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The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on the Employees Individual Performance and

Team Performance: A Study of Telecom Sector of Pakistan

Sehar Andleeb

Pakistan Institute of Development Economics

TITLE: The Impact of EI on Employees Individual Performance and Team


Performance: A Study of Telecom Sector of Pakistan.
ABSTRACT:
This study focuses on the effect of emotional intelligence on employees individual and team
performance in telecom sector of Pakistan. This paper examines the impact of four basic
dimensions of emotional intelligence i.e. self-awareness, self-management, social awareness
and relationship management. Data was collected through questionnaire. The results reveal
that there is a significant relationship of social-awareness and employees individual and
team performance while there is partial effect relationship management. There is no
significant relation between self-awareness, self-management and employees individual
performance while there is partial relation between self-management and employees team
performance. And there is no effect of self-awareness on employees team performance. And
there is no effect of self-awareness on employees team performance. Telecom sector should
pay attention to EI in order to enhance employees performance.
Key Words: Emotional Intelligence, Employees Individual Performance, Employees Team
Performance, Telecom Sector
INTRODUCTION:
In todays workplace where people are striving hard for the cut throat competition, their
attention towards work can be motivated by any assumption that renders the opportunity to
let them work more willfully and effectively (Mwangi, Mukulu & Kabare, 2011). This
stance gives way to various possible assumptions. However, the present paper proposes that
Emotional Intelligence can create a co-operative work environment. In a changing business
and competitive environment Emotional Quotient (EQ) is gaining greater importance along
with Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Emotional Intelligence is the cognitive ability to control and
manage ones own emotions and emotions of others.
In the last few years, Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a very important understudied subject.
Several studies revealed that EI leaves an impact in concluding vital matters of life including
structuring,

rewarding

individual

affiliation

and

gaining

professional

sensation/

accomplishment (Salovey & Grewal, 2005). EI is also important for managing social world
and improving social interactions (Lopes et al., 2004). Effective social interaction along with

the EI not only helps to deal with the personal matters but it plays a significant role in
managing workplace social interaction and improving organizational environment. Proper
knowledge of EI is very important for the employees as it helps them to manage and resolve
organizational conflicts, and also in developing a hygienic work place environment.
Equilibrium among association of emotionally grown tradition and emotionally intellect
management, strongly impacts employees role and assists in motivating them while driving
their spirits (Ghosh & Chakraborty, 2008).
The emerging concept of EI gives a new dimension to the Human Resource Development
(HRD), as now organizations are giving equal importance to EQ along with IQ. EI helps to
develop a variety of constructive phenomenon including better performance, healthy work
environment, enhanced efficiency and professional as well as personal achievement
(Nafukho, 2009). Employees performance in a work place is significantly affected by the EI
(Ct & Miners, 2006). Employees working in an organization can maintain a mature work
environment and have healthy relations with people from varied cultures. EI can help them to
solve their cultural conflicts thus enabling a culturally diversified efficient organization to
achieve its goals effectively. Proper understanding of EI and enhancement of employees
emotional abilities may help an organization to construct optimistic and devoted workers
(Chaudhry & Usman, 2011). The emotional abilities of the employees can be used to
motivate them to improve their performance and to drive them to the attainment and
achievement of organizational prosperity.
EI has captured the attention of the researchers from the past few decades. EI is hereditary
embedded in psychological sciences (Weinberger, 2002). The importance of EI to the
corporate world was realized and valued after the publishing of Goleman book on EI in 1995.
After that it was realized that not only IQ is the assurance of employees good performance
but emotional stability of an employee to deal with different situations is also important. The
concept of emotional involvement in workplace is an important part of the research from past
two decades, although this phenomenon is still understudied but it can help us to understand
the employees behavior (Fisher & Ashkanasy, 2002). Douglas, Frink& Ferris (2004)
revealed that EI is important for the corporate world as the employees with high emotional
abilities are able to perform very well as compare to those who lack this ability. The
significance of management of emotions cannot be denied for the leaders and managers as

