature and presenting its latest findings. Based on this review,
we provide directions for future research so that studies on
emotions can help expand our understanding of its role in marketing. This study investigates and discusses the trends in emotions
research in connection with journal information, author and article,
the nature of the research, data collection methods and statistical
analysis. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. First,
definitions of emotions and emotion-related research in marketing
are presented. Second, the methodology adopted for this research,
measurement descriptions, and an explanation and justification for
article extractions are presented. Last, results, discussion, conclusion, limitations, and future research scope conclude this paper.

2. Background
Human beings are considered as unique and complex creatures.
According to Turner (2007), one reason for their complexity and
uniqueness is the fact that they are “highly emotional animals”
(p. 1). That is, human beings are able to experience and express
different emotions, and more interestingly, they can interpret
complex emotional states in others. Based on their emotions,

29 53.S. Bagozzi et al.36 63. Google Scholar helps investigators broaden research scopes by offering immediate and large coverage to a variety of academic journals with fewer biases in journal selection. In order to help identify and narrow down the research gap. According to them. Bagozzi et al. For example. mediate responses to persuasive appeals. this study utilizes content analysis to offer the latest updates on emotions studies in marketing literature by revealing the current trends in the field. Huang. (1998) also believe that marketers still know too little about the role of emotions in marketing behavior. instigate goal setting. the author appeals to future researchers to investigate the characteristics of emotions that specifically relate to marketing 3. Several studies (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy. (1998) refreshed the exploration of the role of emotions in marketing and found that previous studies on emotions provided inconclusive findings.47 1 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 1 2 3 2 1 0 11 14 6 31 35. advertising.70 8. the call for further examination of this phenomenon is very broad and varied. The articles were screened for the keywords in the title.33 31.98 49. topical and methodological emotion-related research in marketing literature? people form or reject social connections. We focus on journal information.59 10.94 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 4 2 26 25 51 50. research type and research methods.918 S. or avoid their commitments to social structures and cultures. 1998.22 21. the study of its role in marketing is still in its infantile stages. Journal 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Marketing Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Australasian Marketing Journal 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 Advertising Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Consumer behavior Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behavior 3 0 0 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 1 7 18 0 1 1 5 5 0 0 1 3 10 0 1 1 Consumer psychology Psychology & Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology 1 1 3 0 1 2 0 4 1 1 Retailing Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total % 1 5 1 0 4 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 9 23 10 7 8 10 6 73 12. 1984.16 19.02 15. and cover five key sub disciplines of marketing: marketing. They argue that there are numerous questions yet to be answered such as the function of emotions in influencing salespersons' and managers' behaviors. appreciating the role of emotions clearly helps marketers gain insight into customers. Because of this reason. abstract and the keyword list.68 9. To them.84 3. 2001) confirmed that emotions play a critical role in determining consumers' behaviors. consumer behavior. when emotions are functional or dysfunctional or customer satisfaction as a unique phenomenon or a subcategory of positive emotions. emotions influence individuals' information processing. measure the effects of marketing stimuli. Bagozzi et al. these inconclusive findings were due to a lack of consistency in emotions terminology. Full texts of published research articles were then examined to exclude those that were not associated with emotions. In brief.96 13. affect goaldirected behaviors and serve as ends and measures of consumer welfare.35 9. For this reason. Therefore. “mood”. maintain. there are two main research questions that this study attempts to answer: Research Question 1: How often are emotion-related articles published in major marketing journals? Research Question 2: What is the status of authorial. emotions play an important role in every dimension of human activity within society. According to Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984). “feelings”. especially in marketing. More importantly.37 1. consumer psychology and retailing. The preceding discussion clearly shows that despite the importance of emotions.48 45. Huang (2001) re-investigated the theory of emotions in marketing.64 6. According to Bagozzi et al. Gaur et al. According to Norozi (2005).00 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 2 0 0 1 5 8 14 22 36. investigating emotions assists advertising agencies and salespeople in recognizing the different aspects of clients' emotions and consequences of these in the decision making.82 47. covering the period 2002–2013.70 9. The final review produced 340 relevant published research articles from Table 1 Publication trends (journal and year). First step in article extraction generated more than 750 published research articles. In her view. marketing scholars have not fully identified the specific characteristics of emotions. More recently.51 13. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 and to integrate these characteristics to existing emotions theories..12 4 7 1 0 2 5 17 0 1 0 6 25 0 0 1 8 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 4 51 87 3 6 16 163 31. and “emotions” are frequently used interchangeably. and develop. terms such as “affect”. emotions can be identified throughout businesses. article research information. author information.47 . Method The initial search for literature was based on the keyword “emotion” in Google Scholar. (1998).

