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Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923

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Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jretconser

Review of emotions research in marketing, 2002–2013
Sanjaya S. Gaur n, Halimin Herjanto 1, Marian Makkar
AUT School of Business, AUT Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology (AUT), Wellesley Campus,
WY Building Level 4, 120 Mayoral Drive, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 18 March 2014
Received in revised form
6 August 2014
Accepted 6 August 2014
Available online 3 September 2014

Study of emotions has been an important area of research for past several decades. Since emotions play
an important role in purchase decisions, this area has particular importance for marketing scholars.
In this study, we review the emotions research conducted within the marketing field between 2002 and
2013. Within the broad domain of emotions, this study focuses on social/personality issues, cognitive
factors, the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. We found a
total of 340 emotion-related articles, published in 19 marketing journals. There was a gradual increase in
number of articles published every year with the trend peaking in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The review of
extant literature offers interesting insights into emotion-related research, and helps in identifying clear
directions for future studies.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Emotions
Consumer behavior
Marketing

1. Introduction
Study of emotions has been a thriving area of research within
the psychology domain for long. Psychology scholars have found
that emotions have a vital role in determining peoples' behaviors
and actions (Carlson et al., 2007). In more recent years, this topic
has been taken up by many applied disciplines, including marketing (Solomon, 2008). In the marketing discipline, scholars argue
that the constitutional character of emotions is very relevant and
evident in human consumption. However, the extant literature on
emotions is limited in explicating different dimensions of emotions as they relate to consumer decision making (Erevelles, 1998).
We review the extant literature to take a stock of what we know.
In an effort to develop a nuanced understanding of the importance of emotions for consumer behavior, scholars in the marketing
discipline have developed theoretical models by borrowing theories
on emotions from disciplines such as psychology and sociology
(Huang, 2001). Researchers have also focused on specific areas of
emotions in marketing such as its measurement (Bellman, 2007),
causes and consequences (Penz and Hogg, 2011), functions (Eyal
and Fishbach, 2007), coping mechanisms (Bee and Madrigal, 2007)
and communication (Landwehr et al., 2011). Despite these efforts,
study of emotions in the marketing discipline is only in the
preliminary stages (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy, 1984; Bagozzi
et al., 1998; Huang, 2001). Given the significance of emotions for
n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 64 9 9219999x5465; fax: þ 64 9 9219629.
E-mail addresses: sgaur@aut.ac.nz (S.S. Gaur),
hherjanto@mckendree.edu (H. Herjanto), mmakkar@aut.ac.nz (M. Makkar).
1
Present address: McKendree University, Lebanon, IL 62254, USA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.08.009
0969-6989/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

marketing research, it is important to determine its current status,
trends, patterns, and development.
Erevelles (1998) first provided a review of emotions in the
marketing discipline. However, this study had a limited scope as
it focused solely on the concept of affect. It is also a bit outdated as
there have been several theoretical and methodological advances in
recent years. We extend Erevelles' (1998) study by examining the
current research trends in emotions research in the marketing
literature and presenting its latest findings. Based on this review,
we provide directions for future research so that studies on
emotions can help expand our understanding of its role in marketing. This study investigates and discusses the trends in emotions
research in connection with journal information, author and article,
the nature of the research, data collection methods and statistical
analysis. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. First,
definitions of emotions and emotion-related research in marketing
are presented. Second, the methodology adopted for this research,
measurement descriptions, and an explanation and justification for
article extractions are presented. Last, results, discussion, conclusion, limitations, and future research scope conclude this paper.

2. Background
Human beings are considered as unique and complex creatures.