Kerr, Garvin, Heaton & Boyle (2005) depicted that effectiveness of the leader perceived by
employees depends on the intelligently handling emotions.
The study on impact of EI on work outcomes in developing countries like Pakistan is very
little as compare to the studies on developed countries which proved link between EI and
employee performance (Shahzad, Sarmad, Abbas &Khan, 2011). However after realizing the
importance of EI in corporate world Pakistani organizations are also emphasizing on EQ of
employees. Now-a-days EI plays an important role in employee selection and development of
organization as well as group formation (Rafiq, Naseer&Ali, 2011). Employees should focus
on EI proficiency along with methodological talent in order to increase work efficiency
(Kulkarni, Janakiram, & Kumar, 2009) although EI do not assure high productivity of the
organization but it may lead to strong network of employees leading to better performance
and attainment of organizational goals(Rahim& Malik,2010) . Thus importance of EI cannot
be denied developing countries like Pakistan should focus on this aspect. Productive team
work can be achieved by managing and implementing EI properly (Naseer, Chisti, Rahman &
Jumani, 2011).
The past researches on EI proves its importance discussing the behavior of emotional abilities
(Hess & Bacigalupo, 2011), these researches are petite but mainly focus on role of EI in work
place (Zeidner, Matthews & Roberts, 2004). EI is considered as an important element to
generate positive effects on employees overall performance (Donaldson-Feilder & Bond,
2004).In this research paper the role of EI is being discussed in developing countries as
researches made in developed countries has showed that EI has a strong association with
leadership and employee performance (Koman & Wolff, 2008). This research paper will
focus on the trend and behavior followed by developing countries to improve the
performance. Although its quite complicated as the people in developing countries are very
emotional and do have cultural difference. This research will provide evidence on how
development can be done by using EI in developing countries; thus, it will attempt to fill the
literature gap.

Theoretical Framework:
Independent Variable: Emotional intelligence
Dependent Variables: Employees Individual Performance
Employees Team Performance

Independent Variable:
Self-awareness

Dependent Variable:

Self-Management

Employees Individual Performance

Social Awareness

Employees Team Performance

Relationship Management

LITERATURE REVIEW:
In past two decades researchers are working on the use and importance of emotional
intelligence in diverse fields. Researches reveal that emotional intelligence plays a significant
role in employees performance (Lyons & Schneider, 2005). Employees whether working in
groups or indvidually they should be emotionally intelligent. As being emotionally intelligent
helps in devloping interpersonal relations (Riggio & Reichard, 2008). These interpersonal
relations helps the employees to interact with teams,to work together and efficiently
(Campion, Papper, & Medsker, 1996). This helps in improving individuals performance and
learning (Williams & Castro, 2000),thus, motivating the employees to achieve goals by
maintaing a healthy work place enivronment.
Individual Performance: Performance refers to the result of activities performed by an
individual, related to the organizational goals (Motowildo, Borman, & Schmit, 1997).
Employees are the basic part of any organization. Management of employees performance is
very important for achieving organizational goals and for organizational development.
Individuals are the most important part of any organization. They are the foundation of an
organization and lead to change (Astley & Van de Ven, 1983). In todays world individuals
have to face a competitve and challeging trend in organization. They have to be efficient not
only in their working capabilites but also in their social relations at workplace. This self
efficiency leads to performance enhancement, which is very important at individual level.
(Budworth, 2011). Employees want to achieve career development. Now-a-days, individuals
career is more dependent on the team due to increasing trends of team work in organizaton

(Kellett, Humphrey, & Sleeth, 2009),and individuals professional and personal development
mainly depends on team performace ( Emmerik, 2008).
Organizations are now more considerate about their employees performance and workplace
environment. As they not only have to manage the performance but also have to motivate the
employees for accomplishment of organizational goals. And motivation of employees in a
competitve

enivornment

can

be

done

by

proper

management

of

employees

performance(Langhorn, 2004). Organizations should be careful about performance appraisal


