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15. Washington Post, July 30, 1993, p. A14. "the Muslim-led government delegation was
shocked and angered at Owen and Stoltenberg and felt they had abandoned their
position as neutral mediators to put forward an ethnic-partition plan already supported
by the Serbs and Croats."
18. Boston Globe, December 5, 1993, p. 1. Bosnian hopes of Western intervention were
sustained by the repeated resurfacing of the U.S. proposal to lift the arms embargo and
provide air support for the government, and from their continued success at securing
weapons on the international arms market.
23. Washington Post, July 30, 1993, p. A1 But French Defense Minister Francois
Leotard, speaking in Washington only a few days after the attack, insisted that the use
of air power be restricted to the defense of UN troops.
25. Washington Post, August 7, 1993, p. Al. For details of the decisionmaking process,
see ibid., August 19, 1993, p. A1. "There was no way you could do ground forces; the
number would just be too big . . . off the chart, in terms of what you could get




l, 1993, p. A1.
NATO air strikes
2, 1993, p.
3, 1993, p.
Geneva talks
4, 1993, p.

34. Washington Post, July 27, 1993, p. A18. "the disadvantaged Muslim side in the
negotiations" and to "counter European pressure on the Muslims to make a deal."
39. Der Standard (Vienna), July 29, 1993, as translated in FBIS, EEU, July 29, 1993, pp.
Ejup Ganic
"the Muslims are Islamized Serbs, and the
biggest mistake we made was at the beginning of the war when we concluded a military
alliance with the Croats."
40. Die Woche (Hamburg), July 29, 1993, as translated in FBIS, EEU, July 30, 1993, pp.
40-41. This is the same interview as that published in Der Standard, but includes
several remarks by Ganic * not given in the Der Standard dispatch.
Ejup Ganic
"We are related much more closely with the Serbs than with the Slovenes and the
Croats. We speak a dialect that is more similar to Serbian than Croat. The same goes for
mentality, habits, and customs."
49. Washington Post, December 20, 1993, p. A22. Sarajevo
72. Washington Post, September 3, 1993, p. A1.
Geneva Bosnia
73. Wall Street Journal, September 3, 1993, p. A12.
Geneva Bosnia
74. Washington Post, September 8, 1993, p. A23. Cf. New York Times, September 8,
1993, p. A3.
76. Washington Post, September 9, 1993, p. A32.
77. Washington Post,, September 11, 1993, p. A18
88. Washington Post, September 30, 1993, p. A20.
Charles Redman

"almost gleeful at the results"

96. Guardian, January 3, 1994, p. 8.

Muslim Bosnia

116. Washington Post, February 7, 1994, p. 1.


dual key

Washington Post, February 14, 1994, p. A20,

Washington Post, February 17, 1994, p. A25.


121. Washington Post, February 20, 1994, p. A1.


138. Guardian, February 12, 1994, p. 13.

"going through the motions,"

145. Washington Post, February 21, 1994, p. A18.

146. Washington Post, February 21, 1994, p. A18.

Cratia Bosnia

George Rudman, "Backtracking to Reformulate: Establishing the Bosnian Federation,"

International Negotiation 1, no. 3 (1996)
159. Washington Post, February 25, 1994, p. 26. Tudjman Clinton


183. Washington Post, April 22, 1994, p. 1. "to take a strong robust position to ensure
that this conflict does not spread and to ensure that we maintain the credibility of NATO
as well as our own forces,"
193. Washington Post, May 15, 1994, p. A30.

Contact Group

205. Washington Post, August 3, 1994, p. A22.

219. Washington Post, August 1, 1994, p. A17.
241. Washington Post, July 28, 1995, p. A1.
special funding the U.S. knew about,"


Contact Group

"Turkish or private contractors using

"the coast is clear."

242. New York Times, November 5, 1994, p. 1. See also the retrospective account of
covert British involvement in Guardian, April 2, 1996, pp. 1, 11.
illegal arms
254. Guardian, September 22, 1994, p. 12.

White House

255. Washington Post, December 5, 1994, p. A1.

270. Guardian, December 7, 1994, p. 22.

Air Strikes
"marrying of force with


Michael Kelley, "Surrender and Blame," New Yorker, December 19, 1994,

Fiona M. Watson and Tom Dodd, Bosnia and Croatia:The Conflict Continues, Research
Paper 95/55 (London: International Affairs and Defence Section, House of Commons
Library, May 1995), p. 11.
13. Guardian, December 8, 1994, p. 1. Srebrenica, Zepa, Gorazde, Sarajevo
16. Washington Post, February 22, 1995, p. A19.


