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APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS

AND

HEAT TRANSFER

10+3

comparison of the cycles for same compression ratio and heat addition,same

compression ratio and heat rejection,same peak pressure, peak temperature and heat

rejection, same peak pressure and heat input,same peak pressure and work output ,

Brayton cycle with intercooling, reheating and regeneration.

UNIT-II:RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSORS &REFRIGERATION CYCLES 10+3

Single acting and double acting air compressors, work required, effect of clearance

volume, volumetric efficiency, isothermal efficiency, free air delivery, multistage

compression, condition for minimum work. Fundamentals of refrigeration, C.O.P.,

reversed carnot cycle, simple vapour compression refrigeration system, T-S, P-H

diagrams, simple vapour absorption refrigeration system, desirable properties of an ideal

refrigerant.

UNIT-III: CONDUCTION

10+2

General Differential equation of Heat Conduction Fourier Law of Conduction

Cartesian and Cylindrical Coordinates One Dimensional Steady State Heat

Conduction Conduction through Plane Wall, Cylinders and Spherical systems

Composite Systems Conduction with Internal Heat Generation Extended Surfaces

Unsteady Heat Conduction Lumped Analysis Use of Heislers Chart.

UNIT-IV: CONVECTION

10+2

Types of Convection Forced Convection Dimensional Analysis External Flow

Flow over Plates, Cylinders and Spheres Internal Flow Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Combined Laminar and Turbulent Flow over Bank of tubes Free Convection

Dimensional Analysis Flow over Vertical Plate, Horizontal Plate, Inclined Plate,

Cylinders and Spheres.

UNIT-V: RADIATION

8+2

Basic Concepts, Laws of Radiation Stefan Boltzman Law, Kirchoff Law Black Body

Radiation Grey body radiation Shape Factor Algebra Electrical Analogy Radiation

Shields Introduction to Gas Radiation.

TOTAL-60

Chapter - 1

AIR STANDARD CYCLES

Theoretical Analysis

The accurate analysis of the various processes taking place in an internal combustion

engine is a very complex problem. If these processes were to be analyzed experimentally,

the analysis would be very realistic no doubt. It would also be quite accurate if the tests

are carried out correctly and systematically, but it would be time consuming. If a detailed

analysis has to be carried out involving changes in operating parameters, the cost of such

an analysis would be quite high, even prohibitive. An obvious solution would be to look

for a quicker and less expensive way of studying the engine performance characteristics.

A theoretical analysis is the obvious answer.

A theoretical analysis, as the name suggests, involves analyzing the engine

performance without actually building and physically testing an engine. It involves

simulating an engine operation with the help of thermodynamics so as to formulate

mathematical expressions which can then be solved in order to obtain the relevant

information. The method of solution will depend upon the complexity of the formulation

of the mathematical expressions which in turn will depend upon the assumptions that

have been introduced in order to analyze the processes in the engine. The more the

assumptions, the simpler will be the mathematical expressions and the easier the

calculations, but the lesser will be the accuracy of the final results.

The simplest theoretical analysis involves the use of the air standard cycle, which

has the largest number of simplifying assumptions.

A Thermodynamic Cycle

In some practical applications, notably steam power and refrigeration, a thermodynamic

cycle can be identified.

A thermodynamic cycle occurs when the working fluid of a system experiences a

number of processes that eventually return the fluid to its initial state.

In steam power plants, water is pumped (for which work WP is required) into a

boiler and evaporated into steam while heat QA is supplied at a high temperature. The

steam flows through a turbine doing work WT and then passes into a condenser where it

is condensed into water with consequent rejection of heat QR to the atmosphere. Since the

water is returned to its initial state, the net change in energy is zero, assuming no loss of

water through leakage or evaporation.

system with one entering and one leaving flow stream for the time period t1 to t2

Q W + E f in E f out = E system

(1)

Q is the heat transfer across the boundary, +ve for heat added to the system and

ve for heat taken from the system.

W is the work transfer across the boundary, +ve for work done by the system and

-ve for work added to the system

E f in is the energy of all forms carried by the fluid across the boundary into the system

E f out is the energy of all forms carried by the fluid across the boundary out of system

Esystem is the energy of all forms stored within the system, +ve for energy increase

-ve for energy decrease

In the case of the steam power system described above

Q A + QR = Q = W = WT + WP

( 2)

characteristic and the net work done is always less than the heat supplied, although, as

shown in Eq. 2, it is equal to the sum of heat added and the heat rejected (QR is a negative

number).

The thermal efficiency of a cycle, th, is defined as the fraction of heat supplied to

a thermodynamic cycle that is converted to work, that is

th =

W

QA

Q A + QR

QA

(3)

This efficiency is sometimes confused with the enthalpy efficiency, e, or the fuel

conversion efficiency, f

e =

W

m f Qc

( 4)

the chemical energy residing in a fuel used in the engine.

Any device that operated in a thermodynamic cycle, absorbs thermal energy from

a source, rejects a part of it to a sink and presents the difference between the energy

absorbed and energy rejected as work to the surroundings is called a heat engine.

A heat engine is, thus, a device that produces work. In order to achieve this

purpose, the heat engine uses a certain working medium which undergoes the following

processes:

1. A compression process where the working medium absorbs energy as work.

2. A heat addition process where the working medium absorbs energy as heat from a

source.

3 An expansion process where the working medium transfers energy as work to the

surroundings.

4. A heat rejection process where the working medium rejects energy as heat to a

sink.

If the working medium does not undergo any change of phase during its passage

through the cycle, the heat engine is said to operate in a non-phase change cycle. A phase

change cycle is one in which the working medium undergoes changes of phase. The air

standard cycles, using air as the working medium are examples of non-phase change

cycles while the steam and vapor compression refrigeration cycles are examples of phase

change cycles.