After both authors were satisfied with the result of the coefficient reliability for the entire coding category. Furthermore. As for the consumer psychology category is concerned. (6) social/personal issues: gender. Finally. survey. Within this category.S. Appendix A provides a brief snapshot of selected journals in terms of impact factors and year launched. authors' affiliations. (2) topics explaining emotions. Psychology and Marketing Journal (51%. consumer behavior. advertising. structural equation model (SEM) or regression. flexibility and manageability. 340 articles were identified as emotion-related published articles. The journal's name was coded to generate information that could assist in identifying which marketing journals paid more attention to the subject and published more emotion-related research articles. Lastly. consumer behaviorists' point of view. 3. or explain the role of emotions in the marketing literature which provides invaluable information for future emotions research. It was followed by 14% (10 out of 73) of articles in Journal of Marketing. cognitive and social construction of emotion. or other higher education institutions that have actively investigated the topic and produced related articles. all those topics were coded. Information provided by research topics offer invaluable understanding regarding areas that received more or less attention whilst proposing a clear future research direction. describe. articles were coded for the statistical analyses technique chosen such as analysis of variance (ANOVA).1. 4. The final number of relevant articles demonstrates that there are several articles that make reference to emotions but do not have emotions as the main research topic. 15% of the articles (51 articles) were in the consumer psychology category. one coder continued to review the remaining 308 articles. emotion and memory. research purpose. According to Cho and Khang (2006). discover. If multiple topics were discussed in one article. author's organization. year of publication. The selected academic journals were placed into five main marketing categories: marketing. consumer psychology and retailing (refer Table 1 for the details based on journal name). the research type was 98%. 45% (14 out of 31) of articles appeared in Journal of Advertising Research. (8) development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption patterns. 4. 26 articles) and Journal of Consumer Psychology (49%. category. and the nature of the research (empirical or conceptual) had a 100% matching. 2011). schema. and 19% (6 out of 31) of articles in International Journal of Advertising were associated with emotions research. This coding produced vital information about whether the research attempted to explore. The author's name was coded to present details of those actively focused on emotions research which can assist students and academics seeking guidance regarding the topic as well as help them identify potential networking opportunities. authors' names. 9% (31 articles) were in the advertising category. and mixed methods showing the nature of the research (qualitative versus quantitative) were coded to reveal which methods were more commonly used to investigate the role of emotions in the marketing literature. Holsti's coefficient of reliability is widely used in other studies (Saransomrurtai. All the research topics were classified under following categories: (1) topics representing emotional meaning. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 19 different marketing journals. Advances in Consumer Research (ACR) was the most active avenue in this field (53%. The coding design of the research topic was developed based on Lewis and Haviland-Jones' (2000) Handbook of Emotions.S. author's name. Gaur et al. interview. (9) measurement of emotions and (10) others. and discourse. Measure Each published article was coded for the journal name. The selected research articles from 19 marketing journals were subjected to content analysis for classification purposes. and explain the focus of social attention such as emotions. Journal and year After undergoing screening and elimination as described above. the statistical analysis was 100%. The reliability coefficient was found to be satisfactory. The institution's name was also coded to provide invaluable information concerning the organizations. 6% (22 articles) were in the retailing category. the data collection method was found to be 100% and finally. research methods such as observation. (3) biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotion: emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain. The reliability coefficient of the research topic category was 98%. 