According to Turner (2007), one reason for their complexity and
uniqueness is the fact that they are “highly emotional animals”
(p. 1). That is, human beings are able to experience and express
different emotions, and more interestingly, they can interpret
complex emotional states in others. Based on their emotions,

12 4 7 1 0 2 5 17 0 1 0 6 25 0 0 1 8 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 4 51 87 3 6 16 163 31. Several studies (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy.16 19. We focus on journal information.48 45. Bagozzi et al. emotions can be identified throughout businesses. The articles were screened for the keywords in the title. abstract and the keyword list. research type and research methods.96 13. 1984. mediate responses to persuasive appeals.94 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 4 2 26 25 51 50. investigating emotions assists advertising agencies and salespeople in recognizing the different aspects of clients' emotions and consequences of these in the decision making. More recently. or avoid their commitments to social structures and cultures. advertising. More importantly. terms such as “affect”.33 31. Therefore. instigate goal setting.98 49. Huang.. topical and methodological emotion-related research in marketing literature? people form or reject social connections. measure the effects of marketing stimuli. (1998) also believe that marketers still know too little about the role of emotions in marketing behavior.47 1 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 1 2 3 2 1 0 11 14 6 31 35. when emotions are functional or dysfunctional or customer satisfaction as a unique phenomenon or a subcategory of positive emotions. For example. covering the period 2002–2013. Google Scholar helps investigators broaden research scopes by offering immediate and large coverage to a variety of academic journals with fewer biases in journal selection.51 13. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 and to integrate these characteristics to existing emotions theories. Bagozzi et al. there are two main research questions that this study attempts to answer: Research Question 1: How often are emotion-related articles published in major marketing journals? Research Question 2: What is the status of authorial.47 . According to Norozi (2005). maintain. According to them. “feelings”. consumer behavior.82 47. and cover five key sub disciplines of marketing: marketing.59 10. the author appeals to future researchers to investigate the characteristics of emotions that specifically relate to marketing 3. Because of this reason. especially in marketing. According to Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984). Gaur et al. According to Bagozzi et al.00 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 2 0 0 1 5 8 14 22 36. the study of its role in marketing is still in its infantile stages. Huang (2001) re-investigated the theory of emotions in marketing.S. 1998.35 9.68 9. The final review produced 340 relevant published research articles from Table 1 Publication trends (journal and year). (1998) refreshed the exploration of the role of emotions in marketing and found that previous studies on emotions provided inconclusive findings.70 8. Method The initial search for literature was based on the keyword “emotion” in Google Scholar. For this reason. 2001) confirmed that emotions play a critical role in determining consumers' behaviors.37 1. consumer psychology and retailing. In her view. First step in article extraction generated more than 750 published research articles.84 3. In order to help identify and narrow down the research gap. these inconclusive findings were due to a lack of consistency in emotions terminology. marketing scholars have not fully identified the specific characteristics of emotions. the call for further examination of this phenomenon is very broad and varied. this study utilizes content analysis to offer the latest updates on emotions studies in marketing literature by revealing the current trends in the field.70 9. In brief. Journal 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Marketing Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Australasian Marketing Journal 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 Advertising Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Consumer behavior Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behavior 3 0 0 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 1 7 18 0 1 1 5 5 0 0 1 3 10 0 1 1 Consumer psychology Psychology & Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology 1 1 3 0 1 2 0 4 1 1 Retailing Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total % 1 5 1 0 4 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 9 23 10 7 8 10 6 73 12.22 21. author information. and “emotions” are frequently used interchangeably.36 63. emotions influence individuals' information processing. The preceding discussion clearly shows that despite the importance of emotions. emotions play an important role in every dimension of human activity within society. They argue that there are numerous questions yet to be answered such as the function of emotions in influencing salespersons' and managers' behaviors. article research information. affect goaldirected behaviors and serve as ends and measures of consumer welfare. appreciating the role of emotions clearly helps marketers gain insight into customers. Bagozzi et al.02 15. and develop.29 53. “mood”. (1998).64 6.918 S. Full texts of published research articles were then examined to exclude those that were not associated with emotions. To them.