Air Standard Cycles

The air standard cycle is a cycle followed by a heat engine which uses air as the working

medium. Since the air standard analysis is the simplest and most idealistic, such cycles

are also called ideal cycles and the engine running on such cycles are called ideal

engines.

In order that the analysis is made as simple as possible, certain assumptions have

to be made. These assumptions result in an analysis that is far from correct for most

actual combustion engine processes, but the analysis is of considerable value for

indicating the upper limit of performance. The analysis is also a simple means for

indicating the relative effects of principal variables of the cycle and the relative size of

the apparatus.

Assumptions

1.

2.

3.

The working medium is a perfect gas with constant specific heats and molecular

weight corresponding to values at room temperature.

No chemical reactions occur during the cycle. The heat addition and heat rejection

processes are merely heat transfer processes.

The processes are reversible.

4.

5.

Losses by heat transfer from the apparatus to the atmosphere are assumed to be

zero in this analysis.

The working medium at the end of the process (cycle) is unchanged and is at the

same condition as at the beginning of the process (cycle).

Selecting an idealized process one is always faced with the fact that the simpler the

assumptions, the easier the analysis, but the farther the result from reality. The air cycle

has the advantage of being based on a few simple assumptions and of lending itself to

rapid and easy mathematical handling without recourse to thermodynamic charts or tables

or complicated calculations. On the other hand, there is always the danger of losing sight

of its limitations and of trying to employ it beyond its real usefulness.

Equivalent Air Cycle

A particular air cycle is usually taken to represent an approximation of some real set of

processes which the user has in mind. Generally speaking, the air cycle representing a

given real cycle is called an equivalent air cycle. The equivalent cycle has, in general, the

following characteristics in common with the real cycle which it approximates:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Same ratio of maximum to minimum volume for reciprocating engines or

maximum to minimum pressure for gas turbine engines.

The same pressure and temperature at a given reference point.

An appropriate value of heat addition per unit mass of air.

This cycle was proposed by Sadi Carnot in 1824 and has the highest possible efficiency

for any cycle. Figures 1 and 2 show the P-V and T-s diagrams of the cycle.

Assuming that the charge is introduced into the engine at point 1, it undergoes

isentropic compression from 1 to 2. The temperature of the charge rises from Tmin to Tmax.

At point 2, heat is added isothermally. This causes the air to expand, forcing the piston

forward, thus doing work on the piston. At point 3, the source of heat is removed and the

air now expands isentropically to point 4, reducing the temperature to Tmin in the process.

At point 4, a cold body is applied to the end of the cylinder and the piston reverses, thus

compressing the air isothermally; heat is rejected to the cold body. At point 1, the cold

body is removed and the charge is compressed isentropically till it reaches a temperature

Tmax once again. Thus, the heat addition and rejection processes are isothermal while the

compression and expansion processes are isentropic.

From thermodynamics, per unit mass of charge

Heat supplied from point 1 to 2 = p 2 v 2 ln

v3

v2

(5)

v1

v4

( 6)

(7)

(8)

Since Work done, per unit mass of charge, W = heat supplied heat rejected

W = RTmax ln

v3

v

RTmin ln 1

v4

v2

= R ln (r )(Tmax Tmin )

(9)

We have assumed that the compression and expansion ratios are equal, that is

v3 v1

(10)

=

v2 v4

Heat supplied Qs = R Tmax ln (r)

(10)

th =

R ln (r )(Tmax Tmin )

R ln (r )Tmax

Tmax Tmin

Tmax

(11)

From Eq. 11 it is seen that the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle is only a

function of the maximum and minimum temperatures of the cycle. The efficiency will

increase if the minimum temperature (or the temperature at which the heat is rejected) is

as low as possible. According to this equation, the efficiency will be equal to 1 if the

minimum temperature is zero, which happens to be the absolute zero temperature in the

thermodynamic scale.

This equation also indicates that for optimum (Carnot) efficiency, the cycle (and

hence the heat engine) must operate between the limits of the highest and lowest possible

temperatures. In other words, the engine should take in all the heat at as high a

temperature as possible and should reject the heat at as low a temperature as possible. For

the first condition to be achieved, combustion (as applicable for a real engine using fuel

to provide heat) should begin at the highest possible temperature, for then the

irreversibility of the chemical reaction would be reduced. Moreover, in the cycle, the

expansion should proceed to the lowest possible temperature in order to obtain the

maximum amount of work. These conditions are the aims of all designers of modern heat

engines. The conditions of heat rejection are governed, in practice, by the temperature of

the atmosphere.

It is impossible to construct an engine which will work on the Carnot cycle. In

such an engine, it would be necessary for the piston to move very slowly during the first

part of the forward stroke so that it can follow an isothermal process. During the

remainder of the forward stroke, the piston would need to move very quickly as it has to

follow an isentropic process. This variation in the speed of the piston cannot be achieved

in practice. Also, a very long piston stroke would produce only a small amount of work

most of which would be absorbed by the friction of the moving parts of the engine.

Since the efficiency of the cycle, as given by Eq. 11, is dependent only on the

maximum and minimum temperatures, it does not depend on the working medium. It is

thus independent of the properties of the working medium.

Piston Engine Air Standard Cycles

The cycles described here are air standard cycles applicable to piston engines. Engines

bases on these cycles have been built and many of the engines are still in use.

The Otto Cycle

The Otto cycle, which was first proposed by a Frenchman, Beau de Rochas in 1862, was

first used on an engine built by a German, Nicholas A. Otto, in 1876. The cycle is also

called a constant volume or explosion cycle. This is the equivalent air cycle for

reciprocating piston engines using spark ignition. Figures 5 and 6 show the P-V and T-s

diagrams respectively.