21. Washington Post, February 15, 1995, p. A15.

President Al Gore

UN ambassador Albright and Vice

22. Washington Post, March 7, 1995, p. A11. Milosevic

25. Guardian, April 17, 1995, p. 18.
ad infinitum."

French defense minister Leotard

"send soldiers

32. Guardian, May 31, 1995, pp. 12, 13. withdrawal

35. Boston Globe, May 25, 1995, p. 1.

25,000 troops

Secretary of Defense Perry

37. Financial Times, June 28, 1995, p. 12,

"If the Europeans are forced to fight
their way out of Bosnia and the United States leaves them to it, the Atlantic alliance will
suffer a blow from which it may not easily recover."
39. Boston Globe, October 1, 1995,


43. Washington Post, March 3, 1996, p. C1. The timing of the decision appears to be
corroborated by an account in New York Times, July 23,
"the President saw
the degree to which involvement was now inevitable, and how much better it would be
to have involvement built on success rather than failure."
44. Ibid., June 9, 1995, p. A10.
In mid-July Prime Minister Major declared in
parliament that "unless the warring parties are prepared . . . to return to some form of
discussion to reach a political settlement, there is no doubt that continuing fighting
would put the continuing presence of the UN at risk."45
50. Ibid., August 21, 1996, p. A6.
for Bosnia it's been great for us."50

"while losing the enclaves has been unfortunate

53. Guardian, July 31, 1995, p. 7.

''given the green light"

54. Washington Post, February 14, 1995, p. A11.


bosnian Serbs

66. Washington Post, May 26, 1995, p. A37; Milosevic

Guardian, May 20, 1995, p. 11.
84. Washington Post, September 1, 1995, p. 1


98. Washington Post, February 21, 1995, p. A1; and Guardian, February 25, 1995, p. 12.
Tuzla airport
100. Washington Post, July 28, 1995, p. A1.

Bosnian Army

113. Guardian, May 29, 1995, p. 9.

reflection and preparation." Juppe

"ultimatums and air strikes must be used after

132. Independent, July 23, 1995, p. 19.

''equivocation in the Balkans simply would
not do for much longer. . . . Some ministers were talking of a collapse of international
power in the Balkans."
143. Guardian, July 24, 1995, p. 9.

Islamic States Bosnian Arms Embargo

146. Independent, July 23, 1995, p. 19.


150. Washington Post, July 25, 1995, p. A11.


"the dual key right now is

151. Washington Post., July 24, 1995, p. 1,




152. Washington Post, July 29, 1995, p. A16.

172. Washington Post, August 16, 1995, p. A26.
Bosnia Serbs

robust air strikes

173. Washington Post, August 9, 1995, p. A16;

Independent, August 11, 1995, p. 8;
Guardian, August 14, 1995, p. 9.

Anthony Lake Peter Tarnoff

175. Guardian, August 19, 1995, p. 1.

Lake Albright Bosnia

177. Washington Post, August 16, 1995, p. A26.

190. Guardian, August 31, 1995, p. 14.



195. Guardian, September 12, 1995, p. 15.


Willy Claes

216. Washington Post, September 10, 1995, p. A27.

The NATO air campaign did not
by itself bring the conflict closer to a negotiated settlement. By September 9 military
planners were admitting that they had underestimated the Serbs' will to resist.216
224. Washington Post, September 22, 1995, p. A1.
As we have already
noted, it was during the latter meeting that Secretary Christopher telephoned
Izetbegovic* to reassure him that the proposed agreement did not imply that the United
States recognized Bosnian Serb sovereignty, and Holbrooke threatened a crisis in U.S.Bosnian relations and a halt to the NATO bombing then still under way.
225. Independent, September 12, 1995, p. 8.
British and the French were warning
the United States "that their troops will not be used to wage war on behalf of the
Muslim-led government."
232. Washington Post, September 26, 1995, p. A13.
Nonetheless, the
balance of military power had been shifted in favor of the Muslim-Croatian alliance. This
led the Bosnian government to harden its negotiating positions, and the Croatian

government to be drawn toward the prospect of expanding the portion of Bosnian

territory under de facto Croatian control.
245. Washington Post, October 8, 1995, p. C7.
The Bosnian Muslims would not
accept a cease-fire or
agree to go to a peace conference until the United States agreed to provide military
assistance to the Bosnian army. Such assistance was opposed by the Pentagon, and the
commitment was made only after the president decided to do so.245
255. Washington Post, November 23, 1995, p. A1.
badgered into agreement,"

"the Bosnians . . . ended up being

267. Boston Globe, December 7, 1995, p. 1.

"lead an international effort to ensure
that the Bosnians have what they need to defend themselves adequately."267
270. Washington Post, November 24, 1995, p. 1. "explosive." Milosevic Dayton
301. Times (London), November 2, 1994, p. 19. General Rose
Fen Osler Hampson, Nurturing Peace: Why Peace Settlements Succeed or Fail
(Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1996),