the statistical analysis was 100%. It was followed by 14% (10 out of 73) of articles in Journal of Marketing. and met Holsti's threshold. Within this category. the effect of emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. and 19% (6 out of 31) of articles in International Journal of Advertising were associated with emotions research.S. or other higher education institutions that have actively investigated the topic and produced related articles. 25 articles) collectively published 51 emotion-related articles. and discourse. emotion and behavior genetics. the psychologists' point of view. The final number of relevant articles demonstrates that there are several articles that make reference to emotions but do not have emotions as the main research topic. If multiple topics were discussed in one article. organizational and regulatory. 87 out of 163 articles). This was done to gain an understanding of which statistical analyses methods are widely utilized or infrequently used. 15% of the articles (51 articles) were in the consumer psychology category. Additionally. schema. survey. 9% (31 articles) were in the advertising category. Journal of Marketing Research was the most productive contributor to emotion-related research where 32% (23 out of 73) of articles discussed the role of emotions in marketing. and the nature of the research (empirical or conceptual) had a 100% matching. (5) emergence and functions of discrete emotions: motivational. and expression. Psychology and Marketing Journal (51%. and explain the focus of social attention such as emotions. 45% (14 out of 31) of articles appeared in Journal of Advertising Research. Lastly. In addition. research topic. 6% (22 articles) were in the retailing category. the research type was 98%. Content analysis was chosen because according to Bryman and Bell (2003). articles were coded for the statistical analyses technique chosen such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). advertising. (4) communication of emotion: verbal and non verbal. After both authors were satisfied with the result of the coefficient reliability for the entire coding category. cognitive and social construction of emotion. (8) development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption patterns. and 21% (73 articles) were in the marketing category. Weber (1990) argued that content analysis is a useful technique that allows researchers to learn. 47% (163 articles) were in the consumer behavior category. inter-coder reliability and judgments need to meet the minimum threshold of 85%. year of publication. all those topics were coded. research methods such as observation. emotional expression in group. Information provided by research topics offer invaluable understanding regarding areas that received more or less attention whilst proposing a clear future research direction. As for the consumer psychology category is concerned. the data collection method was found to be 100% and finally. Table 1 shows the trend of emotion-related articles during 2002– 2013. The coding design of the research topic was developed based on Lewis and Haviland-Jones' (2000) Handbook of Emotions. The year of publication was also coded to aid in understanding how much attention was dedicated to the topic at a particular point of time during 2002– 2013. The year of publication. social models. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 19 different marketing journals. The reliability coefficient of the research topic category was 98%. Cho and Khang (2006) suggested that such information may help those seeking employment or selecting an institution for study purposes. while . The reliability coefficient was found to be satisfactory. Five journals contributed to 52% (150 out of 287 articles) of total emotion-research related articles in the consumer behavior category. consumer behavior. 3. Within the marketing category. (7) cognitive factors: positive emotion and decision making. author's name. category. and mixed methods showing the nature of the research (qualitative versus quantitative) were coded to reveal which methods were more commonly used to investigate the role of emotions in the marketing literature. The research topic was also included as it adds to the understanding of this study. Results Holsti (1969) argued that in order to achieve consistency between two coders. 2011). interview. Appendix A provides a brief snapshot of selected journals in terms of impact factors and year launched. such information reveals similarities or dissimilarities amongst authors with regards to emotionrelated research. emotional network in the brain. 4. Finally. research purpose. 26 articles) and Journal of Consumer Psychology (49%.1. Journal and year After undergoing screening and elimination as described above. Advances in Consumer Research (ACR) was the most active avenue in this field (53%. authors' names. (9) measurement of emotions and (10) others. structural equation model (SEM) or regression. flexibility and manageability. According to Cho and Khang (2006). metaphor. (6) social/personal issues: gender. 35% (11 out of 31) of articles in Journal of Advertising. Gaur et al. The institution's name was also coded to provide invaluable information concerning the organizations. authors' affiliations. The selected academic journals were placed into five main marketing categories: marketing. describe. emotion and memory. contributing 15% to the total emotion-related research in this field. universities. Measure Each published article was coded for the journal name. All the research topics were classified under following categories: (1) topics representing emotional meaning. Furthermore. 4. (3) biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotion: emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain. and Journal of Marketing Management. content analysis. Holsti's coefficient of reliability is widely used in other studies (Saransomrurtai. The selected research articles from 19 marketing journals were subjected to content analysis for classification purposes. (2) topics explaining emotions. consumer behaviorists' point of view.1. emotion. the research purpose was 96%. Two authors of this study independently reviewed and coded 11% or 32 randomly chosen published articles from 340 available published articles. content analysis is an objective method of analysis that enables researchers to analyze a large number of data with relative ease. research and data collection methods and statistical analyses techniques. The author's name was coded to present details of those actively focused on emotions research which can assist students and academics seeking guidance regarding the topic as well as help them identify potential networking opportunities. discover. consumer psychology and retailing (refer Table 1 for the details based on journal name).S. This coding produced vital information about whether the research attempted to explore. author's organization. With regards to the advertising category. or explain the role of emotions in the marketing literature which provides invaluable information for future emotions research. each article was coded based on its research 919 questions and hypotheses. one coder continued to review the remaining 308 articles. The highest number of articles (16%) appeared in 2010. results for the retailing category produced eight articles (36%) in Journal of Retailing and 14 articles (64%) in Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. This was followed by Journal of Consumer Research (31%) and Journal of Consumer Behavior (10%). The journal's name was coded to generate information that could assist in identifying which marketing journals paid more attention to the subject and published more emotion-related research articles. 340 articles were identified as emotion-related published articles.