At the start of the cycle, the cylinder contains a mass M of air at the pressure and

volume indicated at point 1. The piston is at its lowest position. It moves upward and the

gas is compressed isentropically to point 2. At this point, heat is added at constant

volume which raises the pressure to point 3. The high pressure charge now expands

isentropically, pushing the piston down on its expansion stroke to point 4 where the

charge rejects heat at constant volume to the initial state, point 1.

The isothermal heat addition and rejection of the Carnot cycle are replaced by the

constant volume processes which are, theoretically more plausible, although in practice,

even these processes are not practicable.

The heat supplied, Qs, per unit mass of charge, is given by

cv(T3 T2)

the heat rejected, Qr per unit mass of charge is given by

cv(T4 T1)

and the thermal efficiency is given by

th = 1

(T4 T1 )

(T3 T2 )

T4

1

T T

= 1 1 1

T2 T3

1

T2

T V

Now 1 = 2

T2 V1

And since

T1 T4

=

T2 T3

V

= 3

V4

(19)

we have

T4

T3

T4 T3

=

T1 T2

Hence, substituting in Eq. 19, we get, assuming that r is the compression ratio V1/V2

T

th = 1 1

T2

V

= 1 2

V1

=1

(20)

ratio are synonymous. However, in a real engine, these two ratios need not be equal

because of the valve timing and therefore the term expansion ratio is preferred

sometimes.

Equation 20 shows that the thermal efficiency of the theoretical Otto cycle

increases with increase in compression ratio and specific heat ratio but is independent of

the heat added (independent of load) and initial conditions of pressure, volume and

temperature.

Figure 7 shows a plot of thermal efficiency versus compression ratio for an Otto

cycle. It is seen that the increase in efficiency is significant at lower compression ratios.

This is also seen in Table 1 given below.

0

0.242

0.356

0.426

0.475

0.512

0.541

0.565

0.585

0.602

0.67

0.698

0.791

R

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

16

20

50

CR is increased from 2 to 4, efficiency increase is 76%

CR is increased from 4 to 8, efficiency increase is only 32.6%

CR is increased from 8 to 16, efficiency increase is only 18.6%

Mean effective pressure:

It is seen that the air standard efficiency of the Otto cycle depends only on the

compression ratio. However, the pressures and temperatures at the various points in the

cycle and the net work done, all depend upon the initial

pressure and temperature and

the heat input from point 2 to point 3, besides the compression ratio.

A quantity of special interest in reciprocating engine

analysis is the mean effective pressure. Mathematically, it is the net work done on the

piston, W, divided by the piston displacement volume, V1 V2. This quantity has the

units of pressure. Physically, it is that constant pressure which, if exerted on the piston for

the whole outward stroke, would yield work equal to the work of the cycle. It is given by

mep =

W

V1 V2

Q2 3

V1 V2

where Q2-3 is the heat added from points 2 to 3.

Now

(21)

V

V1 V2 = V1 1 2

V1

= V1 1

r

(22)

From the equation of state:

V1 = M

R0 T1

m p1

(23)

Substituting for V1 from Eq. 3 in Eq. 2 and then substituting for V1 V2 in Eq. 1 we get

p1 m

MR0T1

1

1

r

Q2 3

mep =

(24 A)

The quantity Q2-3/M is the heat added between points 2 and 3 per unit mass of air

(M is the mass of air and m is the molecular weight of air); and is denoted by Q, thus

p1 m

R0T1

mep =

1

1

r

Q

(24 B)

following equation

1 Q m

mep

=

p1

1 1 R0 T1

r

Since

(25)

R0

= cv ( 1) , we can substitute it in Eq. 25 to get

m

mep

Q

=

p1

c v T1

1

1

1

[ 1]

r

(26)

The dimensionless quantity mep/p1 is a function of the heat added, initial temperature,

compression ratio and the properties of air, namely, cv and . We see that the mean

effective pressure is directly proportional to the heat added and inversely proportional to

the initial (or ambient) temperature.

We can substitute the value of from Eq. 20 in Eq. 26 and obtain the value of mep/p1 for

the Otto cycle in terms of the compression ratio and heat added.

In terms of the pressure ratio, p3/p2 denoted by rp we could obtain the value of mep/p1 as

follows:

1

1

mep r (rp 1) r

=

(r 1)( 1)

p1

(27)

rp =

Q

+1

cv T1 r 1

(28)

Another parameter, which is of importance, is the quantity mep/p3. This can be obtained

from the following expression:

mep mep 1

=

p3

p1 r

1

Q

+1

c v T1 r 1

(29)

Choice of Q

We have said that

Q =

Q2 3

M

(30)

Now, in an actual engine

Q23 = M f Qc

= FM a Qc in kJ / cycle

Mf is the mass of fuel supplied per cycle, kg

(31)

Ma is the mass of air taken in per cycle

F is the fuel air ratio = Mf/Ma

Substituting for Eq. (B) in Eq. (A) we get

FM a Qc

M

M a V1 V2

M

V1

Q =

Now

And

V1 V2

1

=1

V1

r

(32)

(33)

So, substituting for Ma/M from Eq. (33) in Eq. (32) we get

1

Q = FQc 1

r

(34)

Q = 2975(r 1)/r

(35)

get a value of Q/cvT1 = 13.8(r 1)/r.

Under fuel rich conditions, = 1.2, Q/ cvT1 = 16.6(r 1)/r.

Under fuel lean conditions, = 0.8, Q/ cvT1 = 11.1(r 1)/r

The Diesel Cycle

This cycle, proposed by a German engineer, Dr. Rudolph Diesel to describe the processes

of his engine, is also called the constant pressure cycle. This is believed to be the

equivalent air cycle for the reciprocating slow speed compression ignition engine. The PV and T-s diagrams are shown in Figs 8 and 9 respectively.

The cycle has processes which are the same as that of the Otto cycle except that

the heat is added at constant pressure.

