Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923

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Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jretconser

Review of emotions research in marketing, 2002–2013
Sanjaya S. Gaur n, Halimin Herjanto 1, Marian Makkar
AUT School of Business, AUT Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology (AUT), Wellesley Campus,
WY Building Level 4, 120 Mayoral Drive, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand

art ic l e i nf o

a b s t r a c t

Article history:
Received 18 March 2014
Received in revised form
6 August 2014
Accepted 6 August 2014
Available online 3 September 2014

Study of emotions has been an important area of research for past several decades. Since emotions play
an important role in purchase decisions, this area has particular importance for marketing scholars.
In this study, we review the emotions research conducted within the marketing field between 2002 and
2013. Within the broad domain of emotions, this study focuses on social/personality issues, cognitive
factors, the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. We found a
total of 340 emotion-related articles, published in 19 marketing journals. There was a gradual increase in
number of articles published every year with the trend peaking in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The review of
extant literature offers interesting insights into emotion-related research, and helps in identifying clear
directions for future studies.
& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:
Emotions
Consumer behavior
Marketing

1. Introduction
Study of emotions has been a thriving area of research within
the psychology domain for long. Psychology scholars have found
that emotions have a vital role in determining peoples' behaviors
and actions (Carlson et al., 2007). In more recent years, this topic
has been taken up by many applied disciplines, including marketing (Solomon, 2008). In the marketing discipline, scholars argue
that the constitutional character of emotions is very relevant and
evident in human consumption. However, the extant literature on
emotions is limited in explicating different dimensions of emotions as they relate to consumer decision making (Erevelles, 1998).
We review the extant literature to take a stock of what we know.
In an effort to develop a nuanced understanding of the importance of emotions for consumer behavior, scholars in the marketing
discipline have developed theoretical models by borrowing theories
on emotions from disciplines such as psychology and sociology
(Huang, 2001). Researchers have also focused on specific areas of
emotions in marketing such as its measurement (Bellman, 2007),
causes and consequences (Penz and Hogg, 2011), functions (Eyal
and Fishbach, 2007), coping mechanisms (Bee and Madrigal, 2007)
and communication (Landwehr et al., 2011). Despite these efforts,
study of emotions in the marketing discipline is only in the
preliminary stages (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy, 1984; Bagozzi
et al., 1998; Huang, 2001). Given the significance of emotions for
n

Corresponding author. Tel.: þ 64 9 9219999x5465; fax: þ 64 9 9219629.
E-mail addresses: sgaur@aut.ac.nz (S.S. Gaur),
hherjanto@mckendree.edu (H. Herjanto), mmakkar@aut.ac.nz (M. Makkar).
1
Present address: McKendree University, Lebanon, IL 62254, USA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.08.009
0969-6989/& 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

marketing research, it is important to determine its current status,
trends, patterns, and development.
Erevelles (1998) first provided a review of emotions in the
marketing discipline. However, this study had a limited scope as
it focused solely on the concept of affect. It is also a bit outdated as
there have been several theoretical and methodological advances in
recent years. We extend Erevelles' (1998) study by examining the
current research trends in emotions research in the marketing
literature and presenting its latest findings. Based on this review,
we provide directions for future research so that studies on
emotions can help expand our understanding of its role in marketing. This study investigates and discusses the trends in emotions
research in connection with journal information, author and article,
the nature of the research, data collection methods and statistical
analysis. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. First,
definitions of emotions and emotion-related research in marketing
are presented. Second, the methodology adopted for this research,
measurement descriptions, and an explanation and justification for
article extractions are presented. Last, results, discussion, conclusion, limitations, and future research scope conclude this paper.

2. Background
Human beings are considered as unique and complex creatures.
According to Turner (2007), one reason for their complexity and
uniqueness is the fact that they are “highly emotional animals”
(p. 1). That is, human beings are able to experience and express
different emotions, and more interestingly, they can interpret
complex emotional states in others. Based on their emotions,