54 7 7 2. are located outside the United States: Tilburg University and Erasmus University (The Netherlands) and the University of Alberta and the University of British Columbia (Canada). Richard P. survey method was adopted in 69% articles in all categories. The least trending topics included biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotions. MANOVA. He is followed by Darren Dahl of University of British Columbia. collectively contributing 21% to the total number of articles published. A comparison of statistical analysis techniques was also investigated. research on emotions was only moderately undertaken. 2.17 1. observation and focus group methods of data collection portrayed the lowest results barely reaching a 2% level. correlation analysis (12. Four of the 18 most productive universities in emotion-related research. Table 1 demonstrates that even though emotion-related articles started appearing regularly by 2002. Research methods Across the 19 journals. 84% of emotion-related research was conducted quantitatively. On an average. emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain. Lorraine Verbeke. four emotion-related articles were published every year in the consumer psychology category.74 9 2.66 3. Kim Dube Laurette Garg. Our analyses offer many directions for future research in the area of emotions in the marketing discipline.4.05 3. and 2004) of the specified study period.02% respectively. data collection.17 University of Pittsburgh 11 11 3.50%) and SEM (10.05 4 1. As some articles employed more than one analytical method. In the retail category.96%) as the most popular analytical methods employed. Chingching Corfman. Rik Chang. These authors each published seven emotion-related articles. 74%) followed by mixed methods (9 times. Similarly. However.17 10 10 10 10 3. 2010 and 2011.35 3. Aimee MacInnis. secondary data. the same trend was found with 79% (128) articles using quantitative methods followed by 11% (18) articles that used mixed methods. This was followed by 29% (97 out of 340) articles with an explanatory purpose and finally 5 (18 out of 340) articles with a descriptive purpose.920 S.47 University of Alberta 1. quantitative methods were employed by 82% (18 out of 22) articles. In the consumer psychology category. Research topic The three most investigated topics in this field were social/ personality issues that were investigated 112 times (33%). two articles in retailing and advertising and six articles in marketing. 4. the next most productive author was Jeffrey Inman of University of Pittsburg who published six articles. 2003.06 Columbia University 15 4. This study classified 10 different statistical analysis methods which included ANOVA (17. regression (15.57 6 14 4. Jeffrey J. Robert Pieter. articles and the nature of the research. In the consumer behavior category.06 Tilburg University 2.35 4 4 4 4 1. 4. in 2009.47 Arizona State University 12 1. In contrast. it was not until 2005–2006 that emotions research gained momentum. We found that during the first three years (2002.17 1. He published eight emotionrelated articles during 2002–2013.2. exploratory research dominated the trend contributing to 66% (225 out of 340 articles). these five authors contributed to 10% of the published articles. these topics have received maximum attention from the scholars in the medical field.29%. experiments in 8%. 4. Aaker. 5.47 University of Pennsylvania 12 3.S. emotions are a crucial topic to be studied because it is an . emotional networks in the brain and emotion and behavioral genetics and others. factor analysis (14. Nitika Lau-Gesk.05 4 1. Willem Williams. Jennifer L. 1.98%). critique or essay in 4% and interviews in 3%. Discussion and conclusion This study examined the trends in emotion-related research in marketing during 2002–2013 and provided a robust analysis of journals.05 3. and analytic methods employed. and others did not reach the 10% threshold resulting in 3.17 1. during the period of 2002–2013.66 5 1. cognitive factors that were investigated 97 times (29%).27 5 1. (2007).06 University of Michigan 23 17 7. Data collection methods With regards to data collection methods. In summary. Traditionally. 