What is photonics?
Optical fields and Maxwells equations
The wave equation
Plane harmonic waves. Phase velocity
Polarization of light
Maxwells equations in matters
Optical power and energy
Reflection and transmission at a dielectric interface
Photon nature of light
What is photonics?
What is photonics?
What is photonics?
What is photonics?
= c = 3 108 m/s
Ray optics
Wave optics
EM Optics
Quantum Optics
Ray
optics
ray
wavefront
10
E = cB
c is the velocity of light in free space
k
11
12
Electromagnetic field
The electromagnetic field is generally characterized by the following
four field quantities:
Electric field
Magnetic induction
Electric displacement
Magnetic field
E(r, t)
V m1
B(r, t)
T or Wb m2
D(r, t)
C m2
H(r, t)
A m1
(The units are in SI units)
(coulomb C = As)
(weber Wb = Vs)
13
E =
0
B = 0
B
E =
t
Faradays law
B = 0 J + 0
AmpereMaxwell law
14
Gauss law as written in this form is general, and applies to electric fields
within dielectrics and those in free space, provided that you account for
all of the enclosed charge including charges that are bound to the atoms of
the material.
The presence of this quantity does not mean that the AmpereMaxwell
law applies only to sources and fields in a vacuum. This form of the
AmpereMaxwell law is general, so long as you consider all currents
(bound and free).
15
Conservation of charge
B = 0 J + 0
( a ) 0
J + 0 E = 0
t
Law of conservation of
= 0 electric charge
=> J +
t
16
Conservation of charge
J =
t
Flow of electric current out
of a differential volume
18
19
( A) = ( A) 2 A
where
2
2
2
Az
y
2
x
A=
+
+
2
2
x
y
z 2
20
Thus,
You know the curl of the magnetic field from the differential
form of the AmpereMaxwell law:
B = 0 J + 0
So
0 ( J + 0
)
t
( E ) = ( E ) 2 E =
t
21
E =
0
0 ( J + 0
)
t
( E ) = ( ) 2 E =
t
0
Gives
E
J
2
E 0 0 2 = + 0
t
t
0
22
B
2
B = 0 0 2
t
23
Phase velocity
This form of the wave equation does not just tell you that
you have a wave  it provides the velocity of propagation
as well !
The general form of the wave equation is (same for
mechanical waves, sound waves, etc.)
2
1
A
2
A= 2
v t 2
1
= 0 0 v =
2
v
0 0
24
26
v2(2/)2 = (2/)2
v = / =
27
t = t0
t = t0+/4
A
z
/4
k = 2/
In terms of k and :
= A cos (kz t)
= A cos (kz t)
x
wavefronts ( k)
(plane wave
in free space)
z
k = ez k = ez 2/
(wavevector)
Phase velocity
For a plane optical wave traveling in the z direction, the electric field
has a phase varies with z and t
= kz  t
For a point of constant phase on the space and timevarying field,
= constant and thus kdz  dt = 0. If we track this point of constant
phase, we find that it is moving with a velocity of
vp = dz/dt = /k
phase velocity
Complex exponentials
2E/z2 = 00 2E/t2
k2 E = 00 2 E
k2/2 = 00
exp i (k r t )
exp i (k r t ) = exp i (k x x + k y y + k z z t )
x
x
= ik x exp i (k r t )
34
= x + y + z
x
y
z
It follows that
exp i (k r t ) = ik exp i (k r t )
i
t
ik
ik , i
t
k = B
k B = 0 0E
k = 0
kB =0
36
1
B = k
c
E = cB k
k = B
k B = 0 0
where k = k / k
B
E
E = cB
k
37
Polarization of light
38
Polarization
39
Polarization
Tracing the tip of the vector E at any point z shows that the
tip always stays on the x axis with maximum displacement
E0. => the plane wave is linearly polarized.
Now consider a plane wave with the following electricfield
vector:
E = x a cos(t  kz + a) + y b cos(t  kz + b)
40
Linear polarization
This result is a straight line with slope (b/a). The +ve sign
applies to the case = 0, and the ve sign to = .
41
Circular polarization
A = b/a = 1
42
H
E
k
RHC
Elliptical polarization
Eliminating t yields
(Ex/a)2 + (Ey/2a)2 = 1
Elliptical polarization
Propagation direction
x
Linear
Eox Eoy
x  y=
Eox=Eoy
x  y=/2
x = y
y
Circular
y
Elliptical
x
47
Maxwells equations in
matters
48
Response of a medium
Cm2
Am1
50
Response of medium
Response of medium
Response of medium
53
Response of medium
and represent the response of a medium to the optical field and thus
completely characterize the macroscopic electromagnetic properties of
the medium.
1.
2.
Both and are generally tensors because the vectors P and D are, in
general, not parallel to vector E due to material anisotropy. In the case of
an isotropic medium, both and can be reduced to scalars.