1998.47 . Method The initial search for literature was based on the keyword “emotion” in Google Scholar. Several studies (Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy. More recently. advertising. these inconclusive findings were due to a lack of consistency in emotions terminology. Journal 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Marketing Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Australasian Marketing Journal 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 1 Advertising Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Consumer behavior Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behavior 3 0 0 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 1 7 18 0 1 1 5 5 0 0 1 3 10 0 1 1 Consumer psychology Psychology & Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology 1 1 3 0 1 2 0 4 1 1 Retailing Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total % 1 5 1 0 4 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 1 5 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 2 0 9 23 10 7 8 10 6 73 12. article research information. We focus on journal information.70 9.35 9.22 21. covering the period 2002–2013. author information. measure the effects of marketing stimuli.02 15.12 4 7 1 0 2 5 17 0 1 0 6 25 0 0 1 8 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 4 51 87 3 6 16 163 31. marketing scholars have not fully identified the specific characteristics of emotions. Bagozzi et al. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 and to integrate these characteristics to existing emotions theories. emotions play an important role in every dimension of human activity within society.82 47. According to Bagozzi et al. Gaur et al.48 45. Huang (2001) re-investigated the theory of emotions in marketing.36 63.00 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 3 2 2 0 0 1 5 8 14 22 36. maintain. The final review produced 340 relevant published research articles from Table 1 Publication trends (journal and year). Bagozzi et al.70 8. According to them. To them. appreciating the role of emotions clearly helps marketers gain insight into customers. “feelings”.16 19. For this reason.68 9.96 13. (1998) refreshed the exploration of the role of emotions in marketing and found that previous studies on emotions provided inconclusive findings. In her view. consumer behavior. and “emotions” are frequently used interchangeably.S. More importantly. affect goaldirected behaviors and serve as ends and measures of consumer welfare. when emotions are functional or dysfunctional or customer satisfaction as a unique phenomenon or a subcategory of positive emotions. For example.29 53. Full texts of published research articles were then examined to exclude those that were not associated with emotions. emotions influence individuals' information processing. emotions can be identified throughout businesses. 2001) confirmed that emotions play a critical role in determining consumers' behaviors. especially in marketing. abstract and the keyword list. the call for further examination of this phenomenon is very broad and varied. Therefore. the study of its role in marketing is still in its infantile stages.94 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 4 2 26 25 51 50. The preceding discussion clearly shows that despite the importance of emotions.47 1 1 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 1 2 3 2 1 0 11 14 6 31 35. or avoid their commitments to social structures and cultures.918 S.84 3. topical and methodological emotion-related research in marketing literature? people form or reject social connections. investigating emotions assists advertising agencies and salespeople in recognizing the different aspects of clients' emotions and consequences of these in the decision making. and develop. (1998). research type and research methods.98 49. instigate goal setting. Bagozzi et al. In order to help identify and narrow down the research gap. First step in article extraction generated more than 750 published research articles. According to Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984).51 13. consumer psychology and retailing. According to Norozi (2005). In brief. there are two main research questions that this study attempts to answer: Research Question 1: How often are emotion-related articles published in major marketing journals? Research Question 2: What is the status of authorial.37 1. mediate responses to persuasive appeals. Because of this reason. (1998) also believe that marketers still know too little about the role of emotions in marketing behavior. The articles were screened for the keywords in the title.64 6. Huang.59 10. this study utilizes content analysis to offer the latest updates on emotions studies in marketing literature by revealing the current trends in the field. They argue that there are numerous questions yet to be answered such as the function of emotions in influencing salespersons' and managers' behaviors. the author appeals to future researchers to investigate the characteristics of emotions that specifically relate to marketing 3.. “mood”. Google Scholar helps investigators broaden research scopes by offering immediate and large coverage to a variety of academic journals with fewer biases in journal selection. terms such as “affect”. 1984. and cover five key sub disciplines of marketing: marketing.33 31.