The heat supplied, Qs is given by

cp(T3 T2)

cv(T4 T1)

and the thermal efficiency is given by

th = 1

cv (T4 T1 )

c p (T3 T2 )

T4

T1 1

T

1

=1 1

T3

T 1

2 T2

(36)

From the T-s diagram, Fig. 9, the difference in enthalpy between points 2 and 3 is

the same as that between 4 and 1, thus

s 23 = s 41

T

cv ln 4

T1

T

ln 4

T1

T

T

4 = 3

T1 T2

T

= c p ln 3

T2

= ln 3

T2

T V

and 1 = 2

T2 V1

1

r

T

1

1

1 1 T2

th = 1

T

r

3 1

T2

Now

(37)

T3 V3

=

= rc = cut off ratio

T2 V2

=1

1 rc 1

r 1 (rc 1)

(38)

When Eq. 38 is compared with Eq. 20, it is seen that the expressions are similar

except for the term in the parentheses for the Diesel cycle. It can be shown that this term

is always greater than unity.

Now rc =

V3 V3

=

V2 V4

V2

r

= where r is the compression ratio and re is the expansion ratio

V1 re

1

1 r

= 1 1 e

r

r 1

re

have

(39)

r

r

r

=

=

= 1

re r

r

r 1

r

1

r

r

Also

re

=1+

2 3

+

+

+L

r r2 r3

r

=

=

(r )

= 1

r 1

r

1

r

( + 1) 2 ( + 1)( + 2) 3

=1+ +

+

+L

r

2! r 2

3!

r3

( + 1) 2 ( + 1)( + 2) 3

+ L

+

+

2

3

1

2! r

3!

r

= 1 1 r

2

3

+ 2 + 3 +L

r r

r

(40)

2 3

, , , etc are greater than unity, the quantity in the

r rr r3

brackets in Eq. 40 will be greater than unity. Hence, for the Diesel cycle, we subtract

1

times a quantity greater than unity from one, hence for the same r, the Otto cycle

1

r

efficiency is greater than that for a Diesel cycle.

Since the coefficients of

r

smaller, so the thermal efficiency of the Diesel cycle will tend towards that of the Otto

cycle.

If

From the foregoing we can see the importance of cutting off the fuel supply early

in the forward stroke, a condition which, because of the short time available and the high

pressures involved, introduces practical difficulties with high speed engines and

necessitates very rigid fuel injection gear.

In practice, the diesel engine shows a better efficiency than the Otto cycle engine

because the compression of air alone in the former allows a greater compression ratio to

be employed. With a mixture of fuel and air, as in practical Otto cycle engines, the

maximum temperature developed by compression must not exceed the self ignition

temperature of the mixture; hence a definite limit is imposed on the maximum value of

the compression ratio.

Thus Otto cycle engines have compression ratios in the range of 7 to 12 while

diesel cycle engines have compression ratios in the range of 16 to 22.

We can obtain a value of rc for a Diesel cycle in terms of Q as follows:

rc =

Q

+1

c p T1 r 1

(41)

We can substitute the value of from Eq. 38 in Eq. 26, reproduced below and obtain the

value of mep/p1 for the Diesel cycle.

mep

Q

=

p1

c v T1

1

1

1

[ 1]

r

(26)

In terms of the cut-off ratio, we can obtain another expression for mep/p1 as

follows:

=

(r 1)( 1)

p1

(42)

mep mep 1

=

p3

p1 r

(43)

Modern high speed diesel engines do not follow the Diesel cycle. The process of

heat addition is partly at constant volume and partly at constant pressure. This brings us

to the dual cycle.

The Dual Cycle

An important characteristic of real cycles is the ratio of the mean effective pressure to the

maximum pressure, since the mean effective pressure represents the useful (average)

pressure acting on the piston while the maximum pressure represents the pressure which

chiefly affects the strength required of the engine structure. In the constant-volume cycle,

shown in Fig. 10, it is seen that the quantity mep/p3 falls off rapidly as the compression

ratio increases, which means that for a given mean effective pressure the maximum

pressure rises rapidly as the compression ratio increases. For example, for a mean

effective pressure of 7 bar and Q/cvT1 of 12, the maximum pressure at a compression

ratio of 5 is 28 bar whereas at a compression ratio of 10, it rises to about 52 bar. Real

cycles follow the same trend and it becomes a practical necessity to limit the maximum

pressure when high compression ratios are used, as in diesel engines. This also indicates

that diesel engines will have to be stronger (and hence heavier) because it has to

withstand higher peak pressures.

Constant pressure heat addition achieves rather low peak pressures unless the

compression ratio is quite high. In a real diesel engine, in order that combustion takes

place at constant pressure, fuel has to be injected very late in the compression stroke

(practically at the top dead center). But in order to increase the efficiency of the cycle, the

fuel supply must be cut off early in the expansion stroke, both to give sufficient time for

the fuel to burn and thereby increase combustion efficiency and reduce after burning but

also reduce emissions. Such situations can be achieved if the engine was a slow speed

type so that the piston would move sufficiently slowly for combustion to take place

despite the late injection of the fuel. For modern high speed compression ignition engines

it is not possible to achieve constant pressure combustion. Fuel is injected somewhat

earlier in the compression stroke and has to go through the various stages of combustion.

Thus it is seen that combustion is nearly at constant volume (like in a spark ignition

engine). But the peak pressure is limited because of strength considerations so the rest of

the heat addition is believed to take place at constant pressure in a cycle. This has led to

the formulation of the dual combustion cycle. In this cycle, for high compression ratios,

the peak pressure is not allowed to increase beyond a certain limit and to account for the

total addition, the rest of the heat is assumed to be added at constant pressure. Hence the

name limited pressure cycle.