35% (11 out of 31) of articles in Journal of Advertising. Additionally. content analysis. Table 1 shows the trend of emotion-related articles during 2002– 2013. emotional expression in group. the research purpose was 96%. organizational and regulatory. and 21% (73 articles) were in the marketing category. research and data collection methods and statistical analyses techniques. emotion. Weber (1990) argued that content analysis is a useful technique that allows researchers to learn. contributing 15% to the total emotion-related research in this field. 25 articles) collectively published 51 emotion-related articles. The year of publication was also coded to aid in understanding how much attention was dedicated to the topic at a particular point of time during 2002– 2013. (7) cognitive factors: positive emotion and decision making. Two authors of this study independently reviewed and coded 11% or 32 randomly chosen published articles from 340 available published articles. universities. (4) communication of emotion: verbal and non verbal. the effect of emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. Five journals contributed to 52% (150 out of 287 articles) of total emotion-research related articles in the consumer behavior category. In addition. Results Holsti (1969) argued that in order to achieve consistency between two coders. Content analysis was chosen because according to Bryman and Bell (2003). (5) emergence and functions of discrete emotions: motivational. content analysis is an objective method of analysis that enables researchers to analyze a large number of data with relative ease. such information reveals similarities or dissimilarities amongst authors with regards to emotionrelated research. 47% (163 articles) were in the consumer behavior category. metaphor. This was done to gain an understanding of which statistical analyses methods are widely utilized or infrequently used. emotional network in the brain. emotion and behavior genetics.1. social models. the psychologists' point of view. The year of publication. results for the retailing category produced eight articles (36%) in Journal of Retailing and 14 articles (64%) in Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service. while . and met Holsti's threshold. and expression. Within the marketing category. With regards to the advertising category. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. The highest number of articles (16%) appeared in 2010. inter-coder reliability and judgments need to meet the minimum threshold of 85%. research topic. This was followed by Journal of Consumer Research (31%) and Journal of Consumer Behavior (10%). Journal of Marketing Research was the most productive contributor to emotion-related research where 32% (23 out of 73) of articles discussed the role of emotions in marketing. The research topic was also included as it adds to the understanding of this study. Cho and Khang (2006) suggested that such information may help those seeking employment or selecting an institution for study purposes. 87 out of 163 articles). each article was coded based on its research 919 questions and hypotheses. and Journal of Marketing Management.

05 3. Traditionally. Jeffrey J.29%. 2010 and 2011.35 5 4 1.35 University of California 28 8.18 7 2. Overall. Richard P. Research topic The three most investigated topics in this field were social/ personality issues that were investigated 112 times (33%).74 9 2.05 4 1. Deborah Madrigal. critique or essay in 4% and interviews in 3%. authors. and 2004) of the specified study period.5. Aimee MacInnis. 4. whereas 12% of the articles used qualitative approach. Table 2 demonstrates that the University of California. exploratory research dominated the trend contributing to 66% (225 out of 340 articles). Vanessa Patrick of University of Houston and Marcel Zeelenberg of Tilburg University. followed by mixed methods in 10%.06 Tilburg University 2. two articles in retailing and advertising and six articles in marketing. MANOVA. Marcel Inman. Jennifer L.50%) and SEM (10. Nitika Lau-Gesk. On an average. Gaur et al. emotions are a crucial topic to be studied because it is an . and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors which were discussed 81 times (24%). 2003.01 5. During 2002–2013 the marketing category utilized quantitative methods the most (54 times. survey method was adopted in 69% articles in all categories. four emotion-related articles were published every year in the consumer psychology category. regression (15. 74%) followed by mixed methods (9 times. Willem Williams. The least trending topics included biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotions. (2007).91%). 84% of emotion-related research was conducted quantitatively. 