12%).91%).3.05 3. Marcel Inman. Richard Bagozzi from University of Michigan was recorded as the most productive author in emotion-related research.74 New York University Stanford University University of Minnesota University of Oregon Frequency % the lowest number of articles (10%) appeared in 2011.47 Erasmus University 11 3. followed by mixed methods in 10%. Content analysis. Dahl. 4. Gaur et al. Authors Organizations Name Frequency % Name Bagozzi. Vanessa Patrick of University of Houston and Marcel Zeelenberg of Tilburg University. As pointed out by Carlson et al. Authors and institutions Amongst the contributing scholars. authors. while qualitative methods were employed by 14% articles.35%).5. Vanessa M. ANCOVA. the advertising category conducted more quantitative research with 21 articles (68%) which was followed by five articles (16%) in which qualitative methods were used. T-test. Finally. Darren Patrick. Table 2 demonstrates that the University of California. Overall. whereas 12% of the articles used qualitative approach.47 Northwestern University 13 3.18 7 2. This is followed by 14 articles in consumer behavior.17 University of British Columbia University of Chicago 9 2.35 5 4 1.96 5 5 1. and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors which were discussed 81 times (24%). During 2002–2013 the marketing category utilized quantitative methods the most (54 times. Deborah Madrigal. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Table 2 Top authors of emotion-related research. Drolet. Zeelenberg. Tilburg University and the University of Michigan were leaders in the publication of emotions research. the total number of methods is greater than the total population of 340 articles.17 University of Texas 10 3.35 University of California 28 8. Patti 8 2. emotion-related research increased significantly which might be due to marketing researchers increased awareness of the importance of this area (Huang. 2001). Recently it has started gaining some attention from marketing scholars too.41% and 7.76 University of Southern California 1.97%.01 5.

2007). Hence. Despite this low interest in emotions research. Middle Eastern universities and South American universities. Based on the parameters listed by Bagozzi et al. Additionally. emotion-related research had a variety of interests in a range of topics. Patrick. may be due to the complexity of emotions studies and its recognition and interpretation. Numerous scholars (Myer. Dahl. Gaur et al. Madrigal and Pieters are the most productive emotions researchers. marketing scholars concentrated on social/personality issues. this omission might be due to advertising scholars having little consensus with regards to how emotions work which influences their ability to measure the role of emotions in advertising. Australian and New Zealand universities. (2003). Even with a broader definition of emotions.'s (1998) invitation to investigate the implication of emotions on consumers' behavior. emotion expression in groups). According to Malhotra (2004). 1998). They were followed by European universities. This may be the reason why quantitative methods were more likely used. 2010) and subjectivity. Their study showed that during 2011–2012 alone. but they need to integrate it into the existing knowledge to enable development of new concepts and theories (Adolphs. Due to this. it is imperative that marketing researchers continue investigating the role of emotions in the future. 2010). Aaker. according to Edwards et al. Findings from this study also show that during this period most of the research was exploratory. new academic journals have increased by approximately 3. it is reasonable to say that in the last two years emotion researchers have more options to publish their articles and do not solely focus on this study's sampled journals. emotion. This is particularly relevant to the marketing category which resulted in few emotion-related research (Huang. He found that most empirical and comparative studies employed a quantitative research perspective (70% of emotion-related articles) with 7% using qualitative methods and 10% using mixed methods. 2010. However. 1997) found that it generates better data collection and provides sharper and more robust findings. the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. Although impacts and results of these popular topics are not questioned. this study found only 6% of emotion-related studies in this research area. 1991) and provide a sensible explanation of how it emerges. (1998). Asian universities. As Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984) suggested. ideas and approaches to study emotions. different typologies used and inconsistent design labeling. In sum. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 important predictor of human behavior. Across all categories. cognitive and social construction in emotions. advances and adapts (Adolphs. According to Mehta and Purvis (2006).S. North American universities dominated emotion-related research. only 9% of published articles were related to emotions which confirm Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy's (1984) view that advertising scholars have failed to recognize the importance of human emotions. In advertising. which ultimately may reveal new results.S. followed by mixed methods research and qualitative research. Bryman and Bell. researchers are encouraged to create a balance by approaching the research using qualitative and mixed methods.5%. researchers not only have to provide full attention to the dynamic structure of human emotions (Frijda et al. However. 