The cycle is the equivalent air cycle for reciprocating high speed compression

ignition engines. The P-V and T-s diagrams are shown in Figs.11 and 12. In the cycle,

compression and expansion processes are isentropic; heat addition is partly at constant

volume and partly at constant pressure while heat rejection is at constant volume as in the

case of the Otto and Diesel cycles.

The heat supplied, Qs per unit mass of charge is given by

cv(T3 T2) + cp(T3 T2)

Whereas the heat rejected, Qr per unit mass of charge is given by

cv(T4 T1)

and the thermal efficiency is given by

th = 1

cv (T4 T1 )

cv (T3 T2 ) + c p (T3 T2 )

T1 4 1

T1

=1

T T3 1 + T T3 1

3

2 T2

T3

=1

T4

1

T1

T2

T1

T3

T T T

1 + 3 2 3 1

T2

T2 T1 T3

(44 A)

(44 B)

(44C )

From thermodynamics

T3

p

= 3 = rp

T2 p 2

T3 V3

=

= rc

T3 V3

Now,

T4 p 4

p p p p

=

= 4 3 3 2

T1

p1

p3 p3 p 2 p1

V

p

Also 4 = 3

p3 V4

V V

= 3 3 = rc

V3 V4

And

p2

= r

p1

Thus

T4

= rp rc

T1

V

T

Also 2 = 1

T1 V2

= r 1

rp rc 1

1

= 1 1

r

(rp 1) + rp (rc 1)

(46)

We can substitute the value of from Eq. 46 in Eq. 26 and obtain the value of

mep/p1 for the dual cycle.

In terms of the cut-off ratio and pressure ratio, we can obtain another expression

for mep/p1 as follows:

=

(r 1)( 1)

p1

mep mep p1

=

p3

p1 p3

(48)

(47)

Since the dual cycle is also called the limited pressure cycle, the peak pressure,

p3, is usually specified. Since the initial pressure, p1, is known, the ratio p3/p1 is known.

We can correlate rp with this ratio as follows:

rp =

p3 1

p1 r

(49)

quantities as follows:

rc =

1 Q 1

+ ( 1)

cvT1 r rp

(50)

We can also obtain an expression for rp in terms of Q and rc and other known

quantities as follows:

Q

+ 1

1

cTr

rp = v 1

1 + rc

(51)

Figure 13 shows a constant volume and a constant pressure cycle, compared with

a limited pressure cycle. In a series of air cycles with varying pressure ratio at a given

compression ratio and the same Q, the constant volume cycle has the highest efficiency

and the constant pressure cycle the lowest efficiency.

Figure 14 compares the efficiencies of the three cycles for the same value of

r

for the same initial conditions and three values of p3/p1 for the dual cycle. It is

Q

r 1

interesting to note that the air standard efficiency is little affected by compression ratio

above a compression ratio of 8 for the limited pressure cycle.

The curves of mep/p3 versus compression ratio for the same three cycles as above

are given in Fig. 10. It is seen that a considerable increase in this ratio is obtained for a

limited pressure cycle as compared to the constant volume or constant pressure cycles.

BRAYTON CYCLE

Brayton Cycle is the ideal cycle for gas turbine engines. Electric power

generation and aircraft propulsion are major applications for gas-turbine engines.

4 PROCESSES:

1-2 Isentropic compression

2-3 Constant pressure heat addition

3-4 Isentropic expansion

4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection

Performing energy balance, we get:

qm& = C p (T3 T2 )

qout = C p (T4 T1 )

th =

wnet

q

= 1 out

qm&

qm&

T4

T2

1

T1

T4 T1 )

T1

(

th = 1

=1

T3

(T3 T2 )

1

T2

(1)

Note:

P2 = P3

P1 = P4

Also:

T2 P2

=

T1 P1

k 1

P

= 3

P4

k 1

T4 T3

=

T1 T2

th = 1

T1

1

=1

T2

T2

T1

th = 1

(2)

or

k 1 k

p

T3

T4

1

Early (1950) gas turbines had simple-cycle efficiencies of about 17% because of

low compressor and turbine efficiencies and low inlet temperature of the turbine.

Effort to improve cycle efficiency concentrated in three areas:

(1)

1425C presently.

(2)

improved due to designing the components aerodynamically with

minimum losses.

(3)

Adding modifications to the basic cycle, such as regeneration, intercooling, and reheating.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

High efficiencies

Lower capital cost

Shorter installation time

Better emission characteristics

Being used for base-load as well as peak load

Capacities and Efficiencies Range.

Inlet

Pressure Capacity

Efficiency

(MW)

Temperature

Ratio

540

6.5

26

1425

135.5

282

39.5

Actual gas turbine cycles differ from Brayton cycle. In the actual cases:

(1)

(2)

respectively, are not isentropic.

The actual processes in the turbine and compressor can be accounted for by the isentropic

efficiencies:

c =

ws

wa

t =

wa

ws

(3)

(4)

Heating the high-pressure air leaving the compressor by the hot exhaust gases in a

counterflow heat exchanger is known as regeneration (see Figure 8.38).

The thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle increases as a result of decrease in the

heat input (thermo-fuel) for the same net power output.

Regeneration is used only when the compressor exit temperature is less than the

turbine exit temperature.

qreg, act

qreg, max

h5 h2

h4 h2

(5)

Considering the cold air-standard assumptions, equation (5) reduces to:

T5 T2

T4 T2

(6)

ideal Brayton cycle with regeneration is given as:

k 1

T1

k

r

(

)

p

T

3

th = 1

(7)

efficiencies.

AND REGENERATION

Using multistage compression with intercooling reduces the total work of the

compressor operating between two pressures.

turbine operating between two pressures.

Even-though intercooling and reheating improves the back work ratio of a gas

turbine cycle, but it does guarantee an improvement in the thermal efficiency

(why?).

the thermal efficiency to improve.