as it does affect individuals performance and their relations with their teams (Chen, Wu, &
Leung, 2011). In such a scenario employees should be emotionally intelligent and efficient to
manage workgroups relations along with improved performance.
Team Performance: In todays world organizations are more interested towards work place
teams (Campion & Medsker, 1993). Team performance is greatly affected by the way team is
composed and the extent to which it is diverse (Higgs, Plewnia, & Ploch, 2005). For
managing team performance and maintaining healthy workplace environment organizations
must pay attention to diversity (Knippenberg, De Dreu, & Homan, 2004). It can affect the
teams positively resulting in expertise; and can affect negatively affecting the team
performance (Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999).
For decreasing effect of diversity on team performance employees should be emotionally
intelligent. Past researches shows that like individual performance team effectiveness also
depends on emotional intelligence (Druskat & Wolff, 2001) This helps in maintaining social
networks and interpersonal relations thus reducing conflicts resulting in improved
performance to achieve organizational goals (Rosenthal, 1997).
Emotional intelligence: Researches reveal that use of emotions in workplace is of great
importance not only for the researchers but also for organizations (Carmeli 2003).As, for
understanding human behavior understanding of emotions is important which is very useful
at workplace (Muchinksy, 2000). The ability of understanding emotions is essential for
emotional competent (Mayer & Geher, 1996). Emotional competency is important for healthy
and motivating workplace environment (Ciarrochi & Scott, 2006).
Emotional intelligence is defined as skill to properly understand and assess the expressions
and emotions in oneself and other and the regulation of emotions in self and other (Salovey &
Mayer, 1990). It is a cognitive ability that helps in regulation of emotions (Mayer, Salovey,

& Caruso, 2004). For the understanding of emotional intelligence many models are
presented,enlightening different perspective (Schutte, et al., 1998) . In 1998 Goleman
presented the model of emotional intelligence, explaining emotional competencies required at
workplace (Fernandez-Berrocal & Extremera, 2006).
Generally, emotional intelligence refers to the ability to control and manage emotions of one
self and others. This ability is mainly categroized as emotional intelligence competencies and
social intelligence competencies (Boyatzis, 2009). On the basis of this, four domains of
emotional intelligence are developed: (emotional intelligence competencies) self-awareness
and self-management, (social intelligence competencies) social-awareness and relationship
management (Goleman, 1998).
Self-awareness: Self-awareness is genrally a capability of knowing about oneself; its
perception, assurance, appraisal and state of mind (Kafetsios, Maridaki-Kassotaki,
Zammuner, Zampetakis, & Vouzas, 2009).

Self-awareness has only one emotional

competency to understand ones emotions and its effect on others (Barbuto Jr. & Burbach,
2006).
Self awareness is influenced by personal characteristics and standards, which also effects
workplace emotions (Silvia, 2002). At organizational level it is usually believed that with the
help of self-awareness performance of the employees can be enhanced (Church, 1997). In
this regard performance management plays an important role. With the help of performance
management individuals can get aware about one-self, resulting in postive effects on
performance (Fletcher & Bailey, 2003). Individuals can easily understand their competencies
and strength and weakness, which give them a way towards improvement.
Self-management: Self-management is the ability to regulate the emotions (Wong & Law,
2002). It is how an individual manages and regulates its emotions. It is basically an emotional
competency that helps an individual in controlling its emotions and to use them productively
( Thompson, 1994). Studies reveal that the individuals having more emotional intelligence
are good at self-management (Allen, Biderman, & White, 2004).As, he could handle his life
and matters related to personal and professional life more competently and rationally.
Self-management plays an important role in improving employee performance as at
workplace stress is caused due to many reason. Self-management helps an individual to