discover. Additionally. Information provided by research topics offer invaluable understanding regarding areas that received more or less attention whilst proposing a clear future research direction.S. content analysis is an objective method of analysis that enables researchers to analyze a large number of data with relative ease. such information reveals similarities or dissimilarities amongst authors with regards to emotionrelated research. If multiple topics were discussed in one article. 25 articles) collectively published 51 emotion-related articles. describe. emotion. and mixed methods showing the nature of the research (qualitative versus quantitative) were coded to reveal which methods were more commonly used to investigate the role of emotions in the marketing literature. research purpose. Within this category. The year of publication was also coded to aid in understanding how much attention was dedicated to the topic at a particular point of time during 2002– 2013. and expression. research methods such as observation. research topic. structural equation model (SEM) or regression. Journal of Marketing Research was the most productive contributor to emotion-related research where 32% (23 out of 73) of articles discussed the role of emotions in marketing. This coding produced vital information about whether the research attempted to explore. 340 articles were identified as emotion-related published articles. Table 1 shows the trend of emotion-related articles during 2002– 2013. (9) measurement of emotions and (10) others. and explain the focus of social attention such as emotions. schema. while . Finally. interview. 45% (14 out of 31) of articles appeared in Journal of Advertising Research. one coder continued to review the remaining 308 articles. The journal's name was coded to generate information that could assist in identifying which marketing journals paid more attention to the subject and published more emotion-related research articles. emotional expression in group. (4) communication of emotion: verbal and non verbal. social models. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 19 different marketing journals. Five journals contributed to 52% (150 out of 287 articles) of total emotion-research related articles in the consumer behavior category. Appendix A provides a brief snapshot of selected journals in terms of impact factors and year launched. and discourse. Psychology and Marketing Journal (51%. research and data collection methods and statistical analyses techniques. or explain the role of emotions in the marketing literature which provides invaluable information for future emotions research. the psychologists' point of view. The selected research articles from 19 marketing journals were subjected to content analysis for classification purposes. 3. emotion and memory. all those topics were coded. The highest number of articles (16%) appeared in 2010. (3) biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotion: emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain. (5) emergence and functions of discrete emotions: motivational. and 19% (6 out of 31) of articles in International Journal of Advertising were associated with emotions research. This was done to gain an understanding of which statistical analyses methods are widely utilized or infrequently used. (7) cognitive factors: positive emotion and decision making. 26 articles) and Journal of Consumer Psychology (49%. (6) social/personal issues: gender. The research topic was also included as it adds to the understanding of this study. The coding design of the research topic was developed based on Lewis and Haviland-Jones' (2000) Handbook of Emotions. the research purpose was 96%. 87 out of 163 articles). Advances in Consumer Research (ACR) was the most active avenue in this field (53%. (8) development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption patterns. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. authors' affiliations. cognitive and social construction of emotion. and Journal of Marketing Management. This was followed by Journal of Consumer Research (31%) and Journal of Consumer Behavior (10%). or other higher education institutions that have actively investigated the topic and produced related articles. 4. As for the consumer psychology category is concerned. category. 2011). the research type was 98%. consumer behaviorists' point of view. articles were coded for the statistical analyses technique chosen such as analysis of variance (ANOVA). year of publication. content analysis. After both authors were satisfied with the result of the coefficient reliability for the entire coding category. consumer psychology and retailing (refer Table 1 for the details based on journal name). and met Holsti's threshold. universities. the data collection method was found to be 100% and finally. consumer behavior. The institution's name was also coded to provide invaluable information concerning the organizations. The author's name was coded to present details of those actively focused on emotions research which can assist students and academics seeking guidance regarding the topic as well as help them identify potential networking opportunities. Gaur et al. 4. metaphor. The reliability coefficient was found to be satisfactory. the effect of emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. organizational and regulatory. Journal and year After undergoing screening and elimination as described above. and 21% (73 articles) were in the marketing category. Two authors of this study independently reviewed and coded 11% or 32 randomly chosen published articles from 340 available published articles. According to Cho and Khang (2006). The reliability coefficient of the research topic category was 98%. the statistical analysis was 100%. inter-coder reliability and judgments need to meet the minimum threshold of 85%. emotional network in the brain.1. 47% (163 articles) were in the consumer behavior category. each article was coded based on its research 919 questions and hypotheses. Furthermore. results for the retailing category produced eight articles (36%) in Journal of Retailing and 14 articles (64%) in Journal of Retailing and Consumer Service.S. In addition. Measure Each published article was coded for the journal name. and the nature of the research (empirical or conceptual) had a 100% matching. author's name. 9% (31 articles) were in the advertising category.1. It was followed by 14% (10 out of 73) of articles in Journal of Marketing. With regards to the advertising category. Content analysis was chosen because according to Bryman and Bell (2003). The selected academic journals were placed into five main marketing categories: marketing. 15% of the articles (51 articles) were in the consumer psychology category. 6% (22 articles) were in the retailing category. Cho and Khang (2006) suggested that such information may help those seeking employment or selecting an institution for study purposes. emotion and behavior genetics. (2) topics explaining emotions. flexibility and manageability. advertising. All the research topics were classified under following categories: (1) topics representing emotional meaning. author's organization. survey. Lastly. Weber (1990) argued that content analysis is a useful technique that allows researchers to learn. Results Holsti (1969) argued that in order to achieve consistency between two coders. authors' names. The final number of relevant articles demonstrates that there are several articles that make reference to emotions but do not have emotions as the main research topic. The year of publication. Holsti's coefficient of reliability is widely used in other studies (Saransomrurtai. contributing 15% to the total emotion-related research in this field. 35% (11 out of 31) of articles in Journal of Advertising. Within the marketing category.