The best performance is achieved when equal pressure ratios are maintained

across each stage. For example (considering Figure 8.44) when

P

P

P2 P4

=

and 6 = 8 .

P1 P3

P7 P9

PROBLEM

A gas turbine at Dammam Electrical Power Station takes in 108,000 kg/h of filtered

outside air at 27C and compresses it to 6.516 atmospheres. The combustion of gas adds

30 MW of heat to the air. If the turbine exhausts to atmospheric pressure and both the

compressor and turbine are 75% efficient:

(a)

(b)

Draw the T-s diagram taking the inlet to the compressor as State 1.

Determine the net power output.

SOLUTION

a)

T-s diagram.

b)

Given: T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K, rp = 6

Wnet = T c

c =

h2 s h1

= h2 a h1

h = 300.19 kJ kg

T1 = 300 K at T1 1

Pr1 = 1.386

Pr2 P2

=

= 6.516

Pr1 P1

Pr2 = Pr1 * 6.516 = 1.386 6.516 = 9.031

Hence

T2 s = 510 K

h2 s = 513.32 kJ kg

513.32 300.19

= 284.17 kJ kg

0.75

h2 a = h1 + c = 300.19 + 284.17 = 584.36 kJ kg

c =

Q&

30 103

qin = h3 h2 a h3 = qin + h2 a = + h2 a =

+ 584.36

m&

30.50

h3 = 1000 + 584.36 = 1584.36 kJ kg

T3 = 1457.3 K, and Pr3 = 533

Pr4 P4

1

=

Pr4 =

Pr3

Pr3 P3

6.516

533

Pr4 =

= 81.8

6.516

t = t ( h3 h4 s )

t = 0.75(1584.36 954.47) = 472.42 kJ kg

net = t c = 472.42 284.17 = 188.25 kJ kg

Chapter 2

&

REFRIGEREATION CYCLES

Reciprocating Air Compressors

Reciprocating air compressors are positive displacement machines, meaning that

they increase the pressure of the air by reducing its volume. This means they are taking in

successive volumes of air which is confined within a closed space and elevating this air

to a higher pressure. The reciprocating air compressor accomplishes this by a piston

within a cylinder as the compressing and displacing element.

Single-stage and two-stage reciprocating compressors are commercially available.

of 70 psig to 100 psig.

Two-stage compressors are generally used for higher pressures in the range of 100

psig to 250 psig.

Note that

and that 1 to 50 HP are typically for reciprocating units. Compressors 100 hp and above

are typically Rotary Screw or Centrifugal Compressors.

The reciprocating air compressor is single acting when the compressing is

accomplished using only one side of the piston. A compressor using both sides of the

piston is considered double acting.

Load reduction is achieved by unloading individual cylinders. Typically this is

accomplished by throttling the suction pressure to the cylinder or bypassing air either

within or outside the compressor. Capacity control is achieved by varying speed in

engine-driven units through fuel flow control.

Reciprocating air compressors are available either as air-cooled or water-cooled in

lubricated and non-lubricated configurations and provide a wide range of pressure and

capacity selections.

Refrigeration

substance, and moving it to a place where it is unobjectionable. The primary purpose of

refrigeration is lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then

maintaining that lower temperature. The term cooling refers generally to any natural or

artificial process by which heat is dissipated. The process of artificially producing

extreme cold temperatures is referred to as cryogenics.

Cold is the absence of heat, hence in order to decrease a temperature, one

"removes heat", rather than "adding cold." In order to satisfy the Second Law of

Thermodynamics, some form of work must be performed to accomplish this. This work

is traditionally done by mechanical work but can also be done by magnetism, laser or

other means.

COP

Where

is the work consumed by the heat pump.

(Note: COP has no units, therefore in this equation, heat and work must be expressed in

the same units.)

The COP for heating and cooling are thus different, because the heat reservoir of

interest is different. When one is interested in how well a machine cools, the COP is the

ratio of the heat removed from the cold reservoir to input work. However, for heating, the

COP is the ratio of the heat removed from the cold reservoir plus the heat added to the

hot reservoir by the input work to input work:

Where

is the heat moved from the cold reservoir (to the hot reservoir).

Derivation

According to the first law of thermodynamics, in a reversible system we can show

that Qhot = Qcold + W and W = Qhot Qcold, where Qhot is the heat given off by the hot heat

reservoir and Qcold is the heat taken in by the cold heat reservoir.

Therefore, by substituting for W,

and

, where Thot

efficiency), it can be shown that

and Tcold are the absolute temperatures of the hot and cold heat reservoirs respectively.

Hence, at maximum theoretical efficiency,

Similarly,

It can also be shown that COPcooling = COPheating 1. Note that these equations

must use the absolute temperature, such as the Kelvin scale.

COPheating applies to heat pumps and COPcooling applies to air conditioners or

refrigerators. For heat engines, see Efficiency. Values for actual systems will always be

less than these theoretical maximums.

Example

A geothermal heat pump operating at COPheating 3.5 provides 3.5 units of heat for

each unit of energy consumed (e.g. 1 kWh consumed would provide 3.5 kWh of output

heat). The output heat comes from both the heat source and 1 kWh of input energy, so the

heat-source is cooled by 2.5 kWh, not 3.5 kWh.

A heat pump of COPheating 3.5, such as in the example above, could be less

expensive to use than even the most efficient gas furnace.

A heat pump cooler operating at COPcooling 2.0 removes 2 units of heat for each

unit of energy consumed (e.g. such an air conditioner consuming 1 kWh would remove

heat from a building's air at a rate of 2 kWh).

