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1 A ruler of length 0.30m is pivoted at its centre. Equal and opposite forces
of magnitude 2.0N are applied to the ends of the ruler, creating a couple as shown.
What is the magnitude of the torque of the couple on the ruler when it is in the position shown?
A 0.23Nm
B 0.39Nm
C 0.46Nm
D 0.60Nm
2 The diagram shows four forces applied to a circular object.
Which of the following describes the resultant force and
resultant torque on the object?

3 A spanner is used to tighten a nut as shown. A force F is applied
at right-angles to the spanner at a distance of 0.25 m
from the centre of the nut. When the nut is fully tightened, the applied force is 200 N.
What is the resistive torque, in an anticlockwise direction, preventing further tightening?
A 8Nm B 25Nm
C 50Nm
D 800Nm
4 Two parallel forces, each of magnitude F, act on a body as shown. What is the
magnitude of the torque on the body produced by these forces?
A Fd
B Fs
C 2Fd
D 2Fs
5 A uniform beam of weight 50 N is 3.0 m long and is supported on a pivot
situated 1.0 m from one end. When a load of weight W is hung from
that end, the beam is in equilibrium, as shown in the diagram.
What is the value of W?
A 25 N
B 50 N C 75 N
D 100 N [A]
6 What is the centre of gravity of an object?
A the geometrical centre of the object
B the point about which the total torque is zero
C the point at which the weight of the object may be considered to act
D the point through which gravity acts
7 An L-shaped rigid lever arm is pivoted at point P. Three forces act
on the lever arm, as shown in the diagram. What is the magnitude
of the resultant moment of these forces about point P?
A 30 N m
B 35 N m
C 50 N m
D 90 N m


8 The diagram shows a sign of weight 20 N suspended from a pole, attached to a wall. The pole is kept in
equilibrium by a wire attached at point X of the pole. The force exerted by the pole at point X is F, and the
tension in the wire is 40 N. Which diagram represents the three forces acting at point X?


9 A uniform rod XY of weight 10 N is freely hinged to a wall at X. it is

held horizontal by a force F acting from Y at an angle of 600 to the vertical
as shown in the diagram.
What is the value of F?
A 20N

B. 10N

C 8.66N

D. 5N

10 The diagram shows a childs balancing game.

The wooden rod is uniform and all the rings are of equal
mass. Two rings are hung on peg 13 and one on peg 1.
On which hook must a fourth ring be hung in order to balance the rod?





11 A uniform metre rule of mass 100 g is supported by a pivot

at the 40 cm mark and a string at the 100 cm mark.
The string passes round a frictionless pulley and carries a mass of 20 g as shown in the diagram.
At which mark on the rule must a 50 g mass be suspended so that the rule balances?
A 4 cm

B 36 cm

C 44 cm

D 64 cm


12 A rod of length 1 m has a non uniform composition, so that the centre of gravity is not at its
geometrical centre. The rod is laid on supports across two top-pan balance
as shown in the diagram. The balances (previously set at zero) give
readings of 360g and 240g. Where is the centre of gravity of the rod
relative to its geometrical centre?

1/10 meter to the left

B. 1/10 meter to the right


1/6 meter to the left

D. 1/5 meter to the right



13 The diagrams all show a pair of equal forces acting on a metre rule.
Which diagram shows forces that provide a couple and zero resultant force?

14 A uniform rod XY of weight 10.0 N is freely hinged to a wall

at X. It is held horizontal by a force F acting from Y at an angle
of 30 to the horizontal, as shown. What is the value of F ? [C]
A 5.0 N

B 8.7 N

C 10.0 N

D 20.0 N

15 The diagram shows two fixed pins, Y and Z. A length of

elastic is stretched between Y and Z and around pin X,
which is attached to a trolley.
X is at the centre of the elastic and the trolley is to be
propelled in the direction P at right angles to YZ. The tension
in the elastic is 4 N. What is the force accelerating the trolley in the
direction P when the trolley is released?


A 2.4 N

D 6.4 N

B 3.2 N

C 4.8 N

16. A man holds a 100 N load stationary in his hand.

The combined weight of the forearm and hand is 20 N.
The forearm is held horizontal, as shown.
What is the vertical force F needed in the biceps? [C]
A 750 N
B 800 N
C 850 N
D 900 N
17 A spindle is attached at one end to the centre of a
lever of length 1.20 m and at its other end to the centre
of a disc of radius 0.20 m. A string is wrapped round
the disc, passes over a pulley and is attached to a
900 N weight.
What is the minimum force F, applied to each end of the
lever, that could lift the weight?
A 75 N
B 150 N
C 300 N
D 950 N



18 A cupboard is attached to a wall by a screw.
Which force diagram shows the cupboard in equilibrium, with the weight W of the cupboard,
the force S that the screw exerts on the cupboard and the force R that the wall exerts
on the cupboard?

19 (a) Explain what is meant by the center of gravity of an object.

(b) A baby buggy plus baby has a mass of 25kg. On soft ground it is easier to pull it rather than to push it. You
pull with a force of 100N at an angle of 40o to the horizontal, as in figure

What is the force moving the buggy along horizontally?


What is the force on the ground?


If you pushed with the same force at the same angle what would
the answers to i and ii be?

20 (a) Define the torque of a couple.

(b) A uniform rod of length 1.5 m and weight 2.4 N is shown in Fig. 20.1.
The rod is supported on a pin passing through a hole in its centre.
Ropes A and B provide equal and opposite forces of 8.0 N.
(i) Calculate the torque on the rod produced by ropes A and B.
(ii) Discuss, briefly, whether the rod is in equilibrium.