17 1. factor analysis (14.35%). Authors and institutions Amongst the contributing scholars. Richard Bagozzi from University of Michigan was recorded as the most productive author in emotion-related research. Authors Organizations Name Frequency % Name Bagozzi. Table 2 demonstrates that the University of California.66 5 1. these five authors contributed to 10% of the published articles.47 University of Pennsylvania 12 3.17 University of Pittsburgh 11 11 3. correlation analysis (12. emotion-related research increased significantly which might be due to marketing researchers increased awareness of the importance of this area (Huang. Discussion and conclusion This study examined the trends in emotion-related research in marketing during 2002–2013 and provided a robust analysis of journals. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Table 2 Top authors of emotion-related research. 2001). exploratory research dominated the trend contributing to 66% (225 out of 340 articles).96 5 5 1. Richard P. (2007).01 5. during the period of 2002–2013.35 3.66 3. Robert Pieter. Vanessa M.17 1. Chingching Corfman. secondary data.920 S. Willem Williams. survey method was adopted in 69% articles in all categories.17 University of British Columbia University of Chicago 9 2. are located outside the United States: Tilburg University and Erasmus University (The Netherlands) and the University of Alberta and the University of British Columbia (Canada). emotions as a natural occurrence within the mammalian brain.4. Overall. Jeffrey J. This is followed by 14 articles in consumer behavior. In the consumer behavior category. A comparison of statistical analysis techniques was also investigated. Data collection methods With regards to data collection methods. 2010 and 2011.17 10 10 10 10 3. experiments in 8%. During 2002–2013 the marketing category utilized quantitative methods the most (54 times. Kim Dube Laurette Garg. data collection. Recently it has started gaining some attention from marketing scholars too. 4.35 4 4 4 4 1.29%.47 Northwestern University 13 3. 4.41% and 7.47 University of Alberta 1. 4. This was followed by 29% (97 out of 340) articles with an explanatory purpose and finally 5 (18 out of 340) articles with a descriptive purpose. He published eight emotionrelated articles during 2002–2013.76 University of Southern California 1. 4. and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors which were discussed 81 times (24%).47 Arizona State University 12 1. the advertising category conducted more quantitative research with 21 articles (68%) which was followed by five articles (16%) in which qualitative methods were used. T-test.05 3. four emotion-related articles were published every year in the consumer psychology category. and analytic methods employed. Patti 8 2.5. MANOVA. emotional networks in the brain and emotion and behavioral genetics and others. cognitive factors that were investigated 97 times (29%). Research topic The three most investigated topics in this field were social/ personality issues that were investigated 112 times (33%).05 3. Our analyses offer many directions for future research in the area of emotions in the marketing discipline. Similarly. Lorraine Verbeke. observation and focus group methods of data collection portrayed the lowest results barely reaching a 2% level. whereas 12% of the articles used qualitative approach. Dahl. emotions are a crucial topic to be studied because it is an . Finally. Tilburg University and the University of Michigan were leaders in the publication of emotions research. In the consumer psychology category.06 Columbia University 15 4.35 University of California 28 8.98%). authors. 74%) followed by mixed methods (9 times. ANCOVA. 2003. the same trend was found with 79% (128) articles using quantitative methods followed by 11% (18) articles that used mixed methods.S. research on emotions was only moderately undertaken. Jennifer L.06 Tilburg University 2. Content analysis. This study classified 10 different statistical analysis methods which included ANOVA (17. 84% of emotion-related research was conducted quantitatively. Table 1 demonstrates that even though emotion-related articles started appearing regularly by 2002.91%). 5. In contrast.47 Erasmus University 11 3. two articles in retailing and advertising and six articles in marketing.3.54 7 7 2. The least trending topics included biological and neuro-physiological approaches to emotions.50%) and SEM (10. and 2004) of the specified study period. In summary. As some articles employed more than one analytical method. Research methods Across the 19 journals. critique or essay in 4% and interviews in 3%. Traditionally. it was not until 2005–2006 that emotions research gained momentum. Gaur et al. the total number of methods is greater than the total population of 340 articles.57 6 14 4. quantitative methods were employed by 82% (18 out of 22) articles. followed by mixed methods in 10%.05 4 1. Four of the 18 most productive universities in emotion-related research. these topics have received maximum attention from the scholars in the medical field. regression (15.17 1.74 9 2. We found that during the first three years (2002. Aaker. Darren Patrick.05 4 1.05 3. while qualitative methods were employed by 14% articles.97%.17 University of Texas 10 3. Drolet.27 5 1.2. However. Aimee MacInnis. Vanessa Patrick of University of Houston and Marcel Zeelenberg of Tilburg University.02% respectively. Deborah Madrigal. 1. Nitika Lau-Gesk. These authors each published seven emotion-related articles.06 University of Michigan 23 17 7. On an average. 2. the next most productive author was Jeffrey Inman of University of Pittsburg who published six articles. collectively contributing 21% to the total number of articles published.18 7 2.96%) as the most popular analytical methods employed. He is followed by Darren Dahl of University of British Columbia. Rik Chang. 12%). in 2009. articles and the nature of the research.74 New York University Stanford University University of Minnesota University of Oregon Frequency % the lowest number of articles (10%) appeared in 2011.35 5 4 1. Marcel Inman. and others did not reach the 10% threshold resulting in 3. As pointed out by Carlson et al. In the retail category. Zeelenberg.