4. Finally. the next most productive author was Jeffrey Inman of University of Pittsburg who published six articles. However. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Table 2 Top authors of emotion-related research.47 Northwestern University 13 3. In the consumer behavior category.06 Columbia University 15 4. As pointed out by Carlson et al. Aaker. experiments in 8%. We found that during the first three years (2002.27 5 1.76 University of Southern California 1. A comparison of statistical analysis techniques was also investigated.47 University of Pennsylvania 12 3.41% and 7. As some articles employed more than one analytical method.35%). Authors and institutions Amongst the contributing scholars. Table 1 demonstrates that even though emotion-related articles started appearing regularly by 2002. secondary data. ANCOVA. He is followed by Darren Dahl of University of British Columbia. He published eight emotionrelated articles during 2002–2013. the advertising category conducted more quantitative research with 21 articles (68%) which was followed by five articles (16%) in which qualitative methods were used. the total number of methods is greater than the total population of 340 articles. This is followed by 14 articles in consumer behavior.17 University of Pittsburgh 11 11 3.05 3. these five authors contributed to 10% of the published articles.98%). 2.74 New York University Stanford University University of Minnesota University of Oregon Frequency % the lowest number of articles (10%) appeared in 2011. quantitative methods were employed by 82% (18 out of 22) articles. Darren Patrick. T-test. This study classified 10 different statistical analysis methods which included ANOVA (17.4.06 University of Michigan 23 17 7. Kim Dube Laurette Garg. in 2009.54 7 7 2. emotional networks in the brain and emotion and behavioral genetics and others. it was not until 2005–2006 that emotions research gained momentum. data collection.17 10 10 10 10 3. These authors each published seven emotion-related articles. cognitive factors that were investigated 97 times (29%). and others did not reach the 10% threshold resulting in 3.S.47 Arizona State University 12 1. 2001).96 5 5 1. This was followed by 29% (97 out of 340) articles with an explanatory purpose and finally 5 (18 out of 340) articles with a descriptive purpose. while qualitative methods were employed by 14% articles. emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain. Similarly. Authors Organizations Name Frequency % Name Bagozzi. Research methods Across the 19 journals.2.66 3. In summary.47 University of Alberta 1. Drolet. the same trend was found with 79% (128) articles using quantitative methods followed by 11% (18) articles that used mixed methods. Richard Bagozzi from University of Michigan was recorded as the most productive author in emotion-related research.35 4 4 4 4 1. Content analysis. 4.66 5 1.57 6 14 4. In the retail category. Patti 8 2. 5.47 Erasmus University 11 3.17 1. Robert Pieter. 1. In the consumer psychology category.97%. Our analyses offer many directions for future research in the area of emotions in the marketing discipline. 12%). Discussion and conclusion This study examined the trends in emotion-related research in marketing during 2002–2013 and provided a robust analysis of journals. and analytic methods employed. Lorraine Verbeke.35 3. are located outside the United States: Tilburg University and Erasmus University (The Netherlands) and the University of Alberta and the University of British Columbia (Canada). 4. Tilburg University and the University of Michigan were leaders in the publication of emotions research.17 1.920 S. observation and focus group methods of data collection portrayed the lowest results barely reaching a 2% level. Vanessa M.96%) as the most popular analytical methods employed. collectively contributing 21% to the total number of articles published.05 4 1. these topics have received maximum attention from the scholars in the medical field. Data collection methods With regards to data collection methods.05 3. In contrast. Chingching Corfman.3. articles and the nature of the research. during the period of 2002–2013. correlation analysis (12.17 University of Texas 10 3.17 University of British Columbia University of Chicago 9 2.02% respectively.17 1. Dahl. emotion-related research increased significantly which might be due to marketing researchers increased awareness of the importance of this area (Huang. Recently it has started gaining some attention from marketing scholars too. research on emotions was only moderately undertaken. Four of the 18 most productive universities in emotion-related research. factor analysis (14. Zeelenberg. Rik Chang.