(c) The rod in (b) is removed from the pin and supported by
ropes A and B, as shown in Fig. 20.2.
Rope A is now at point P 0.30 m from one end of the
rod and rope B is at the other end.
(i) Calculate the tension in rope B.
(ii) Calculate the tension in rope A.
21 A climber is supported by a rope on a vertical wall, as shown in Fig. 21.1.
The weight W of the climber is 520 N. The rope, of negligible weight, is attached
to the climber and to a fixed point P where it makes an angle of 18 to the vertical.
The reaction force R acts at right-angles to the wall.The climber is in equilibrium.
(a) State the conditions necessary for the climber to be in equilibrium.
(b) Complete Fig. 21.2 by drawing a labelled vector triangle to represent the forces
acting on the climber.

Fig. 21.2
(c) Resolve forces or use your vector triangle to calculate
(i) the tension T in the rope,
(ii) the reaction force R.
(d) The climber moves up the wall and the angle the rope makes with the vertical increases.
Explain why the magnitude of the tension in the rope increases.


22 (a) Explain what is meant by centre of gravity.

(b) Define moment of a force.
(c) A student is being weighed. The student, of weight W, stands 0.30 m from end A of a uniform plank AB, as
shown in Fig. 22.1. The plank has weight 80 N and length 2.0 m.
A pivot P supports the plank and is 0.50 m from end A.
A weight of 70 N is moved to balance the weight of the student.
The plank is in equilibrium when the weight is 0.20 m from
end B.
(i) State the two conditions necessary for the plank to be
in equilibrium.


(ii) Determine the weight W of the student.
(iii) If only the 70 N weight is moved, there is a maximum weight of student that can be determined using the
arrangement shown in Fig.
State and explain one change that can be made to increase this maximum weight.

(ii) For a force of 150N, determine:

1. Moment of force F about the centre of disc.
2. Torque of couple produced by the forces in the strings
3. Force in S1
24 A uniform plank AB of length 5.0 m and
weight 200 N is placed across a stream,
as shown in Fig.
A man of weight 880 N stands a
distance x from end A. The ground
exerts a vertical force F on the plank
at end A and a vertical force F on the
plank at end B.
As the man moves along the plank, the
plank is always in equilibrium.


(a)(i) Explain why the sum of the forces FA and FB is constant no matter where the man stands on
the plank.
(ii) The man stands a distance x = 0.50 m from end A. Use the principle of moments to
calculate the magnitude of FB.
(b) The variation with distance x of force FA is shown in Fig. below.

On the axes of Fig, sketch a graph to show the variation with x of force FB.

25 (a) Define the torque of a couple.

(b) A wheel is supported by a pin P at its centre of gravity,as shown in Fig.
The plane of the wheel is vertical. The wheel has radius 25 cm.
Two parallel forces each of 35 N act on the edge of the wheel
in the vertical directions shown in Fig. Friction between
the pin and the wheel is negligible.
(i) List two other forces that act on the wheel. State the
direction of these forces and where they act.
(ii) Calculate the torque of the couple acting on the wheel.
(iii) The resultant force on the wheel is zero. Explain, by reference to the four forces
acting on the wheel, how it is possible that the resultant force is zero.
(iv) State and explain whether the wheel is in equilibrium.
26 A diving board of length 5.0 m is hinged at one end and supported 2.0 m from this end by a
spring of spring constant 10 kN m1. A child of mass 40 kg stands at the far end of the board.

What is the extra compression of the spring caused by the child standing on the end of
the board? Given force on spring is given by Hookes law (F = ke)
A 1.0 cm
B 1.6 cm
C 9.8 cm
D 16 cm
27 A uniform beam is pivoted at P as shown. Weights of 10 N and 20 N are attached to its ends.
The length of the beam is marked at 0.1m intervals. The weight of the beam is 100 N.
At which point should a further weight of 20 N be attached to achieve equilibrium?


28 What is the condition for an object to be in equilibrium?

A The objects velocity and the resultant torque on it must both be zero.
B The objects velocity must be zero.
C The resultant force and the resultant torque on the object must both be zero.
D The resultant force on the object must be zero.


ANS 20 (a) torque is the product of one of the forces and the distance between forces
the perpendicular distance between the forces (b) (i) torque = 12 N m (ii) there is a NON-ZERO resultant torque
(the rod rotates) and is not in equilibrium. (c) (i) B = 0.90 N (ii) A = 1.5 N
ANS21 (a) resultant moment acting on an object = zero, resultant force = 0
(c) (i) T cos18 = W Scale diagram, T = 520 / cos18 = 547 N 20 N (ii) R = T sin18 = 169 N 20 N
(d) is larger hence cos is smaller, T = W / cos , hence T is larger.
ANS: 22 (c) (i) 1. sum / net / resultant force is zero.
2. net / resultant moment is zero, sum of clockwise moments = sum of anticlockwise moments
(ii) W = 655 N (iii) move pivot to left, gives greater clockwise moment Or move W to right, gives
smaller anticlockwise moment
ANS: 24 (a) (i) resultant force is zero
weight of plank + weight of man = FA + FB = 200 (N) + 880 (N)
(ii) principle of moments used , FB = (440 + 500) / 5.0 = 188 N
(b) straight line with positive gradient, start point (0, 100) finish point (5, 980)
ANS:25(b) (i) weight at P (vertically) down, normal reaction/contact force at (point of contact
with the pin) P(vertically) up , (ii) torque = 17.5 N m (iii) the two 35 N forces are equal and
opposite and the weight and the reaction force are equal and opposite
(iv) not in equilibrium as the (resultant) torque is not zero