321 or 2. this omission might be due to advertising scholars having little consensus with regards to how emotions work which influences their ability to measure the role of emotions in advertising. Findings from this study also show that during this period most of the research was exploratory. This low percentage. this study revealed that advertising scholars have begun to consolidate their differences by prioritizing factors such as the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning.37% of available research articles were related to emotions during the study period. 2010) and subjectivity. Australian and New Zealand universities. it is reasonable to say that in the last two years emotion researchers have more options to publish their articles and do not solely focus on this study's sampled journals. (1998). Due to its importance. In order to get a better understanding of it. As for mixed methods. which ultimately may reveal new results. advances and adapts (Adolphs. Madrigal and Pieters are the most productive emotions researchers. with the measurement of emotions as the fourth most important topic of investigation. this research can be considered a true representation of emotionrelated research issues. choosing research partners and universities.. and designing their research.. MacInnis. it is imperative that marketing researchers continue investigating the role of emotions in the future. relying on one specific type of research method may be problematic and risks overlooking true outcomes.'s (1998) invitation to investigate the implication of emotions on consumers' behavior. Among 328 universities. only 9% of published articles were related to emotions which confirm Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy's (1984) view that advertising scholars have failed to recognize the importance of human emotions. In sum. emotions literature in 2012 and 2013 were slightly down from 34 articles in 2011 to 26 and 28 articles respectively. such as qualitative can provide new information that quantitative cannot address. may be due to the complexity of emotions studies and its recognition and interpretation. one of the reasons of this decrease could be due to the recent rise of new peer reviewed journals. Gaur et al. This study revealed a global spread of emotion-related research. (2002).5%. This may be the reason why quantitative methods were more likely used. emotion expression in groups). / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 important predictor of human behavior. Inman. Zeelenberg. Using different research methods. Despite this low interest in emotions research. Additionally. ideas and approaches to study emotions. 2003). Although the role emotions play in retail has long been acknowledged. according to Edwards et al. Amongst these topics. some authors (Sharp and Frechtling. However. emotion-related issues were the least investigated in advertising and retail. researchers are encouraged to create a balance by approaching the research using qualitative and mixed methods. the effects of mood and emotions on consumption judgment and reasoning. different typologies used and inconsistent design labeling. 1991) and provide a sensible explanation of how it emerges. The study indicated that during 2002–2013. and expression. He found that most empirical and comparative studies employed a quantitative research perspective (70% of emotion-related articles) with 7% using qualitative methods and 10% using mixed methods. They were followed by European universities. Within the five categories studied.S. As pointed by Walden et al. researchers not only have to provide full attention to the dynamic structure of human emotions (Frijda et al.. Across all categories. 2010. This is particularly relevant to the marketing category which resulted in few emotion-related research (Huang. Although impacts and results of these popular topics are not questioned. As Holbrook and O’Shaughnessy (1984) suggested. In advertising. According to Mehta and Purvis (2006). marketing scholars concentrated on social/personality issues. However. Even with a broader definition of emotions. emotion. and. cognitive and social construction in emotions. (2003). 