921 The study also identified that Bagozzi. This finding is consistent with Clasen's (2004) comparison study on research perspectives. one of the reasons of this decrease could be due to the recent rise of new peer reviewed journals. and designing their research. Using different research methods. Although the role emotions play in retail has long been acknowledged. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) noted that mixed methods potentially generate confusion between the description of data analysis and result interpretation.. cognitive factors (positive affect and decision making. and. such as qualitative can provide new information that quantitative cannot address. although emotions has been recognized as a strong predictor of human behavior (Carlson et al. relying on one specific type of research method may be problematic and risks overlooking true outcomes. Among 328 universities. however it would be enlightening to see if these topics can be compared with previous studies in the area and whether past findings are in line with current ones. The result of this study indicated that more explanatory and descriptive studies are needed. the study demonstrated that quantitative research was more popular in emotion-related research. This information can help students and scholars who are seeking guidance. emotion-related issues were the least investigated in advertising and retail. Despite the interest. qualitative research also carries some disadvantages such as generalization issues (Myer. in order to contribute positively to emotions studies. According to Ware and Mabe (2012). yet studying emotions should not come to a halt but should be encouraged. this study will encourage researchers to continue investigating emotions as well as encouraging those inactive universities to participate in this research trend. Amongst these topics. As for mixed methods. Drolet. emotion and memory) and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. impacting the domain as a whole. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. 2003) argued that qualitative research offers advantages such as the possibility to see the problem in question from the participants' point of view whilst gaining an in-depth understanding of the context in which the study is conducted. Comparison between emotions studies during different time frames may help researchers appreciate the history of this area and more importantly will strengthen basic concept of emotions that may help researchers develop new thoughts.37% of available research articles were related to emotions during the study period. emotion-related research in advertising still seems to be in the developmental stage but it is likely that advertising scholars will increase their investigation of emotions in the near future. Inman. This surprising result might be explained by the lack of consensus about what constitutes emotions (Bagozzi et al. choosing research partners and universities. This effort is a positive sign for emotion-related research in the retail category. exploratory research is vital but more suitable for creating theory. this study revealed that advertising scholars have begun to consolidate their differences by prioritizing factors such as the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. Zeelenberg. this research can be considered a true representation of emotionrelated research issues. with the measurement of emotions as the fourth most important topic of investigation. 2010) that might not be explicated by current information. some authors (Sharp and Frechtling. Within the five categories studied. scholars in this domain have investigated a decent number of emotion related topics prioritizing the following issues: social/personality issues (gender. definition and measurement. We can assume that these three top emotions topics were an attempt to respond to Bagozzi et al. In order to get a better understanding of it. As pointed by Walden et al. (2002).321 or 2. . and expression. This low percentage. MacInnis. 2003).. Due to its importance. In sum. Hogan and Kwiatkowski (1998) stated that these complexities discourage researchers to study this area. the percentage of relevant studies in retail has remained low. In sum. These disadvantages may explain why research using mixed method is limited. 2001). Despite this poor result. This study revealed a global spread of emotion-related research. replication difficulties and lack of transparency (Bryman and Bell. emotions studies during 2002–2013 were leaning toward quantitative research. The study indicated that during 2002–2013.. emotions literature in 2012 and 2013 were slightly down from 34 articles in 2011 to 26 and 28 articles respectively. this study revealed that only 340 out of 14. which has created inconclusive and mixed interpretations and findings.