control the effect of stress by controlling his emotions, to avoid depression at workplace
(Rahim & Psencika, 2002). Self management helps an employee to improve his performance
by setting standrads and focusing on goals to be achieved (Manz & Sims Jr., 1980). It gives
them a sense of adaptability to the scenerio helping them to improve their efficiency.
Social-awareness: Social awareness is the ability to be sensitive and to understand other
people emotions. (Riggio & Lee, 2007). A person should be socialy aware, he should know
the emotions and expectations of other people to lead a successful life.
Social-awareness plays an important role in developing interpersonal relations. In todays
world organizations are more interested in work done by workgroups. For that purpose
organizations depend on different types of workgroups (Cummings, 2004). For working
efficiently in groups employees should have good interpersonal skills (Bratton, Dodd, &
Brown, 2011) which can be developed if a person is emotionally intelligent (Lopes, Salovey,
& Straus, 2003). Studies reveal that learning in teams occur where there is high interactions
between teams (Williams & Castro,2010).Thus, social awareness helps them to build good
interpersonal relation interact and work cooperatively as a team.
Relationship Management: Relationship management is a skill to induce desirable
responses in others (Gardner & Stough, 2002) this can be done by inspiring, influencing or by
working with them. This is actually the ability to sense others emotions and reactions and
then to manage it in a positive and effective way.
Relationship management plays an important role in organizations both at individual and
team level. At individual level it helps to minimize the individual difference and to maintain
good interpersonal relations with groups (VanSandt, Shepard, & ZappeSource:, 2006).
Realtionship management is also important at managerial level as interactive abilities are
considered as basic ability of managers ( Morand, 2001). As, the managers and leaders play
an influential role in the motivation of employees for achievement of goals. The higher the
level of the manager in an organization importance of emotional intelligence increases as it
helps in maintaining interpersonal relationships (Johnson & Indvik, 1999).
Emotional intelligence plays a significant role in every field of life. Role of emotional
intelligence at workplace and its effect on employees performance is very significant (Rosete
& Ciarrochi, 2005). Emotional intelligence is considered as an important tool to improve

performance and productivity of the employess (Lam & Kirby, 2002). Emotions play an
important role in improving the performance of the employees(Bommer, Pesta & Barnes,
2010) by improving workplace enivronment by developing interpersonal skills. Jadhav and
Mulla (2010) showed a positive and significant effect of emotional intelligence on the job
performance. Employees whether working individualy or in groups are greatly influenced by
the emotional intelligence.Researches reveal that emotional intelligence significantly interact
with workplace environment and influence the performance of the employees(Abraham,
2002). On the basis of these arguments we can say that emotional competencies directly
effect the individual and team performance of the employees. So, to study the effect of
domains of emotional intelligence we develop hypothesis on the basis of emotional
competencies categorization.
H1: There is a significant realtion between self-awareness and employees individual and
team performance
H2: There is a significant realtion between self-managment and employees individual and
team performance
H3: There is a significant realtion between social-awareness and employees individual and
team performance
H4: There is a significant realtion between relationship managment and employees
individual and team performance
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:
Instrumentation:
A questionnaire was developed to test the various hypotheses. Due to unavailability of any
proper questionnaire which can be adapted and adopted, we have developed our own
questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into 7 sections. The first section was based on
the demographics which included gender and age. The second, third, fourth and fifth sections
comprised of the independent variables; self-awareness, self-management, social awareness
and relationship management. The sixth and seventh sections consisted of questions from the
dependent variables; employees individual performance and team performance.

All the questions, including the demographics were based on a Likert Scale ranging 1-5, with
1 representing strongly disagree and 5 representing strongly agree. Respondents were asked
to determine how well they are emotionally aware, how they act in different situations and
how they perform at their work. The questionnaire was distributed personally and was
personally administered.
The reliability score(Alpha) of the questions answered of the independent variable, selfawareness out of a sample size of 140 was 0.253, for self-management reliability score was
0.643, for social awareness reliability score was 0.645 and for relationship management
reliability score was 0.622. The reliability score for dependent variable of individual
performance is 0.68 and for team performance is 0.592.
Population and sample:
As the research is about the telecom sector of Pakistan so the data was collected from
employees of different telecom companies. The data was collected from 140 respondents out
of which 78 were male respondents while 62 were female respondents. Age of 52
respondents range from 26-30. While 46 respondents were above 30 years and 42
respondents were less than 25 years. Respondents were asked about their emotional
intelligence how well they manage and know them self and other and how they perform
individually and in tram at their workplace.

Gender

Valid

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Male

78

55.7

55.7

55.7

Female

62

44.3

44.3

100.0

Total

140

100.0

100.0

Percent

Age

Valid

Cumulative

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

25 or less

42

30.0

30.0

30.0

26-30

52

37.1

37.1

67.1

30 or above

46

32.9

32.9

100.0

Total

140

100.0

100.0

Percent

Data Analysis:
Descriptive statistics:
For data analysis the descriptive analysis of the data collected from 140 respondents is done.
This descriptive analysis shows the mean and standard deviation of each variable from the
actual results. The mean of all variable i.e. self-awareness, self-management, social
awareness, relationship management and team performance questions gave a neutral to
agreeing response while response of individual performance questions is inclined towards
agree to strongly agree. While among all the variables the deviation in responses is in social
awareness and team performance.
Descriptive Statistics
Mean