2010). Patrick. This effort is a positive sign for emotion-related research in the retail category. . Hence. This information can help students and scholars who are seeking guidance. emotions studies during 2002–2013 were leaning toward quantitative research. This surprising result might be explained by the lack of consensus about what constitutes emotions (Bagozzi et al. emotion-related research had a variety of interests in a range of topics. followed by mixed methods research and qualitative research. 1997) found that it generates better data collection and provides sharper and more robust findings. Based on the parameters listed by Bagozzi et al. Despite this poor result. Despite the interest. exploratory research is vital but more suitable for creating theory. According to Malhotra (2004). 2001). This finding is consistent with Clasen's (2004) comparison study on research perspectives. In sum. 2003) argued that qualitative research offers advantages such as the possibility to see the problem in question from the participants' point of view whilst gaining an in-depth understanding of the context in which the study is conducted. Due to this. Dahl. Numerous scholars (Myer. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) noted that mixed methods potentially generate confusion between the description of data analysis and result interpretation. Bryman and Bell. replication difficulties and lack of transparency (Bryman and Bell. emotion-related research in advertising still seems to be in the developmental stage but it is likely that advertising scholars will increase their investigation of emotions in the near future. new academic journals have increased by approximately 3. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. this study revealed that only 340 out of 14. cognitive factors (positive affect and decision making. The result of this study indicated that more explanatory and descriptive studies are needed. qualitative research also carries some disadvantages such as generalization issues (Myer. Middle Eastern universities and South American universities. this study found only 6% of emotion-related studies in this research area. although emotions has been recognized as a strong predictor of human behavior (Carlson et al. 921 The study also identified that Bagozzi. 2010) that might not be explicated by current information. this study will encourage researchers to continue investigating emotions as well as encouraging those inactive universities to participate in this research trend. Drolet. Asian universities. According to Ware and Mabe (2012). the percentage of relevant studies in retail has remained low. however it would be enlightening to see if these topics can be compared with previous studies in the area and whether past findings are in line with current ones. emotion and memory) and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors. North American universities dominated emotion-related research. impacting the domain as a whole. Comparison between emotions studies during different time frames may help researchers appreciate the history of this area and more importantly will strengthen basic concept of emotions that may help researchers develop new thoughts. which has created inconclusive and mixed interpretations and findings. the study demonstrated that quantitative research was more popular in emotion-related research. 2007). In sum. Hogan and Kwiatkowski (1998) stated that these complexities discourage researchers to study this area. scholars in this domain have investigated a decent number of emotion related topics prioritizing the following issues: social/personality issues (gender. but they need to integrate it into the existing knowledge to enable development of new concepts and theories (Adolphs. definition and measurement. 1998). Their study showed that during 2011–2012 alone. These disadvantages may explain why research using mixed method is limited. Aaker.S. in order to contribute positively to emotions studies. yet studying emotions should not come to a halt but should be encouraged. We can assume that these three top emotions topics were an attempt to respond to Bagozzi et al.