The COP of heat pumps (300%-350% efficient) make them much more efficient

than high-efficiency gas-burning furnaces (90-99% efficient), and electric heating

(100%). However, this does not always mean they are less expensive to operate. The

2008 US average price per therm (100,000 BTU) of electricity was $3.33 while the

average price per therm of natural gas was $1.33. Using these prices, a heat pump with a

COP of 3.5 would cost $0.95 to provide one therm of heat, while a high efficiency gas

furnace with 95% efficiency would cost $1.40 to provide one therm of heat. With these

average prices, the heat pump costs 32% less to provide the same amount of heat. The

savings (if any) will depend on the actual cost of electricity and natural gas, which can

both vary widely.

Conditions of use

While the COP is partly a measure of the efficiency of a heat pump, it is also a

measure of the conditions under which it is operating: the COP of a given heat pump will

rise as the input temperature increases or the output temperature decreases because it is

linked to a warm temperature distribution system like under floor heating.

Reversed Carnot cycle is shown in Fig.6.1. It consists of the following

processes.

Process a-b: Absorption of heat by the working fluid from refrigerator at constant

low temperature T2 during isothermal expansion.

Process b-c: Isentropic compression of the working fluid with the aid of external

work. The temperature of the fluid rises from T2 to T1.

Process c-d: Isothermal compression of the working fluid during which heat is

rejected at constant high temperature T1.

Process d-a: Isentropic expansion of the working fluid. The temperature of the

working fluid falls from T1 to T2.

Vapor-compression cycle

many large commercial and industrial refrigeration systems. Figure 1 provides a

schematic diagram of the components of a typical vapor-compression refrigeration

system.

Figure. In this cycle, a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a

vapor. From point 1 to point 2, the vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the

compressor superheated. From point 2 to point 3 and on to point 4, the superheated vapor

travels through the condenser which first cools and removes the superheat and then

condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and

temperature. Between points 4 and 5, the liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion

valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases, causing flash

evaporation and auto-refrigeration of, typically, less than half of the liquid.

That results in a mixture of liquid and vapor at a lower temperature and pressure

as shown at point 5. The cold liquid-vapor mixture then travels through the evaporator

coil or tubes and is completely vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being

refrigerated) being blown by a fan across the evaporator coil or tubes. The resulting

refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet at point 1 to complete the

thermodynamic cycle.

The above discussion is based on the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle,

and does not take into account real-world effects like frictional pressure drop in the

system, slight thermodynamic irreversibility during the compression of the refrigerant

vapor, or non-ideal gas behavior (if any).

More information about the design and performance of vapor-compression

refrigeration systems is available in the classic "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook".

Vapor absorption cycle

In the early years of the twentieth century, the vapor absorption cycle using waterammonia systems was popular and widely used. After the development of the vapor

compression cycle, the vapor absorption cycle lost much of its importance because of its

low coefficient of performance (about one fifth of that of the vapor compression cycle).

Today, the vapor absorption cycle is used mainly where fuel for heating is available but

electricity is not, such as in recreational vehicles that carry LP gas. It's also used in

industrial environments where plentiful waste heat overcomes its inefficiency.

The absorption cycle is similar to the compression cycle, except for the method of

raising the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. In the absorption system, the compressor is

replaced by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liquid, a liquid pump

which raises the pressure and a generator which, on heat addition, drives off the

refrigerant vapor from the high-pressure liquid. Some work is required by the liquid

pump but, for a given quantity of refrigerant, it is much smaller than needed by the

compressor in the vapor compression cycle. In an absorption refrigerator, a suitable

combination of refrigerant and absorbent is used. The most common combinations are

ammonia (refrigerant) and water (absorbent), and water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide

(absorbent).

1) The refrigerant should have low boiling point and low freezing point.

2) It must have low specific heat and high latent heat. Because high specific heat

decreases the refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant and high latent heat at low

temperature increases the refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant.

3) The pressures required to be maintained in the evaporator and condenser

should be low enough to reduce the material cost and must be positive to avoid

leakage of air into the system.

4) It must have high critical pressure and temperature to avoid large power

requirements.

5) It should have low specific volume to reduce the size of the compressor.

6) It must have high thermal conductivity to reduce the area of heat transfer in

evaporator and condenser.

7) It should be non-flammable, non-explosive, non-toxic and non-corrosive.

8) It should not have any bad effects on the stored material or food, when any leak

develops in the system.

9) It must have high miscibility with lubricating oil and it should not have

reacting properly with lubricating oil in the temperature range of the system.

10) It should give high COP in the working temperature range. This is necessary

to reduce the running cost of the system.

11) It must be readily available and it must be cheap also.

Important Refrigerants:

Properties at -150C

(1) Ammonia (NH3)(R-717)

Latent heat = 1312.75 kJ/Kg

Specific volume = 0.509 m3/kg

(2) DichloroDifluoro methane (Freon12) (R-12) [C Cl2 F2]

Latent heat = 162 kJ/Kg

Specific volume = 0.093 m3/kg

(3) Difluoro monochloro methane or Freon-22 (R-22) [CH Cl F2]

Latent heat = 131 kJ/Kg

Specific Volume = 0.15 m3/kg.

Chapter 3

CONDUCTION

Conduction will take place if there exist a temperature gradient in a solid (or

stationary fluid) medium.

Energy is transferred from more energetic to less energetic molecules when

neighboring molecules collide. Conductive heat flow occurs in direction of the decreasing

temperature since higher temperature is associated with higher molecular energy.

Fourier's Law expresses conductive heat transfer as

q = k A dT / s

(1)

Where,

q = heat transferred per unit time (W, Btu/hr)

A = heat transfer area (m2, ft2)

k = thermal conductivity of the material (W/m.K or W/m oC, Btu/(hr oF

ft2/ft))

dT = temperature difference across the material (K or oC, oF)

s = material thickness (m, ft)

A plane wall constructed of solid iron with thermal conductivity 70 W/moC,

thickness 50 mm and with surface area 1 m by 1 m, temperature 150 oC on one side and

80oC on the other.