Std. Deviation

SA

3.8000

.50643

140

SM

3.7131

.54423

140

SOA

3.9202

.47959

140

RM

3.7333

.52886

140

IP

4.0655

.53184

140

TP

3.2762

.41155

140

Correlation Analysis:
The Pearsons correlation analysis is used to analyze the relation between all variables of the
study. The results showed that there is strong relationship between social awareness,
relationship management and self- management with individual performance, while there is
no significant relationship between self- awareness and individual performance.

The analysis also shows that there is strong relationship between social awareness and
relationship management with team performance, while there is significant relation of team
performance with self- management and no relation with self-awareness.
Correlation
SA

Pearson Correlation

SA

SM

S0A

RM

IP

TP

.332(**)

.189(*)

.280(**)

.161

.149

.000

.025

.001

.057

.079

Sig. (2-tailed)

SM

S0A

RM

IP

TP

140

140

140

140

140

140

Pearson Correlation

.332(**)

.308(**)

.294(**)

.264(**)

.183(*)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.002

.031

140

140

140

140

140

140

Pearson Correlation

.189(*)

.308(**)

.473(**)

.563(**)

.404(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.025

.000

.000

.000

.000

140

140

140

140

140

140

Pearson Correlation

.280(**)

.294(**)

.473(**)

.438(**)

.329(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

.000

.000

.000

.000

140

140

140

140

140

140

Pearson Correlation

.161

.264(**)

.563(**)

.438(**)

.406(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.057

.002

.000

.000

140

140

140

140

140

140

Pearson Correlation

.149

.183(*)

.404(**)

.329(**)

.406(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.079

.031

.000

.000

.000

140

140

140

140

140

.000

140

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Regression Analysis:

Regression analysis was carried out to show the intensity between independent and dependent
variable and to measure the impact that an independent variable have on the dependent
variable.

R square value
The value of R2 shows the degree of impact of our independent variable on dependent
variables. In our model R2 for individual performance is 35.9%. This shows that there is
35.9% impact of our independent variables on dependent variable; individual performance
while the 64.1% impact is due some other variables that we have not accounted for in our
model.
Model Summary
Model

R Square

.599(a)

.359

Adjusted R

Std. Error of

Square

the Estimate

.340

.43222

R2 for team performance is 19% while 81% impact is due some other variables which we
have not accounted for in our model. This shows that independent variables have a strong and
significant impact on dependent variables. And this impact is stronger in case of individual
performance
Model Summary
Adjusted R Std. Error of
Model

R Square

Square

the Estimate

.435(a)

.190

.166

.40850

Analysis of variance
The analysis of variance is used to determine the model fitness i.e. F tests. In our case the
model fitness for individual performance is 18.864 and for team performance it is 7.839. So,
F more than 2 thus our model is fit.
ANOVA (b)
Model

Sum

of

Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

Regression

14.096

3.524

18.864

.000(a)

Residual

25.220

135

.187

Total

39.316

139

Dependent variable: Individual Performance

ANOVA (b)

Model

Sum

of

Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

Regression

5.269

1.317

7.893

.000(a)

Residual

22.528

135

.167

Total

27.797

139

Dependent variable: Team Performance


Test of significance
The significance test is done which is t test. In our model significance test according to
individual performance shows that there is no significance of self-awareness and selfmanagement on individual performance as it is less than 2. While social- awareness and
relationship management have a significant relation with individual performance.
Coeffi ci entsa

Model
1

(Constant)
SA
SM
S0A
RM

Unstandardized
Coef f icients
B
St d. Error
1.121
.396
-.004
.078
.065
.075
.492
.089
.210
.081

St andardized
Coef f icients
Beta
-.003
.067
.444
.209

t
2.827
-.045
.877
5.560
2.589

Sig.
.005
.964
.382
.000
.011

a. Dependent Variable: IP

While test of significance according to team performance shows that there is no significance
of self-awareness, self-management and relationship management on team performance while
social awareness have a significance on team performance.
Coeffi ci entsa