in order to contribute positively to emotions studies. Patrick. it is imperative that marketing researchers continue investigating the role of emotions in the future. Additionally. 2010). although emotions has been recognized as a strong predictor of human behavior (Carlson et al. emotion expression in groups). and expression. emotion-related research had a variety of interests in a range of topics. this omission might be due to advertising scholars having little consensus with regards to how emotions work which influences their ability to measure the role of emotions in advertising. impacting the domain as a whole. replication difficulties and lack of transparency (Bryman and Bell. Despite the interest. Despite this low interest in emotions research.. Hogan and Kwiatkowski (1998) stated that these complexities discourage researchers to study this area. one of the reasons of this decrease could be due to the recent rise of new peer reviewed journals. Their study showed that during 2011–2012 alone. Zeelenberg. some authors (Sharp and Frechtling. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. may be due to the complexity of emotions studies and its recognition and interpretation. As Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984) suggested. emotions studies during 2002–2013 were leaning toward quantitative research. Within the five categories studied. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 important predictor of human behavior. emotion. it is reasonable to say that in the last two years emotion researchers have more options to publish their articles and do not solely focus on this study's sampled journals. 921 The study also identified that Bagozzi. According to Malhotra (2004). Drolet. In advertising. Findings from this study also show that during this period most of the research was exploratory. definition and measurement. different typologies used and inconsistent design labeling. Although impacts and results of these popular topics are not questioned. . exploratory research is vital but more suitable for creating theory. As pointed by Walden et al. However. however it would be enlightening to see if these topics can be compared with previous studies in the area and whether past findings are in line with current ones.321 or 2. This is particularly relevant to the marketing category which resulted in few emotion-related research (Huang. North American universities dominated emotion-related research. this study revealed that only 340 out of 14. advances and adapts (Adolphs. According to Ware and Mabe (2012). relying on one specific type of research method may be problematic and risks overlooking true outcomes. followed by mixed methods research and qualitative research. the percentage of relevant studies in retail has remained low.S. with the measurement of emotions as the fourth most important topic of investigation. He found that most empirical and comparative studies employed a quantitative research perspective (70% of emotion-related articles) with 7% using qualitative methods and 10% using mixed methods. This study revealed a global spread of emotion-related research. Hence. and designing their research. 2010) and subjectivity. this study found only 6% of emotion-related studies in this research area. Australian and New Zealand universities.. Among 328 universities. This may be the reason why quantitative methods were more likely used. This effort is a positive sign for emotion-related research in the retail category. This surprising result might be explained by the lack of consensus about what constitutes emotions (Bagozzi et al. only 9% of published articles were related to emotions which confirm Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy's (1984) view that advertising scholars have failed to recognize the importance of human emotions. qualitative research also carries some disadvantages such as generalization issues (Myer. this study revealed that advertising scholars have begun to consolidate their differences by prioritizing factors such as the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. Dahl. Madrigal and Pieters are the most productive emotions researchers. Comparison between emotions studies during different time frames may help researchers appreciate the history of this area and more importantly will strengthen basic concept of emotions that may help researchers develop new thoughts. emotion-related research in advertising still seems to be in the developmental stage but it is likely that advertising scholars will increase their investigation of emotions in the near future. Due to its importance. scholars in this domain have investigated a decent number of emotion related topics prioritizing the following issues: social/personality issues (gender. In sum. according to Edwards et al. but they need to integrate it into the existing knowledge to enable development of new concepts and theories (Adolphs. choosing research partners and universities. the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. 