152 n.g.781 n. With respect to managerial insights.047 3. retail and other marketing categories (e.a. Internet marketing) that may offer a different view of emotion-related research. Firstly. there are many opportunities to further explore the importance of emotions for different sectors and outcomes. the amount of influence emotions have. The findings show that recently marketing scholars significantly increased their focus on emotions. this study also showed that a relatively high proportion of research studies using the survey method were recorded in this study (68. this research examined 19 marketing journals. Managers could meticulously review this study or contact the right set of scholars to gain further insights (for example. by organizing specialized training programs) into human emotions. We also identified the key publication outlets to help scholars target their studies at the right journals. such as factor analysis. secondary emotions are exclusive to human beings that produce different behavioral outcomes (Tangney et al. thus they may not be applicable to other categories such as Internet marketing which make the findings limited to offline marketing. consumer psychology and retailing in which scholars have done emotions related research. and SEM were frequently used. this research provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date investigation of trends in emotionrelated research. Appendix A See Table A1. managers need to pay attention to emotion research given its importance for human behavior. This could be due to a lack of agreement on the terminology needed to study emotions. critique or essay. Thus. covariance analysis. This is despite the fact that many studies have shown human emotions as very reliable predictors of consumer behavior.) were moderately utilized. For academia. Although the present study provides invaluable insight into emotion-related research in the marketing sphere.. this study confirms Hogan and Kwiatkowski's (1998) view that emotions is a complex phenomena to be studied. Within these domains. we identified five topical areas – marketing. Mehta and Purvis. Based on an analyses of these articles. correlation. Yet.a.a. These results are closely related to the fact that most of the articles were quantitative in nature.542 n. advanced methods such as ANOVA. 0. such as the association between emotions and behavioral genetics. Conclusions This study included 340 emotion-related articles from 19 different marketing journals published during 2002–2013. survey is probably the most suitable research methodology. human emotions have not been fully investigated within the marketing discipline. The findings also show the need for scholars to investigate other issues relating to emotions in marketing. Given the latent nature of emotions. which helps scholars identify the unexplored areas for future research. Specifically.309 2. Gaur et al.746 1. In this review. Even within these domains. etc. combined methods. It can be assumed that marketing scholars used these methods to ensure that their findings were robust and valid.. Despite their strong empirical results.80%) while the use of experiment. observation. we have provided a brief summary of the key trends and identified the sources and scholars who are active in this area.254 2. selecting research partners and universities. According to Parrott (2004). Other less advanced statistical methods.. the inclusion of secondary emotions in future studies may extend our understanding of the role of emotions in consumer behavior. Journal Impact factor Launch year Journal of Marketing Journal of Marketing Research Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science International Journal of Research in Marketing Journal of Marketing Management European Journal of Marketing Marketing Science Australasian Marketing Journal Journal of Advertising Journal of Advertising Research International Journal of Advertising Journal of Consumer Affairs Journal of Consumer Research Advances in Consumer Research Journal of Consumer Marketing Journal of International Consumer Marketing Journal of Consumer Behaviour Psychology and Marketing Journal of Consumer Psychology Journal of Retailing Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 3.788 2.a.368 2. It is crucial to stress conceptual – theory building as an ongoing process in which innovative and visionary thinking must be regarded as a crucial factor (Ekstrom.922 S. we hope to sensitize managers about the importance of emotions through this review. Marketing scholars also show uncertainty on how emotions work. the employment of content analysis. Our analyses reveals that human emotions are one of the most reliable and valuable predictors of human behavior (Carlson et al. most studies use quantitative methods in which data is usually collected using surveys. 2007). the present study has several limitations. there is still a need for further research inquiries and empirical studies to offer a better understanding of its issues. and designing future emotion-related research. and how best to measure the effectiveness of emotions (Bagozzi et al.57 1. this study identifies the Table A1 Journal profiles. we identified the extent of investigation. In addition. n. 6.a. there may be some aspects of emotions which could only be captured using mixed methods including experiments or simple observations of the subjects. specifically journals in advertising. and others (F test. a balance between empirical and conceptual studies is still needed. 2006). 0. The unexplored research topics along with variety of available methods offer many avenues for future academic research.73 1. 5. and interviews were moderate. 2003). managers often ignore human emotions.016 1. / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 21 (2014) 917–923 Furthermore.a.781 2. 2007). In other words. However.. important trends in emotions research. We hope that our study assists students and scholars seeking guidance. We identified the areas such as advertising and retailing in which there are limited number of studies. 1936 1963 1978 1984 1984 1967 1981 1992 1972 1960 1981 1957 1974 1969 1983 1988 2001 1983 1992 1924 1993 . With respect to methods. consumer behavior.1.201 n. Even though there may be few studies. 1. future research could also choose to focus on primary as well as secondary emotions. Conversely.S. 1998. In terms of statistical analysis methods. we identified social personality issues. cognitive factors and the development of emotions and their interactions with other consumption factors as the most studies research topics. n. Limitations Like any research project.311 1. Given that this area is not well researched. With respect to the research topics. secondary data. advertising. Results are also limited to five marketing categories. regression. and focus group were limited across the years. This study makes important contributions for academic research as well as practitioners. thus the findings cannot be fully generalized to the wider world of marketing literature. Future studies that replicate this research's aims may find it worthwhile to focus on greater numbers of journals and articles.

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