Conductive heat transfer can be calculated as:

q = (70 W/moC) (1 m) (1 m) ((150 oC) - (80 oC)) / (0.05 m)

= 98,000 W

= 98 kW

Examine Fouriers law of heat conduction in simple one dimensional system. Several

physical shapes may fall in the category of one-dimensional systems: cylindrical and

spherical systems are one dimensional when the temperature in the body is a function

only of radial distance and is independent of azimuth angle or axial distance.

Consider the plane wall

Application of Fouriers law gives (By integration):

k. A

.( T2 T1 )

q=

x

The thermal conductivity is considered as constant. If k varies with temperature to some

linear relation :

k = k0(1+T), then the equation is:

k0 . A

.[( T2 T1 )+ ( T22 T12 )]

x

2

q=

q = k A . A.

( T T )= k

2

x A

. A.

B

( T T )= k

3

x B

. A.

C

( T T )

4

xC

T1 T4

q=

x

x

x

. A +. B +. C

k A . A kB . A kC . A

The heat transfer may be considered as a flow, and the combination of thermal

conductivity, thickness of material and area as a resistance to this flow. The temperature

is the potential, or driving, function for the heat flow, and the Fourier equation may be

written

Heat flow=

thermal resis tan ce

V

I=

R

Thermal resistance = x / kA of R = xi / kiA

MW/(m2 K/m)

kW/(m2 K/m)

W/(m2 K/m)

W/(m2 K/cm)

W/(cm2 oC/cm)

W/(in2 oF/in)

kJ/(h m2 K/m)

J/(s m2 oC/m)

kcal/(h m2 oC/m)

Chapter 4

CONVECTION

Heat energy transferred between a surface and a moving fluid at different

temperatures is known as convection.

In reality this is a combination of diffusion and bulk motion of molecules. Near

the surface the fluid velocity is low, and diffusion dominates. Away from the surface,

bulk motion increases the influence and dominates.

Convective heat transfer may take the form of either

natural or free convection

Forced convection occurs when a fluid flow is induced by an external force, such

as a pump, fan or a mixer.

Natural convection is caused by buoyancy forces due to density differences caused by

temperature variations in the fluid. At heating the density change in the boundary layer

will cause the fluid to rise and be replaced by cooler fluid that also will heat and rise.

This

continues

phenomena

is

called

free

or

natural

convection.

Boiling or condensing processes are also referred as a convective heat transfer processes.

The heat transfer per unit surface through convection was first described by

Newton and the relation is known as the Newton's Law of Cooling.

q = k A dT

(1)

Where,

q = heat transferred per unit time (W)

A = heat transfer area of the surface (mo)

k = convective heat transfer coefficient of the process (W/m2K or W/m2oC)

o

C)

1 Btu/ft2 h oF = 5.678 W/m2 K = 4.882 kcal/h m2 oC

1 kcal/h m2 oC = 1.163 W/m2K = 0.205 Btu/ ft2 h oF

The convection heat transfer coefficient - k - is dependent on the type of media,

gas or liquid, the flow properties such as velocity, viscosity and other flow and

temperature dependent properties.

In general the convective heat transfer coefficient for some common fluids is within

the ranges:

Water : 500 - 10,000 (W/m2K)

A fluid flows over a plane surface 1 m by 1 m with a bulk temperature of 50oC.

The temperature of the surface is 20oC. The convective heat transfer coefficient is 2,000

W/m2oC.

q = (2,000 W/m2oC) ((1 m) (1 m)) ((50oC) - (20oC))

= 60,000 (W)

= 60 (kW)

Chapter 5

RADIATION

Heat transfer through radiation takes place in form of electromagnetic waves

mainly in the infrared region. Radiation emitted by a body is a consequence of thermal

agitation of its composing molecules. Radiation heat transfer can be described by a

reference to the so-called 'black body'.

A black body is defined as a body that absorbs all radiation that falls on its

surface. Actual black bodies don't exist in nature - though its characteristics are

approximated by a hole in a box filled with highly absorptive material. The emission

spectrum of such a black body was first fully described by Max Planck.

A black body is a hypothetic body that completely absorbs all wavelengths of

thermal radiation incident on it. Such bodies do not reflect light, and therefore appear

black if their temperatures are low enough so as not to be self-luminous. All blackbodies

heated to a given temperature emit thermal radiation.

The radiation energy per unit time from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth

power of the absolute temperature and can be expressed with Stefan-Boltzmann Law as

q = T4 A

(1)

Where,

q = heat transfer per unit time (W)

= 5.6703 10-8 (W/m2K4) - The Stefan-Boltzmann Constant

T = absolute temperature Kelvin (K)

The Stefan-Boltzmann Constant in Imperial Units

= 0.1714 10-8 (Btu/(h ft2 oR4) )

= 0.119 10-10 (Btu/ (h in2 oR4))

For objects other than ideal blackbodies ('gray bodies') the Stefan-Boltzmann

Law can be expressed as

q = T4 A

(2)

Where,

= emissivity of the object (one for a black body)

For the gray body the incident radiation (also called irradiation) is partly reflected,

absorbed or transmitted.

The emissivity coefficient lies in the range 0 < < 1 depending on the type of

material and the temperature of the surface. The emissivity of some common materials

polished Copper at 100 oF (38 oC) > = 0.03

emissivity coefficients for some common materials

If a hot object is radiating energy to its cooler surroundings the net radiation heat

loss rate can be expressed as

q = (Th4 - Tc4) Ac

(3)

Where,

Th = hot body absolute temperature (K)

Tc = cold surroundings absolute temperature (K)

Ac = area of the object (m2)

If the surface temperature of the sun is 5800 K and if we assume that the sun can

be regarded as a black body the radiation energy per unit time can be expressed by

modifying (1) like

q/A

= T4

= 6.42 107 W/m2

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