2003). new academic journals have increased by approximately 3. Due to this. The study indicated that during 2002–2013.5%. These disadvantages may explain why research using mixed method is limited. As for mixed methods. Using different research methods. 2010) that might not be explicated by current information. ideas and approaches to study emotions. researchers not only have to provide full attention to the dynamic structure of human emotions (Frijda et al. Aaker. 1997) found that it generates better data collection and provides sharper and more robust findings. Middle Eastern universities and South American universities. this study will encourage researchers to continue investigating emotions as well as encouraging those inactive universities to participate in this research trend. (2003). such as qualitative can provide new information that quantitative cannot address. MacInnis. The result of this study indicated that more explanatory and descriptive studies are needed. which has created inconclusive and mixed interpretations and findings. 2007). cognitive factors (positive affect and decision making. Amongst these topics. In sum. We can assume that these three top emotions topics were an attempt to respond to Bagozzi et al.37% of available research articles were related to emotions during the study period. 2003) argued that qualitative research offers advantages such as the possibility to see the problem in question from the participants' point of view whilst gaining an in-depth understanding of the context in which the study is conducted. Based on the parameters listed by Bagozzi et al. In sum. (1998). According to Mehta and Purvis (2006).S. emotion and memory) and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. 2001). Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) noted that mixed methods potentially generate confusion between the description of data analysis and result interpretation. 1991) and provide a sensible explanation of how it emerges. However. They were followed by European universities. Even with a broader definition of emotions. marketing scholars concentrated on social/personality issues. 1998). Although the role emotions play in retail has long been acknowledged. researchers are encouraged to create a balance by approaching the research using qualitative and mixed methods. and. In order to get a better understanding of it. emotions literature in 2012 and 2013 were slightly down from 34 articles in 2011 to 26 and 28 articles respectively. Asian universities. 2010. Across all categories. Inman. (2002). Gaur et al. Numerous scholars (Myer. the study demonstrated that quantitative research was more popular in emotion-related research. emotion-related issues were the least investigated in advertising and retail. Bryman and Bell. This information can help students and scholars who are seeking guidance. which ultimately may reveal new results. This finding is consistent with Clasen's (2004) comparison study on research perspectives. Despite this poor result. cognitive and social construction in emotions. this research can be considered a true representation of emotionrelated research issues.. This low percentage.'s (1998) invitation to investigate the implication of emotions on consumers' behavior. yet studying emotions should not come to a halt but should be encouraged.

by organizing specialized training programs) into human emotions. Specifically. In this review.a. In other words. we have provided a brief summary of the key trends and identified the sources and scholars who are active in this area. According to Parrott (2004).201 n. the inclusion of secondary emotions in future studies may extend our understanding of the role of emotions in consumer behavior.016 1.152 n. this study confirms Hogan and Kwiatkowski's (1998) view that emotions is a complex phenomena to be studied. The unexplored research topics along with variety of available methods offer many avenues for future academic research. there are many opportunities to further explore the importance of emotions for different sectors and outcomes. consumer psychology and retailing in which scholars have done emotions related research. We hope that our study assists students and scholars seeking guidance. It is crucial to stress conceptual – theory building as an ongoing process in which innovative and visionary thinking must be regarded as a crucial factor (Ekstrom.542 n. 5. retail and other marketing categories (e. and focus group were limited across the years. Yet. It can be assumed that marketing scholars used these methods to ensure that their findings were robust and valid. This study makes important contributions for academic research as well as practitioners. and how best to measure the effectiveness of emotions (Bagozzi et al. Even though there may be few studies. secondary data. Although the present study provides invaluable