there is still a need for further research inquiries and empirical studies to offer a better understanding of its issues. there are many opportunities to further explore the importance of emotions for different sectors and outcomes.047 3. The unexplored research topics along with variety of available methods offer many avenues for future academic research. In this review. Managers could meticulously review this study or contact the right set of scholars to gain further insights (for example. by organizing specialized training programs) into human emotions. the employment of content analysis. Yet. 2003). 2007). Specifically. consumer behavior. Other less advanced statistical methods. It can be assumed that marketing scholars used these methods to ensure that their findings were robust and valid. which helps scholars identify the unexplored areas for future research. With respect to methods. combined methods. In other words. and interviews were moderate. Marketing scholars also show uncertainty on how emotions work. a balance between empirical and conceptual studies is still needed. Conclusions This study included 340 emotion-related articles from 19 different marketing journals published during 2002–2013. secondary emotions are exclusive to human beings that produce different behavioral outcomes (Tangney et al. Even though there may be few studies. 1. This could be due to a lack of agreement on the terminology needed to study emotions. This is despite the fact that many studies have shown human emotions as very reliable predictors of consumer behavior. Limitations Like any research project. In terms of statistical analysis methods. The findings also show the need for scholars to investigate other issues relating to emotions in marketing.. and designing future emotion-related research. These results are closely related to the fact that most of the articles were quantitative in nature. Journal Impact factor Launch year Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Marketing Science Australasian Marketing Journal Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising Journal of Consumer Affairs Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behaviour Psychology and Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 3. the amount of influence emotions have. Results are also limited to five marketing categories.S. Appendix A See Table A1. retail and other marketing categories (e.201 n.. With respect to the research topics.922 S. important trends in emotions research. specifically journals in advertising. most studies use quantitative methods in which data is usually collected using surveys. 2007).) were moderately utilized. covariance analysis. 0. Future studies that replicate this research's aims may find it worthwhile to focus on greater numbers of journals and articles.788 2. advertising.. this study also showed that a relatively high proportion of research studies using the survey method were recorded in this study (68. critique or essay. this research provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date investigation of trends in emotionrelated research. we identified five topical areas – marketing. However. survey is probably the most suitable research methodology. Gaur et al. we identified social personality issues. correlation. Given the latent nature of emotions. consumer psychology and retailing in which scholars have done emotions related research. 5.a. For academia.g.746 1. the present study has several limitations. Our analyses reveals that human emotions are one of the most reliable and valuable predictors of human behavior (Carlson et al. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors as the most studies research topics.a. the inclusion of secondary emotions in future studies may extend our understanding of the role of emotions in consumer behavior. Despite their strong empirical results. n. thus the findings cannot be fully generalized to the wider world of marketing literature. Given that this area is not well researched. Internet marketing) that may offer a different view of emotion-related research.a. 1998. Conversely. there may be some aspects of emotions which could only be captured using mixed methods including experiments or simple observations of the subjects. With respect to managerial insights. Mehta and Purvis.016 1.152 n.57 1. We identified the areas such as advertising and retailing in which there are limited number of studies. Thus.309 2. secondary data.781 2. managers often ignore human emotions. etc.. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Furthermore.a. Even within these domains.1.254 2. 0. we hope to sensitize managers about the importance of emotions through this review. this research examined 19 marketing journals. observation. this study confirms Hogan and Kwiatkowski's (1998) view that emotions is a complex phenomena to be studied. and others (F test. and how best to measure the effectiveness of emotions (Bagozzi et al. Although the present study provides invaluable insight into emotion-related research in the marketing sphere. managers need to pay attention to emotion research given its importance for human behavior. human emotions have not been fully investigated within the marketing discipline. We hope that our study assists students and scholars seeking guidance. 6. future research could also choose to focus on primary as well as secondary emotions. we identified the extent of investigation. such as the association between emotions and behavioral genetics. n. we have provided a brief summary of the key trends and identified the sources and scholars who are active in this area. selecting research partners and universities.368 2. such as factor analysis. advanced methods such as ANOVA. According to Parrott (2004). In addition.a. We also identified the key publication outlets to help scholars target their studies at the right journals. this study identifies the Table A1 Journal profiles. It is crucial to stress conceptual – theory building as an ongoing process in which innovative and visionary thinking must be regarded as a crucial factor (Ekstrom. Based on an analyses of these articles. Within these domains. and SEM were frequently used.80%) while the use of experiment. This study makes important contributions for academic research as well as practitioners.311 1. Firstly. The findings show that recently marketing scholars significantly increased their focus on emotions. 1936 1963 1978 1984 1984 1967 1981 1992 1972 1960 1981 1957 1974 1969 1983 1988 2001 1983 1992 1924 1993 .a. 2006).781 n. and focus group were limited across the years.542 n. regression.73 1. thus they may not be applicable to other categories such as Internet marketing which make the findings limited to offline marketing.

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