Model
1

(Constant)
SA
SM
S0A
RM

Unstandardized
Coef f icients
B
St d. Error
2.083
.375
.031
.074
.022
.071
.290
.084
.138
.077

a. Dependent Variable: TP

St andardized
Coef f icients
Beta
.035
.027
.311
.164

t
5.561
.419
.314
3.468
1.803

Sig.
.000
.676
.754
.001
.074

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:


The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on
employees individual and team performance in telecom sector of Pakistan by focusing on
four major aspects of EI that is self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and
relationship management. The correlation indicates that there is no significant relation
between self-awareness and employees individual performance as it is 0.161, and this
relation is also evidenced through regression analysis (t=0.045). This relation is due to the
fact that employee working in telecom sector are not well aware about their capabilities and
have lack of confidence which leads to a feeling of disappointment. The relation of selfawareness with team performance is also insignificant as the correlation analysis is 0.149.
The regression analysis result of this relation is t=0.419. This is due to the fact that employee
lack confidence and cannot assess them which affects their performance. This insignificant
relation of both individual and team performance with self-awareness reject the first
hypothesis.
The relation of self-management with the individual performance is strongly significant
according to correlation analysis (0.264 at 0.01 significance level). While the regression
analysis results shows an insignificant relation with value of t=0.877. This is due to the fact
that employees are unable to manage their feelings, make personal sacrifices and are not
willing to receive the feedback. This is because employees dont want to analyze themselves
and their capabilities as they are not interested in self-development resulting in effecting their
performance. The relation of self-management with team performance is significant
according to correlation analysis (0.183, at 0.05 significance level) while the regression
analysis shows an insignificant relation with value of t=0.314. These results indicates that
self-management have an insignificant relation with employees individual and team
performance. This is due to fact that in Pakistan most of the people do not focus on selfdevelopment, self-management and lack adaptability nature while their major focus is on
customary education and better job. Hence, in our second hypothesis we see a partial relation
of self-management and team performance and no relation between self-management and
employees individual performance.
Correlation analysis of social awareness and employees individual performance shows a
strong and significant relation (0.563, at 0.01 significance level) while the regression analysis

results also show a significant result with t=5.560. Telecom sector is one of the fastest
growing sectors in the world with a huge market share. Employees working in such a sector
have to be well aware of organizational norms and should strongly believe in networking
which can be only possible through networking. This factor significantly helps them to
improve their individual performance. The relationship of social awareness is also strong
with team performance as the correlation shows a value of 0.404, at 0.01 significance level
and regression gives a result of 3.468. This shows that employees of telecom sector are well
aware about how to work in team by maintain good networking helping them to enhance their
performance and better workplace environment. Hence, our third hypothesis is accepted.
Relationship management is significantly related with employees individual performance
(0.438, at 0.01 significance level) which is also evident through regression analysis showing a
result of 2.589. Relationship management is an important aspect of human life apart of all the
weaknesses and qualities if a person can manage his relations well he can perform well. This
ability let telecom employees to work better in the environment which is progressing and also
have cut throat competition. It helps to maintain good relations at work resulting in better
organizational culture and environment which may enhance employees performance. The
relation of relationship management with employees team performance is highly significant
according to correlation (0.329, at 0.01 significance level) and regression shows a result of
1.803 depicting an insignificant relation. Thus, the fourth hypothesis is partially accepted.
PRACTICAL IMPLICATION AND CONCLUSION:
This study has a number of implications for telecom sector. Telecom sector should pay
attention in improving relationship between self-awareness, self-management and employees
individual and team performance. This would help them to better achievement of their
organizational goals and highly performed employees. As the self-motivated and self- aware
employees can perform and fully utilize their capabilities to improve their performance.
Telecom sector should focus more towards in built abilities of individual during performance

management.
Social awareness and relationship management plays a significant role in employees
individual and team performance as it help employees to maintain good work place relation
to work in organizational teams more effectively. This let the employees to improve their
performance along with maintain their networks.

EI is an important aspect of our daily life. It helps them to maintain good relation and to
improve the performance in organizations. In developing countries like Pakistan importance
should be paid on developing EI skills. As Pakistani culture is very diverse so it helps the
people to understand each other. At higher education level steps should be taken to improve
the capabilities of the people to improve their performance.

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