insight into emotion-related research in the marketing sphere. there may be some aspects of emotions which could only be captured using mixed methods including experiments or simple observations of the subjects.73 1. This could be due to a lack of agreement on the terminology needed to study emotions. Despite their strong empirical results. thus they may not be applicable to other categories such as Internet marketing which make the findings limited to offline marketing. Journal Impact factor Launch year Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Marketing Science Australasian Marketing Journal Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising Journal of Consumer Affairs Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behaviour Psychology and Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 3. However.781 2. 1998. we hope to sensitize managers about the importance of emotions through this review. managers often ignore human emotions. 6. and designing future emotion-related research. this research examined 19 marketing journals. correlation. n. etc. critique or essay. The findings show that recently marketing scholars significantly increased their focus on emotions. Based on an analyses of these articles. Internet marketing) that may offer a different view of emotion-related research. consumer behavior.368 2. The findings also show the need for scholars to investigate other issues relating to emotions in marketing. Conversely. These results are closely related to the fact that most of the articles were quantitative in nature. With respect to methods. the employment of content analysis. the amount of influence emotions have. survey is probably the most suitable research methodology. This is despite the fact that many studies have shown human emotions as very reliable predictors of consumer behavior. Given the latent nature of emotions.788 2..922 S.) were moderately utilized. regression. 0. We identified the areas such as advertising and retailing in which there are limited number of studies. We also identified the key publication outlets to help scholars target their studies at the right journals. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Furthermore. a balance between empirical and conceptual studies is still needed. In terms of statistical analysis methods. and SEM were frequently used. this study also showed that a relatively high proportion of research studies using the survey method were recorded in this study (68. Even within these domains. Given that this area is not well researched.80%) while the use of experiment. Conclusions This study included 340 emotion-related articles from 19 different marketing journals published during 2002–2013. important trends in emotions research. In addition. secondary emotions are exclusive to human beings that produce different behavioral outcomes (Tangney et al. advanced methods such as ANOVA.. covariance analysis.254 2. With respect to the research topics. Other less advanced statistical methods. most studies use quantitative methods in which data is usually collected using surveys. Thus. the present study has several limitations. 2006). such as factor analysis. we identified the extent of investigation. selecting research partners and universities. observation.a.746 1.a. Limitations Like any research project. Future studies that replicate this research's aims may find it worthwhile to focus on greater numbers of journals and articles. we identified five topical areas – marketing.047 3. we identified social personality issues. 2007). and others (F test. 2007). Gaur et al. Results are also limited to five marketing categories.781 n. human emotions have not been fully investigated within the marketing discipline. 1936 1963 1978 1984 1984 1967 1981 1992 1972 1960 1981 1957 1974 1969 1983 1988 2001 1983 1992 1924 1993 .a. 2003). 1..57 1. advertising. Marketing scholars also show uncertainty on how emotions work. specifically journals in advertising.1. Appendix A See Table A1. future research could also choose to focus on primary as well as secondary emotions. this study identifies the Table A1 Journal profiles. n. there is still a need for further research inquiries and empirical studies to offer a better understanding of its issues. With respect to managerial insights.a..a. and interviews were moderate. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors as the most studies research topics.g. thus the findings cannot be fully generalized to the wider world of marketing literature.309 2. combined methods. For academia. 0. such as the association between emotions and behavioral genetics.S. Mehta and Purvis. Our analyses reveals that human emotions are one of the most reliable and valuable predictors of human behavior (Carlson et al. Within these domains. Managers could meticulously review this study or contact the right set of scholars to gain further insights (for example. this research provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date investigation of trends in emotionrelated research. Firstly.311 1. which helps scholars identify the unexplored areas for future research. managers need to pay attention to emotion research given its importance for human behavior.