The convolution in time accounts for the fact that the response of a
medium to excitation of an electric field is generally not instantaneous or
local in time and will not vanish for some time after the excitation is over.
Because time is unidirectional, causality exists in physical processes. An
earlier excitation can have an effect on the property of a medium at a later
time, but not a later excitation on the property of the medium at an earlier
time. Therefore, the upper limit in the time integral is t, not infinity.
54
Response of medium
Dipole moment
dielectric
External
electric
field
induced
field
+
Displaced
charges
p = Qs
57
Electric polarization
b = P
58
+

Ewave
cancel
Ewave
Bound charge
59
E =
0
where is the total charge density.
60
f + b
E =
=
0
0
0 E = f + b = f P
or
0E + P = f
61
( 0 E + P ) = f
D = 0E + P
=>
D = f
63
64
Bound current
Jb = M
where Jb is the bound current density and M represents the
magnetization of the material.
65
Polarization current
P
JP =
t
Thus, the total current density includes not only the free
current density, but the bound and polarization current
densities:
J = J f + Jb + J P
free
bound polarization
66
E
B = 0 ( J f + J b + J P + 0
)
t
P
E
B = J f + M +
+ 0
0
t
t
1
P ( 0 E )
M = J f +
+
t
0
t
B
67
( 0 E + P )
= J f +
t
68
B = 0
B
E =
t
Faradays law
H = J free +
D
t
AmpereMaxwell law
free (Cm3): free charge density, Jfree (Am2): free current density
69
B = 0
B
E =
t
Faradays law
H =
D
t
AmpereMaxwell law
These are the equations normally used for optical fields because optical fields
are usually not generated directly by free currents or free charges.
70
Wave equation
Now we are ready to get the wave equation. First, take the
curl of Faradays law and using B = 0H and H = D/t :
2D
( E ) + 0 2 = 0
t
Using D = 0E + P,
2E
2P
( E ) + 0 0 2 = 0 2
t
t
2P
1 2E
( E ) + 2 2 = 0 2
c t
t
Speed of light in free space
Polarization in a medium
drives the evolution of
an optical field
71
1
D = 0
( )
2
0 ( ) 2 = 0
t
2
72
Remark on dispersion
74
75
B
H ( E ) = H
t
B
D
(E H ) = E J + E
+H
t
t
P
M
0 2 0
2
+ 0 H
E J = ( E H ) E +
H E
t
t
2
t 2
76
E J dV
P
M
0 2 0
2
E
JdV
E
H
n
dA
E
H
dV
E
dV
0
V
A
2
t
t
t V 2
V
Surface integral over the closed surface A
of volume V, n is the outwardpointing unit
normal vector of the surface
77
0
2
E +
0
2
has the unit of energy per unit volume and is the energy
density stored in the propagating field. It consists of two
components, thus accounting for energies stored in both
electric and magnetic fields at any instant of time.
78
The quantity
P
Wp = E
t
The quantity
Wm = 0 H
M
t
79
E JdV = E H ndA
P
M
0 2 0
2
E
H
dV
E
H
+
t
2
t
t V 2
dV
u0 dV + W p dV
t V
V
which states that the total power flowing into volume V through its
boundary surface A is equal to the rate of increase with time of the energy
stored in the propagating fields in V plus the power transferred to the
polarization of the medium in this volume.
80
H ( z , t ) = y H 0 cos(kz t )
81
time
= z E0 H 0
2
82
Irradiance
An alternative expression for the average Poynting flux is
<S> = I k/k
unit vector in the
magnitude of the
average Poynting flux direction of propagation
I is called the irradiance (often termed intensity), given by
I = EoHo = (n/2Zo) Eo2 Eo2
[W/cm2] = [V2/(cm2)] = [1/] [V/cm]2
Thus, the rate of flow of energy is proportional to the square of the
amplitude of the electric field. Z0 is the intrinsic impedance of free
space in units of .
83
Impedance
k = 0 H
k H =
n
H=
k
Z0
Z0
E=
H k
n
where k = k / k
n 2n 2n
=
=
k = 0 =
c
c
where n = (/0)1/2 is the index of refraction or refractive
index of the medium.
85
Lossless medium
 2
I =2
= 2 Z  2
Z
86
87
ki
kr
incident i r reflected
t transmitted
kt
incident
reflected
transmitted
88
ik t r
=e
ik i r
=e
ik r r
ikt r = iki r = ik r r
(For z = 0, r is confined to xy plane)
89
The dot product gives the projection of k onto the xy plane.