Edward Elgar Publishing. 1–29. 549–552. Turner. Bee. Oxford University Press.. J. International Association of Scientific. O. Tashakkori. 2006..K.. 2003. and the social nature of self conscious emotions. C. S. Pscyhol. Rev. Haviland-Jones.B. 1 (2). 2007. 16 (2). 484.S. M. 35 (3). New Delhi. 923 Landwehr. Walden.). Sage... Frijda. Heth. S. J. T. Thousand Oaks. Sci. 170–180. Erevelles. 4th ed. 2006. Psychol.. O’Shaughnessy. J. J. Business Research Methods – Project Research Book.). Haviland-Jones. R.. 14–22. Lewis. In: Lewis. 45 (1–2). 2007. Psychol. 2003. Sci. 27 (2). 2nd ed. 2011. Mark. MA. Bryman. M. Consum..L. (Eds. pp. Gopinath. J.. LIBRI 55.R. Curr.. Martin. Res. Inq. 42 (3). R. Biol.. (Eds. MA. P. Hogan. New Zealand. Malhotra. USA. 2004. R.. The duration of affective phenomena or emotions. 15.R. Jackson. 51 (11). Qualitative Research in Business & Management. J. The STM Report. Introduction to mixed method evaluations. 447–448.J. Pearson Education. D. Bus. Donahoe... 34. The role of mixed emotions in consumer behavior. Carlson.. Barrett. A Handbook of Comparative Social Policy.C. Edwards. Major Issues and Controversies in the Use of Mixed Methods in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Reader.. Fishbach. pp. Google Scholar: the new generation of citation indexes.. 3rd ed. Herrmann. Tangney.. Res.. . 199–215. N. S...A. Handbook of Emotions.M. Nyer. In: Strongman. D. J. J. Emotion recognition via facial expression and affective prosody in schizophrenia: a methodological review. Relat. L.G. 1998. Emotion.. Mark. M. Addison-Wesley. 2005. An Overview of Scientific and Scholarly Journal Publishing (3rd eds). H. The role of emotions in marketing. J. Ware. Parrott.. The theory of emotions in marketing.. The state of Internet-related research in communications... Mabe. Khang.H.P. Catron. 184–206. Newbury Park. Sonnemans. R.. 1998.S. H. Diane Publishing. 1. 58. 143–163. Hum. Revisiting the family tree: historical and future consumer behavior research. Cho. Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. Holsti. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 References Adolphs. Solomon. A. Mark.W. Eur. Psychol. Sage Publications. 345–372. B.H. Psychology: The Science of Behavior. J. Human Emotions: A Sociological Theory.. J. J. Rev. Handbook of Emotions. A. Defining comparative social policy. J. A.. T. 239–247.. 30–50. 104–132. Appraisal. Acad. and passions. 2007. 132–140. 2007. 2008. Clasen. C. Mark. Huang. Weber. Saransomrurtai. R..K. C. 2004. N. New York. Adv. Pattison. K.F.. Psychol. Consum. Res. 1969... Buskist. 1984.). Purvis. Rev. Investigating ambivalence in consumers' experiences of approach-avoidance conflicts in online and offline settings.. McGill. Mark. R. 2001. Penz. 20 (13). 187–225... 1267–1285. M.. 1991. A. emotion words. 1.. T. N..H. Harris.. Gaur et al. 49–56. Basic Content Analysis. Theory and measurement of type 1 and type 2 emotions. M.R..P. (Ed. 91–102. (Ed... Marketing Department. A. 34. Pearson. Affect as a cue for self control. 2004. 1997.). 399–412. New York.. J. M.C.. Converting a Social Network Into a Brand Network: How Brand Profile on Facebook is Used as an Online Marketing Communication Tool (Unpublished thesis). 2000. 2007. How I feel: a self report measure of emotional arousal and regulation. V. Moral emotions and moral behavior. The role of affect in marketing. 2003. J.U. 45–64. Mehta. London. London. Auckland University of Technology. Bellman. Sage. Van Goozen. 2007.... J. T.A. J.. It's got the look: the effect of friendly and aggressive “facial” expressions on product liking and sales. 1403–1417.. Reconsidering recall and emotion in advertising. J.P. 1998.. 2010. Sharp.. 2011.. Mark.). CA. Sharp. Psychol. The role of emotion in advertising. Mesquita.. K. M. sentiments. Ekstrom.. marketing and advertising: 1994–2003. Coping with mixed emotions. J. J. 2002. Technical and Medical Publishers... C. 15 (1). Hogg. Teddlie. The Guilford Press. Holbrook. 2011. 2003. H.W. 2010. The Guilford Press. Bus. Advert. Myer. M. 2nd ed. 136–138. S.-H. Oxford. Bagozzi.. CA.. P. 1990. Aust. Northampton. Chichester. W.. 15 (2). The Netherlands. Clin. Emotional aspects of large group teaching. A. Norozi. Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. D. Bell. N. 75 (3). J. Frechtling. Stuewig.C. M. In: Frechtling. Madrigal. Eyal. Res. L. G. Miller. International Review of Studies on Emotion. In: Kenneth. vol. E. 2nd ed.M. Adv. Annu.D. 2012. Kwiatkowski.M. Advert. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation.. P. 22 (8). L. Mashek. E. User Friendly Handbook for Mixed Method Evaluations.. pp. USA.. Asses.A.J.M. A. Wiley. Routledge. The philosophy of emotions. (Eds. 6th ed.. Acad.E. 46 (1)..