Medium 1
Medium 2
H1t
B1n
D1n
E1t
H2t
B2n
D2n
E2t
91
2 E 2 n 1 E1n = 0
E2t E1t = 0
H 2 n H1n = 0
H 2t H1t = 0
Subscript n represents normal component to the boundary
Subscript t represents tangential component to the boundary
92
cancel
E2
Ewave
cancel
E1
Edipole
95
2 E2 n 1 E1n = 0
E2t E1t = 0
(k 2 E2 ) n (k1 E1 ) n = 0
(k 2 E2 ) t (k1 E1 ) t = 0
96
We describe the reflected field in terms of the incident field; and the
transmitted field in terms of the incident field.
97
E2t E1t = 0
(k 2 E2 ) t (k1 E1 ) t = 0
98
TE polarization (swave)
The electric field is linearly polarized in a direction perpendicular
to the plane of incidence, while the magnetic field is polarized to the
plane of incidence. This is called transverse electric (TE) polarization.
This wave is also called spolarized.
n
Ht
t
n2
ki
n1
Hi
x
Ei
i r
x
Er
kt
x
Et
Hr
kr
99
Et ( Ei + Er ) = 0
(kt Et ) t (ki Ei ) t (k r Er ) t = 0
=>
tTE Et/Ei =
n1 cos i n2 cos t
n1 cos i + n2 cos t
2n1 cos i
n1 cos i + n2 cos t
n1 cos i n2 cos t
n1 cos i + n2 cos t
101
TM polarization (pwave)
The electric field is linearly polarized in a direction parallel to the
plane of incidence while the magnetic field is polarized perpendicular
to the plane of incidence. This is called transverse magnetic (TM)
polarization. This wave is also called ppolarized.
n
n2
ki
n1
Ei
Hi
i r
Er
Et
Ht
xH
kr
kt
(kt Et ) t (ki Ei ) t (k r Er ) t = 0
( Et ( Ei + Er ))t = 0
Note that the H fields are all perpendicular to the unit vector
n s.t. (note the field vector directions)
k0 n2 Et k0 n1 Ei + k0 n1 Er = 0
Et cos t Ei cos i Er cos i = 0
103
tTM Et/Ei =
104
tTM
0.6
tTE
0.4
Brewsters angle
B = tan1(n2/n1) rTM
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
rTE
0.6
0.8
1
105
TTM
0.9
0.8
TTE
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
RTE
0.3
0.2
RTM
0.1
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
106
rTE
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
rTM
0.6
0.8
1
107
n1 = 1.5 (internal
n2 = 1.0 reflection)
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
c ~ 42o
0.5
0.4
0.3
Normal incidence
0.2
RTM
RTE
B
0.1
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90 108
Brewster angle
Brewster angle
109
rTE =
rTM =
n1(n12
sin2
n2
2)1/2
=1
=1
110
aei =
112
3.5
n1 = 1.5, n2 = 1
3
2.5
TM
TE
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Angle of incidence
113
Evanescent wave
In spite of the fact that the incident energy is totally reflected when
the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle, there is still an
electromagnetic wave field in the region beyond the boundary. This
field is known as the evanescent wave.
Its existence can be understood by consideration of the wave
function of the electric field of the transmitted wave:
Et = Et exp i (kt r  t)
Choose the coordinate axis such that the plane of incidence is on the xz
plane and the boundary is at z = 0.
114
n2
n1
/n1
i > c
Ei
Er
total
internal
reflection
kt r = kt x sin t + kt z cos t
= kt x (n1/n2) sin i + kt z (1 (n1/n2)2 sin2 i)1/2
= ki x sin i + i kt z ((n12sin2i/n22) 1)1/2
115
The wave function for the electric field of the evanescent wave is
Eevan = Et exp (z) exp i ((ki sin i) x  t)
where
= kt ((n12sin2i/n22) 1)1/2
The factor exp (z) shows that the evanescent wave amplitude drops
off very rapidly in the lowerindex medium as a function of distance
from the boundary.
The oscillatory term exp i ((ki sin i) x  t) indicates that the
evanescent wave can be described in terms of surfaces of constant phase
moving parallel to the boundary with phase velocity /(ki sin i).
The evanescent field stores energy and transports it in the direction of
surface propagation, but does not transport energy in the transverse
direction. Therefore, evanescent wave is also known as surface wave. 116
= 600 nm
0.8
z
n2=1
n1=1.5
i= 42o c
0.6
0.4
1/e
0.2
i= 60o
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
i= 44o
600
700
800
900
1000
Position z (nm)
117
gap separation
~ subwavelength
ni
nt
evanescent field
ni
i > c
Ei
Er
118
119
120
h
=
p
E = p c + mo c
2
2 2
121
For photons, mo = 0
E = pc
also E = h
h
h
h
c
= =
=
=
h
p E
c
c
h = h = pc
Energy
Momentum
h h
p=
= = hk
h =
hc
1.2398
m eV =
1239.8
nm eV
123
Photon energy
124